You are on page 1of 118

# 150604–Geotechnical Engineering

## Lateral Earth Pressures

GTU curriculam
• Types of lateral earth pressure,
• Rankine’s and Coulomb’s earth pressure,
theory and its application for determination of
lateral earth pressure under different
conditions,
• Rebhann’s and culminnn’s Graphical methods
of determination of lateral earth pressures.

2
Contents
• Geotechnical applications
• At rest, active & passive states
• Rankine’s earth pressure theory
• Culman’s & Rehbnan’s Graphical
method

3
Lateral Support
In geotechnical engineering, it is often necessary to
prevent lateral soil movements.

Tie rod
Anchor

Sheet pile

## Cantilever Braced excavation Anchored sheet pile

retaining wall 4
Lateral Support
We have to estimate the lateral soil pressures acting on
these structures, to be able to design them.

## Gravity Retaining Soil nailing

Reinforced earth wall
wall 5
Not all retaining walls
are above ground.
Here is an
underground elliptical
wall that contains an
automatic car parking
system (the Trevis
SPA, Milano, Italy).
These systems cost
around \$30k per stall
versus \$ 20k for an
above ground parking
garage.

6
Soil Nailing

7
Sheet Pile

8
Sheet Pile

9
Sheet Pile

10
Lateral Support

## Reinforced earth walls are increasingly becoming popular.

geosynthetics

11
Lateral Support
filled with
Crib walls have been used in Queensland. soil
Good drainage & allow plant growth.
Looks good. Interlocking
stretchers
and headers

12
William J.M. Rankine
(1820-1872), the famous Scot
engineer and physicist is best
known as one of the
founders of the science of
thermodynamics. He held the
Queen Victoria Chair of civil
engineering at the
University of Glasgow.

## In soil mechanics, he simplified Coulomb’s theory for

cases when the surface of the backfill is horizontal, the
friction between the wall and the backfill is negligible and
the retaining wall is vertical.
13
Assumptions in Rankine’s Earth
pressure theory
• Wall is straight(vertical)
• Friction between wall and Backfill is neglected
• Soil in backfill is homogenous
• Backfill is horizontal

14
Earth Pressure at Rest
In a homogeneous natural soil deposit,
GL

v ’
h’
X

## the ratio h’/v’ is a constant known as coefficient

of earth pressure at rest (K0).

## i.e. Wall is steady not moving= Equilibrium 15

Estimating K0
For normally consolidated clays and granular soils,
Approximate formula proposed by Jaky (1944)

K0 = 1 – sin ’

## From elastic analysis,

 h   h   ( h   v )
1
E

K0  Poisson’s
1 ratio
16
Estimating Earth pressure and Total
Lateral Force-when RE is @ Rest
v = H & h = K0 v where, K0 = 1 – sin 

## Rest= there is no lateral movement. [h=0]

h= K0 v= K0 H
This intensity of stress is function of depth;
H
Max. at base and zero at top Po=0.5 K0H2
Hence it is triangular as shown in fig

## Po= 0.5 K0H2

Acting @ H/3 from the base h = K0H 17
Active/Passive Earth Pressures
- in granular soils

Wall moves
away from soil

Wall moves A
towards soil
B

smooth wall

wall movement.
18
V  1

 H  3

(ACTIVE STATE)

h’
Passive state

Active state
K0 state

Wall movement
(not to scale)
V   3

 H  1

## Wall Movement towards the Backfill

(PASSIVE STATE)

h
Passive state

Active state
K0 state

Wall movement
(not to scale)
Active Earth Pressure
- in granular soils

v= z
Initially, there is no lateral movement.
v z
h = K0 v = K0 z
h
A
As the wall moves away from the soil,
v remains the same; and
h decreases till failure occurs.

