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FDDI (Fiber-Distributed Data Interface) is a standard for data

transmission on fiber optic lines in that can extend in range up to
200 km (124 miles). The FDDI protocol is based on the token ring
protocol. In addition to being large geographically, an FDDI local
area network can support thousands of users.

An FDDI network contains two token rings, one for possible

backup in case the primary ring fails. The primary ring offers up to
100 Mbps capacity. If the secondary ring is not needed for
backup, it can also carry data, extending capacity to 200 Mbps.
The single ring can extend the maximum distance; a dual ring can
extend 100 km (62 miles).

FDDI is a product of American National Standards Committee X3-

T9 and conforms to the open system interconnect (OSI) model of
functional layering. It can be used to interconnect LANs using
other protocols. FDDI-II is a version of FDDI that adds the
capability to add circuit-switched service to the network so that
voice signals can also be handled. Work is underway to connect
FDDI networks to the developing Synchronous Optical Network.

Function of FDDI:

The Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) specifies a 100-Mbps

token-passing, dual-ring LAN using fiber-optic cable. FDDI is
frequently used as high-speed backbone technology because of
its support for high bandwidth and greater distances than copper.
It should be noted that relatively recently, a related copper
specification, called Copper Distributed Data Interface (CDDI) has
emerged to provide 100-Mbps service over copper. CDDI is the
implementation of FDDI protocols over twisted-pair copper wire.
This chapter focuses mainly on FDDI specifications and
operations, but it also provides a high-level overview of CDDI.

FDDI uses a dual-ring architecture with traffic on each ring flowing

in opposite directions (called counter-rotating). The dual-rings
consist of a primary and a secondary ring. During normal
operation, the primary ring is used for data transmission, and the
secondary ring remains idle. The primary purpose of the dual
rings, as will be discussed in detail later in this chapter, is to
provide superior reliability and robustness. Figure 1 shows the
counter-rotating primary and secondary FDDI rings.
Figure 1: FDDI uses counter-rotating primary and secondary rings.

FDDI uses counter-rotating primary and secondary rings

FDDI Specifications:

FDDI specifies the physical and media-access portions of the OSI

reference model. FDDI is not actually a single specification, but it
is a collection of four separate specifications each with a specific
function. Combined, these specifications have the capability to
provide high-speed connectivity between upper-layer protocols
such as TCP/IP and IPX, and media such as fiber-optic cabling.

FDDI's four specifications are the Media Access Control (MAC),

Physical Layer Protocol (PHY), Physical-Medium Dependent (PMD),
and Station Management (SMT). The MAC specification defines
how the medium is accessed, including frame format, token
handling, addressing, algorithms for calculating cyclic redundancy
check (CRC) value, and error-recovery mechanisms. The PHY
specification defines data encoding/decoding procedures, clocking
requirements, and framing, among other functions. The PMD
specification defines the characteristics of the transmission
medium, including fiber-optic links, power levels, bit-error rates,
optical components, and connectors. The SMT specification
defines FDDI station configuration, ring configuration, and ring
control features, including station insertion and removal,
initialization, fault isolation and recovery, scheduling, and
statistics collection.

FDDI is similar to IEEE 802.3 Ethernet and IEEE 802.5 Token Ring
in its relationship with the OSI model. Its primary purpose is to
provide connectivity between upper OSI layers of common
protocols and the media used to connect network devices. Figure
3 illustrates the four FDDI specifications and their relationship to
each other and to the IEEE-defined Logical-Link Control (LLC)
sublayer. The LLC sublayer is a component of Layer 2, the MAC
layer, of the OSI reference model.

Figure 2: FDDI specifications map to the OSI hierarchical model.

FDDI specifications map to the OSI hierarchical model

FDDI Station-Attachment Types:

One of the unique characteristics of FDDI is that multiple ways
actually exist by which to connect FDDI devices. FDDI defines
three types of devices: single-attachment station (SAS), dual-
attachment station (DAS), and a concentrator.

An SAS attaches to only one ring (the primary) through a

concentrator. One of the primary advantages of connecting
devices with SAS attachments is that the devices will not have
any effect on the FDDI ring if they are disconnected or powered
off. Concentrators will be discussed in more detail in the following

Each FDDI DAS has two ports, designated A and B. These ports
connect the DAS to the dual FDDI ring. Therefore, each port
provides a connection for both the primary and the secondary
ring. As you will see in the next section, devices using DAS
connections will affect the ring if they are disconnected or
powered off. Figure 3 shows FDDI DAS A and B ports with
attachments to the primary and secondary rings.

Figure 3: FDDI DAS ports attach to the primary and secondary


FDDI DAS ports:

An FDDI concentrator (also called a dual-attachment concentrator
[DAC]) is the building block of an FDDI network. It attaches
directly to both the primary and secondary rings and ensures that
the failure or power-down of any SAS does not bring down the
ring. This is particularly useful when PCs, or similar devices that
are frequently powered on and off, connect to the ring. Figure 4
shows the ring attachments of an FDDI SAS, DAS, and

Figure 4: A concentrator attaches to both the primary and

secondary rings.

A concentrator attaches to both the primary and secondary rings

FDDI Fault Tolerance:

FDDI provides a number of fault-tolerant features. In particular,

FDDI's dual-ring environment, the implementation of the optical
bypass switch, and dual-homing support make FDDI a resilient
media technology.

Dual Ring:
FDDI's primary fault-tolerant feature is the dual ring. If a station
on the dual ring fails or is powered down, or if the cable is
damaged, the dual ring is automatically wrapped (doubled back
onto itself) into a single ring. When the ring is wrapped, the dual-
ring topology becomes a single-ring topology. Data continues to
be transmitted on the FDDI ring without performance impact
during the wrap condition. Figure 5 and Figure 6 illustrate the
effect of a ring wrapping in FDDI.

Figure 5: A ring recovers from a station failure by wrapping.

A ring recovers from a station failure by wrapping

Figure 6: A ring also wraps to withstand a cable failure.

