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Cyclic behavior of diagonally reinforced slender HPFRCC coupling beams with reduced diagonal and transverse reinforcement

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Cyclic behavior of diagonally reinforced slender HPFRCC coupling beams with reduced diagonal and transverse reinforcement

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Composite Structures

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/compstruct

with reduced diagonal and transverse reinforcement

⁎

Sang Whan Han , Jin Wook Kang, Chang Seok Lee

Department of Architectural Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea

A R T I C LE I N FO A B S T R A C T

Keywords: Slender diagonally reinforced coupling beams (DRCBs) have been increasingly used for coupled shear wall

Coupling beam systems in high-rise buildings, which can reduce the height of buildings and associated construction costs.

HPFRCC However, in practice, it is diﬃcult to make slender DRCBs according to current design provisions due to heavy

Cyclic behavior reinforcement congestion. To alleviate the reinforcement congestion problem and improve the cyclic behavior of

Reinforcement

the coupling beams, High Performance Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composite (HPFRCC) DRCBs with new

Experiment

Shear strength

reinforcement arrangements or a reduced amount of reinforcement have been developed. The objective of this

study is to explore the cyclic behavior of slender DRCBs made of HPFRCC with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) ﬁbers.

Experimental tests were conducted with six DRCB specimens with a length-to-height (ln / h ) of 3.5 to investigate

the eﬀect of the HPFRCC and the amount of diagonal and transverse reinforcement on the cyclic behavior of

slender DRCBs. In this study, an empirical equation for predicting the shear strength of slender HPFRCC DRCBs

was also proposed, considering the contributions of the HPFRCC and the amounts of diagonal and transverse

reinforcements. The proposed equation was veriﬁed by using HPFRCC DRCB specimens with ln / h ranging from

2.0 to 3.5.

conducted with deep DRCBs. However, in recent years, slender DRCBs

The shear wall system is one of the most promising force resisting have often been used in building construction because the height of the

systems [1]. Since shear walls have large lateral strength and stiﬀness, buildings and construction costs can be reduced by using slender cou-

they can be eﬃciently used as a seismic force resisting system for mid- pling beams [9]. However, slender DRCBs have less inner space than

and high-rise buildings. Openings in the shear walls are often required deep DRCBs, resulting in signiﬁcant reinforcement congestion and in-

to provide open spaces due to architectural demands such as windows, terference. Therefore, it is diﬃcult to construct slender DRCBs in con-

doors, and mechanical and electrical equipment. struction sites due to heavy reinforcement congestion [10].

Individual shear walls separated by openings can be connected To reduce the construction diﬃculties arising with the use of

using coupling beams. When coupling beams are properly designed in DRCBs, High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites

compliance with current design codes [2], they can act as a seismic fuse (HPFRCC) with simpliﬁed reinforcement arrangements have been de-

in coupled shear wall systems that dissipates most of the input earth- veloped. Experimental studies were conducted to investigate the cyclic

quake energy during earthquakes and improve the seismic behavior of behavior of newly developed DRCBs [7,11–13]. According to these

the coupled shear wall systems. studies, the cyclic behavior of DRCBs could be improved by the use of

In the 1964 Alaska earthquake, reinforced concrete (RC) coupling HPFRCC. They also reported that when using HPFRCC DRCBs, a simple

beams with a reinforcement arrangement used in conventional RC reinforcement arrangement with a reduced amount of reinforcement

beams experienced a brittle sliding shear failure. To improve the could be used without deteriorating the cyclic behavior of the DRCBs.

seismic behavior of coupling beams, Paulay and Binney [3] proposed Han et al. [13] reported that transverse reinforcement was reduced

the use of coupling beams with diagonal reinforcement. Many re- by the use of HPFRCC. However, to the best of our knowledge, there has

searchers have conducted experimental tests with concrete diagonally been no study to investigate the eﬀect of both transverse and diagonal

reinforced coupling beams (DRCBs). It was reported that DRCBs had reinforcement on the cyclic behavior of slender HPFRCC DRCBs. Han

excellent seismic behavior without brittle sliding shear failure [3–8]. et al. [13] also reported that the observed shear strength of HPFRCC

⁎

Corresponding author.

E-mail address: swhan82@gmail.com (S.W. Han).

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2018.08.079

Received 22 March 2018; Received in revised form 13 July 2018; Accepted 27 August 2018

Available online 29 August 2018

0263-8223/ © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

S.W. Han et al. Composite Structures 206 (2018) 550–562

DRCBs was much larger than the shear strength calculated using the members also require less transverse reinforcement due to the con-

equation speciﬁed in ACI 318-14 [2], which only considers the con- tribution of HPFRCC to concrete conﬁnement. In HPFRCC DRCBs, a

tribution of the diagonal reinforcement. The underestimation of the simple reinforcement arrangement with a reduced amount of reinfor-

shear strength for DRCBs may prevent the DRCBs from acting as a cing bars can be used compared with RC DRCBs without losing their

seismic fuse element that dissipates most energy during large earth- strength and deformation capacities [7,11–13].

quakes, causing signiﬁcant and unexpected damage to neighboring

walls during large earthquakes.

3. Experimental test program

In order to explore the cyclic behavior of HPFRCC slender DRCBs

with diﬀerent amounts of diagonal and transverse reinforcement, this

3.1. Test specimens

study conducted experimental tests with six slender DRCB specimens.

