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Jacob Bowers

English Composition II

Professor Hellmers

15 April 2019

Annotated Bibliography

My research paper will be evaluating the effects indirect communication have had on

our individual communication with one another with a goal to persuade the reader to decide

whether this new form of communication is beneficial or destructive. This research paper will

include weather/how people express their self-disclosure with the new technology, how social

media on a broad scale affect the way people communicate with one another in relation to

liking or re-tweeting, and how the technology has positively/negatively affected communication

when comparing it to the previous generations of formal communication.

~ Hanson, Jarice. 24/7: How Cell Phones and the Internet Change the Way We Live, Work,

and Play. Praeger, 2007.

This book Authored by Hanson, provides the history of technology and cultural

impacts the Cell Phone and the Internet have had across many cultures. In todays

technological driven world, everyone seems to be communicating at an accelerated rate.

The technologies were intended to increase life satisfaction and promote healthy bonds
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with our communities and nation. What this book addresses are how the technologies of

the Internet and the Cellphones have actually done the opposite of just that. People in

reality seem to be less connected, mental illness is on the rise, and social cultures seem

to be divided more than ever. All these things are topics of conversation in Hanson’s book.

My interpretation of Hanson’s reasoning behind his book is to bring up the

ramifications of this new technology. Never before has human kind created such a force

of communication. Nobody could have even predicted that masses of the human race

would want to even use this form of communication let alone perceive future

consequences of it. In regards to whom the audience is of this particular book resides

with; I would suggest it’s a book for anyone willing to admit that something may be wrong

with this new technology and how it forms cultural divides. The position of this book and

the author are more times pessimistic about the technology rather than having approval

with it.

The author of this book is Janice Hanson. Hanson has made it her life’s work to study

the art of communication; Hanson is a professor of Communications at the University of

Massachusetts with 17 written books published. Hanson, being in her 60s has seen the

beginnings of the technological revolution and has first-hand experiences social/cultural

changes which came with it. Who else would be better to teach the topic of

communication and technology than someone who lived through it?

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The information in this book is mostly relevant to my research paper because to

understand the whole impact of social media I have to go back to the beginning changes

and evaluation the internet and cellphone have had in previous decades. I believe this

book will give me a good idea of how humans dealt with this new technology when it hit

the forefront

~ Lasky, Jack. The Internet. Greenhaven Press, 2016.

This book, edited by Jack Lasky is about how the internet itself may in the future

be regulated. With the invention of the internet, its hard to see what exactly it has

manifested into. What we do know about the internet thus far is that it’s a way to create

conversation, make money, provides a way to exploit others/Theft, and it’s a tool for

globalization. This book tackles the ideas of minimizing’s some of the consequences

through regulation.

This book is a part of a series of books called Opposing viewpoints. This book was

created to stir up possible controversial thoughts of the internet and were it may be

headed in regards to regulation. The reasoning for this book is to bring together studies

from multiple psychologists with published theories to project them out to the people

through an informational novel. The audience of this book would have to be to whoever

is interested about the future regulations of the Internet.

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The editor of this book remains relatively unnoticed. However, the multitude of

psychologists whose works are referenced in this book are credible. Additionally,

Greenhaven press, Mich., where this book comes from, have written numerous series using

information given by psychologists on dozens of topics.

The reasoning for source in relation to my research paper is because of the concern

with censorship the conservatives are worried about today. My research paper is all about

how the cellphone has created communication barriers with individuals. Already YouTube

voices of conservative allegiances are being demonetized in large numbers. This to me

views as a form of regulation in regards to our government censoring “hate speech”. If

the conservative voice is not allowed to be conservative because of these new age ideas,

how will the conservative survive in any form of communication weather it be individual

or political.

~ Winzelberg, David. “Cell Phone Abuse Is Riding the Rails.” The New York Times, The

New York Times, 10 Sept. 2000.

In our current society today, we are seeing a rise in particular behaviors which

once were deemed unacceptable in previous generations of people. In todays world,

people are seemingly more cold, pompous, and without natural affection. This article

enlightens the reader about the consequence the cellphone has in relation to it

becoming a nuisance. Those who commute on trains have to deal with other people’s
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music blasting in their ears, inappropriate phone calls, and more which results in

irritation and even sometimes violence.

The purpose of this particular article is very narrow. This article is addressing one

example of a problem the cellphone has created. The invention of the cell phone has

seemingly created an environment of distain between commuters, so much so that

some transit authorities tried to regulate the use of cellphones during commute back

in 2000. This to me and others in year 2019 would consider these issues to be

nonsensical so this is a shock to whatever audience that reads it.

David Winzelburg has been a Freelance Writer/Reporter for New York Times for

over 20 years. Additionally, he studied at the University of New York and New York

Empire State college. The New York Times has established itself as a predominant

new source worldwide.

I will be using this Article for one example of early recordings the cellphone has

in relation to communication. This Article was written in year 2000, when I was just a

mere 5-year-old boy. Understanding early disruptions with the cell phone and

communication will allow me to better gauge my thinking on how far the disruptions

have gone or increased. One thing I know that has increased for sure is the use of

cellphones. Back in year 2000 only 1/3 of our U.s population were subscribed to

cellphone providers. I will be using this statistic found in this article for my paper.
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~ Suttie, Jill. “How Smartphones Are Killing Conversation.” Greater Good, 7 Dec. 2015,

With this new form of technology, it seems humans are re-inventing the way we

communicate with one and another. Increasingly we are seeing mental illness and loneliness

on the rise. With this new technology, and more interconnectedness now more than ever

why is this occurring? This article touches on how the cellphone is eroding the social fabric of

our communities. We have exchanged our in-person speech with a new form of

communication the cellphone. Now, when we go into public, rather than talking to that one

cashier, or that one door man, we seemingly “mind our own business”. Additionally, this

Article provided interesting case studies such as the study that eighty-nine percent of

Americas say that during their last social interaction, they took out a phone. Its quite clear

that the cellphone has replaced any first-hand form of communication, allowing people to

use the cellphone as a reason to not have direct communication.