A ring also wraps to withstand a cable failure

When a single station fails, as shown in Figure 5, devices on either

side of the failed (or powered down) station wrap, forming a
single ring. Network operation continues for the remaining
stations on the ring. When a cable failure occurs, as shown in
Figure 6, devices on either side of the cable fault wrap. Network
operation continues for all stations.

It should be noted that FDDI truly provides fault-tolerance against

a single failure only. When two or more failures occur, the FDDI
ring segments into two or more independent rings that are unable
to communicate with each other.
Optical Bypass Switch:

An optical bypass switch provides continuous dual-ring operation

if a device on the dual ring fails. This is used both to prevent ring
segmentation and to eliminate failed stations from the ring. The
optical bypass switch performs this function through the use of
optical mirrors that pass light from the ring directly to the DAS
device during normal operation. In the event of a failure of the
DAS device, such as a power-off, the optical bypass switch will
pass the light through itself by using internal mirrors and thereby
maintain the ring's integrity. The benefit of this capability is that
the ring will not enter a wrapped condition in the event of a
device failure. Figure 7 shows the functionality of an optical
bypass switch in an FDDI network.

Figure 7: The optical bypass switch uses internal mirrors to

maintain a network.
The optical bypass switch

Dual Homing:

Critical devices, such as routers or mainframe hosts, can use a

fault-tolerant technique called dual homing to provide additional
redundancy and to help guarantee operation. In dual-homing
situations, the critical device is attached to two concentrators.
Figure 8 shows a dual-homed configuration for devices such as
file servers and routers.

Figure 8: A dual-homed configuration guarantees operation.

dual-homed configuration:

One pair of concentrator links is declared the active link; the other
pair is declared passive. The passive link stays in back-up mode
until the primary link (or the concentrator to which it is attached)
is determined to have failed. When this occurs, the passive link
automatically activates.
FDDI Frame Format:

The FDDI frame format is similar to the format of a Token Ring

frame. This is one of the areas where FDDI borrows heavily from
earlier LAN technologies, such as Token Ring. FDDI frames can be
as large as 4,500 bytes. Figure 9 shows the frame format of an
FDDI data frame and token.

Figure 9: The FDDI frame is similar to that of a Token Ring frame.

FDDI frame is similar to that of a Token Ring frame.

FDDI Frame Fields

The following descriptions summarize the FDDI data frame and

token fields illustrated in Figure 9.

Preamble---A unique sequence that prepares each station for an

upcoming frame.
Start Delimiter---Indicates the beginning of a frame by employing
a signaling pattern that differentiates it from the rest of the

Frame Control---Indicates the size of the address fields and

whether the frame contains asynchronous or synchronous data,
among other control information.

Destination Address---Contains a unicast (singular), multicast

(group), or broadcast (every station) address. As with Ethernet
and Token Ring addresses, FDDI destination addresses are 6
bytes long.

Source Address---Identifies the single station that sent the frame.

As with Ethernet and Token Ring addresses, FDDI source
addresses are 6 bytes long.

Data---Contains either information destined for an upper-layer

protocol or control information.

Frame Check Sequence (FCS)---Filed by the source station with a

calculated cyclic redundancy check value dependent on frame
contents (as with Token Ring and Ethernet). The destination
address recalculates the value to determine whether the frame
was damaged in transit. If so, the frame is discarded.

End Delimiter---Contains unique symbols, which cannot be data

symbols, that indicate the end of the frame.
Frame Status---Allows the source station to determine whether an
error occurred and whether the frame was recognized and copied
by a receiving station.

FDDI Frame Format:

FDDI Frame

Frame Control (FC): 8 bits

has bit format CLFFZZZZ

C indicates synchronous or asynchronous frame

L indicates use of 16 or 48 bit addresses

FF indicates whether it is a LLC, MAC control or reserved frame

in a control frame ZZZZ indicates the type of control

Destination Address (DA): 16 or 48 bits

specifies station for which the frame is intended

Source Address (SA): 16 or 48 bits

specifies station that sent the frame

Here is what the FDDI frame format looks like:

FDDI Frame Format

FDDI Frame Format:

PA - Preamble 16 symbols

SD - Start Delimiter 2 symbols

FC - Frame Control 2 symbols

DA - Destination Address 4 or 12 symbols

SA - Source Address 4 or 12 symbols

FCS - Frame Check Sequence 8 symbols, covers the FC, DA, SA

and Information

ED - End Delimiter 1 or 2 symbols

FS - Frame Status 3 symbols

Token is just the PA, SD, FC and ED


The Token owner as a minimum of transmits the preamble 16

symbols of Idle. Physical Layers of the subsequent repeating
stations can change the length of the Idle pattern according to
the Physical Layer requirements. Therefore, each repeating
station may see a variable length preamble from the original
preamble. Tokens will be recognized as long as its preamble
length is greater than zero. If a valid token is received and
cannot be processed (repeated), due to expiration of ring timing
or latency constraints the station will issue a new token to be put
on the ring.

A given MAC implementation is not required to be capable of

copying frames received with less than 12 symbols of preamble;
Nevertheless, with such frames, it cannot be correctly repeated.
Since the preamble cannot be repeated, the rest of the frame will
not be repeated as well.

Starting Delimiter :

This field of the frame denodes the start of the frame. It can only
have symbols 'J' and 'K'. These symbols will not be used
anywhere else but in the starting delimiter of a token or a frame.

Frame Control:

Frame Control field descibes what type of data it is carrying inthe

INFO field. Here are the most common values that are allowed in
the FC field:

40: Void Frame.

41,4F: Station Management (SMT) Frame.

C2,C3: MAC Frame.

50,51: LLC Frame.

60: Implementor Frame.

70: Reserved Frame.

Please note that the list here are only the most common values
that can be formed by a 48 bit addressedynchronous data frames.