The HPFRCC was made with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) ﬁbers. Based on

This study focused on slender HPFRCC DRCBs. The contributions of

experimental test results on HPFRCC DRCBs, an empirical equation was

the HPFRCC, and the diagonal and transverse bars to the cyclic beha-

proposed by combining two previous models to accurately calculate the

vior of DRCBs were explicitly explored by conducting experimental

shear strength of HPFRCC DRCBs that can properly consider the con-

tests. For this purpose, six DRCB specimens were made (two RC and

tributions of the HPFRCC, as well as the diagonal and transverse re-

four HPFRCC DRCB specimens) (Fig. 2) and tested with quasi-static

inforcement. The proposed equation was veriﬁed with ten DRCB spe-

cyclic loading. The aspect ratio (ln / h ) of all specimens was 3.5. The test

cimens including two RC and eight HPFRCC specimens.

variables were (1) the amount of transverse reinforcement, (2) the

amount of diagonal reinforcement, and (3) the application of HPFRCC.

2. Diagonally reinforced coupling beam details Fig. 2 shows the reinforcement details of the specimens.

The width (b ), height (h ) and length (ln ) of all specimens were 250,

According to ACI 318-14 (Section 18.10.7.2) [2], coupling beams 300 and 1050 mm, respectively. The speciﬁed compressive strength of

with a beam length-to-height ratio (ln / h ) less than 2 and an average concrete and HPFRCC used for specimens was 40 MPa, and the speciﬁed

shear stress greater than 0.33 fc′ (MPa) should be reinforced with di- yield strength of the reinforcement was 420 MPa.

agonal reinforcement, where fc′ is the compressive strength of concrete. All specimens were designed to have a shear stress (νn ) equal to

The diagonal reinforcement should be placed approximately symme- 0.5 fc′ (MPa) where νn is calculated as the shear strength (Vn ) of a DRCB

trically in the beam section in two or more layers (ACI 318-14) (Fig. 1a divided by its cross sectional area (b × h ). Harries et al. [19] reported

and b). It is ineﬀective to place diagonal bars in very slender coupling that it is diﬃcult to place reinforcing bars in DRCBs when the νn of

beams (ln / h⩾ 4) due to their small inclination. In these beams, re- DRCBs exceed 0.5 fc′ (MPa) due to reinforcement congestion and in-

inforcement is placed according to reinforcement details speciﬁed for terference. The shear strength (Vn ) of a DRCB can be calculated using

special moment frame (SMF) beams (Fig. 1c) in ACI 318-14 instead of Eq. (1) (ACI 318-14 Section 18.10.7.4 [2]).

placing diagonal bars. For slender beams with ln / h ranging from 2 to 4,

both diagonal and SMF beam reinforcement details are permitted in ACI Vn = VACI = 2Avd f yd sin α ⩽ 0.83 fc′ Acw (1)

318-14.

ACI 318-14 [2] speciﬁes two alternative conﬁnement options for where Avd is the total area of reinforcement in each group of diagonal

DRCBs as shown in Fig. 1. For the ﬁrst option, each group of diagonal bars (mm2), f yd is the yield strength of the diagonal reinforcement

bars should be enclosed by rectilinear transverse reinforcement (MPa), and α is the angle between the diagonal bars and the long-

(Fig. 1a), whereas for the second option, transverse reinforcement itudinal axis of the coupling beam. In this study, the second conﬁne-

should be placed around the beam perimeter as shown in Fig. 1b. Al- ment option (Fig. 1b) was used to place the reinforcing bars in the

though the second conﬁnement option has less reinforcement conges- DRCB specimens. The suﬃciently long development length was used for

tion than the ﬁrst conﬁnement option, interference between diagonal diagonal bars to avoid the possibility of pull-out failure, because the

and transvers bars still exists. development length was not considered as a test variable in this study.

To reduce the reinforcement congestion in DRCBs and to improve Specimen D1-T1-RC was the standard RC specimen (Fig. 2a) de-

their cyclic behavior, DRCBs can be made of HPFRCC. HPFRCC does not signed and detailed according to ACI 318-14 [2]. Deformed bars with

generally contain coarse aggregates [14] and possesses a relatively high diameters of 25 mm (D25) and 13 mm (D13) were used for diagonal

strain-capacity while generating multiple micro-cracks and a strain- and transverse reinforcement, respectively. The spacing of transverse

hardening response [15,16]. Previous studies reported that HPFRCC reinforcement was 110 mm. Specimen D1-T1-HP was an HPFRCC DRCB

members had larger shear strengths, deformation capacities and da- with the same reinforcement details as specimen D1-T1-RC (Fig. 2c).

mage tolerances than conventional RC members [17,18]. HPFRCC The eﬀect of the HPFRCC on the cyclic behavior of DRCBs can be

551

S.W. Han et al. Composite Structures 206 (2018) 550–562

Fig. 2. Reinforcement details and setup location of strain gauges for coupling beams.

evaluated by comparing the test results of specimens D1-T1-RC and D1- 3.2. Test setup

T1-HP.

