2
Contents
• Geotechnical applications
• At rest, active & passive states
• Rankine’s earth pressure theory
• Culman’s & Rehbnan’s Graphical
method
3
Lateral Support
In geotechnical engineering, it is often necessary to
prevent lateral soil movements.
Tie rod
Anchor
Sheet pile
6
Soil Nailing
7
Sheet Pile
8
Sheet Pile
9
Sheet Pile
10
Lateral Support
geosynthetics
11
Lateral Support
filled with
Crib walls have been used in Queensland. soil
Good drainage & allow plant growth.
Looks good. Interlocking
stretchers
and headers
12
William J.M. Rankine
(18201872), the famous Scot
engineer and physicist is best
known as one of the
founders of the science of
thermodynamics. He held the
Queen Victoria Chair of civil
engineering at the
University of Glasgow.
14
Earth Pressure at Rest
In a homogeneous natural soil deposit,
GL
v ’
h’
X
K0 = 1 – sin ’
h h ( h v )
1
E
K0 Poisson’s
1 ratio
16
Estimating Earth pressure and Total
Lateral Forcewhen RE is @ Rest
v = H & h = K0 v where, K0 = 1 – sin
h= K0 v= K0 H
This intensity of stress is function of depth;
H
Max. at base and zero at top Po=0.5 K0H2
Hence it is triangular as shown in fig
Wall moves
away from soil
Wall moves A
towards soil
B
smooth wall
H 3
h’
Passive state
Active state
K0 state
Wall movement
(not to scale)
V 3
H 1
h
Passive state
Active state
K0 state
Wall movement
(not to scale)
Active Earth Pressure
 in granular soils
v= z
Initially, there is no lateral movement.
v z
h = K0 v = K0 z
h
A
As the wall moves away from the soil,
v remains the same; and
h decreases till failure occurs.
Active state
21
Active Earth Pressure
 in granular soils
As the wall moves away from the soil,
h v
h active
active earth
pressure decreasing h 22
Active Earth Pressure
 in granular soils
WJM Rankine
(18201872)
[h]active v
[ h ]active K A v
Rankine’s coefficient of
1 sin active earth pressure
KA tan2 (45 / 2)
1 sin
23
Active Earth Pressure
 in granular soils
Failure plane is at
45 + /2 to horizontal v
h
45 + /2 A
90+
[h]active v
24
Estimating Earth pressure and Total
Lateral Forcewhen RE is moving away
from backfill
Active state of Backfill
25
1 sin
KA tan2 (45 / 2)
v = H & h = Ka v 1 sin
RW is moving away from backfill there is a lateral movement.
h = a =Ka v = Ka H [h=0 on top surface (no
overburden stress)]
This intensity of stress is function of depth;
Max. at base and zero at top
Hence it is triangular as shown in fig
H
Pa =Net horizontal Force Pa=0.5 KaH2
= area of triangle
H/3
Pa= 0.5 KaH2
Acting @ CG of triangle
i.e. H/3 from the base h = KaH 26
Active Earth Pressure
 in granular soils
h K0 state
v z
Active
h
A state
wall movement
27
Passive Earth Pressure
 in granular soils
28
Passive Earth Pressure
 in granular soils
h v’
h passive
increasing h 29
Passive Earth Pressure
 in granular soils
v [h]passive
1 sin
KP tan 2 (45 / 2) 1
1 sin KA
30
Passive Earth Pressure
 in granular soils
Failure plane is at
45  /2 to horizontal v
45  /2 h
A
90+
v [h]passive
31
Estimating Earth pressure and Total
Lateral Forcewhen RE is moving
towards the backfill
Passive state of Backfill
32
1 sin
v = H & h= Kp v KP tan 2 (45 / 2)
1 sin
RW is moving towards the backfill; there is a lateral movement.
h = p =Kp v = Kp H [h]
This intensity of stress is function of depth;
Max. at base and zero at top
Hence it is triangular as shown in fig
H
Pp=0.5 KpH2
Net horizontal Force
Pp= 0.5 KpH2
H/3
Acting @ H/3 from the base
h = KpH 33
Densification of soil decreases the
active earth pressure and increases the
passive earth pressure.
