You are on page 1of 20


Pattira Oonmettaree
Nattakorn Masaya-Anon
Yanin Gasemsin
a summary of the contents of the laboratory report

an essay Introducing the topic for our experiment, titration

chemical, instrument, glassware, flowchart

pre-lab questions and result table

post-lab question and discussions

short statement summarizing the overall experiment


for improvements



In this experiment, we determined the unknown concentration of
hydrochloric acid by using sodium hydroxide which are our two main solutions.
We titrated by slowly add sodium hydroxide in to hydrochloric acid by using two
indicators including phenolphthalein and bromophenol blue. Sodium hydroxide is
white and odorless solid and usually used as 50% solution. The molecule is
composed of an oxygen atom connecting to a sodium atom and hydrogen atom.
Hydrochloric acid is when the hydrogen chloride, colorless gas, dissolves in
water. The hydrogen chloride molecule consists of a hydrogen atom and a
chlorine atom.
We used two indicators which are phenolphthalein which changes color
to pink when the pH is at about 8, and bromophenol blue which when the ph is
around 6.5, it starts to change color from yellow to green.
In the experiment, as mentioned, we used four chemicals including hydrochloric
acid, sodium hydroxide, phenolphthalein and bromophenol blue. Our main
equipments include pipette, burette and clamp, many types of rubber bulb,
beaker, Erlenmeyer flask and funnel.
From our experiment, using phenolphthalein as indicator, we used 1.03 x
10-2  L of Sodium Hydroxide and 1.00 x 10-2 L for using bromophenol blue as the
After calculating, as the mole of acid and base are used equally, the
average concentration of acid for phenolphthalein indicator was 0.04944 and
0.048 for bromophenol blue.
We achieved the objective in this experiment which was that we found
the unknown concentration and was able to find the endpoint. The resulting
molarity is slightly different because the different endpoints of the indicators.

In this titration lab, we determined the unknown concentration
of hydrochloric acid by using sodium hydroxide. Titration is the slow,
continuous addition of a titrant (known concentration) to a solution
with unknown concentration until it neutralizes (Libretexts, 2016). An
indicator is also used to show the color change when the pH changes.
The two main solutions that we used are sodium hydroxide
(NaOH) and hydrochloric acid (HCl). Sodium hydroxide is also known
as caustic soda or lye. It is a white and odorless solid at room
temperature, and when it is dissolved in water or neutralized with acid,
it releases a significant amount of heat. In addition, it is extremely
caustic and is used to neutralize acids. Due to its high corrosivity, it is
mostly used as a 50% solution or a solid (National Center for
Biotechnology Information, n.d.). In solution form, it becomes a
colorless liquid. It has the property of being denser than water and
strongly basic (pH of 13). The structure of NaOH is formed by ionic
bonds, as shown below.

Another solution that we used is hydrochloric acid (HCl). It is a

very strong and corrosive acid and is an aqueous solution of hydrogen
chloride gas (New World Encyclopedia, 2018). Hydrochloric acid has
many uses, but it is mostly used as a laboratory reagent. Hydrogen
chloride is a colorless gas that is also very corrosive. Hydrochloric acid
is when the hydrogen chloride dissolves in water. The hydrogen
chloride molecule consists of a hydrogen atom and a chlorine atom,
connected together by a covalent bond. Since the hydrogen atom has

less electronegativity than the chlorine atom, the bond between the
atoms is polar.

In our titration lab, we used 2 different indicators. This first is

phenolphthalein, which is an organic compound that is commonly
used as an acid-base indicator. It is colorless in acid, but changes
color to pink when the pH is at about 8 and deep-pink when the pH is
above 9 (Britannica, 2018).

Another indicator that we used is called bromophenol blue.

This is a dye that is widely used as a pH indicator. Below the pH of 3,
the color will be yellow. At around 4.6, the color will changes to purple
(National Center for Biotechnology Information, n.d.).

For this experiment, one of our objectives is to find out the
unknown concentration of the hydrochloric acid by using the titration

method. Another objective is to identify the endpoint during titration.

