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WIMJOURNAL, Volume No. 4, Issue No.

2, 2017 pISSN 2349-2910, eISSN 2395-0684

Pundkar R D


Risk Factors for Anemia in Pregnancy: A Case Control Study
Rutuja Pundkar 1, Jagdish Powar 2, Swapnil Sonar3, Maruti Desai4
Assistant professor, Department of community medicine SMBT Medical college, Nashik 1,
Statistician cum tutor, SMBT Medical College, Nashik 2 , Junior resident, SMBT Medical
College,Nashik3, Statistician, Department of Preventive & Social Medicine,
B.K.L Walawalkar Rural Medical College, Sawarde, Tal- Chiplun, Dist.- Ratnagiri,
Maharashtra , India4

Aim of the study was to find the risk factors leading to Anemia in pregnancy. The main
objective was to study the various sociodemographic factors leading to anemia. And to assess the
knowledge about anemia among study participants.

Material and methods:

The present Case control study was carried out at Primary Health Centre, to determine the
risk factors leading to anemia in pregnancy. A total of 308 pregnant females were registered. Among
them two groups were made, group I cases and group II controls. Each group had 50 cases each.
Laboratory test were done and females having hemoglobin less than 11mg/dl were considered
anemic. Anemic females were considered cases and females having Hb >11mg/dl were considered
controls. Data analysis was done using SPSS software.

The overall mean haemoglobin (Hb) was 11.55g/dL in controls, whereas it was seen that
among the cases it was 9.58g/dL.It would seem that diet, family size, education, social class, gravida
and parity are associated with anemia in pregnancy.

After adjusting for all the possible covariates there seems to be significant association
between Hb levels and age group, education level, family size, diet, gravida and parity.

Anemia, pregnancy, knowledge, sociodemographic.

How to cite this article: Dr Rutuja D Pundkar, Mr Jagdish D Powar, Dr Swapnil V Sonar and Mr Maruti B Desai.
Risk Factors for Anemia in Pregnancy: A Case Control Study. Walawalkar International Medical Journal 2017;
Address for
4(2): 17-25. correspondence:

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WIMJOURNAL, Volume No. 4, Issue No. 2, 2017 pISSN 2349-2910, eISSN 2395-0684
Pundkar R D

Dr. Rutuja Dinkar Pundkar, Assistant professor, Department of community medicine, SMBT
Medical College, Nashik. Maharashtra, India.
Email:, Mobile No: 7709036129
Received date: 15/09/2017 Revised date: 21/12/2017 Accepted date: 26/12/2017
DOI Link:

Introduction: health, integrated management of childhood

The nutritional status of the expectant illness, adolescent health, making pregnancy
mother is the most important determinant of safer/safe motherhood, roll-back malaria,
pregnancy outcomes, including the birth deworming (including routine antihelminthic
weight of the newborn.(1) Anemia is control measures) and stop-tuberculosis(3).
particularly high for women with no Anemia is considered a severe public health
education, women from scheduled tribes, and problem by World Health Organization when
women in the two lowest wealth anemia prevalence is equal to or greater than
quantiles(2).Anemia is an indicator of both 40% in the population. Anemia prevalence’s
poor nutrition and poor health. Iron deficiency during pregnancy differed from 18% in
in its most severe form results in anaemia – developed countries to 75% in South Asia(4).
IDA – and since haemoglobin concentration is The demand for iron increases about six to
relatively easy to determine, the prevalence of seven times from early pregnancy to the late
anaemia has often been used as a proxy for pregnancy .Besides poor nutrition, frequent
IDA. Food-based approaches to increase iron labour, multiparity, abortions, parasitic
intake through food fortification and dietary infestations, consuming excess tea or coffee
diversification are important sustainable after meals determined as the predictors of
strategies for preventing iron deficiency and anemia in reproductive age women
IDA in the general population. However, .Worldwide, anemia contributes to 20% of
approaches that combine iron interventions all maternal deaths(7).The World Health
with other measures are needed in settings Organisation defines a non-pregnant woman
where iron deficiency is not the only cause of with haemoglobin of less than 12 g/dl at sea
anaemia. Strategies should be built into the level as likely to be anaemic. Accounting for
primary health care system and existing the physiological changes in pregnancy, the
programmes such as maternal and child equivalent value for pregnant women is 11

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WIMJOURNAL, Volume No. 4, Issue No. 2, 2017 pISSN 2349-2910, eISSN 2395-0684
Pundkar R D

g/dl or a haematocrit less than 33% (WHO, Study area:

1972)(8). This study used 11.0 g/dl as the Carried out at Primary Health Centre
criteria for anaemia in pregnancy following (Takali Khatgoan) Ahmednagar.
the WHO recommendations .Knowledge of The PHC was located 12 km from
the sociodemographic factors associated with Ahmednagar on Kalyan Road. Total
anemia in pregnancy can be used to formulate population covered by the PHC was
a multipronged strategy to attack this approximately 35,066 people. It had 13
important public health problem. Hence, a villages & 6 subcentres. Total population of
case control study was undertaken to know the Takali Khatgoan is 5,959 people. The Ante
various risk factors leading to anemia in Natal Clinic (ANC) is held every 1st& 3rd
pregnancy. Wednesday of the month.