Active state

21
Active Earth Pressure
- in granular soils
As the wall moves away from the soil,

## Failure (Active state)

h v 
h active
active earth
pressure decreasing h 22
Active Earth Pressure
- in granular soils

WJM Rankine
(1820-1872)

[h]active v 

[ h ]active  K A v
Rankine’s coefficient of
1  sin  active earth pressure
KA   tan2 (45   / 2)
1  sin 
23
Active Earth Pressure
- in granular soils
 Failure plane is at
45 + /2 to horizontal v
h
45 + /2 A

 90+

[h]active v 

24
Estimating Earth pressure and Total
Lateral Force-when RE is moving away
from backfill
Active state of Backfill

25
1  sin 
KA   tan2 (45   / 2)
v = H & h = Ka v 1  sin 
RW is moving away from backfill there is a lateral movement.
h = a =Ka v = Ka H [h=0 on top surface (no
overburden stress)]
This intensity of stress is function of depth;
Max. at base and zero at top
Hence it is triangular as shown in fig
H
Pa =Net horizontal Force Pa=0.5 KaH2

= area of triangle
H/3
Pa= 0.5 KaH2
Acting @ CG of triangle
i.e. H/3 from the base h = KaH 26
Active Earth Pressure
- in granular soils

## h decreases till failure occurs.

h K0 state
v z
Active
h
A state

wall movement

27
Passive Earth Pressure
- in granular soils

## As the wall moves towards the soil,

v remains the same, and
v ’
h increases till Soil wedge
h’
B moves up .
Passive state

28
Passive Earth Pressure
- in granular soils

## As the wall moves towards the soil, h increases

Initially (K0 state)
Failure (Passive state)
passive earth
pressure

h  v’ 
h passive

increasing h 29
Passive Earth Pressure
- in granular soils

v [h]passive 

## [ h ] passive  K P v Rankine’s coefficient of

passive earth pressure

1  sin 
KP   tan 2 (45   / 2)  1
1  sin  KA
30
Passive Earth Pressure
- in granular soils
 Failure plane is at
45 - /2 to horizontal v
45 - /2 h
A

 90+

v [h]passive

31
Estimating Earth pressure and Total
Lateral Force-when RE is moving
towards the backfill
Passive state of Backfill

32
1  sin 
v = H & h= Kp v KP   tan 2 (45   / 2)
1  sin 
RW is moving towards the backfill; there is a lateral movement.
h = p =Kp v = Kp H [h]
This intensity of stress is function of depth;
Max. at base and zero at top
Hence it is triangular as shown in fig
H
Pp=0.5 KpH2
Net horizontal Force
Pp= 0.5 KpH2
H/3
Acting @ H/3 from the base

h = KpH 33
Densification of soil decreases the
active earth pressure and increases the
passive earth pressure.

## This is advantageous in the sense that

active earth pressure is a disturbing
force and passive earth pressure is a
resisting force.

34
Earth Pressure Distribution
- in granular soils
[h]active
PA and PP are the
resultant active and
passive thrusts on
the wall

[h]passive H

PA=0.5 KAH2

h PP=0.5 KPh2

KPh KAH
35
Passive Earth Pressure
- in granular soils

## As the wall moves towards the soil,

h increases till failure occurs.

h Passive state
v
h
B
K0 state

wall movement

36
Active Earth Pressure
- cohesive soils

## Follow the same steps as

for granular soils. Only
difference is that c  0.

[ h ]active  K A v  2c K A

## Everything else remains

the same as granular soils.
37
38
Up to what depth cohesive soils should be able to stand with
a vertical face without any lateral support?
2c√Ka
2c 2c
Zc   tan(45   / 2)
 * ka 

H
Pa=0.5 KaH2

H/3

39
40
41
Passive Earth Pressure
- cohesive soils

## Follow the same steps as

for granular soils. Only
difference is that c  0.

[ h ] passive  K P v  2c K P

## Everything else the same

as for granular soils.
42
43
2c√Kp

H
Pp=0.5 KpH2

H/3

h = KpH
44
Summary (a<rest <passive )
Earth pressure at Rest Active- Away- Passive- Towards- 

v = z
h= Ka v = Ka z h= Kp v = Kp z
h= K0 v = K0 z
h Constant-Equilibrium h decreases h increases

## RW-steady RW-Away from Backfill RW-towards Backfill

1  sin  1  sin 
K0 = 1 – sin  KA 
1  sin 
 tan2 (45   / 2) KP 
1  sin 
 tan 2 (45   / 2)

## P0= 0.5 K0 z2 Pa= 0.5 Ka z2 Pp= 0.5 Kp z2

[ h ]active  K A v  2c K A [ h ] passive  K P v  2c K P

K0 
1
45
If a retaining wall 5 m high is restrained from yielding, what will
be the at-rest earth pressure per meter length of the wall? Given:
the backfill is cohesionless soil having  = 30° and  = 18 kN/m3.
Also determine the resultant force for the at-rest condition.