Destination Address:

Destination Address field contains 12 symbols that identifies the

station that is receiving this particular frame. When FDDI is first
setup, each station is given a unique address that identifies
themselves from the others. When a frame passed by the station,
the station will compare its address against the DA field of the
frame. If it is a match, station then copies the frame into its
buffer area waiting to be processed. There is not restriction on the
number of stations that a frame can reach at a time. If the first
bit of the DA field is set to '1', then the address is called a group
or global address. If the first bit is '0', then the address is called
individual address. As the name suggests, a frame with a global
address setting can be sent to multiple stations on the network. If
the frame is intended for everyone on the network, the address
bits will be set to all 1's. Therefore, a global address contains all
'F' symbols. There are also two different ways of administer these
addresses. One's called local and the other's called universal.
The second bit of the address field determine whether or not the
address is locally or universally administered. If the second bit is
'1' then it is locally administered address. If the second bit is a
'0', then it is universally administered adress.A locally administer
address are addresses that havebeen assigned by the network
administrator and a universally administered addresses are pre-
assigned by the manufacturer's OUI.

Source Address:

A Source Address identifies the station that created the frame.

This field is used for remove frames from the ring. Each time a
frame is sent, it travels around the ring, visiting each station,and
eventually (hopefully) comes back to the station that originally
sent that frame. If the address of a station matches the SA field
inthe frame, the station will strip the frame off the ring. Each
stationis responsible for removing its own frame from the ring.

Information Field:
INFO field is the heart and soul of the frame. Every components
of the frame is designed around this field; Who to send it to,
where's this coming from, how it is received and so on.The type of
information in the INFO field can be found by looking in the FC
field of the frame. For example:'50'(hex) denodes a LLC frame.
So, the INFO field will have a LLC header followed by other upper
layer headers. For example SNAP, ARP, IP, TCP, SNMP,
etc.'41'(hex or '4F'(hex) denode s SMT (Station Management)
frame. Therefore, a SMT header will appear in the INFO field.

Frame Check Sequence:

Frame Check Sequence field is used to check or verify the

traversingframe for any bit errors. FCS information is generated
by the stationthat sends the frame, using the bits in FC, DA, SA,
INFO, and FCSfields. To verify if there are any bit errors in the
frame, FDDI uses 8 symbols (32 bits) CRC (Cyclic Redundancy
Check) to ensure the transmission of a frame on the ring.

End Delimiter:

As the name suggests, the end delimiter denodes the end of the
frame. The ending delimiter consist of a 'T' symbol. This 'T'
symbols indicates that the frame is complete or ended. Any data
sequence that does not end with this 'T' symbol is not considered
to be a frame.
Frame Status:

Frame Status (FS) contains 3 indicators that dictates the condition

of the frame. Each indicator can have two values: Set ('S') or
Reset ('R'). The indicators could possibly be corrupted. In this
case, the indicators is neither 'S' nor 'R'. All frame are initially set
to 'R'.Three types of indicators are as follows:Error (E):This
indicator is set if a station determines an error for that frame.
Might be a CRC failiure or other causes. If a frame has its E
indicator set, then, that frame is discarded by the first station that
encounters the frame.Acknowledge(A): Sometime this indicator is
called 'address recognized'. This indicator is set whenever a
frame in properly received; meaning the frame has reached its
destination address. Copy (C): This indicator is set whenever a
station is able to copy the received frame into its buffer section.
Thus, Copy and Acknowledge indicators are usually set at the
same time. But, sometimes when a station is receiving too many
frames and cannot copy all the incoming frames. If this happens,
it would re-transmit the frame with indicator 'A' set indicator 'C'
left on reset.


The orbits of the bodies in the Solar System to scale (clockwise

from top left)

The principal component of the Solar System is the Sun, a main

sequence G2 star that contains 99.86 percent of the system's
known mass and dominates it gravitationally. The Sun's four
largest orbiting bodies, the gas giants, account for 99 percent of
the remaining mass, with Jupiter and Saturn together comprising
more than 90 percent.

Most large objects in orbit around the Sun lie near the plane of
Earth's orbit, known as the ecliptic. The planets are very close to
the ecliptic while comets and Kuiper belt objects are frequently at
significantly greater angles to it. All the planets and most other
objects also orbit with the Sun's rotation (counter-clockwise, as
viewed from above the Sun's north pole). There are exceptions,
such as Halley's Comet.

The overall structure of the charted regions of the Solar System

consists of the Sun, four relatively small inner planets surrounded
by a belt of rocky asteroids, and four gas giants surrounded by
the outer Kuiper belt of icy objects. Astronomers sometimes
informally divide this structure into separate regions. The inner
Solar System includes the four terrestrial planets and the main
asteroid belt. The outer Solar System is beyond the asteroids,
including the four gas giant planets. Since the discovery of the
Kuiper belt, the outermost parts of the Solar System are
considered a distinct region consisting of the objects beyond

Kepler's laws of planetary motion describe the orbits of objects

about the Sun. According to Kepler's laws, each object travels
along an ellipse with the Sun at one focus. Objects closer to the
Sun (with smaller semi-major axes) travel more quickly, as they
are more affected by the Sun's gravity. On an elliptical orbit, a
body's distance from the Sun varies over the course of its year. A
body's closest approach to the Sun is called its perihelion, while
its most distant point from the Sun is called its aphelion. The
orbits of the planets are nearly circular, but many comets,
asteroids and Kuiper belt objects follow highly elliptical orbits.

Due to the vast distances involved, many representations of the

Solar System show orbits the same distance apart. In reality, with
a few exceptions, the farther a planet or belt is from the Sun, the
larger the distance between it and the previous orbit. For
example, Venus is approximately 0.33 astronomical units
(AU)farther out from the Sun than Mercury, while Saturn is 4.3 AU
out from Jupiter, and Neptune lies 10.5 AU out from Uranus.
Attempts have been made to determine a correlation between
these orbital distances (for example, the Titius-Bode law), but no
such theory has been accepted.

Most of the planets in the Solar System possess secondary

systems of their own, being orbited by planetary objects called
natural satellites, or moons (two of which are larger than the
planet Mercury), or, in the case of the four gas giants, by
planetary rings; thin bands of tiny particles that orbit them in
unison. Most of the largest natural satellites are in synchronous
rotation, with one face permanently turned toward their parent.