34
Earth Pressure Distribution
 in granular soils
[h]active
PA and PP are the
resultant active and
passive thrusts on
the wall
[h]passive H
PA=0.5 KAH2
h PP=0.5 KPh2
KPh KAH
35
Passive Earth Pressure
 in granular soils
h Passive state
v
h
B
K0 state
wall movement
36
Active Earth Pressure
 cohesive soils
[ h ]active K A v 2c K A
H
Pa=0.5 KaH2
H/3
39
40
41
Passive Earth Pressure
 cohesive soils
[ h ] passive K P v 2c K P
H
Pp=0.5 KpH2
H/3
h = KpH
44
Summary (a<rest <passive )
Earth pressure at Rest Active Away Passive Towards
v = z
h= Ka v = Ka z h= Kp v = Kp z
h= K0 v = K0 z
h ConstantEquilibrium h decreases h increases
[ h ]active K A v 2c K A [ h ] passive K P v 2c K P
K0
1
45
If a retaining wall 5 m high is restrained from yielding, what will
be the atrest earth pressure per meter length of the wall? Given:
the backfill is cohesionless soil having = 30° and = 18 kN/m3.
Also determine the resultant force for the atrest condition.
112.5kN
1.67m
Solution
K0 = 1sin = 1 sin30° = 0.5
intensity of horizontal stress @ bottom
= K0 H = 0.5 x 18 x 5 = 45 kN/m
Force P = ½ K0 H 2= 0.5x 0.5 x 18 x 52
46
= 112.5 kN @ 5/3 m from bottom
What will be the horizontal force in
previous problem for active failure?
47
1 sin 30
KA 0.33
1 sin 30
Ppassive=0.5x 3 x18x 25
=675.0 @ (5/3=1.67m)
H =5m from base
H Pactive=0.5 x 5x0.33x5x18
74.25 kN @ (5/3=1.67)
from base
=300; = 18kN/m3
48
Effects of Ground water on
earth pressure
49
v = H & h = K0 v where, K0 = 1 – sin
Rest= there is no lateral movement.
h = K0 v = K0 H
This intensity of stress is function of depth; [h]
Max. at base and zero at top
Hence it is triangular as shown in fig
Net horizontal Force
Po= 0.5 K0H2 Acting @ H/3 from the base H
Groundwater entry exerts extra pressure. Po=0.5 K0H2
This pressure can be estimated either by
total or bifurcated in effective stress and
H/3
pore water pressure
only change is use saturated for that
depth to calculate overburden. Which
can be divided in submerged unit wiehgt
h = K0H 50
+ pore water pressure
Groundwater entry exerts extra pressure.
This pressure can be estimated either by
total or bifurcated in effective stress and
pore water pressure
[h]
h = K0 (Hx) + K0 ’ x + w x
h = K0(Hx)
G w (G e) w
d sat
1 e 1 e H
h = K0‘x
sat w
'
sat ' w
51
h = wx
[h’]
h = K0(Hx) H
H
H
h = K0 H + K052satx
52h = K0’x h = wx 52
h = K0 (Hx) + K0 ’x + w x
For the retaining wall shown in figure, determine the lateral earth
fore at rest per unit length of the wall. Also determine the location
of the resultant force.
53
Calculate H at depth z=0,
z=2.5m and at z=5m
P0= 122.85kN/m
The location of the center of pressure measured from the bottom of the
wall (Point 𝑂𝑂)
56
57
58
59
60
A cantilever retaining wall of 7 meter height retains sand. The properties of the
sand are: e  0.5, = 30° and G = 2.7. Using Rankine's theory determine the
active earth pressure at the base when the backfill is (i) dry, (ii) saturated and
(iii) submerged, and also the resultant active force
in each case. In addition determine the total water pressure under the
submerged condition.