Jill Suttie writes these articles for the purpose of awaking the people of what is being

done to the fellowship in our communities in regards to consequences of the cellphone. This

Article also is purposely formatted as an interview with Sherry Turkle, an educator known for

social studies of science and technology. This allows for the reader to understand what

questions need to be addressed when walking about the consequence of the cellphone.

The author of this piece Jill Suttie is not the person I am using to receive information

from. Most of the facts and credible dialogue comes from the interviewee, Mrs. Turkle. Mrs.

Turkle has made it her life long work to study social sciences in relation to technology. She
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has written numerous books on the topic and should be considered an expert on this topic.

She also Attended Harvard University, a highly prestigious education program known


This source covers a handful of very important questions which can be implemented in

my research paper. Questions such as How are Cell phones and other technologies hurting

us, why are people vulnerable to the allure of the cellphone if they know its harming

interaction, and more. The expertise of the interviewee will shine some light on what’s really

going on with communication after the cellphone.

~ Hyman, Ira. “Cell Phones Are Changing Social Interaction.” Psychology Today,

Sussex Publishers, 26 Jan. 2014,

In prior generations children grew up without the invention of the cellphone. Recently,

however the new age children are navigating this invention as they grow up into their adult

shoes. This article touches on how different the two generations value the cellphone.

Reports in this article show that young adults like to frequently text and stay connected

throughout the day apposed to adults mostly using the cellphone for voice calls. This idea is

very telling about how different each generation with and without the cellphone have

adapted to the technology.

This piece is overall less pessimistic of the invention of the cellphone. The article takes

the position that the cellphone isn’t a direct addiction because most of the youth rely on it

for social equity. The articles Audience is more so bipartisan on the issue of the affect is the
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cellphone so the audience could be relevant to everyone without alienating those who are

extreme enthusiasts of the cellphone.

Ira E. Hyman, the author of this piece is an active professor at Western Washington

University. He has a Ph.D. in psychology. Ira E. Hymans line of work revolves around child

development which brought him to how the cellphone is changing the development of

children worldwide.

I will be using this piece for the main theme the material presented. The main idea is

that children who developed with the cellphone from early ages expect more out of the

cellphone as the primary source of interaction. The article presents idea about behaviors

young adults are consistent with. Behaviors such as irritation if the response of a text hasn’t

come in fast enough, or how the overt connectiveness can wear out relationships. These

aspects are a new concept to those who were born before the age of the cellphone.

~ Ling, Richard. The Mobile Connection: The Cell Phone's Impact on Society. Elsevier,


It is safe to say that not much is known about how the cellphone will be used in

decades to come. Already in a short span of time we evolved from using the

cellphone for one-way calls to having a computer in your pocket. This book addresses

where the technology was perceived to be headed back in 2004 and where we know

how far is came now, living in 2019. This book was full of predictions about social
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aspects the cellphone would bring to safety and privacy of the device and

coordination of everyday life. The cellphone has already replaced road maps,

dictionaries, and much more.

The purpose of this book was to further educate people of social ramifications of

the cellphone interactions back in 2004. The book comes from a series of volumes in

relation to interactive technologies which allows the reader to understand the

bipartisan and educational purpose of the book. This book is not to shame or

denigrate the use of the cellphone but rather to inform. The audience would most

likely be adults or persons who are interested in technology and society.

Richard Ling is a communication educator who focused solely on cellphone

communication. He is the foundation Professor of media Technology at Nanyang

technological University in Singapore. The gentlemen is in his 60s and has seen first

hand the rise and dominance of the cellphone in regards to how we interact in new

age cultures. He has written over 6 books on the topic of mobile communication and

its correct to say he is an expert.

I will be using this source to reveal to the reader how fast and un-presented this

technology shows to be advancing. Scholars of communication observed what they

were given with at the time not knowing how naive they sounded when stating the

cellphone would help us interconnect better. I may use this source to illustrate how

fast technology booms and how we as consumers are holding on as long as we can.
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~Twenge, Jean M. “Have Smartphones Destroyed a Generation?” The Atlantic,

Atlantic Media Company, 19 Mar. 2018,

Each generation of people develop differently as the state of the world progresses

into the future. Most of each generation have obstacles given to them by past generations

or even may have benefited from past generations. When we evaluate overall qualities of

generations, we can see patterns of behaviors and attitudes for each generation. Jean M.

Twenge has been studying these attitudes and behaviors for a couple generations now

and has made it her occupational interest to evaluate generational attitudes. Children

being born into the age of the technologies have patterns of narcissism, loneness,

rebellion. This article studies the patterns of the new age generation as watched through

the lens of a psychologist.

The purpose of this article is to evaluate behaviors of all generations. One specific

generation that is highlighted in regards to cellphones is what author jean called IGen.

This generation consists of children born between 1995-2012. I would suggest that the

audience for this article would also be this generation of children.

The author of this article Jean Twenge has been a working psychologist 25 years,

making it her life’s work to evaluate generational attitudes and behaviors in children. She

attended the University of Chicago, and the University of Michigan and I believe her work

to be very relevant on the topic of generation IGen in relation to the cellphone.

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This Article provides statistics such as in 2017 surveys show more than 5000

American teens found that ¾ own an iPhone. Other needed statistics include generational

statistics such as only 56% of high school seniors went out on dates; opposed to the baby

boomers and gen Xers, with about an 85% rate. If communication is better now more than

ever why are these numbers declaring more loneliness.

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