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Labros S. Skartsis GREEK VEHICLE & MACHINE MANUFACTURERS 1800 TO PRESENT GREEK VEHICLE & MACHINE SPICTOBIA HISTORY MANUFACTURERS 1800 TO PRESENT A PICTORIAL HISTORY MARATHON 168 978 95009-44524 ro revsedediton, une 218 aration Fist published in 2012 as an cpen arcoss e-book by the Univer of Patras Libary & Information Cte, and as a prnted back i 2013 by Booka, Athens © Labros Skarsis ‘Nol: Parts of the materi cluded this took have been published bythe autor ‘atcles in tho Engish Wikipocla. Fer these pars, copyright apples a speciiod in Wiki, PREFACE AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. 1A county/s instil history is an etegral part of ie present ienty, one often ‘vereckod indicator of many of is poops aftudes and cultural elmer. Ii tus ‘ety logical that hs hitory shou be reeorded and documented, dering no Wes moa en ry opt tree's heap For seal mene, gh many Connected wih ts sles evctaion, uch an approach has relatively few flowers ‘Greate. Some very clear consequences of hear pany exert tay the county fw o& no reccrés of mporantelemerts of is inustial past. poor decumentaten, ‘neglect and an increased ek of ttl ‘isappearance’ of levant hetorc memories, Intaty more or ess as 6 hobby, oeusing on “mecha products, but progressively walang the future value of such infermatin, | ended up wih a signifeant personal ‘hive created over tive decades. concerned mats on ths paft of Grooos Inaustral nsiory,colecea by clesly flowing contemporary events, studying the ters themeeves, extensive research In od archives and related wks and plieabons, and Inoumemble “interviews wh manusteturers, owners and users, Parte of tha archive were frst uilzed in two publabors, i 199 ard 2003, about Greek vehicles and ‘ara (7 Greek), the second one co-authored wih George Awami, who had aso ‘Solace invauate relevant mates fest offotfr “pubic of parts ofthis callin in Engh, wes made through \ukipesa, tus amenng New wool for he spread and sharing of knowlege. A sai of aticles | upladed since 2006 (wtch, Ine ether Wikipedia matenal, have been wey eoroduce), with at the italiane Inherent in sch an approach, were atially the ‘cleus ofthe present Book “This work finaly attempts to include the mest charsctansc sectors of ‘mecharcat ‘roduc’ manutactuins based onal he oolectod archives, ties fo be conde yet Comprehensive, wih 2 selection of the most representative meteral. Undoubtealy fefecs my patsonallusgnent ard prionitzation, hs hoped, though thal proves ale Coverage of the paricular subject | am wy indebied to all the hid aed ‘xganzations (ficult 10 be fuly acknowedgec} that have, in one way oF the other, ‘ssid me wth invaluable mail and partly the ‘coleagues' who have similar intrest. ard have sharod knowledge and images fom thee personal calecions (Gece senondedgments to sich arehveslelleans and Indies are owed ‘cresponcing andes in he book. reuse wrt adtina efeences mentonan indi cares) + LS, Startia “Epylapadsa Etiion Ostinalon tsi Asoeafon(Eneysopedia of Creek Satices end Ate) Aches EhdosesTyporma, Peas 965 ISBN 0-720:009 (n Greet) + LS Skate and GA Avani, Maden Giese", TyEovara, Palas (200) ISBN 960 1620308 ropolehesbyPavas Sense Parkin 2008 (m Groeh CONTENTS IntRopUCTION 5 ‘TRANSLITERATION (GREEK TO LATIN LETTERS) z PIONEERS. 8 ‘AUTOMOBILES & COMMERCIAL VEHICLES ” ‘2 MILITARY VEHICLES sa ‘OTHER SPECIALIZED VEHICLES (MAIN COMPANIES) co 4 SPECIALIZED VEHICLE SUPERSTRUCTURES (MAIN COMPANIES) 138 ‘5 AGRICULTURAL TRACTORS. 16 6 LOCOMOTIVES, RAILCARS, TRAMS 16 a moToRCYCLEs 1a 9 cnomies main companies) vee ‘10 BICYCLES (MAIN COMPANIES) 202 41 WEAPONS 208 12 AEROSPACE a0 13 SHIPBUILDING (MAIN COMPANIES) 284 14 OTHER MACHINERY & ENGINEERING (MAIN COMPANIES) 309 {5 HOUSEHOLD EQUIPMENT (MAIN COMPANIES) 386 {16 HOME ENTERTAINMENT as 17 PHOTO & MOVIE EQUIPMENT 8 A8CLOCKS & WATCHES 480 +19 FISCAL DEVICES (MAIN COMPANIES) a7 20 TELEPHONES: a0 nex an ‘Note: several manufacturers appear in more than one catagory, please use inex to review all rir activites ntRooucTiOn “The rapid development of sectors involved in the production of mechanical ‘tuctures curing the 18° century and thereafter, is closely associated wih the Incusrial revolution sel, a process that ultimately shapes the modern Wedd “The evolution of those sectors - as well as that of heavy industry in genera =n (Greece, remain to this date a its researched ares, whe aven las information is avaiable sbout the history of mdivicual Greek companies. This work, eather than @ cetaled sociakeconomic analysis, atempts 19 prowde an informative Joumey through the troubled history of Greek manufacturers belonging to ‘categories selected as representative of his part of heavy industry. “There ie Ite doubt that eevera factors had a decisively negate effet, largely limiting growth of industry in genera In Grecce aftr As indapendoncs in 1830. ‘Such factors inlided a limkedevestated general infrastructure afer centuries, of foreign domination and the war of independence, an economy based on ‘2gricuture, shipping and small-scale manufacture, lack of funding, @ small internal market, and, last but nat east, an inferior engineeringechnical tradition ‘compared to tha of most Westen European rations. However, an often overloked factor played a decisive role forthe falure of the ‘machine-bulding sectors to pay a role that was anywhere naar that of Greece's Westom European neighbors, and its ulimate miserable fate. The was the ‘general ack of vision or strategy for such a development, in a society traditionally ‘associated with the quick retuis of commercial activites, It is no coincidence ‘tat industry in general, and technical accomplishments paricular, were never ‘seen as an element of ‘national pride” in Greece. In complete contrast to other societies, where governments were actively invowed in the promaton of (for ‘exampe) the shipbuilding or the motor industry, 1 Greece vitually every {government seems to have done fs best fo undermine such actNites. Reasons ‘ed include such shortsighted arguments as state income from import taxes, but ‘mote tealistic reasons ate related to specif Interests from wealthy traders who benefited from imports, and had always dsproportionate influence on ‘governments aeady not motivated to support hese sectors Soods for dustrial development in goneral, were nonatholess avidont in Greece. Between the 18305 and 1910s, the trend of increase in Greece's ‘productivity was not far behind this of Westem Eurapean nations, as exhibited by the grow rates of the nation's per eapta Income. The second half ofthe 1” ‘century saw a number of fms engaging In machine manufacture and shipbuilding, in process that could become a nucleus for seious development ff these sectors. However. the realiies connected wih the Gieek socely,