112.5kN
1.67m

Solution
K0 = 1-sin = 1- sin30° = 0.5
intensity of horizontal stress @ bottom
 = K0  H = 0.5 x 18 x 5 = 45 kN/m
Force P = ½ K0  H 2= 0.5x 0.5 x 18 x 52
46
= 112.5 kN @ 5/3 m from bottom
What will be the horizontal force in
previous problem for active failure?

## What will be the horizontal force in

previous problem for passive failure?

47
1  sin 30
KA   0.33
1  sin 30

Ppassive=0.5x 3 x18x 25
=675.0 @ (5/3=1.67m)
H =5m from base

H Pactive=0.5 x 5x0.33x5x18
74.25 kN @ (5/3=1.67)
from base
 =300; = 18kN/m3

## hactive = KA(H) hpassive = Kp(H)

48
Effects of Ground water on
earth pressure

49
v = H & h = K0 v where, K0 = 1 – sin 
Rest= there is no lateral movement.
h = K0 v = K0 H
This intensity of stress is function of depth; [h]
Max. at base and zero at top
Hence it is triangular as shown in fig
Net horizontal Force
Po= 0.5 K0H2 Acting @ H/3 from the base H
Groundwater entry exerts extra pressure. Po=0.5 K0H2
This pressure can be estimated either by
total or bifurcated in effective stress and
H/3
pore water pressure
only change is use  saturated for that
depth to calculate overburden. Which
can be divided in submerged unit wiehgt
h = K0H 50
+ pore water pressure
Groundwater entry exerts extra pressure.
This pressure can be estimated either by
total or bifurcated in effective stress and
pore water pressure
[h]

h = K0  (H-x) + K0 ’ x + w x
h = K0(H-x)
G w (G  e) w
d   sat 
1 e 1 e H
h = K0‘x
   sat   w
'

 sat   '   w
51
h = wx
[h’]
h = K0(H-x) H
H
H

h = K0 H + K052satx
52h = K0’x h = wx 52

h = K0  (H-x) + K0 ’x + w x
For the retaining wall shown in figure, determine the lateral earth
fore at rest per unit length of the wall. Also determine the location
of the resultant force.

53
Calculate  H at depth z=0,
z=2.5m and at z=5m

## Calculate hydro static pressure at depth z=0, z=2.5m and at

z=5m
54
55
The total force per unit length of the wall can be determined from the
area of the pressure diagram

P0= 122.85kN/m

The location of the center of pressure measured from the bottom of the
wall (Point 𝑂𝑂)

## 1.53m from the base

56
57
58
59
60
A cantilever retaining wall of 7 meter height retains sand. The properties of the
sand are: e - 0.5,  = 30° and G = 2.7. Using Rankine's theory determine the
active earth pressure at the base when the backfill is (i) dry, (ii) saturated and
(iii) submerged, and also the resultant active force
in each case. In addition determine the total water pressure under the
submerged condition.

G w
d 
1 e
(G  e) w
 sat 
1 e

 '   sat   w
2.7 x9.81
d   17.66kN / m3
1  0.5

## sat  20.92kN / m361

Pdry=0.5 x 7x 1  sin 30
KA   0.33
41.58=145.57 kN @ 1  sin 30
(7/3=2.33) from base
Psat=0.5x 49.27 x 7
=172.45 @
H =7m (7/3=2.33m) from base
Psub= 0.5x18.48 x 7
H =64.68 @ (7/3=2.33m)
from base
Pwater= 9.81 x7x7 =
 =300; = 18kN/m3 481 @ (7/3=2.33m)
from base

hsub = KA’(H)
hsat = Ka KAsat(H)
=0.33 x (20.9- h dry= KA(H) water =w(H)
9.81) x 7 =0.33 x 21.33 x 7
=0.33 x 18 x 7 =9.81 x627
=25.68 kN/m =49.27kN/m
=41.58 kN/m =68.6 kN/m
Total pressure 63
Backfill with uniformly distributed load