The objects of the inner Solar System are composed mostly of

rock,[8] the collective name for compounds with high melting
points, such as silicates, iron or nickel, that remained solid under
almost all conditions in the protoplanetary nebula. Jupiter and
Saturn are composed mainly of gases, the astronomical term for
materials with extremely low melting points and high vapor
pressure such as molecular hydrogen, helium, and neon, which
were always in the gaseous phase in the nebula.[9] Ices, like
water, methane, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide,
[8] have melting points up to a few hundred kelvins, while their
phase depends on the ambient pressure and temperature. They
can be found as ices, liquids, or gases in various places in the
Solar System, while in the nebula they were either in the solid or
gaseous phase.Icy substances comprise the majority of the
satellites of the giant planets, as well as most of Uranus and
Neptune (the so-called "ice giants") and the numerous small
objects that lie beyond Neptune's orbit. Together, gases and ices
are referred to as volatiles.


A transit of Venus:
The Sun is the Solar System's star, and by far its chief component.
Its large mass (332,900 Earth masses)produces temperatures and
densities in its core great enough to sustain nuclear fusion, which
releases enormous amounts of energy, mostly radiated into space
as electromagnetic radiation, peaking in the 400–to–700 nm band
we call visible light.

The Sun is classified as a type G2 yellow dwarf, but this name is

misleading as, compared to the majority of stars in our galaxy,
the Sun is rather large and bright. Stars are classified by the
Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, a graph which plots the brightness
of stars with their surface temperatures. Generally, hotter stars
are brighter. Stars following this pattern are said to be on the
main sequence, and the Sun lies right in the middle of it.
However, stars brighter and hotter than the Sun are rare, while
substantially dimmer and cooler stars, known as red dwarfs, are
common, making up 85 percent of the stars in the galaxy.

It is believed that the Sun's position on the main sequence puts it

in the "prime of life" for a star, in that it has not yet exhausted its
store of hydrogen for nuclear fusion. The Sun is growing brighter;
early in its history it was 70 percent as bright as it is today.

The Sun is a population I star; it was born in the later stages of

the universe's evolution, and thus contains more elements
heavier than hydrogen and helium ("metals" in astronomical
parlance) than older population II stars.[18] Elements heavier
than hydrogen and helium were formed in the cores of ancient
and exploding stars, so the first generation of stars had to die
before the universe could be enriched with these atoms. The
oldest stars contain few metals, while stars born later have more.
This high metallicity is thought to have been crucial to the Sun's
developing a planetary system, because planets form from
accretion of "metals".
Interplanetary medium:

Along with light, the Sun radiates a continuous stream of charged

particles (a plasma) known as the solar wind. This stream of
particles spreads outwards at roughly 1.5 million kilometres per
hour, creating a tenuous atmosphere (the heliosphere) that
permeates the Solar System out to at least 100 AU (see
heliopause). This is known as the interplanetary medium.
Geomagnetic storms on the Sun's surface, such as solar flares
and coronal mass ejections, disturb the heliosphere, creating
space weather. The largest structure within the heliosphere is the
heliospheric current sheet, a spiral form created by the actions of
the Sun's rotating magnetic field on the interplanetary medium.

Earth's magnetic field stops its atmosphere from being stripped

away by the solar wind. Venus and Mars do not have magnetic
fields, and as a result, the solar wind causes their atmospheres to
gradually bleed away into space. Coronal mass ejections and
similar events blow magnetic field and huge quantities of material
from the surface of the Sun. The interaction of this magnetic field
and material with Earth's magnetic field funnels charged particles
into the Earth's upper atmosphere, where its interactions create
aurorae seen near the magnetic poles.

Cosmic rays originate outside the Solar System. The heliosphere

partially shields the Solar System, and planetary magnetic fields
(for those planets that have them) also provide some protection.
The density of cosmic rays in the interstellar medium and the
strength of the Sun's magnetic field change on very long
timescales, so the level of cosmic radiation in the Solar System
varies, though by how much is unknown.

The interplanetary medium is home to at least two disc-like

regions of cosmic dust. The first, the zodiacal dust cloud, lies in
the inner Solar System and causes zodiacal light. It was likely
formed by collisions within the asteroid belt brought on by
interactions with the planets. The second extends from about 10
AU to about 40 AU, and was probably created by similar collisions
within the Kuiper belt.

Inner Solar System:

The inner Solar System is the traditional name for the region
comprising the terrestrial planets and asteroids.[30] Composed
mainly of silicates and metals, the objects of the inner Solar
System are relatively close to the Sun; the radius of this entire
region is shorter than the distance between Jupiter and Saturn.

Inner planets:

The inner planets. From left to right: Mercury, Venus, Earth, and
Mars (sizes to scale, interplanetary distances not)

The four inner or terrestrial planets have dense, rocky

compositions, few or no moons, and no ring systems. They are
composed largely of refractory minerals, such as the silicates
which form their crusts and mantles, and metals such as iron and
nickel, which form their cores. Three of the four inner planets
(Venus, Earth and Mars) have atmospheres substantial enough to
generate weather; all have impact craters and tectonic surface
features such as rift valleys and volcanoes. The term inner planet
should not be confused with inferior planet, which designates
those planets which are closer to the Sun than Earth is (i.e.
Mercury and Venus).


Mercury (0.4 AU from the Sun) is the closest planet to the Sun and
the smallest planet in the Solar System (0.055 Earth masses).
Mercury has no natural satellites, and its only known geological
features besides impact craters are lobed ridges or rupes,
probably produced by a period of contraction early in its history.
Mercury's almost negligible atmosphere consists of atoms blasted
off its surface by the solar wind. Its relatively large iron core and
thin mantle have not yet been adequately explained. Hypotheses
include that its outer layers were stripped off by a giant impact,
and that it was prevented from fully accreting by the young Sun's


Venus (0.7 AU from the Sun) is close in size to Earth, (0.815 Earth
masses) and like Earth, has a thick silicate mantle around an iron
core, a substantial atmosphere and evidence of internal
geological activity. However, it is much drier than Earth and its
atmosphere is ninety times as dense. Venus has no natural
satellites. It is the hottest planet, with surface temperatures over
400 °C, most likely due to the amount of greenhouse gases in the
atmosphere. No definitive evidence of current geological activity
has been detected on Venus, but it has no magnetic field that
would prevent depletion of its substantial atmosphere, which
suggests that its atmosphere is regularly replenished by volcanic

Earth (1 AU from the Sun) is the largest and densest of the inner
planets, the only one known to have current geological activity,
and is the only place in the universe where life is known to exist.
Its liquid hydrosphere is unique among the terrestrial planets, and
it is also the only planet where plate tectonics has been observed.
Earth's atmosphere is radically different from those of the other
planets, having been altered by the presence of life to contain
21% free oxygen.[38] It has one natural satellite, the Moon, the
only large satellite of a terrestrial planet in the Solar System.