Specimen D0.5-T1-HP (Fig. 2e) was a specimen identical to spe- Fig. 4 shows the test setup, where specimens were vertically placed.

cimen D1-T1-HP except for the amount of the diagonal reinforcement. The top and bottom concrete blocks were ﬁxed to the horizontal steel

The amount of diagonal reinforcement in this specimen was half that of frame and the strong ﬂoor using high strength bolts, respectively.

specimen D1-T1-HP. This specimen was made to evaluate the eﬀect of Stoppers were placed on both sides of the concrete blocks to prevent the

diagonal reinforcement in HPFRCC DRCBs. In specimen D0.5-T1-HP, specimen from sliding under lateral loads. To prevent axial elongation

deformed bars with a diameter of 19 mm (D19) were used for diagonal in the DRCB specimens, two guide columns were placed to sustain the

reinforcement. horizontal steel loading frame as shown in Fig. 4, which emulated the

To evaluate the eﬀect of transverse reinforcement in DRCBs, spe- restraint of axial elongation of DRCBs provided by the adjoining shear

cimens D1-T0.5-RC (Fig. 2b) and D1-T0.5-HP were made, which had walls and slabs [20]. These columns were anchored to the strong ﬂoor.

only half the amount of transverse reinforcement as that in specimens Roller supports were installed on the guide columns to prevent rotation

D1-T1-RC and D1-T1-HP. In specimen D0.5-T0.5-HP (Fig. 2f), both di- of the loading frame. Thus, the loading frame could move only in the

agonal and transverse reinforcement were reduced to half the amount horizontal direction during the test. To ensure zero moment at the mid-

of those reinforcement used in specimens D1-T1-RC and D1-T1-HP. The span of the DRCB specimens, lateral loading was applied to the spe-

spacing of the transverse reinforcement (D13) for specimens D1-T0.5- cimen in the line of action passing the mid-span of the DRCBs using a

RC and D0.5-T0.5-HP was 250 mm. Fig. 3 shows a summary of the test hydraulic actuator. Lateral loads produced by the hydraulic actuator

program and the specimen identiﬁcation nomenclature. Table 1 sum- were transmitted to the DRCB through the horizontal loading frame and

marizes the properties of all of the specimens. top concrete block.

Quasi-static displacement-controlled cyclic loading was applied to

the specimen. Fig. 5a shows the loading history in which the “drift

ratio” is deﬁned as the lateral displacement normalized by beam length

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S.W. Han et al. Composite Structures 206 (2018) 550–562

(ln ). The lateral displacement was measured by the linear variable dif- C39 [23]. The height and diameter of the specimens were 200 mm and

ferential transducer (LVDT) (Fig. 5b) installed on the top block. For 100 mm, respectively. The direct tensile test was also conducted with

individual drift amplitudes, two consecutive loading cycles were ap- ﬁve dog-bone-shaped specimens with section size of 25 mm × 50 mm.

plied to a specimen to monitor cyclic degradation in strength and Fig. 6 shows the stress-strain curves obtained from the compressive and

stiﬀness occurring the specimen. The same loading protocol was ap- direct tensile tests.

plied to all specimens. The magnitude of lateral loads (shear force) was The average compressive strengths of the concrete and HPFRCC

measured through a load cell installed in the actuator. were 44 MPa and 46 MPa, respectively, exceeding the design strength of

Fig. 5b shows an arrangement of the LVDTs for the specimens. Two 40 MPa. The average compressive strength of normal concrete used for

LVDTs (Top and Bottom) were installed on the top block to monitor the loading concrete blocks was 69 MPa, exceeding the design strength of

rotation of the specimen, and one LVDT was installed on the bottom 60 MPa. Table 5 summarizes the mechanical properties of the concrete

block to monitor the sliding of the specimen. Vertical LVDTs (L1 to L4, and HPFRCC obtained from the material tests. The compressive strain at

L9 to L14) and diagonal LVDTs (D1 to D4) were installed to measure the the peak strength for the HPFRCC was 0.0040, which was 1.7 times

ﬂexural deformation and shear distortion. Vertical LVDTs (L5 to L8) larger than that of normal concrete (=0.0023). A high strain at the

were installed to monitor the rotation at both ends of the specimen. peak strength of HPFRCC was mainly due to the matrix of HPFRCC

which did not contain coarse aggregate [24]. However, the secant

3.3. Material tests elastic modulus of HPFRCC measured at 40% of the compressive

strength was about 81% of that of the normal concrete. As shown in

Compressive and direct tensile tests were conducted to estimate the Fig. 6a, explosive spalling was not observed in HPFRCC sample, unlike

mechanical properties of the HPFRCC with polyvinyl alcohol ﬁbers normal concrete (Fig. 6a).

(PVA). Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) ﬁbers are newly developed high per- The average direct tensile strength of HPFRCC was 3.6 MPa. The

formance ﬁbers, used in engineered cementitious composites to help HPFRCC exhibited ductile behavior with multiple events of micro-

achieving high tensile strain capacity, toughness and structural in- cracking on the surface before failure without crack localization. This

tegrity [21]. The unique microstructure of PVA ﬁbers causes the for- could be attributed to ﬁber bridging eﬀects that could eﬃciently

mation of a strong bond with the cementitious matrix. HPFRCC with transfer loads between cracks in the cement matrix through ﬁbers, re-

PVA ﬁbers exhibits larger tensile strain capacity than HPFRCC with sulting in spreading cracks on the entire surface of the cement matrix.

steel ﬁbers. Tables 2 and 3 summarize the mix proportions of normal At the ﬁnal stage, the cracks in the weakest region of the matrix became

concrete and HPFRCC, respectively. The dimensions and physical wider, and failure was initiated by the slip of ﬁbers in this region.

properties of PVA ﬁbers are given in Table 4. The same mix proportion Table 6 summarizes the mechanical properties of the deformed bars

of HPFRCC as that provided in [22] was also used in this study, which used in the DRCB specimens.

was the best mix propoertion for HPFRCC found from coupon tests with

various trial mixes. The volume fraction of PVA ﬁbers was 2.0%, and 4. Test results

calcium carbonate was used as a ﬁller. Calcium carbonate generally

improves the toughness, ductility and strength of the cement-matrix 4.1. Cyclic curves of RC and HPFRCC DRCB specimens

better than other ﬁllers such as silica sand [22].

