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You are on page 1of 8

Problema:

determinar la posición de las articulaciones dada la posición del elemento terminal

base

Es decir, dado p = Ttool (q) se pretende encontrar q

Es un problema no lineal

• el vector de translación da las otras 3

Casos posibles:

• No existe solución.

(dando pesos a las articulaciones).

Enfoques:

• Soluciones cerradas

Condición para que exista solución cerrada con 6 g.d.l: 3 ejes seguidos se intersecten

The Unimation PUMA 560

As an example of the algebraic solution technique applied to a manipu

lator with six degrees of freedom, we will solve the kincrnatic equations

of the PU MA 560 which were developed in Chapter 3. This solution is

in the style of [5].

We wish to solve

(4.49)

is given as numeric values.

A restatement of (4.49) which puts the dependence on ()1 on the left

hand side of the equation is

(4.50)

o

o 0] [Tll

0 T21

(4.51)

1 0 T31

010

Where ~7' is given by equation (3.13) developed in Chapter 3. This

simple technique of multiplying each side of a t ransforrn equat ion by an

inverse is often used to advantage in separating out variables in search

of a solvable equation.

Equating the (2~ 4) elernents from both sides of (4.51), we have

(4.52)

t utions

Px=pcos¢,

(4.53 )

Py = psin 4>.

where

p= Jp; + P~.

(4.54)

4> = Atan2 (p Y ' PI)'

Substituting (4.53) into (4.52), we obtain

(4.55 )

P

Hence

cos (¢ - 0 I J = ± V[df

1 - rJ, (4.57)

and so

(4.58)

1 3, (4.59)

Note that we have found two possible solutions for ()1 corresponding to

the plus-or-minus -sign in (4.59). Now that () 1 is known, the left hand

side of (4.51) is known. If we equate the (1,4) elements from both sides

of (4.51) and also the (3,4) elements, we obtain

(4.60)

If we square equations (4.60) and (4.52) and add the resulting equations.

we obtain

(4.61 )

where

2 + p2 + p2 _ a2 _ a2 _ d2 _ d2

K = Px y z 2 3 3 4 (4.62)

2a2

Note that dependence on 01 has been removed from (4.61). Equa

tion (4.61) is of the same form as (4.52) and so may be solved by the

same kind of trigonometric substitution to yield a solution for 03:

(4.63 )

The plus or minus sign in (4.63) leads to two different solutions for 03.

If we consider (4.49) again, we can now rewrite it so that all the

left-hand side is a function of only knowns and 02:

(4.64)

or

T 13 px]

T23 P y _ 3

- 6T, (4.65 )

T3 3 u,

o 1

the (1,4) elements from both sides of (4.65), as well as the (2,4) elements,

we get

(4.66)

These equations may be solved simultaneously for 823 and c23' resulting

In

(-a3 - a2 c3)pz + (c1Px -+ slP y)(a2 s3 - d4 )

823 = 2

Pz + (C1pz + SlP y )

2 '

(4.67)

(a2 83 - d 4 )pz - (-a3 - a2 c3)(c 1 Pz + SlP y )

C23 = 2 2

v; + (C1Px + SlP y )

Since the denominators are equal and positive, we solve for the sum of

()2 and ()3 as

(4.68)·

(a2 s3 - d 4 )pz + (a3 + a2 c3)(c 1Px + SlP y)]

possible combinations of solutions for Oland 3 , Then, four possible

solutions for ()2 are computed as

°

(4.69)

where the appropriate solution for 03 is used when forming the difference.

Now the entire left side of (4.65) is known. Equating the (1. 3)

elements from both sides of (4.65), as well as the (3,3) elements, we get

(4.70)

As long as 85 -I 0, we can solve for 04 as

(4.71)

joint axes 4 and 6 line up and cause the same motion of the last link

of the robot. In this case, all that matters (and all that can be solved

for) is the sum or difference of 04 and 06' This situation is detected by

checking whether both arguments of the Atan2 in (4.71) are near zero.

If so, 04 is chosen arbitrarily,* and when 06 is computed later, it will

be computed accordingly.

If we consider (4.49) again, we can now rewrite it so that all the

left-hand side is a function of only knowns and 04 by rewriting it as:

-CI C23 84 + 8 1 C4 -8 1 C 2 3 S4 - CI C4

-C 1 8 2 3 -SI S23

[

o 0

(1,3) elements from both sides of (4.72), as well as the (3,3) elements,

.we get

(4.74)

Applying the same method one more time, we compute (~T) -1 and

write (4.49) in the form

(4.76)

Equating the (3, 1) elements from both sides of (4.72), as well as the

(1, 1) elements as we have done before, we get

(4.77)

where

C6 = Til [(CIC23 C4 + SIS4)C S - CIS 23 SS] + T21 [(SI C23 C4 - CIS 4)CS - SI S23 SS]

equations compute four solutions. Additionally, there are four more

solutions obtained by "flipping" the wrist of the manipulat.or. For each

of the four solutions computed above, we obtain the flipped solution by:

(4.78)

After all eight solutions have been computed some or all of them may

have to be discarded because of joint limit violations. Of the remaining

valid solutions, usually the one closest to the present manipulator

configuration is chosen.

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