64
Backfill with uniformly distributed load

## Effect of Water table 65

66
67
68
69
GTU

70
 =350; = 17kN/m3
H =5m
h’ = K0(H-z)
[h’]

H H

 =380; = 18kN/m3
Z=2.5m

h = K0 H + K071satz
h=
71 K0z h = wz 71

## h = K0  (H-z) + K0 subz + water z

 =350; = 17kN/m3 1  sin 35
KA   0.27
H =5m 1  sin 35 P1=14.35 @
1  sin 38 (2.5/3=0.83)
KA   0.24
1  sin 38
a1
H
P2=28.7 @ P3=6 @ (0.83)
(2.5/2=1.25)
 =380; = 18kN/m3
a2 P4=7.5 @ (0.83)
a
Z=2.5m 3

h= KA(H-z)
=0.27 x 17 x 2.5
72 =11.48 kN/m 72

## A1 = 0.5 x 11.48 x 2.5 =14.3 h = wz

h= KAz = 10 x 2.5
p1=14.35 @ (2.5/3 + 2.5=3.33 from base) =0.24 x 8 x 2.5 =25kN/m
=4.8 kN/m
A2 = 11.48 x 2.5 =28.7 @ 2.5/2 =1.25 from base)
A3 = 0.5 x 2.5 x 4.8 =6 @0.83 from base)
A4 = 0.5 x 2.5 x 25 =31.25 @0.83 from base)
R = 14.3 + 28.7+6+31.25= 80.25 kN
Acting @ (14.3 x 3.33 + 28.7 x 1.25+ 31.25 x
0.83+6x0.83)/(80.25)
=1.42 m from base
P1=14.35 @
(2.5/3=0.83)
a1
H
P2=28.7 @ P3=6 @ (0.83)
(2.5/2=1.25)
73
a2 R=?PkN
=31.25 @ (0.83)
4

a
3 X=? m
from base
H =5m

kN
Z= m

74
Q.4(a) Explain “Culmann’s graphical method for active pressure”. 07
(b) Write a short note on “Active Earth Pressure for Cohesive Soils”. 07
OR
Q.4(a) Explain:Rebhann’s graphical method for active earth pressure 07
(b)
A retaining wall of 4 m high, has a smooth vertical back. The backfill has
a level with the top of the wall. There is a uniformly distributed
surcharge load of 36 kN/m2, intensity over backfill. The unit weight of
the backfill is 18 kN/m3, its angle of shearing resistance is 300 and
cohesion is zero. Determine the magnitude and point of application of
active earth pressure per metre length of the soil.
75
36kN/m2 Acting on h 2 = K a q 1  sin 30
=0.33 x 36 KA   0.33
entire areaq=36kN/m 1  sin 30
per meter length of wall =11.88 kN/m

P2=11.88 x 4 =47.52 @
H =4m (4/2=2m) from base

H
R=? kN
P1=0.5 x 4x
 =300; = 18kN/m3 23.76=47.52 kN @
a2 a 1X=? m(4/3=1.33) from base
from base

## R = 47.52+47.52= 95.04 kN h 1= KA(H)

=0.33 x 18 x 4
Acting @ (47.52 x 2 + 47.52 x =23.76 kN/m
76
1.33)/(95.04) =1.67 m from base
Rankine’s active thrust by trial wedges

77
The equations of equilibrium for trial
wedge
W
F
cos(   )

P  W tan(   )

## Weight of soil wedge

1 H
W H
2 tan 
Putting value of ‘W’ in Eq. of ‘P’
1 2
P  H cot  tan(   ) 78
2
Calculating maximum value of P
For ‘P’ to be maximum
P
0

Putting value of ‘P’ and simplifying, we get

  45 

2
Putting value this value in above equation of ‘P’, we get
maximum pressure (Active earth pressure)
 
tan 45  
1 2
P  H  2 1 2
 H k a
2   2
tan 45  
 2
79
Charles-Augustin de Coulomb
(1736-1806) was a military
engineer and a famous French
physicist that discovered the
force between two point
electrical charges.