Compressive tests were conducted with four normal concrete (beam Fig. 7 shows the cyclic and envelop curves of six DRCB specimens.

and block) and four HPFRCC cylindrical specimens according to ASTM The ordinate and abscissa represent shear force and drift ratio,

Table 1

Properties of specimen.

Specimen b (mm) h (mm) ln (mm) ln / h Diagonal bars Transverse bars (mm) Longitudinal bars α (°) Material type

D1-T1-RC 250 300 1050 3.5 8-D25 D13@110 10-D13 8.9 Concrete

D1-T1-HP 250 300 1050 3.5 8-D25 D13@110 10-D13 8.9 HPFRCC

D0.5-T1-HP 250 300 1050 3.5 8-D19 D13@110 10-D13 9.2 HPFRCC

D1-T0.5-RC 250 300 1050 3.5 8-D25 D13@250 10-D13 8.9 Concrete

D1-T0.5-HP 250 300 1050 3.5 8-D25 D13@250 10-D13 8.9 HPFRCC

D0.5-T0.5-HP 250 300 1050 3.5 8-D19 D13@250 10-D13 9.2 HPFRCC

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S.W. Han et al. Composite Structures 206 (2018) 550–562

respectively. For individual specimens, the yield drift ratio (θy ), max- Table 2

imum strength (Vu ) and drift ratios (θu ) were determined according to Normal concrete mixture proportions (kg/m3).

the procedure proposed by Pan and Moehle [25] and marked in Fig. 7.

Cement Sand Gravel Water Water-reducing admixtures

The envelope of cyclic curves was idealized by an elastoplastic re-

lation. The initial slope of idealized relation was a secant through the 480 785 939 143 4.32

measured relation at a load equal to two-thirds of the measured

strength (Vu ). The plastic portion of the idealized relation passed

through the maximum load (Vu ). The intersection between these two Table 3

lines deﬁned yield drift ratio (θy ). The yield strength (Vy ) was de- HPFRCC mixture proportions (kg/m3).

termined as a strength corresponding to the incidence of yielding in Cement Silica Fly ash Filler Super- Water W/Ba Fiber

diagonal reinforcement. The maximum drift ratio θu was deﬁned as a fume (CaCO3) plasticizer volume

drift when Vu is reduced by 20%. A point for shear strength and drift fraction

ratio at failure (Vf , θf ) was deﬁned as a point in the cyclic curve where a 489 32.6 374.9 684.6 3.3 366.8 0.21 PVA 2.0%

sudden drop has occurred.

The shear strength calculated using Eq. (1) (VACI ) is also marked in a

W/B: water-to-binder material (cement + silica fume + ﬂy ash + ﬁller)

Fig. 7 using a dashed line. Table 7 summarizes these strengths and drift ratio.

ratios of the DRCB specimens. For convenient comparison, Fig. 8 is

plotted, which presents the values for Vu , θu , and θf of all DRCB speci- transverse reinforcement required by ACI 318-14 [2], this specimen

mens. produced Vu larger than VACI . The observed shear strength (Vu ) of D1-

The maximum strength (Vu ) of all of the specimens was signiﬁcantly T0.5-HP and D0.5-T0.5-HP signiﬁcantly exceeded VACI . In order to ac-

larger than VACI (Fig. 8). It is noted that in Eq. (1), the contribution of curately predict the shear strength of DRCBs, it is important to consider

diagonal reinforcement in DRCBs is only considered to calculate their not only the contribution of diagonal reinforcement but also the con-

shear strength. Although RC specimen D1-T0.5-RC had only 50% of tributions of transverse reinforcement and HPFRCC. It is noted that the

Fig. 5. Loading and measurement: (a) Loading history; (b) LVDT arrangement.

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S.W. Han et al. Composite Structures 206 (2018) 550–562

Properties of PVA ﬁbers. mance than corresponding RC DRCBs with the same amount of diagonal

Length Diameter Density (g/ Tensile Tensile elasticity and transverse reinforcement.

(mm) (mm) cm3) strength (MPa) (GPa)

4.3. Stiﬀness deterioration and energy dissipation

At each drift ratio, stiﬀness was determined from the cyclic curves,

underestimation of the shear strength for DRCBs can be un-conservative

which was the slope of a line connecting the points in the cyclic curves

in capacity design context.

corresponding to the positive and negative peak drifts. Fig. 10a shows

Standard specimen D1-T1-RC, detailed according to ACI 318-14 [2],

the stiﬀness at each drift ratio normalized by the initial stiﬀness mea-

had Vu of 507 kN and θu of 9.8%. This specimen exhibited stable cyclic

sured at a drift ratio of 0.25%. The 1st loading cycle was used for

behavior without a sudden strength drop (Fig. 7a), indicating that

calculating the stiﬀness. It is noted that if a load-displacement curve for

slender DRCBs designed according to the second conﬁnement option

one complete cycle is not symmetric, the secant stiﬀness may not pass

(Fig. 1b) had excellent cyclic behavior. All specimens had a maximum

through the origin (0,0).

drift ratio (θu ) larger than 5% except for D0.5-T0.5-HP (θu = 3.0%). A

As shown in this ﬁgure, the stiﬀness deteriorated with an increase in

drift ratio of 5% is the acceptance criteria (θASCE ) for DRCBs for collapse

the drift ratio. Stiﬀness deterioration is an index measuring the strength

prevention level speciﬁed in ASCE 41 [26]. Note that θASCE for CP level

retention capacity for a specimen. As expected, the HPFRCC specimen

is analogous to θu which was estimated when the shear strength of a

D1-T1-HP exhibited the largest strength retention capacity among the

DRCB was decreased by 20% [10].

specimens, whereas HPFRCC specimen D0.5-T0.5-HP had the smallest

strength retention capacity. As pointed out in the previous section, the

4.2. Crack propagation and failure

presence of HPFRCC alone could not completely compensate for 50%

reduction in both diagonal and transverse reinforcement in the slender

Fig. 9 shows crack patterns according to the drift ratio. The inclined

DRCB specimens.

crack widths (wic ) at speciﬁed drift ratios are listed for all specimens in

Fig. 10b shows the cumulative dissipated energy at each drift ratio.