Mars (1.5 AU from the Sun) is smaller than Earth and Venus
(0.107 Earth masses). It possesses an atmosphere of mostly
carbon dioxide with a surface pressure of 6.1 millibars (roughly
0.6 percent that of the Earth's). Its surface, peppered with vast
volcanoes such as Olympus Mons and rift valleys such as Valles
Marineris, shows geological activity that may have persisted until
as recently as 2 million years ago.[40] Its red colour comes from
iron oxide (rust) in its soil.[41] Mars has two tiny natural satellites
(Deimos and Phobos) thought to be captured asteroids.
Asteroid belt:

Asteroids are mostly small Solar System bodies[e] composed

mainly of refractory rocky and metallic minerals.

The main asteroid belt occupies the orbit between Mars and
Jupiter, between 2.3 and 3.3 AU from the Sun. It is thought to be
remnants from the Solar System's formation that failed to
coalesce because of the gravitational interference of Jupiter.

Asteroids range in size from hundreds of kilometres across to

microscopic. All asteroids save the largest, Ceres, are classified as
small Solar System bodies, but some asteroids such as Vesta and
Hygieia may be reclassed as dwarf planets if they are shown to
have achieved hydrostatic equilibrium.

The asteroid belt contains tens of thousands, possibly millions, of

objects over one kilometre in diameter. Despite this, the total
mass of the main belt is unlikely to be more than a thousandth of
that of the Earth. The main belt is very sparsely populated;
spacecraft routinely pass through without incident. Asteroids with
diameters between 10 and 10−4 m are called meteoroids.


Ceres (2.77 AU) is the largest body in the asteroid belt and is
classified as a dwarf planet.[e] It has a diameter of slightly under
1000 km, and a mass large enough for its own gravity to pull it
into a spherical shape. Ceres was considered a planet when it was
discovered in the 19th century, but was reclassified as an asteroid
in the 1850s as further observation revealed additional asteroids.
It was again reclassified in 2006 as a dwarf planet.

Asteroid groups:

Asteroids in the main belt are divided into asteroid groups and
families based on their orbital characteristics. Asteroid moons are
asteroids that orbit larger asteroids. They are not as clearly
distinguished as planetary moons, sometimes being almost as
large as their partners. The asteroid belt also contains main-belt
comets which may have been the source of Earth's water.

Trojan asteroids are located in either of Jupiter's L4 or L5 points

(gravitationally stable regions leading and trailing a planet in its
orbit); the term "Trojan" is also used for small bodies in any other
planetary or satellite Lagrange point. Hilda asteroids are in a 2:3
resonance with Jupiter; that is, they go around the Sun three
times for every two Jupiter orbits.

The inner Solar System is also dusted with rogue asteroids, many
of which cross the orbits of the inner planets.

Outer Solar System:

The outer region of the Solar System is home to the gas giants
and their large moons. Many short period comets, including the
centaurs, also orbit in this region. Due to their greater distance
from the Sun, the solid objects in the outer Solar System contain
more ices (such as water, ammonia, methane, often called ices in
planetary science) than the rocky denizens of the inner Solar
System, as the colder temperatures allow these compounds to
remain solid.

Outer planets:

The four outer planets, or gas giants (sometimes called Jovian

planets), collectively make up 99 percent of the mass known to
orbit the Sun.[c] Jupiter and Saturn are each many tens of times
the mass of the Earth and consist overwhelmingly of hydrogen
and helium; Uranus and Neptune are far less massive (<20 Earth
masses) and possess more ices in their makeup. For these
reasons, some astronomers suggest they belong in their own
category, “ice giants.”[53] All four gas giants have rings, although
only Saturn's ring system is easily observed from Earth. The term
outer planet should not be confused with superior planet, which
designates planets outside Earth's orbit and thus includes both
the outer planets and Mars.


Jupiter (5.2 AU), at 318 Earth masses, is 2.5 times the mass of all
the other planets put together. It is composed largely of hydrogen
and helium. Jupiter's strong internal heat creates a number of
semi-permanent features in its atmosphere, such as cloud bands
and the Great Red Spot.

Jupiter has 63 known satellites. The four largest, Ganymede,

Callisto, Io, and Europa, show similarities to the terrestrial planets,
such as volcanism and internal heating.[54] Ganymede, the
largest satellite in the Solar System, is larger than Mercury.


Saturn (9.5 AU), distinguished by its extensive ring system, has

several similarities to Jupiter, such as its atmospheric composition
and magnetosphere. Although Saturn has 60% of Jupiter's
volume, it is less than a third as massive, at 95 Earth masses,
making it the least dense planet in the Solar System. The rings of
Saturn are made up of small ice and rock particles.

Saturn has 62 confirmed satellites; two of which, Titan and

Enceladus, show signs of geological activity, though they are
largely made of ice. Titan, the second largest moon in the Solar
System, is larger than Mercury and the only satellite in the Solar
System with a substantial atmosphere.


Uranus (19.6 AU), at 14 Earth masses, is the lightest of the outer

planets. Uniquely among the planets, it orbits the Sun on its side;
its axial tilt is over ninety degrees to the ecliptic. It has a much
colder core than the other gas giants, and radiates very little heat
into space.

Uranus has 27 known satellites, the largest ones being Titania,

Oberon, Umbriel, Ariel and Miranda.


Neptune (30 AU), though slightly smaller than Uranus, is more

massive (equivalent to 17 Earths) and therefore more dense. It
radiates more internal heat, but not as much as Jupiter or Saturn.