## Less known was his development of the first thoroughly

analytical study of lateral earth pressures, which he
published in 1776. That theory remains the standard
choice of analysis for lateral forces upon structures in
soils. 80
The Coulomb Theory. Rankine’s equations were
based on the premise that the wall had no friction
with the soil. Coulomb had taken this into account
when he published his theory in 1776. Coulomb also
took into account the inclination of the backfill , the
inclination of the back-wall with respect to the
vertical , and the angle of friction between the wall
and the soil being Taking into account these three
new parameters, will result in the equilibrium of the
forces shown by the force polygon of the next slide.
The solution of the force polygon yields the value of
Ka , the Coulomb active earth pressure coefficient. A
similar analysis can yield the Kp for the Coulomb
passive earth pressure retained coefficient. 81
82
V  1

 H  3

(ACTIVE STATE)

h’
Passive state

Active state
K0 state

Wall movement
(not to scale)
V   3

 H  1

## Wall Movement towards the Backfill

(PASSIVE STATE)

h
Passive state

Active state
K0 state

Wall movement
(not to scale)
85
86
s=tan = Flim/ N

P W

N

R
87
Columb’s Wedge theory
D
C

A  E

W
F

(= 90--)

Pa 

 
 
B

## ABC=BCE for max active earth pressure

88
Rebhann’s Graphical Method
•He suggested this method to estimate the active
earth pressure based on columb’s wedge theory
•He suggested the criteria of selecting critical slip
line such that active earth pressure would be
maximum by equating two triangles in his method
•The trinagular wedge is on the verge of failure
•Forces considered are
•Weight of sliding wedge-W
•Reaction R along the plane of sliding
•Active thrust Pa
89
Steps for Reebhann’s Grphical method
to estimate active earth pressure
• Draw ground line- and -line with horizontal –meeting @ point D
• Draw a semi circle-BD as diameter on -line
•  -line= earth pressure line, Draw line BH from B at an angle 
• Through A draw AG parallel to  -line (= 90--)
• Draw GJ perpendicular to BD, to meet semicircle in J
• With B as centre, and BJ as radius, draw an arc to cut BD in E.
• Through E, draw EC parallel to the  -line. BC then represents the
slip plane.
• With E as the centre and EC as radius, draw an arc to cut BD in k .
Join CK
• Calculate the total active earth pressure from the relation
• Pa = ( KCE)= ½  KE x
• Pa = ½  (CE)2 (sin  )

90
Rebhann’s graphical method
D

C
A

G E

B J

H
Procedure for Culman’s Graphical Method

92
Culman’s graphical method
Weight of wedge (ABV) =distance AV”

B V 1 C 4 5 E
2 3

5’

4’ 5’’
C’
3’
2’ 4’’
3’’
1’
C’’
V’ 2’’
1’’
Pa 
V’’
 -

A
C
93
D
Retaining Walls - Applications

Road
Train

94
Retaining Walls - Applications

highway

95
Retaining Walls - Applications

High-rise building

basement wall

96
Gravity Retaining Walls

cement mortar
plain concrete or
stone masonry
cobbles

## They rely on their self weight to

support the backfill

97
Cantilever Retaining Walls

Reinforced;
smaller section
than gravity
walls

## They act like vertical cantilever,

fixed to the ground
98
Design of Retaining Wall
- in granular soils

2 2
Block no.

3 3
1
1

toe
toe

Wi = weight of block i
Analyse the stability of this rigid body with
xi = horizontal distance of centroid of block i from toe
vertical walls (Rankine theory valid)
99
Safety against sliding along the base
PP  {Wi }. tan 
soil-concrete friction
angle  0.5 – 0.7 
Fsliding 
PA

to be greater
than 1.5

2 2
PA H
3 3 PA
1
PP 1
S h PP
toe S
R
toe
y R
y

## PP= 0.5 KPh2 PA= 0.5 KAH2

Safety against overturning about toe
PP h / 3  {Wi xi }
Foverturning 
PA H/3

to be greater
than 2.0

2 2
PA H
3 3 PA
1
PP 1
S h PP
toe S
R
toe
y R
y
Points to Ponder
How does the key help in improving the stability
against sliding?
Shouldn’t we design retaining walls to resist at-rest
(than active) earth pressures since the thrust on the
wall is greater in K0 state (K0 > KA)?