Hydrochloric Acid Sodium Hydroxide

(HCl) (NaOH)

Phenolphthalein Bromophenol Blue


Pipette bulbs Pipette Clamp & Burette

Beaker Erlenmeyer Flask Funnel


1. How will you know when your titration is finished?
: When the color of bromophenol blue turns green.
: When phenolphthalein turns light pink, and remains the same for at
least 30 seconds as pink is the color of the indicator,
phenolphthalein, is in neutral state.

2. Label the pH scale below with acid, base, and neutral, indicating
numbers for each.
3. On the scale above, use an arrow to show where your equivalence
point is located.

4. Write the neutralization reaction that occurs between hydrobromic

acid (HBr) and lithium hydroxide (LiOH).

HBr + LiOH → LiBr + H2O

5. What is the concentration of 10.00 mL of HBr if it takes 16.73 mL of
a 0.253 M LiOH solution to neutralize it?

HBr + LiOH LiBr + H2O

Volume:                     10 mL + 16.73 LiBr + H2O

Molarity:                  M Hbr + 0.253 M LiBr + H2O
M = mol/Litre
0.253 = mol/16.73/1000
mol = 0.253×16.73/1000
mol LiOH = 4.23 × 10-3
Mole ratio => 1:1
So, M = mol/Litre
M = 4.23 × 10-3/10/1000 (L)
Molarity HBr = 4.23 × 10-1


1. How would it affect your results if you used a beaker with residual
water in it to measure out your standardized sodium hydroxide

: The concentration of the sodium hydroxide will decrease; the pH is

likely to diminish as water is neutral and is amphoteric compound;
with the presence of base, it will acts like conjugate acid and partially
neutralize the solution. Thus, having residue of water  will create an
error in the result, making it less precise.

2. How would it affect your results if you used a wet Erlenmeyer flask
instead of a dry one when transferring your acid solution from the
volumetric pipette?

: The concentration of hydrochloric acid will decrease; the pH is likely

to increase as water is neutral and is amphoteric compound; with the
presence of acid, it will acts like conjugate base and partially
neutralize the solution. As a result, having  water residue will create
an error int the result.

3. How do you tell if you have exceeded the equivalence point in your

:If we have exceeded the equivalence point in our titration, the

solution in the flask will abruptly turns dark pink for phenolphthalein
or blue for bromophenol blue; plus, the color doesn’t disappear.

4. Vinegar is a solution of acetic acid (CH3COOH) in water. For quality
control purposes, it can be titrated using sodium hydroxide to assure a
specific % composition. If 25.00 mL of acetic acid is titrated with 9.08
mL of a standardized 2.293 M sodium hydroxide solution, what is the
molarity of the vinegar?

Molarity : 2.293           ?    …    ...
Volume (l)     9.08/1000 25/1000

Neutralized ---> follow mole ratio = NaOH: CH3COOH

             MV: MV
(2.293)(9.08/1000) : M(25/1000)

So, M = (2.293)(9.08/1000)/(25/1000)
         = 0.8328
Ans: The molarity of the vinegar is 0.8328.

The final reading of the buret (raw data) is subtracted by the
initial to get the amount of sodium hydroxide used. When titrating the
acidic solution with phenolphthalein, 10.3 ml of NaOH is used for both
rounds to reach the color change; meanwhile, 10 ml is used with the
bromophenol-added solution.
In this experiment, the hydrochloric acid solution (HCl) is the
compound with unknown concentration while the sodium hydroxide
solution (NaOH) is the compound with known concentration and so-
called the ‘titrant’. As the sodium hydroxide is added to the
hydrochloric acid, they react according to this chemical equation:

This is a neutralization reaction that   when acid and base reacts; it

consists of several steps in detail: First, in an aqueous form, a strong
acid, as well as a strong base, ionize. Sodium hydroxide breaks into
sodium cations and hydroxide anions, whereas hydrochloric acid
breaks into hydrogen cations and chloride anions as shown in the

Once the two compounds are mixed, a double displacement reaction

takes place. Sodium ions bond with chloride ions and yield ionic salt
which in this reaction is sodium chloride (NaCl) in an aqueous form.
Simultaneously, hydroxide ions bonds with hydrogen ions and form
water (H2O).