Fig. 9. The crack pattern at failure stage was drawn for individual

The energy dissipated in each loading cycle is the area enclosed by the

specimens and is included in Fig. 9. Concrete spalling was observed in

cyclic curve. Similarly, specimen D1-T1-HP had the largest energy

all specimens before failure.

dissipation capacity among the specimens. However, unlike stiﬀness

Considering RC and HPFRCC DRCB specimens with the same diag-

deterioration, RC specimen D1-T0.5-RC rather than HPFRCC specimen

onal and transverse reinforcement (D1-T1-RC versus D1-T1-HP; D1-

D0.5-T0.5-HP had the smallest energy dissipation capacity. Transverse

T0.5-RC versus D1-T0.5HP), the inclined crack width (wic ) of HPFRCC

reinforcement conﬁnes the concrete core of DRCBs sustaining com-

specimens was less than that of corresponding RC specimens. The

pressive forces developed by diagonal bars and neighboring stiﬀ walls;

amount of concrete spalling in HPFRCC specimens was also less than

thus, a desirable ductility in a DRCB may be achieved by placing an

that of corresponding RC specimens. The shear strength produced by

adequate amount of transverse reinforcement. In addition, transverse

concrete in HPFRCC coupling beams is induced by the strain-hardening

reinforcement directly contributes to the shear strength of DRCBs.

response of HPFRCC materials with a ﬁber bridging stress equal to the

Therefore, transverse reinforcement in DRCBs play an important role on

post-cracking material strength. At a given drift ratio, D1-T1-HP had

energy dissipation capacity of DRCBs. HPFRCC specimen D1-T0.5-HP

the smallest wic among the specimen. Although HPFRCC produced a

had an energy dissipation capacity slightly larger than standard RC

positive contribution to the shear strength of DRCBs, wic observed in

specimen D1-T1-RC due to the eﬀect of the HPFRCC.

specimen D0.5-T0.5-HP was the largest. It is noted that specimen D0.5-

T0.5-HP had only 50% of both the diagonal and transverse reinforce-

ment used in standard specimen D1-T1-RC. This indicates that the shear

strength contribution of HPFRCC due to the strain-hardening response

of HPFRCC cannot completely compensate for 50% reduction in both

diagonal and transverse reinforcement in DRCB specimens.

Fig. 6. Stress-strain curves of normal concrete and HPFRCC: (a) Compressive tests; (b) Direct tensile tests.

555

S.W. Han et al. Composite Structures 206 (2018) 550–562

Table 5

Summary of material test.

Material Average compressive strength Compressive strain at peak Modulus of elasticity Average tensile strength Maximum tensile strain (%)

(MPa) (GPa) (MPa)

Concrete for blocks 69 0.0028 30.1 – –

HPFRCC 46 0.0040 18.0 3.6 2.3

Table 6 reinforcement were monitored. Fig. 11a shows drift ratios causing

Mechanical properties of reinforcement. yielding in these reinforcement. It is observed that RC specimens ex-

Reinforcement Diameter (mm) Yield stress (MPa) Tensile strength (MPa)

perienced yielding earlier than corresponding HPFRCC specimens (D1-

T1-RC versus D1-T1-HP; D1-T0.5RC versus D1-T0.5HP). Fig. 11b shows

D13 12.7 516 668 the strains of transverse reinforcement measured at a drift ratio of 2%

D19 19.1 476 606 using strain gauges. The stain of specimen D1-T1-RC was larger than

D25 25.4 515 636

that of specimen D1-T1-HP. A Similar observation was made for the

strains of specimens D1-T0.5-RC and D1-T0.5-HP, indicating that the

5. Detailed investigation of the eﬀect of HPFRCC, diagonal and HPFRCC shared the role of the conﬁnement of concrete, along with

transverse reinforcement transverse reinforcement.

To evaluate the eﬀect of HPFRCC on the cyclic responses of the To evaluate the eﬀect of diagonal reinforcement on the cyclic be-

DRCBs, the test results of two RC (D1-T1-RC, D1-T0.5-RC) and two havior of HPFRCC DRCBs, specimens D1-T1-HP, D0.5-T1-HP, D1-T0.5-

HPFRCC (D1-T1-HP, D1-T0.5-HP) specimens were considered. The HP and D0.5-T0.5-HP were considered. If the amount of diagonal re-

shear strengths (Vu ) of specimen D1-T1-RC and D1-T1-HP were 507 kN inforcement is reduced by 50%, the shear strength (VACI ) calculated

and 614 kN, respectively, while Vu of D1-T0.5-RC and D1-T0.5-HP were using Eq. (1), is also reduced by 50%.