102
GTU-June-2011
What are the graphical methods available for the determination
of lateral earth pressure? Explain any one in detail.

OR
Elaborates the shortcomings of Rankine’s active earth pressure
theory and Coulomb’s active earth pressure theory.

103
GTU-DEC-2011

## Explain “Culmann’s graphical method for active pressure”.07

Write a short note on “Active Earth Pressure for Cohesive Soils”. 07

OR
Explain “Rebhann’s graphical method for active earth pressure”.

## A retaining wall of 4 m high, has a smooth vertical back. The backfill

has a level with the top of the wall. There is a uniformly distributed
surcharge load of 36 kN/m 2 , intensity over backfill. The unit weight of
the backfill is 18 kN/m3 , its angle of shearing resistance is 300 and
cohesion is zero. Determine the magnitude and point of application of
active earth pressure per metre length of the soil.

104
36kN/m2 Acting on h 2 = K a q 1  sin 30
=0.33 x 36 KA   0.33
entire areaq=36kN/m 1  sin 30
per meter length of wall =11.88 kN/m

P2=11.88 x 4 =47.52 @
H =4m (4/2=2m) from base

H
R=? kN
P1=0.5 x 4x
 =300; = 18kN/m3 23.76=47.52 kN @
a2 a 1X=? m(4/3=1.33) from base
from base

## R = 47.52+47.52= 95.04 kN h 1= KA(H)

=0.33 x 18 x 4
Acting @ (47.52 x 2 + 47.52 x =23.76 kN/m
105
1.33)/(95.04) =1.67 m from base
Explain about earth pressure at rest. –GTU June-12

## A counterfort wall of 10 m height retains non-cohesive back

fill. The void ratio and angle of internal friction of the back
fill respectively are 0.7 and 30°, in the loose state, and they
are 0.40 and 40° in the dense state. Calculate and compare
active earth pressure in both the states. Take specific gravity
of soil grains as 2.7.

106
1  sin 30 1  sin 40
d=G w /(1+e)=?? KA   0.33 KA   0.21
1  sin 30 1  sin 40

## dense=? 19.28kN/m3 loose=? 15.8kN/m3

Ploose= 0.5 x 0.33 x 15.8 x
H =10m 102 =260.7 kN @
(10/3=3.33m) from base
 =300; e= 0.7; =? H Pdense= 0.5 x 0.21 x
19.28 x 102 =202.4
kN @ (10/3=3.33m)
 =400;e= 0.4; = from base

h 1= KA(H)

107
Calculate the total active thrust on a vertical wall 5 m high,
retaining a sand of density 1.7 gm/cc for which F = 35°, the
surface of the sand is horizontal and the water-table is below
the bottom of the wall GTU June-12
1  sin 35
KA   0.27
1  sin 35
d=17.00kN/m3
P= 0.5 x 0.27 x 17 x 52
H =5m =57.38 kN @
(5/3=1.67m) from base
 =350 H

h = KA(H)

108
GTU JAN-2013
Write short notes on :
(a) Rankine’s earth pressure theory,
(b) Active and passive earth pressure.

## Explain clearly Rebhann’s graphical construction method to evaluate the

earth pressure on a retaining wall. What are the advantages and
disadvantages of Culmann’s graphical method as compared to Rebhann’s
graphical method?
GTU JUNE-13
Explain Culmann’s graphical method for active pressure.

GTU Dec-13
Write major points of difference between the Active earth pressure and
passive earth pressure.