Neptune has 13 known satellites. The largest, Triton, is

geologically active, with geysers of liquid nitrogen. Triton is the
only large satellite with a retrograde orbit. Neptune is
accompanied in its orbit by a number of minor planets, termed
Neptune Trojans, that are in 1:1 resonance with it.


Comet Hale-Bopp:

Comets are small Solar System bodies,[e] typically only a few

kilometres across, composed largely of volatile ices. They have
highly eccentric orbits, generally a perihelion within the orbits of
the inner planets and an aphelion far beyond Pluto. When a comet
enters the inner Solar System, its proximity to the Sun causes its
icy surface to sublimate and ionise, creating a coma: a long tail of
gas and dust often visible to the naked eye.

Short-period comets have orbits lasting less than two hundred

years. Long-period comets have orbits lasting thousands of years.
Short-period comets are believed to originate in the Kuiper belt,
while long-period comets, such as Hale-Bopp, are believed to
originate in the Oort cloud. Many comet groups, such as the
Kreutz Sungrazers, formed from the breakup of a single parent.
Some comets with hyperbolic orbits may originate outside the
Solar System, but determining their precise orbits is difficult. Old
comets that have had most of their volatiles driven out by solar
warming are often categorised as asteroids


Bhanu Prakash,

S K R Engineering College,



The HR Manager,

Recruitment Department,
Tata Consultancy Services.

Respected Sir,

Sub: Applying for the post of senior engineer-Reg.

With reference to your advertisement in The Hindu dated 10/10/2010, I

wish to apply for the post of senior engineer in you company as I believe I
have the requisite qualifications and experience for the job.

I completed my B.Tech from Anna University, Chennai. I have been

working as General Manager in L&T InfoTech for the past four years. I have
gained enough experience in using modern techniques to develop your
company production. I am enclosing my resume along with other
testimonials for your perusal.

I am confident that I would get more opportunities for professional

development and for marketing significant contribution in your highly
esteemed and progressive organization. I assure you Sir, that I shall
discharge my duties to the entire satisfaction of my superiors. I would be
available for an interview at any date convenient for you.

Thanking You Yours


Bhanu Prakash


Bhanu Prakash,



Guntur District,

Andra Pradesh

PIN 522261.
Mobile No.:+91 9042422254


On take up the challenging career in the creative

environment with responsible that commensurate with my skills and
experience and value to the organization, enhances my skills and move
ahead in the learning curve.



S.S.L.C Z.P.High School 2005-2006 80.2%

H.S.C Z.P.High School 2007-2008 78.2%

B.Tech( S K R Engineering 2008-2012 81.8%

IT) College


Programming Language: C, C++, JAVA, PHP, Visual Basic, Flash

Database : Oracle11g

Package : Ms-Office, Star Office

Operating System : Windows, Linux


1. Photoshop

2. Visual Basic

3. Flash

4. Movie Maker

5. Microsoft Silver Light


Developed new application software for L&T InfoTech.


Date of Birth : 31-03-1991

Father’s Name : Yalavarthi

Nationality : Indian

Strengths : Self motivation, flexible

Hobbies : Reading Books, Gaming

Language Known : English, Tamil, Telugu, Kanadam and Malayalam


I hereby declare that all the information furnished above is

true to the best of my knowledge and belief.

Bhanu Prakash

Place: Chennai


A GD is a methodology used by an organization to gauge whether
the candidate has certain personality traits and/or skills that it
desires in its members. In this methodology, the group of
candidates is given a topic or a situation, given a few minutes to
think about the same, and then asked to discuss it among
themselves for 15-20 minutes.
Some of the personality traits the GD is trying to
gauge may include:
 Ability to work in a team

 Communication skills

 Reasoning ability

 Leadership skills

 Initiative

 Assertiveness

 Flexibility

 Creativity

 Ability to think on ones feet

Why GDs:
The reason why institutes put you through a Group discussion and
an interview, after testing your technical and conceptual skills in
an exam, is to get to know you as a person and gauge how well
you will fit in their institute. The Group discussion tests how you
function as a part of a team. As a manager, you will always be
working in teams, as a member or as a leader. Therefore how you
interact in a team becomes an important criterion for your
selection. Managers have to work in a team and get best results
out of teamwork. That is the reason why management institutes
include GD as a component of the selection procedure.

Company's Perspective:
Companies conduct group discussion after the written test so as
to check on your interactive skills and how good you are at
communicating with other people. The GD is to check how you
behave, participate and contribute in a group, how much
importance do you give to the group objective as well as your
own, how well do you listen to viewpoints of others and how open-
minded are you in accepting views contrary to your own. The
aspects which make up a GD are verbal communication, non-
verbal behavior, conformation to norms, decision-making ability
and cooperation. You should try to be as true as possible to these

GDs can be topic-based or case-based.


Topic based Gds can be classified into three types:-

1. Factual Topics
2. Controversial Topics

3. Abstract Topics

1. Factual Topics:
Factual topics are about practical things, which an ordinary
person is aware of in his day-to-day life. Typically these are about
socio-economic topics. These can be current, i.e. they may have
been in the news lately, or could be unbound by time. A factual
topic for discussion gives a candidate a chance to prove that he is
aware of and sensitive to his environment.
E.g. The education policy of India, Tourism in India, State of the
aged in the nation.

2. Controversial Topics:
Controversial topics are the ones that are argumentative in
nature. They are meant to generate controversy. In GDs where
these topics are given for discussion, the noise level is usually
high, there may be tempers flying. The idea behind giving a topic
like this is to see how much maturity the candidate is displaying
by keeping his temper in check, by rationally and logically arguing
his point of view without getting personal and emotional.
E.g. Reservations should be removed, Women make better

3. Abstract Topics:
Abstract topics are about intangible things. These topics are not
given often for discussion, but their possibility cannot be ruled
out. These topics test your lateral thinking and creativity.
E.g. A is an alphabet, Twinkle twinkle little star, the number 10

Case-based GD:
Another variation is the use of a case instead of a topic.
The case study tries to simulate a real-life situation. Information
about the situation will be given to you and you would be asked
as a group to resolve the situation. In the case study there are no
incorrect answers or perfect solutions. The objective in the case
study is to get you to think about the situation from various
IIM A, IIM Indore and IIT SOM Mumbai have a case-based
discussion rather than topic-based discussion in their selection

Reasons for having a GD:

 It helps you to understand a subject more deeply.

