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KOMUNIKASI TERAPEUTIK

NS. SUCI RATNA ESTRIA, M.KEP


Definisi
Komunikasi terapeutik adalah proses dimana perawat menggunakan pendekatan terencana
dalam mempelajari kliennya (Keltner, Schwecke, dan Bostrom dalam Potter & Perry, 2005)

Komunikasi terapeutik adalah suatu interaksi interpersonal antara perawat dan klien yang
selama interkasi berlangsung perawat berfokus pada kebutuhan klien untuk meningkatkan
pertukaran informasi yang efektif (Videback, 2008)
Prinsip Dasar Komunikasi
Terapeutik
Menghargai keunikan
Hubungan perawat- klien, menghargai
klien yg saling perbedaan karakter,
menguntungkan memahami perasaan
& perilaku klien

Menciptakan
Menjaga harga diri tumbuhnya hubungan
saling percaya (trust)
Komponen Komunikasi Terapeutik
Empati

Mendengarkan
Kepercayaan
Aktif

Keterbukaan
Kejujuran
diri
Sikap Komunikasi Terapeutik
1. Use Open
Body
Language
Open body language
1. Use Open Body Language
Your posture should be relaxed, but your back should be straight. This shows people you are
comfortable and confident. Pause when you speak to draw in the listener and show confidence.
Keep your legs slightly apart, so you take up more space. This also demonstrates confidence. Lean in
slightly when a person is speaking to show interest (leaning away will show a sense of hostility).
Don’t cross your arms. Instead, let them dangle at your sides or press them together in your lap. This
shows you are open to other people.
Make sure your handshake is firm, but not too crushing. Look the other person in the eyes, although
you shouldn’t stare too much. Blink, and look away sometimes, so they don’t feel you are trying to be
intimidating.
Play with your tone of voice. The tone of voice is a way that people communicate confidence. The key
to success is projecting confidence.
2. Identify
emotional
body
language
2. Identify emotional body language
When people are angry, their face flushes, they bare their teeth, they clench their fists, and they
invade body space, sometimes by leaning forward.

When people are nervous or anxious, their face pales, their mouth seems dry (so they may drink
water or lick their lips), they show varying speech tone, and they have tension in their muscles
(so they may clench their arms or hands, and their elbows may be drawn into their sides.) Other
signs of nervousness include trembling lip, fidgeting, and gasping or holding breath
3. Avoid
blocking
3. Avoid blocking
Podiums, computers, chairs, and even a folder are all props that create distance between a
speaker and audience, preventing a sense of connection.

Crossing your arms or speaking to someone while sitting behind a computer monitor are
blocking behaviors.
4. Spot
when
someone
is lying
4. Spot when someone is lying

Liars are less likely to maintain eye contact, and their pupils may appear constricted.
Turning the body away from you is a sign of lying.
Complexion changes, such as redness in the neck or face, and perspiration, are all signs of lying,
as are vocal changes like clearing of the throat.
Be aware that some signs of lying – sweating, poor or no eye contact- are also indications of
nervousness or fear.
5. Consider
Spacing
5. Consider Spacing
Intimate distance. Defined as touching another person to 45 centimeters. If you enter a person’s
intimate distance, this can be very unsettling for them unless it’s welcomed or you’re already
intimate.
Personal distance. 45 centimeters to 1.2 m. You are close enough to shake hands and to see each
other’s expressions and gestures.
Social distance. This is the normal distance in situations that are impersonal or business
transactions, defined as 1.2 m to 3.6 m. Speech should be louder, and eye contact remains
important.
Public distance. 3.7m to 4.5m. Examples of those who often operate in public distance are
teachers or those who talk to people in groups. Non-verbal communication is critical but often
exaggerated. Hand gestures and head movements can be more important than facial expressions
as the latter are often not perceived.
6. Identify your
body language
pattern
Determine whether your body
language is in sync with your
message. Your body language is
effective if it communicates the
message you want it
to communicate. Does your posture
communicate confidence, or does it
make you seem unsure of yourself
even though your words express
confidence?
If your non-verbal signals match
your words, you'll not only
communicate more clearly, you'll
also be perceived as being more
charismatic
Use hand
gestures
when
speaking

More complex gestures


involving two hands above
the waist are associated
with complex thinking.
Avoid gestures
that show
nervousness or
insecurity

Touching one's face


signals anxiety. Improve your
posture. If you're constantly
hunched over or touching your
face, you'll never
look confident, approachable or at
ease.
Watch for
disengagement

Heads tilted downward and


eyes gazing elsewhere
indicate disengagement.
Slumping in a chair is a sign
of disengagement. Similarly,
fiddling, doodling, or
writing, are signs that a
person is disengaged
Avoid
defensiveness

Limited facial expressions and


small, close to the body hand/arm
gestures are indications of
defensiveness.
Turning the body away from the
other person or crossing your arms
in front of your body are other
indications of defensiveness.
Use eye
contact to
send
messages
Sikap Kehadiran secara Fisik
•Berhadapan dengan lawan bicara
•Sikap tubuh terbuka, kaki dan tangan terbuka (tidak bersilangan)

•Menunduk/memposisikan tubuh kearah/lebih dekat dengan


lawan bicara

•Pertahankan kontak mata, sejajar, dan natural


•Bersikap tenang
Hambatan dalam Komunikasi Terapeutik
1. Perbedaan bahasa
2. Perbedaan Budaya
3. Gender
4. Status Kesehatan
5. Tingkat Perkembangan
6. Perbedaan pengetahuan
7. Jarak emosional
8. Emosi
9. Khayalan
TEKNIK KOMUNIKASI TERAPEUTIK
DIAM

Memberikan kesempatan kepada klien mengungkapkan apa yang ada dipikirannya sebelum
menjawab pertanyaan dari perawat
Offering Self (Menawarkan Diri)

Perawat menyediakan diri tanpa respon bersyarat atau respon yang diharapkan
Broad Opening

Menstimulasi klien mengungkapkan perasaan yang sesungguhnya


Reflection

Teknik mengulang ide, perasaan, pernyataan dan pertanyaan yang diajukan klien

Ex:
Klien : “Menurut anda, apakah saya harus memberitahu dokter?”
Perawat : “Apakah anda berpikir harus memberitahunya…?”
Restating (Pengulangan)
Mengulang pikiran atau ide utama yang dinyatakan oleh klien

Ex
Klien: “Saya tidak bisa tidur. Saya terjaga sepanjang malam.”
Perawat: “Anda sangat sulit untuk tidur”
Konfrontasi

Respon perawat terhadap ketidaksesuaian antara perkataan klien dengan sikapnya


Verbalizing the Implied

Mendeteksi arti sebenarnya dari pesan verbal


Observasi
Klarifikasi

Teknik dg menanyakan kepada klien apa yang tidak dimengerti perawat terhadap situasi yang
ada, atau menjelaskan kembali ide atau pikiran klien yang tidak jelas atau meminta klien untuk
menjelasakan arti dari ungkapannya

“saya tidak yakin dengan apa yang anda katakana tadi, bisakah anda mengulanginya kembali?”
Exploring

Eksplorasi perasaan
Eksplorasi pikiran
Eksplorasi pengalaman
Giving Recognition
Memberi penghargaan
- Menyebut nama
- Reinforcement
Focusing
Tahapan Komunikasi Terapeutik

Prainteraksi Orientasi Kerja Terminasi