It can be noticed that adding only a certain amount of sodium
hydroxide result in the apparent and permanent color change in the
hydrochloric acid solution. This is because of the reaction between
the indicator and the mixture of the solution. An indicator itself is
either a weak acid or base; it reacts with the tested compound and
turns into a conjugate base or acid of different colors.
Phenolphthalein is a weak acid colorless in an acidic solution; there is
already high concentration of hydronium ions from hydrochloric acid
ionizing in water, so the equilibrium shifts to the left and
phenolphthalein don’t ionize much.  In alkaline solution, however,
sodium hydroxide reacts and lessen the concentration of hydronium
in the solution; the equilibrium shifts to the right; thus, more anions
from phenolphthalein are created. The anions or its conjugate base is
pink, so the solution turns pink after the sufficient number of anions
are generated. The pH range for this indicator is 8.2-10, testing for the
base. That’s how the solution can turn dark pink in case of over
titration, meaning excessive base is introduced. Bromophenol blue is
another acidic indicator. It is yellow in an acidic solution at the pH of 3
and changes into its purple-blue conjugate base at the pH of 4.6 and
so on. The same mechanism applies to it, and this is the equation
showing the shift in equilibrium based on the change of concentration
of acid or base, according to Le Chatelier’s principles.

According to the relation which is mole equals molarity times
volume (mole = MV), the number of average moles of sodium
hydroxide is obtained by multiplying its concentration with the volume
from the titration:

The mole from the calculation is 4.944 x 10-4 from phenolphthalein

applied sample and 4.8 x 10-4 from the bromophenol blue sample.
Afterward, the mole of hydrochloric acid can be found by comparing
the mole ratio according to the equation at equilibrium as shown
above; the between base and acid is 1:1; hence, the mole of
hydrochloric acid here is 4.944 x 10-4 and 4.8 x 10-4, equal to that of
the base. Then these values are used for molarity calculation of the
acid, which its volume is 0.01 L. By knowing that molarity equals mole
divided by volume, the molarity is:

It can be noticed that the moles of sodium hydroxide obtained from

the calculation from the volumes used with each indicator are
different, and therefore makes the derived molarity different as well,
in spite of the same concentration of acid and base. This is the result
of different endpoints of phenolphthalein and bromophenol blue.
End point of an indicator is when the equilibrium of the
indicator is reached; it is when the concentration of the indicator—the
weak acid [HIn]—is equal to the concentration of anions—its
conjugate base [In-]; that’s when a significant color change can be

observed. The pH at which the indicator significantly changes the
color is represented as pKIn , in which KIn is the indicator dissociation
constant at equilibrium and can be acquired by:

The pH range of the indicator is 1 from the pKIn. For

phenolphthalein, its pKIn is 9.3 and the pH range around the end point
is 8.3-10. Because of the neutralization reaction between hydrochloric
acid and sodium hydroxide,  the number of hydrogen or hydronium
ions from the acid will decrease as it makes up water molecules.
During that process, phenolphthalein gradually ionizes into hydrogen
ions and its conjugate base. But, as its end point lies in a basic pH
range above 7, lots of sodium hydroxide is needed to be added until
the obvious color change appears. Consequently, there is a possibility
that little extra sodium hydroxide is added after the equivalent point
or the point that the solution completely neutralizes is reached,
basically because the end point of phenolphthalein is beyond the
equivalent point of the neutralization reaction.
On the other hand, bromophenol blue has its  pKIn at 4.0
and the pH range between 2.8-4.6; its end point lies in acidic pH
range, lower than 7. So, relatively less sodium hydroxide is needed to
be added to reach the end point, and there is a tendency that the end
point is accomplished before the equivalent point. This explains why
the amount of sodium hydroxide used with the bromophenol blue
sample is relatively less than the phenolphthalein sample. However,
the two results of the molarity of the hydrochloric acid has 2.9 %
difference which is still an acceptable error percentage.