 It improves your ability to think critically

 It helps in solving a particular problem.

 It helps the group to make a particular decision.

 It gives you the chance to hear other students' ideas.

 It improves your listening skills.

 It increases your confidence in speaking.

 It can change your attitudes.

Strategies for Improving GD Skills for Tutorials &

Asking questions and joining in discussions are important
skills for university study. If you find it difficult to speak or ask
questions in tutorials, try the following strategies.

Attend as many seminars and tutorials as possible and notice
what other students do. Ask yourself:

 How do other students make critical comments?

 How do they ask questions?
 How do they disagree with or support arguments?
 What special phrases do they use to show politeness even
when they are voicing disagreement?
 How do they signal to interrupt, ask a question or make a

Start practicing your discussion skills in an informal setting or with
a small group. Start with asking questions of fellow students. Ask
them about the course material. Ask for their opinions. Ask for
information or ask for help.

Take every opportunity to take part in social/informal discussions
as well as more structured/formal discussion. Start by making
small contributions to tutorial discussions; prepare a question to
ask, or agree with another speaker's remarks.
GD Preparation:
While selection tools and techniques like tests, interviews etc.
provide good data about an individual, they fall short in providing
real life data of how an individual would be performing in a real
life situation especially a group situation. Team work being an
integral part of the BPO work profile, it is important to ascertain
group and inter-personal qualities of an individual. Group
discussion is a useful tool to ascertain these qualities and many
organizations use GDs as a selection tool along with Personal
Interviews, aptitude tests etc. A GD is an activity where

 Groups of 8-10 candidates are formed into a leaderless

group, and are given a specific situation to analyze and
discuss within a given time limit, which may vary between
twenty minutes and forty-five minutes, or
 They may be given a case study and asked to come out with
a solution for a problem
 They may be given a topic and are asked to discuss the

1. Preparing for a Group Discussion: While GD reflects

the inherent qualities of an individual, appearing for it unprepared
may not augur well for you. These tips would help you prepare for

Reading: This is the first and the most crucial step in

preparation. This is a never ending process and the more you
read, the better you are in your thoughts. While you may read
anything to everything, you must ensure that you are in good
touch with current affairs, the debates and hot topics of
discussion and also with the latest in the IT and ITES industry.
Chances are the topics would be around these. Read both for the
thoughts as well as for data. Also read multiple view points on the
same topic and then create your point of view with rationale. Also
create answers for counter arguments for your point of view. The
electronic media also will be of good use here.

Mocks: Create an informal GD group and meet regularly to

discuss and exchange feedback. This is the best way to prepare.
This would give you a good idea about your thoughts and how
well can you convince. Remember, it is important that you are
able to express your thoughts well. The better you perform in
these mocks the better would be you chances to perform on the
final day. Also try to interact and participate in other GD groups.
This will develop in you a skill to discuss with unknown people as

2. During the Group Discussion:

What do the panelists assess: Some of the qualities

assessed in a GD are:

Leadership Skills - Ability to take leadership roles and be

able to lead, inspire and carry the team along to help them
achieve the group's objectives.
Communication Skills - Candidates will be assessed in terms
of clarity of thought, expression and aptness of language. One
key aspect is listening. It indicates a willingness to accommodate
others views.

Interpersonal Skills - People skills are an important aspect of

any job. They are reflected in the ability to interact with other
members of the group in a brief situation. Emotional maturity and
balance promotes good interpersonal relationships. The person
has to be more people centric and less self-centered.

Persuasive Skills - The ability to analyze and persuade others

to see the problem from multiple perspectives.

GD is a test of your ability to think, your analytical capabilities

and your ability to make your point in a team-based environment.

These are some of the sub-skills that also get assessed with the
skills mentioned above:

 Clarity of thought
 Group working skills (especially during a group task of
case study discussion)
 Conflict handling
 Listening and probing skills
 Knowledge about the subject and individual point of view
 Ability to create a consensus
 Openness and flexibility towards new ideas
 Data based approach to decision making

Discussion Etiquette (or minding your manners):


 Speak pleasantly and politely to the group.

 Respect the contribution of every speaker.
 Remember that a discussion is not an argument. Learn to
disagree politely.
 Think about your contribution before you speak. How best
can you answer the question/ contribute to the topic?
 Try to stick to the discussion topic. Don't introduce irrelevant
 Be aware of your body language when you are speaking.
 Agree with and acknowledge what you find interesting.


 Lose your temper. A discussion is not an argument.

 Shout. Use a moderate tone and medium pitch.
 Use too many gestures when you speak. Gestures like finger
pointing and table thumping can appear aggressive.
 Dominate the discussion. Confident speakers should allow
quieter students a chance to contribute.
 Draw too much on personal experience or anecdote.
Although some tutors encourage students to reflect on their
own experience, remember not to generalize too much.
 Interrupt. Wait for a speaker to finish what they are saying
before you speak.

Leading a Discussion:
You may be in a seminar group that requires you to lead a group
discussion, or lead a discussion after an oral presentation. You
can demonstrate leadership by:

 Introducing yourself and the members of the group

 Stating the purpose of the discussion
 Inviting quiet group members to speak
 Being objective
 Summarizing the discussion
Chairing a Group Discussion:
When chairing a discussion group you must communicate in a
positive way to assist the speakers in accomplishing their
objective. There are at least four leadership skills you can use to
influence other people positively and help your group achieve its
purpose. These skills include:

 Introducing the topic and purpose of the discussion

 Making sure all members have approximately the same
time, (i.e. no one dominates the discussion by taking too
much time)
 Thanking group members for their contribution
 Being objective in summarizing the group's discussion and

A group discussion consists of:

1. Communication Skills
2. Knowledge and ideas regarding a given subject
3. Capability to co-ordinate and lead
4. Exchange of thoughts
5. Addressing the group as a whole
6. Thorough preparations

1. Communication Skills:
The first aspect is one's power of expression. In a group
discussion, a candidate has to talk effectively so that he is able to
convince others. For convincing, one has to speak forcefully and
at the same time create an impact by his knowledge of the
subject. A candidate who is successful in holding the attention of
the audience creates a positive impact.