376 kN and 562 kN, respectively. The increase in shear strength due to Although specimen D0.5-T1-HP had 50% of the amount of diagonal

the inclusion of HPFRCC was more distinctive in DRCBs with less reinforcement in specimen D1-T1-HP, the Vu of specimen D0.5-T1-HP

transverse reinforcement (D1-T0.5-RC versus D1-T0.5-HP) (Fig. 8). (Vn = 614 kN) was only 21% (< 50%) less than Vu of specimen D1-T1-

Specimens D1-T1-RC and D1-T1-HP produced an excellent drift HP (Vn = 485 kN). Both specimens had the same amount of transverse

capacity. The maximum drift ratio (θu ) of specimens D1-T1-RC and D1- reinforcement satisfying the requirement speciﬁed in ACI 318-14 [2]. A

T1-HP were 9.8% and 7.9%, respectively. The drift ratios (θf ) at failure similar observation was made for specimens D1-T0.5-HP (Vn = 562 kN)

for specimens D1-T1-RC and D1-T1-HP were 10.1% and 11.9% (Fig. 7a and D0.5-T0.5-HP(Vn = 426 kN) having 50% reduced transverse re-

and c), respectively. In these specimens, the contribution of HPFRCC on inforcement. This indicates that although the amount of diagonal re-

the drift capacity was not signiﬁcant. However, a distinctive increase in inforcement was reduced by 50%, Vu did not decrease by 50% unlike

drift capacity was observed due to the use of the HPFRCC for specimens the prediction using Eq. (1) due to the contributions of the HPFRCC as

with a 50% reduced transverse reinforcement: θu of specimens D1-T0.5- well as transverse reinforcement.

RC and D1-T0.5-HP were 4.8% and 7.0%, respectively. (Fig. 7b and d). The maximum drift ratios (θu ) of specimens D1-T1-HP and D0.5-T1-

In summary, the use of HPFRCC is more eﬀective in increasing Vu HP were 7.9% and 5.9%, respectively, while specimens D1-T0.5-HP and

and θu for slender DRCBs having a reduced amount of transverse re- D0.5-T0.5-HP had θu of 5.9% and 3.0%, respectively. This indicates that

inforcement. θu decreased with a 50% reduction in the diagonal reinforcement,

The inclined crack widths (wic ) of specimens D1-T1-RC and D1-T1- which was more prominent for specimens with a 50% reduced trans-

HP at a drift ratio of 4% were 2.5 mm and 2.0 mm, respectively, while verse reinforcement. It is worthwhile to note that specimen D0.5-T1-HP

wic of D1-T0.5-RC and D1-T0.5-HP were 8.0 mm and 3.0 mm, respec- had θu (=5.9%) smaller than RC specimens D1-T1-RC (θu = 9.8%).

tively. Therefore, the crack width of DRCBs decreased by using HPFRCC Therefore, HPFRCC alone could not compensate for a decrease in Vu and

(Fig. 9). This phenomenon was more prominent in specimens with less θu resulting from a 50% reduction in diagonal reinforcement. It is noted

transverse reinforcement (D1-T0.5-RC versus D1-T0.5-HP). In addition, that there is no limitation on the minimum amount of diagonal re-

HPFRCC DRCBs exhibited more cracks that spread widely in the entire inforcement speciﬁed in ACI 318-14 [2].

DRCB surface compared to RC DRCBs. At a drift ratio of 4%, the spal- At a drift ratio of 4%, wic of specimens D1-T1-HP and D0.5-T1-HP

ling of concrete occurred in specimen D1-T1-RC and D1-T0.5-RC, were 2.5 mm and 3.5 mm, respectively, while specimens D1-T0.5-HP

whereas concrete spalling did not occur in specimens D1-T1-HP and D1- and D0.5-T0.5-HP produced wic values of 3.0 mm and 20.0 mm, re-

T0.5-HP at the same drift ratio (Fig. 9). spectively. Therefore, wic increased with the 50% reduction in diagonal

The initial stiﬀness of specimens was increased by using HPFRCC. reinforcement (Fig. 9), which was more prominent in specimens with a

However, the degree of stiﬀness increment was not distinctively af- 50% reduced transverse reinforcement.

fected by the amount of transverse reinforcement. Similarly, the

strength retention capacities of HPFRCC specimens were larger than

5.3. Eﬀect of the transverse reinforcement

those of the corresponding RC specimens. The energy dissipation ca-

pacity (Et ) of slender DRCB specimens was increased by the use of

To investigate the eﬀect of the transverse reinforcement on the

HPFRCC. The increase in energy dissipation capacity due to the use of

cyclic behavior of DRCBs six slender DRCB specimens were considered,

HPFRCC was more noticeable in DRCBs with less transverse re-

which had diﬀerent amounts of transverse reinforcement. Specimens

inforcement: Et of D1-T1-RC and D1-T1-HP was 791.5 kN-m and

D1-T1-RC, D1-T1-HP and D0.5-T1-HP had an amount of transverse

1120.5 kN-m, respectively, whereas Et of D1-T0.5-RC and D1-T0.5-HP

reinforcement satisfying the requirement speciﬁed in ACI318-14 [2],

was 192.9 kN-m and 766.5 kN-m, respectively.

whereas specimens D1-T0.5-RC, D1-T0.5-HP and D0.5-T0.5-HP had

Drift ratios which caused yielding in diagonal and transverse

transverse reinforcement reduced by 50%.