Aim: Sample size:

To find the risk factors leading to Pregnant women visiting the ANC
Anemia in pregnancy. clinic were enrolled by health worker
separately for the first & the subsequent visit
Objectives: of pregnant women. A total 308 pregnant
• To study the various women visiting the health center were
sociodemographic factors leading to enrolled.
anemia. 2 groups were made by systematic
• Find the association between random sampling. Among 2 groups 50 were
sociodemographic factors and anemia. cases and 50 were controls.
• To assess the knowledge about anemia
among study participants. Inclusion criteria:
For cases were, hemoglobin count
Material & methods: less than 11gm% & for controls was
Study design: hemoglobin count more than 11gm%.
The present was a Case control study
Study procedure:
Informed consent was obtained &
explanation as to the purpose of study was

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Pundkar R D

offered. Thus, pregnant women were Ethical approval:

interviewed with predesigned, pretested, semi Ethical approval for the study was
structured questionnaire. A detailed obtained from the ethical committee at the
demographic profile of the women, that is, Medical College, Ahmednagar.
age, age at first pregnancy, religion, family
size, education, and occupation was collected. Data analysis:
Socioeconomic classification suggested by Data analysis was performed using
B.G. Prasad was adopted & updated(9). SPSS 21. Descriptive statistics, including
mean, range, & standard deviations, were
Laboratory method: calculated for all variables. Proportions were
Hemoglobin level was estimated by compared using Chi-square tests & chi square
Sahli’s acid hematin method of hemoglobin for trend at 0.05 level significance.
estimation(10). According to World Health
Organization (WHO), hemoglobin level below Results:
11g/dL is labeled as anemia during pregnancy. The present study revealed that the
The same criteria were used for diagnosing age of the respondents ranges from 19 to 29
anemia in pregnancy . years. It was seen that majority of the age of
study participants ranged from 20 to 25 years.
With mean age being 22 years.

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Table 1: Association between

en Sociodemographic factors and anemia among the
study population.
Information Cases (50) Contr Significa
acquired ols nce
retrospectively (50)

Maternal Age 21.92+2.3 21.86+ n.s

(mean) 5 2.1

Education 41 30 p<0.0076

Occupation 39 44 n.s

spacing 2 or <2 18 16 n.s


Family size (>3) 39 27 p=0.0056

Diet (non veg) 15 5 p=0.0062

Figure 2: Knowledge abo

about Anemia Among Controls & Case

40 17
30 34 no
20 yes
10 16
controls cases

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Figure 3: Family Size and anemia among the study population

40 39
30 23
20 11 cases
10 controls

Figure 4: Diet and Anemia among the study population



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Table 2: Assessment of knowledge among the study population

Assessment Cases Controls Significance

of (n=50) (n=50)
Knowledge 34 17 p=0.00033
(present )

Discussion: gestational age, gravida and parity are also

The overall mean haemoglobin (Hb) associated with anemia in pregnancy.
was 11.55g/dL in controls, whereas it was seen Study by Taner et al also showed
that among the cases it was 9.58g/dL.It would that 41.6% had hemoglobin levels <11g/dl.
seem that diet, family size, education, social This high prevalence of anemia among
class, gravida and parity are associated with pregnant women in Taner’s study was
anemia in pregnancy. Resent study showed that explained by the distribution of socioeconomic
as the level of education goes on increasing the status of the population. It showed that low
percentage of anemia in pregnant women goes socioeconomic status had more anemic cases.
on decreasing. The study also showed that as Ahmad Z et al in their study stated that the
the family size increased the percentage of age of the mother is significantly associated
anemia also increased. The pregnant women with anaemia, with the majority of mothers
having vegetarian diet were more prone to the (56.6%) who are more than 40 years old being
disease as compared to those having mixed anaemic at the first anatenatal visit. By parity,
diet. Table no 1 show that factors like 37.5% of the primigravida, 47.1% of the
education, family size, diet, knowledge are multigravida, 52.9% of the grandmultipara
associated significantly. Whereas factors like and 64.0% of the great grandmultipara were
maternal age, occupation, previous obstetrics anaemic. Again, parity is shown to be
history, etc are not significant. significantly associated with anaemia.
As compared to other studies like; A study in Pakistan showed that
Haniff et al , they found that age, ethnicity, anemic subjects were slightly older than
education, social class, urban rural residence, nonanemic subjects; whereas nonanemic

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Pundkar R D

women were significantly taller and heavier, • Future studies are needed to look into
and a lower proportion were underweight the cutoff levels of Hb associated with
(BMI < 18.5). In addition, anemic women the relative risks & odds ratio.
were more likely to have no formal education
and to be employed outside the home.The Conflict of interest: None to declare
number of prior pregnancies was inversely Source of funding: Nil
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