It is necessary that you should be precise and clear. As a rule

evaluators do not look for the wordage produced. Your knowledge
on a given subject, your precision and clarity of thought are the
things that are evaluated. Irrelevant talks lead you nowhere. You
should speak as much as necessary, neither more nor less. Group
discussions are not debating stages.

Ability to listen is also what evaluator’s judge. They look for your
ability to react on what other participants say. Hence, it is
necessary that you listen carefully to others and then react or
proceed to add some more points. Your behavior in the group is
also put to test to judge whether you are a loner or can work in a

You should be able to convey your thoughts satisfactorily and

convincingly before a group of people. Confidence and level
headedness in doing so is necessary. These add value to your
presentation. In case you are not good at it, you might gain by
joining an institute that offers specialized courses in public
speaking. For instance, British Council Division's English Language
Teaching Centre offers a wide range of courses like conversation
skills, business communication skills, business writing, negotiation
skills and presentation skills. Mostly people attend these courses
to improve their communication skills. Students here are involved
in activities which use communication skills and teachers provide
inputs, monitor and facilitate the classes. The course at the
Centre makes you confident enough to speak before people
without any nervousness.

2. Knowledge and Ideas Regarding a Given Subject:

Knowledge of the subject under discussion and clarity of ideas are

important. Knowledge comes from consistent reading on various
topics ranging from science and technology to politics. In-depth
knowledge makes one confident and enthusiastic and this in turn,
makes one sound convincing and confident.

3. Leadership and Coordinating Capabilities:

The basic aim of a group discussion is to judge a candidate's
leadership qualities. The examiner withdraws and becomes a
silent spectator once the discussion starts. A candidate should
display tactfulness, skill, understanding and knowledge on varied
topics, enterprise, forcefulness and other leadership qualities to
motivate and influence other candidates who may be almost
equally competent.

4. Exchange of Thoughts:
A group discussion is an exchange of thoughts and ideas among
members of a group. These discussions are held for selecting
personnel in organizations where there is a high level of
competition. The number of participants in a group can vary
between 8 and 15. Mostly a topic or a situation is given to group
members who have to discuss it within 10 to 20 minutes.

The purpose is to get an idea about candidates in a short time

and make assessments about their skills, which normally cannot
be evaluated in an interview. These skills may be team
membership, leadership skills, listening and articulation skills.

A note is made of your contributions to the discussion,

comprehension of the main idea, the rapport you strike, patience,
assertion, accommodation, amenability, etc. Body language and
eye contact too are important points which are to be considered. .

5. Addressing the Group as a Whole:

In a group discussion it is not necessary to address anyone by
name. Even otherwise you may not know everyone's names. It
better to address the group as a whole.

Address the person farthest from you. If he can hear you

everyone else too can. Needless to add, as for the interview,
attend the group discussion in formal dress. The language used
should also be formal, not the language used in normal
conversations. For instance, words and phrases like "yar", "chalta
hai", "CP", "I dunno", etc. are out. This is not to say you should
use a high sounding, pedantic language. Avoiding both, just use
formal, plain and simple language. Hinglish, (mixture of Hindi and
English) should be discarded.

Confidence and coolness while presenting your viewpoint are of

help. See that you do not keep repeating a point. Do not use more
words than necessary. Do not be superfluous. Try to be specific.
Do not exaggerate.
6. Thorough Preparation:
Start making preparations for interview and group discussions
right away, without waiting till the eleventh hour, this is, if and
when called for them. Then the time left may not be adequate. It
is important to concentrate on subject knowledge and general
awareness. Hence, the prime need for thorough preparation.
Remember, the competition is very tough. Only 460 candidates
make it to the final list from 2.75 lakh civil service aspirants each

It may so happen that you are called for interviews and group
discussions from three or four organizations but are not selected
by any. The reason obviously lies in your not being well-prepared.

In a group discussion you may be given a topic and asked to

express your views on it. Or in a case study GD, students have to
read a case study and suggest ways of tackling the problem. For
this you should have a good general knowledge, need to be
abreast with current affairs, should regularly read newspapers
and magazines. Your group behavior and communication skills
are on test, i.e. how you convince the others and how clearly you
are able to express your points of view. You should be articulate,
generate ideas, not sound boring, should allow others to speak,
and adopt a stand on a given subject. During the course of the GD
this stand can even be changed, giving the impression that you
are open to accommodate others' viewpoints.

Additional marks may be given for starting or concluding the


Points to Remember:

 Knowledge is strength. A candidate with good reading habits

has more chances of success. In other words, sound
knowledge on different topics like politics, finance, economy,
science and technology is helpful.
 Power to convince effectively is another quality that makes
you stand out among others.
 Clarity in speech and expression is yet another essential
 If you are not sure about the topic of discussion, it is better
not to initiate. Lack of knowledge or wrong approach creates
a bad impression. Instead, you might adopt the wait and
watch attitude. Listen attentively to others, may be you
would be able to come up with a point or two later.
 A GD is a formal occasion where slang is to avoided.
 A GD is not a debating stage. Participants should confine
themselves to expressing their viewpoints. In the
second part of the discussion candidates can exercise their
choice in agreeing, disagreeing or remaining neutral.
 Language use should be simple, direct and straight forward.
 Don't interrupt a speaker when the session is on. Try to
score by increasing your size, not by cutting others short.
 Maintain rapport with fellow participants. Eye contact plays a
major role. Non-verbal gestures, such as listening intently or
nodding while appreciating someone's viewpoint speak of
you positively.
 Communicate with each and every candidate present. While
speaking don't keep looking at a single member. Address the
entire group in such a way that everyone feels you are
speaking to him or her.