556

S.W. Han et al. Composite Structures 206 (2018) 550–562

As summarized in Table 7, Vu of specimens D1-T1-RC(=507 kN), 174 kN. Therefore, VACI signiﬁcantly underestimated the actual shear

D1-T1-HP (=614 kN), and D0.5-T1-HP (=485 kN) were larger than strength (Vu ) of slender DRCB specimens.

those of corresponding specimens, D1-T0.5-RC (=376 kN), D1-T0.5-HP The maximum drift ratios (θu ) of specimens D1-T1-RC, D1-T1-HP,

(=562 kN), and D0.5-T0.5-HP (=426 kN). This indicates that Vn de- and D0.5-T1-HP were 9.8%, 7.9%, and 5.9%, respectively, whereas

creases by reducing the amount of transverse reinforcement. In con- those of specimens D1-T0.5-RC, D1-T0.5-HP, and D0.5-T0.5-HP were

trast, VACI does not change according to the amount of transverse re- 4.8%, 7.0%, and 3.0%, respectively. This indicates that θu decreased

inforcement: VACI of specimens D1-T1-RC and D1-T1-HP was calculated with a 50% reduction in transverse reinforcement.

as 302 kN, and VACI of specimens D0.5-T1-HP and D0.5-T0.5-HP was To evaluate the eﬀect of HPFRCC on the cyclic behavior of DRCBs

557

S.W. Han et al. Composite Structures 206 (2018) 550–562

Table 7 behave in elastic range during large earthquakes whereas the adjacent

Summary of experimental test result. shear walls could experience unexpected signiﬁcant damage. To avoid

Specimen Load direction θ y (%) Vy (kN) θu (%) Vu (kN) θf (%) Vf (kN) such a problem, it is important to accurately predict the shear strength

of DRCBs.

D1-T1-RC + 2.0 437 9.8 507 10.1 421 Han et al. [27] proposed Eq. (2), which can calculate the shear

− 2.0 469 9.9 504 10.0 348 strength of the RC coupling beam (Vn − RC ) considering the contribution

D1-T0.5-RC + 1.7 347 5.9 374 6.0 256

of diagonal reinforcement and transverse reinforcement. They reported

− 1.7 341 4.8 376 5.9 181

D1-T1-HP + 3.9 517 7.9 573 11.9 284 that the contribution of transverse reinforcement on the shear strength

− 3.9 561 7.9 614 11.9 279 was signiﬁcantly aﬀected by the transverse reinforcement ratio ( ρt ) and

D1-T0.5-HP + 2.3 466 9.9 484 10.0 385 ln / h . To account for the eﬀect of ρt and ln / h , γ factor is multiplied to the

− 2.5 531 7.0 562 10.1 340 shear strength provided by the transverse reinforcement (Vs ) in Eq. (2).

D0.5-T1-HP + 3.9 419 6.9 465 12.0 192

− 4.0 445 5.9 485 12.0 160

An empirical equation for γ was proposed based on the test results of

D0.5-T0.5-HP + 1.9 357 3.5 404 7.0 173 DRCBs by conducting multiple-regression analyses [Eq. (4)].

− 2.0 394 3.0 426 7.0 139

Vn − RC = γVs + VACI (2)

Vs = Av f yt d/ s (3)

center spacing (s ) of the transverse reinforcement, f yt is the yield

strength of the transverse reinforcement, and d is the eﬀective beam

depth. It is noted that Eq. (4) was proposed based on the test results of

ﬁfteen DRCBs obtained from nine diﬀerent experimental studies. The

transverse reinforcement ratios ( ρt ) of these beams ranged from 0.15 to

0.38 whereas their diagonal reinforcement ratios ranged from 2.5% to

5.5%. The span-to-depth ratios of these specimens (ln / h ) were between

2.0 and 3.5.

Kanakubo et al. [28] proposed the shear strength equation of beams

using HPFRCC with PVA ﬁbers having a volume fraction ranging from

1.5% to 2.0% based on the test results of beam specimens with diﬀerent

volume fraction of ﬁbers and diﬀerent transverse reinforcements.

Vf = b·jt ·vt ·σt ·cot ϕ (5)

Fig. 8. Shear strength (Vu ), drift capacity (θu ), and drift ratio a failure (θf ) for 2.0

⎧

⎪

DRCBs.

cot ϕ = min jt /(h·tan θ)

⎨

⎪ v·σB /(ρt ·f yt )−1 (6)

with 50% reduced transverse reinforcement, RC specimen D1-T1-RC ⎩

and HPFRCC specimen D1-T0.5-HP, both with a 50% reduced trans-

tan θ = (ln / h)2 + 1 −(ln / h) (7)

verse reinforcement, were considered. Although the amount of trans-

verse reinforcement in HPFRCC specimen D1-T0.5-HP was only half v = 1.70σB−0.333 (8)

that of RC specimen D1-T1-RC, Vu of specimen D1-T0.5-HP (=562 kN)

was larger than that of specimen D1-T1-RC (=507 kN), indicating that where Vf is the shear strength contribution HPFRCC, jt is the distance

the use of HPFRCC could compensate for a decrease in Vu due to the between compression and tension bars, vt is the reduction factor for

reduction in transverse reinforcement unlike the case of the reduction tensile strength of HPFRCC (=0.5) [28], which reﬂects the non-uni-

in diagonal reinforcement. Both specimens had θu larger than 5%, formity of the tensile stress at the crack surface, σt is the tensile strength

which is the acceptance criteria for DRCBs speciﬁed in ASCE 41 [26]. of HPFRCC obtained from direct tensile tests, ϕ is the angle of the