In this laboratory report, we had discussed about
titration in order for us to understand about acid and base by
finding the unknown concentration of the hydrochloric acid
and  to identify the endpoint during titration, and from this
experiment, we achieved the objective in this experiment: we
were able to find the unknown concentration of the acid and
also were able to identify the endpoint during the experiment.
We derived the molarity of hydrochloric from the experiment
and calculation: 0.049 M for using phenolphthalein as
indicator and 0.048 M from using bromophenol blue as
indicator, and there was a slight difference between the two
molarities which is the consequence of the indicator having a
different endpoint, so one is less than another, and, there
were some errors and parallax in the experiment which might
had affected the result, so the result molarities were not
exactly the same; still, the percent difference is 2.9 which is
acceptable, meaning that the two results are close to the
exact molarity of the acid as we used two indicators of which
one end point is in acidic range and the other is in basic

In this experiment, we did a lot of processes that require accuracy and
delicate which are mainly measuring the solutions with the pipette and the
buret, so the first error might be from our parallax in measuring the solutions
with our eyes. As we did a lot of measuring and had limited time, we might
not be able to make sure that for every measurement, we looked at the
meniscus of the solution, so our result might not be as accurate. Also, when
transferring the Hydrochloric acid into the Erlenmeyer flask using the pipette,
we did not let all of the solutions to the bottom of the flask, and some spilled
to the side of the flask, so for the rough titration, we weren’t able to determine
the exact value of base we should use, so for the next titration, we tried letting
all of the acid solutions to go to the bottom of the flask, so we were more
accurate after the rough titration, but there was some residue solution on the
surface of the flask, so we were still not a hundred percent accurate.
Moreover, during the titration part that we let the the solution into the
Erlenmeyer flask, in the last titration, as we were also swirling the flask, a drop
of the base from the burette, so our result might differ from what it should
have been a little.

This experiment could be improved by letting the students calculate

the value of the solution of the base used before doing the experiment, so the
students would have some broad idea about what the experiment and the
resulting weight would be like. Before doing the experiment, the teachers and
instructors should check the flowchart more properly and explain about the
equipments more clearly, for example, by saying this equipment can be
switched to another instead(different type of rubber bulb), so that they are
sure that the students are clear on the procedures and methods of the
experiment because, during the experiment, some of the students were still
confused about some steps. However, this time, the instructors let us try
doing the titration with water first, so we had more understanding before
doing the experiment. Another important suggestion would be that the
teachers and instructors should provide the samples for the finished ones for
each table, so the students would not have to go and take a look at the front
table which sometimes, we already over titrated, so we needed to titrate
again. If we had the samples at each table, we would be able to compare ours
and the sample right away, so we could reach the equivalence point easier
and more accurately.

Acid - Base Indicators and Titrations. (n.d.). Retrieved February 19, 2019, from
Britannica. (2018, November 23). Phenolphthalein. Retrieved February 19,
2019, from
Doc Brown's Advanced A Level Chemistry Revision Notes. (n.d.). Retrieved
February 19, 2019, from
Libretexts. (2016, July 13). Titration. Retrieved February 19, 2019,
National Center for Biotechnology Information. (n.d.). Sodium Hydroxide.
Retrieved February 19, 2019, from
National Center for Biotechnology Information. (n.d.). Hydrochloric Acid.
Retrieved February 19, 2019, from
National Center for Biotechnology Information. (n.d.). Phenolphthalein. Retrieved
February 19, 2019, from
National Center for Biotechnology Information. (n.d.). Bromophenol blue.
Retrieved February 19, 2019, from
New World Encyclopedia. (2018, January 28). Hydrochloric Acid. Retrieved
February 19, 2019, from
Singh, C. (2018, September 18). Chemical Reaction - All You Need To Know.
Retrieved from
Stefan, V. (n.d.). Hydrochloric acid, or HCI, reacts with solid NaOH. What are the
products of this chemical reaction? Retrieved February 19, 2019, from
White, H. (n.d.). Chemical Information and Properties. Retrieved February 19,
2019, from