G w
d
1 e
(G e) w
sat
1 e
' sat w
2.7 x9.81
d 17.66kN / m3
1 0.5
hsub = KA’(H)
hsat = Ka KAsat(H)
=0.33 x (20.9 h dry= KA(H) water =w(H)
9.81) x 7 =0.33 x 21.33 x 7
=0.33 x 18 x 7 =9.81 x627
=25.68 kN/m =49.27kN/m
=41.58 kN/m =68.6 kN/m
Total pressure 63
Backfill with uniformly distributed load
64
Backfill with uniformly distributed load
70
=350; = 17kN/m3
H =5m
h’ = K0(Hz)
[h’]
H H
=380; = 18kN/m3
Z=2.5m
h = K0 H + K071satz
h=
71 K0z h = wz 71
h= KA(Hz)
=0.27 x 17 x 2.5
72 =11.48 kN/m 72
a
3 X=? m
from base
H =5m
kN
Z= m
74
Q.4(a) Explain “Culmann’s graphical method for active pressure”. 07
(b) Write a short note on “Active Earth Pressure for Cohesive Soils”. 07
OR
Q.4(a) Explain:Rebhann’s graphical method for active earth pressure 07
(b)
A retaining wall of 4 m high, has a smooth vertical back. The backfill has
a level with the top of the wall. There is a uniformly distributed
surcharge load of 36 kN/m2, intensity over backfill. The unit weight of
the backfill is 18 kN/m3, its angle of shearing resistance is 300 and
cohesion is zero. Determine the magnitude and point of application of
active earth pressure per metre length of the soil.
75
36kN/m2 Acting on h 2 = K a q 1 sin 30
=0.33 x 36 KA 0.33
entire areaq=36kN/m 1 sin 30
per meter length of wall =11.88 kN/m
P2=11.88 x 4 =47.52 @
H =4m (4/2=2m) from base
H
R=? kN
P1=0.5 x 4x
=300; = 18kN/m3 23.76=47.52 kN @
a2 a 1X=? m(4/3=1.33) from base
from base
77
The equations of equilibrium for trial
wedge
W
F
cos( )
P W tan( )
1 H
W H
2 tan
Putting value of ‘W’ in Eq. of ‘P’
1 2
P H cot tan( ) 78
2
Calculating maximum value of P
For ‘P’ to be maximum
P
0
Putting value of ‘P’ and simplifying, we get
45
2
Putting value this value in above equation of ‘P’, we get
maximum pressure (Active earth pressure)
tan 45
1 2
P H 2 1 2
H k a
2 2
tan 45
2
79
CharlesAugustin de Coulomb
(17361806) was a military
engineer and a famous French
physicist that discovered the
force between two point
electrical charges.
H 3
h’
Passive state
Active state
K0 state
Wall movement
(not to scale)
V 3
H 1
h
Passive state
Active state
K0 state
Wall movement
(not to scale)
85
86
s=tan = Flim/ N
P W
N
R
87
Columb’s Wedge theory
D
C
A E
W
F
(= 90)
Pa
B
90
Rebhann’s graphical method
D
C
A
G E
B J
H
Procedure for Culman’s Graphical Method
92
Culman’s graphical method
Weight of wedge (ABV) =distance AV”
B V 1 C 4 5 E
2 3
5’
4’ 5’’
C’
3’
2’ 4’’
3’’
1’
C’’
V’ 2’’
1’’
Pa
V’’

A
C
93
D
Retaining Walls  Applications
Road
Train
94
Retaining Walls  Applications
highway
95
Retaining Walls  Applications
Highrise building
basement wall
96
Gravity Retaining Walls
cement mortar
plain concrete or
stone masonry
cobbles
97
Cantilever Retaining Walls
Reinforced;
smaller section
than gravity
walls
2 2
Block no.
3 3
1
1
toe
toe
Wi = weight of block i
Analyse the stability of this rigid body with
xi = horizontal distance of centroid of block i from toe
vertical walls (Rankine theory valid)
99
Safety against sliding along the base
PP {Wi }. tan
soilconcrete friction
angle 0.5 – 0.7
Fsliding
PA
to be greater
than 1.5
2 2
PA H
3 3 PA
1
PP 1
S h PP
toe S
R
toe
y R
y
to be greater
than 2.0
2 2
PA H
3 3 PA
1
PP 1
S h PP
toe S
R
toe
y R
y
Points to Ponder
How does the key help in improving the stability
against sliding?
Shouldn’t we design retaining walls to resist atrest
(than active) earth pressures since the thrust on the
wall is greater in K0 state (K0 > KA)?