Explain the Rankine’s theory for active earth pressure in cohesive soil.
109
A masonry retaining wall of trapezoidal section with the
vertical face on the earth side is 1.5 m wide at the top
and 3.5 m wide at the base and is 5.0 m high. It retains a
sand fill sloping at 2 horizontal to 1 vertical. The
unit weight of sand is 18 kN/m3 and = 30°. Find the
total active thrust on the wall. GTU Jan-13

1

2

=tan (1/2)
-1

110
 cos 26  ( cos 2 26  cos 2 30 ) 
K A  cos 26   0.53
 cos 26  ( cos 26  cos 30 ) 
2 2

## Pa= 0.5 x 0.53 x 188 x 52

=120.75 kN @
(5/3=1.67m) from base

d=18
kN/m3
H =5m

 =300

h = KA(H)111
Determine the active & passive earth pressure
given the following data: Height of the retaining
wall= 10 m;  = 25.0°; γd = 16 kN/m3 . Ground
water table is at the top of the retaining wall.
GTU Jan-13

112
d=G w /(1+e)= 1  sin 25 1  sin 25
KA   0.4 Kp   2.46
e= 1-(2.7x 9.81/16)=0.655 1  sin 24 1  sin 25

## sat= (2.7+0.655) 9.81/(1+0.655)=

19.89 kN/m3
Pactive= 0.5 x 0.4 x 19.89 x
H =10m 102 =397.6 kN @
(10/3=3.33m) from base
 =300 H Ppassive= 0.5 x 2.46 x
19.98 x 102 =2445.24
kN @ (10/3=3.33m)
from base

h 1= KA(H)

113
A 4 m high vertical cut retains the cohesive soil backfill.
The soil properties are :  = 18 kN/m3 ’= 120 c’= 20
kN/m2. Determine the stress intensity at top and
bottom of the cut ,depth of tension crack and maximum
depth of unsupported excavation. GTU Dec-13

4m

114
= 18 kN/m3 ’= 120  Ka = 0.66 c’= 20 kN/m2
•stress intensity at top of the cut = 2x 20 x 0.66 =-32.5 kN/m2
•stress intensity at bottom of the cut = 0.66 x 18 x4 -32.5 = 15.02 kN/m2
•depth of tension crack = 2x 20/18 x 0.66 =1.80m
• maximum depth of unsupported excavation H= (4C /) Ka OR 2x
2c√Ka 1.80= 3.6 m
2c
Zc  tan (45   / 2)

2c
√Ka
4m

Due
to
h =
coh
KA esio
H n
115
A smooth backed vertical wall is 6.3 m high and retains a
soil with a bulk unit weight of 18 kN/m3 and = 180 .
The top of the soil is level with the top of the wall and is
horizontal. If the soil surface carries a uniformly
distributed load of 4.5 kN/m2, determine the total active
thrust on the wall per meter length of the wall and its
point of application GTU Dec-13.

## A 4 m high vertical cut retains the cohesive soil backfill.

The soil properties are :  = 18 kN/m3 ’= 120 c’= 20
kN/m2. Determine the stress intensity at top and
bottom of the cut ,depth of tension crack and maximum
depth of unsupported excavation. GTU Dec-13

116
4.5kN/m2 Acting on h 2 = K a q 1  sin 18
=0.52 x 4.5 KA   0.52
entire areaq=4.5kN/m 1  sin 18
per meter length of wall =2.34 kN/m

## P2=2.34 x 6.3 =14.74

@ (6.3/2=3.15m) from
H =6.3m base
H P1=0.5 x6.3 x 58.96
R=? kN =185.74 kN
@ (6.3/3=2.1) from base
 =180; = 18kN/m3
a2 a1X=? m
from base

## R = 14.74+185.74= 200.48 kN h 1= KA(H)

=0.52 x 18 x 6.3
Acting @ (14.74 x 3.15 + 185.74 x =58.96 kN/m
117
2.1)/(200.48) =2 .17m from base
A smooth backed vertical wall is 6.3 m high and retains a
soil with a bulk unit weight of 18 kN/m3 and = 180 .
The top of the soil is level with the top of the wall and is
horizontal. If the soil surface carries a uniformly
distributed load of 4.5 kN/m2, determine the total active
thrust on the wall per meter length of the wall and its
point of application GTU Dec-13.

## A 4 m high vertical cut retains the cohesive soil backfill.

The soil properties are :  = 18 kN/m3 ’= 120 c’= 20
kN/m2. Determine the stress intensity at top and
bottom of the cut ,depth of tension crack and maximum
depth of unsupported excavation. GTU Dec-13

118