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Kristopher C

Professor Goeller

English 1201

13 March 2019

Annotated Bibliography

My essay will attempt to answer the issues of mass incarceration in the United States of

America. I will discuss the rising issues of race and income that play a huge rule into the

predicament we are in today. I want to know if mass incarceration is the government's fault or is

it the citizens of this country who can’t stay out of jail. I want to know where did we go wrong

and what is the next step towards the right direction of keeping us out of prison.

Loury, Glenn. “Incarceration & Social Inequality.” ​What Does It Mean to Be an American? -

American Academy of Arts & Sciences​,​.

I would name the author of this source, but I would be naming over 12 people. This

source of information states three main reasons why American incarceration and social

inequality is at an all time high. The article goes into depth with details describing the education

issues, labor issues, family issues, and poverty. I believe the purpose of this article is to educate

those who are clueless to what’s happening in their communities and within their households.

The audience is definitely the African Americans. The article was written in 2010 so these

authors were definitely ahead of their time, 9 years later and we are still facing the same issues.

These authors come from a credible source and they display a high level of writing using reliable
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sources and credible information to backup their claims. I will use this article to make my claim

on poverty and race as two of the leading causes of mass incarceration.

Stockman, Farah. "A New Platform in District Attorney Races: End Mass Incarceration." New

York Times, 26 Oct. 2018, p. A10(L). Opposing Viewpoints in Context,

&sid=OVIC&xid=31df98fa. Accessed 26 Feb. 2019.

Farah Stockman of the New York Times wrote an incredible article informing us of the

current events from the Dallas County district attorney's office. Faith Johnson and others in the

race are focused on ending mass incarceration immediately. All of them agree that nonviolent

drug offenders shouldn’t be serving time behind bars, nor should those caught with minor

amounts of marijuana. The purpose of this article is to bring light to those in other cities, and

states who haven’t yet decided to reform the justice system to make a change. She is targeting

everyone that makes an impact on the justice system. This article was published on New York

Times and we all know how credible that platform is. Written in 2018, this article provides

beneficial information that will improve my research paper. When it comes to how we can end

mass incarceration, this article would help me answer that question.

Brown, Tony N., and Evelyn Patterson. "Criminal injustice: Wounds from incarceration that

never heal." ​Opposing Viewpoints Online Collection​, Gale, 2019. ​Opposing Viewpoints

in Context​,
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IC&xid=0bb8e56e. Accessed 26 Feb. 2019. Originally published as "Criminal injustice:

Wounds from incarceration that never heal," ​The Conversation,​ 28 June 2016.

Tony Brown and Evelyn Patterson display an in depth and articulate article written this

year and published by Gale. In this article they focus on how incarceration ruins the lives of

those who are incarcerated or who were previously incarcerated. They also emphasize on ending

mass incarceration and they both make a claim that mass incarceration is racially bias. Their

purpose in this article is open the eyes of those who don’t understand the effects that being

locked behind has on the individuals and their families. The audience would be government

officials, medical mental health doctors/nurses and politicians. I will use this article as the

baseline for how mass incarceration is hurting us and our communities. I also will use it as

evidence to how race plays a role into this process.

"Is Meek Mill a poster boy for mass incarceration? What the outrage is all about." ​CNN Wire​, 24

Nov. 2017. ​Opposing Viewpoints in Context,​

&sid=OVIC&xid=f81d906e. Accessed 26 Feb. 2019.

Deena Zaru from CNN wrote this article about the famous hip hop artist Meek Mill’s

legal issues with the criminal justice system. After reading, you will become aware of how the

justice system will corrupt your whole life after one arrest. Meek commited a crime when he was
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19 years old and is still on probation 10 years later. The author emphasizes on the idea that the

power of judicial discretion needs to be reduced. The message behind articles shows people that

not only those who fall victim to poverty are treated unfairly within this justice system, but those

with money can also fall victim as well. The audience should be those who support Meek and

were in the position to help, but due to the judge’s power they couldn’t. This will help me in my

research paper on the subject of probation and crimes committed when under 18. Reforming

juvenile justice is a must.

Hutchinson, Darren Lenard. “Who Locked Us Up? Examining the Social Meaning of Black

Punitiveness: ‘Locking Up Our Own: Crime and Punishment in Black America.’” ​Yale

Law Journal,​ no. 8, 2018, p. 2388. ​EBSCOhost,​​


The authors of this Yale Law Journal constructed an intense and in depth study that may prove

that African Americans had a bigger role in the rise of mass incarceration. The typical blame of

white supremacist and the government is bias. With the proper research and sources, they plan

to display a new point of view to society. Everyone reading this article will be caught off guard

with this opposing point of view,but I believe the purpose behind this article is to enlighten the

people to conduct the proper research and educate themselves accordingly. The main author is

James Forman Jr, who is the winner of the Pulitzer Prize for this amazing book. Anything

coming from Yale is most certainly credible and this book has won the Pulitzer Prize winner. I
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will use this information in my article to support the other side of the law. As I said in my

research proposal, this paper will not be bias. It will be filled facts and no opinions.

WILEY, MAYA. “Power of the Prosecutor.” ​New Republic​, vol. 249, no. 6, June 2018, p. 9.



This powerful heartspoken news article written by Maya Wiley published by a well known

magazine (US World), displays a powerful message to the people. District attorneys are the key

to turning around mass incarceration. This article tells the story of Larry Krasner, a defiant man

who changed the minds of many and saved lives as well. With his new sweeping policies and

reforming ideas, he freed many men who were locked inside prison cells. The message here is

pretty clear, changes are coming if we keep trying. The audience is definitely all district

attorneys, this is a chance for them to make a change, With power, comes great responsibility. I

will use this article as an answer to what should we do to end mass incarceration.

Bettag, Gina. “Lizbet Simmons: The Prison School: Educational Inequality and School

Discipline in the Age of Mass Incarceration ; University of California Press, Oakland, California,

2017, 206 Pp, ISBN: 9780520281462.” ​Journal of Youth and Adolescence,​ no. 11, 2017, p.

2376. ​EBSCOhost​, doi:10.1007/s10964-017-0761-x.

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Lizbet Simmons exposes the link between school failure and mass imprisonment in the

University of California Press magazine written back in 2017. She studies the punitive approach

to education and how it leads to imprisonment at some point in life. Published in a well known

magazine with credible sources, I believe the author has put herself in a position to be heard by

the boards of education across the U.S. This will come to use in my research paper as I study the

foundation of mass incarceration.

Dolor, L.I. ​Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh.

New York:​ Columbia UP, 1998. Print.

Doe, R. John.​ ​ ​Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy

nibh, ​1998. Print.