102
GTUJune2011
What are the graphical methods available for the determination
of lateral earth pressure? Explain any one in detail.
OR
Elaborates the shortcomings of Rankine’s active earth pressure
theory and Coulomb’s active earth pressure theory.
103
GTUDEC2011
OR
Explain “Rebhann’s graphical method for active earth pressure”.
104
36kN/m2 Acting on h 2 = K a q 1 sin 30
=0.33 x 36 KA 0.33
entire areaq=36kN/m 1 sin 30
per meter length of wall =11.88 kN/m
P2=11.88 x 4 =47.52 @
H =4m (4/2=2m) from base
H
R=? kN
P1=0.5 x 4x
=300; = 18kN/m3 23.76=47.52 kN @
a2 a 1X=? m(4/3=1.33) from base
from base
106
1 sin 30 1 sin 40
d=G w /(1+e)=?? KA 0.33 KA 0.21
1 sin 30 1 sin 40
h 1= KA(H)
107
Calculate the total active thrust on a vertical wall 5 m high,
retaining a sand of density 1.7 gm/cc for which F = 35°, the
surface of the sand is horizontal and the watertable is below
the bottom of the wall GTU June12
1 sin 35
KA 0.27
1 sin 35
d=17.00kN/m3
P= 0.5 x 0.27 x 17 x 52
H =5m =57.38 kN @
(5/3=1.67m) from base
=350 H
h = KA(H)
108
GTU JAN2013
Write short notes on :
(a) Rankine’s earth pressure theory,
(b) Active and passive earth pressure.
GTU Dec13
Write major points of difference between the Active earth pressure and
passive earth pressure.
Explain the Rankine’s theory for active earth pressure in cohesive soil.
109
A masonry retaining wall of trapezoidal section with the
vertical face on the earth side is 1.5 m wide at the top
and 3.5 m wide at the base and is 5.0 m high. It retains a
sand fill sloping at 2 horizontal to 1 vertical. The
unit weight of sand is 18 kN/m3 and = 30°. Find the
total active thrust on the wall. GTU Jan13
1
2
=tan (1/2)
1
110
cos 26 ( cos 2 26 cos 2 30 )
K A cos 26 0.53
cos 26 ( cos 26 cos 30 )
2 2
d=18
kN/m3
H =5m
=300
h = KA(H)111
Determine the active & passive earth pressure
given the following data: Height of the retaining
wall= 10 m; = 25.0°; γd = 16 kN/m3 . Ground
water table is at the top of the retaining wall.
GTU Jan13
112
d=G w /(1+e)= 1 sin 25 1 sin 25
KA 0.4 Kp 2.46
e= 1(2.7x 9.81/16)=0.655 1 sin 24 1 sin 25
h 1= KA(H)
113
A 4 m high vertical cut retains the cohesive soil backfill.
The soil properties are : = 18 kN/m3 ’= 120 c’= 20
kN/m2. Determine the stress intensity at top and
bottom of the cut ,depth of tension crack and maximum
depth of unsupported excavation. GTU Dec13
4m
114
= 18 kN/m3 ’= 120 Ka = 0.66 c’= 20 kN/m2
•stress intensity at top of the cut = 2x 20 x 0.66 =32.5 kN/m2
•stress intensity at bottom of the cut = 0.66 x 18 x4 32.5 = 15.02 kN/m2
•depth of tension crack = 2x 20/18 x 0.66 =1.80m
• maximum depth of unsupported excavation H= (4C /) Ka OR 2x
2c√Ka 1.80= 3.6 m
2c
Zc tan (45 / 2)
2c
√Ka
4m
Due
to
h =
coh
KA esio
H n
115
A smooth backed vertical wall is 6.3 m high and retains a
soil with a bulk unit weight of 18 kN/m3 and = 180 .
The top of the soil is level with the top of the wall and is
horizontal. If the soil surface carries a uniformly
distributed load of 4.5 kN/m2, determine the total active
thrust on the wall per meter length of the wall and its
point of application GTU Dec13.
116
4.5kN/m2 Acting on h 2 = K a q 1 sin 18
=0.52 x 4.5 KA 0.52
entire areaq=4.5kN/m 1 sin 18
per meter length of wall =2.34 kN/m
118