The drift ratio at failure (θf ) of the both specimens exceeded 10%. The compressive strut, θ is the angle of the arch mechanism, v is the ef-

strength retention and energy dissipation capacities of both specimens fective coeﬃcient of compressive strength of ECC, and σB is the com-

were also almost identical. Therefore, the use of HPFRCC could com- pressive strength of the ECC.

pensate for the eﬀect of a 50% reduction in transverse reinforcement as In Eq. (5), cot ϕ reﬂects the tendency that the contribution of

a result of the improved cyclic behavior of slender DRCBs. HPFRCC to shear strength increases with a reduction in the amount of

transverse reinforcement up to a certain limit. Beyond this limit, the

contribution of HPFRCC does not change with a further reduction in the

6. Shear strength equation of slender diagonally reinforced transverse reinforcement. Zhang et al. [29] also reported that the

coupling beams using HPFRCC bridging eﬀect produced by HPFRCC decreased with an increase in the

amount of transverse reinforcement because the number of cracks in

As observed in the previous sections, the shear strength of DRCBs HPFRCC beams that initiate the bridging eﬀect of HPFRCC decreased

calculated from Eq. (1) signiﬁcantly underestimated the actual shear with increasing transverse reinforcement. It was also observed from this

strength of the DRCBs (Fig. 7). It is noted that Eq. (1) only considers the study that the contribution of HPFRCC on the shear strength of DRCBs

contribution of diagonal reinforcement in calculating the shear strength was more signiﬁcant for specimens with 50% reduced transverse re-

of DRCBs rather than considering the contributions of transverse re- inforcement. Note that the diﬀerence in shear strength between speci-

inforcement and the inclusion of HPFRCC, resulting in an under- mens D1-T1-RC and D1-T1-HP was 107 kN, whereas that between

estimation of the shear strength. Han et al. [22] reported that transverse specimens D1-T0.5-RC and D1-T0.5-HP was 186 kN.

reinforcement aﬀected the shear strength of DRCBs. If the shear To consider the contribution of transverse reinforcement and the

strength of DRCBs are underestimated in the design stage, DRCBs may inclusion of HPFRCC, as well as the contribution of diagonal

558

S.W. Han et al. Composite Structures 206 (2018) 550–562

reinforcement, Eq. (9) was proposed, which is simply a linear combi- To verify the accuracy of Eq. (9), the shear strengths of HPFRCC

nation of Eqs. (2) and (5). DRCB specimens were calculated using Eq. (9) and compared with their

actual shear strengths (Table 8). DRCB specimens tested in the previous

Vn = γVs + VACI + Vf (9) study [13,22] are also included in Table 8.

559

S.W. Han et al. Composite Structures 206 (2018) 550–562

Fig. 10. Stiﬀness degradation and cumulative energy dissipation: (a) Stiﬀness degradation; (b) Cumulative energy dissipation.

Fig. 11. Yield drift ratio and strain: (a) Drift ratio at yielding in diagonal reinforcement; (b) Strain of transverse reinforcement at a drift ratio of 2%.

Table 8

Predicted and actual shear strengths of specimens in previous studies and this study.

Author Specimen Material VACI Eq. (1) γVs Vf Vn Eq. (9) Vn − test Vu/ Vpr

D1-T1-HP HPFRCC 323 158 137 618 614 1.007

D1-T0.5-RC RC 302 90 – 392 376 1.043

D1-T0.5-HP HPFRCC 302 90 191 583 562 1.037

D0.5-T1-HP HPFRCC 174 158 137 470 485 0.968

D0.5-T0.5-HP HPFRCC 174 90 191 455 426 1.068

Han et al. [22] HRC-500 HPFRCC 302 34 191 527 486 1.084

HRC-NO HPFRCC 302 – 191 493 452 1.091

Han et al. [13] FC-0.5-2.0 HPFRCC 473 318 393 1184 1117 1.060

FC-0-2.0 HPFRCC 473 – 393 866 909 0.953

HPFRCC specimens 1.033

HPFRCC specimens 0.052

560

S.W. Han et al. Composite Structures 206 (2018) 550–562

Fig. 12. Contribution and veriﬁcation of shear strength: (a) Contribution of shear strength; (b) Veriﬁcation of predicted shear strength.

The contributions of the transverse reinforcement (γVs ), diagonal (5) The shear strength equation for slender HPFRCC DRCBs proposed in

reinforcement (VACI ), and HPFRCC (Vf ) on the shear strength of in- this study can properly consider the contribution of diagonal re-

dividual specimens are plotted Fig. 12a. Fig. 12b shows the degree of inforcement, transverse reinforcement, and the inclusion of

ﬁtness between actual and calculated shear strength. The average ratio HPFRCC. It was shown that the shear strengths of slender DRCBs

of actual to calculated shear strength was 1.022 and its coeﬃcient of calculated using the proposed equation accurately matched the

variation was 0.051, indicating that Eq. (9) accurately predicts the actual shear strength of the slender DRCBs.

shear strength of HPFRCC DRCBs.

Since Eq. (5) was derived for HPFRCC with PVA ﬁbers [28], this Acknowledgement

equation is applicable to DRCBs made of HPFRCC with PVA ﬁbers.

Caution is required to apply Eq. (9) for DRCBs made of HPFRCC with The authors acknowledge ﬁnancial supports from by the National

diﬀerent types of ﬁbers. Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2017R1A2B3008937).

To investigate the cyclic behavior of HPFRCC slender DRCBs, six Supplementary data associated with this article can be found, in the

specimens were made and tested. The variables of the experimental test online version, at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2018.08.079.

were the application of HPFRCC, the amount of diagonal reinforcement,

and the amount of transverse reinforcement. An equation for calcu- References

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