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In Bangladesh, air quality has been deteriorating for a longtime. Ambient air quality in the capital city Dhaka is poor because of auto exhaust specially from old, dilapidated diesel buses/trucks, road and soil dust, emission from about 3000 brickfields surrounding the city and dust from the construction boom. It may be noteworthy that out of a total Bangladesh population of 140 million about 13 million live and work in Dhaka. Air pollution in other cities and small towns is not as acute as in Dhaka. Although some drastic steps were taken in the past few years to reduce air pollution, Dhaka’s air is still far from clean. The steps taken to date are: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) banning 2-stroke 3-wheelers (baby taxies) introduction of lead free gasoline (petrol) throughout the whole country introduction of compressed natural gas (CNG) as an alternate cleaner fuel with 58 refueling stations in Dhaka city setting up of a Continuous Air Monitoring Station (CAMS) in Dhaka city introduction of Ambient Air Quality Standards and Vehicle Emission Standard
Because of these steps taken by the Government, all 3-wheelers and tempos now have 4-stroke engines and all of them use CNG as fuel. Most of the taxis in Dhaka are now on CNG. Private cars and microbuses are gradually being converted to CNG as the gasoline prices are gong up. Besides the Government’s actions taken through the Department of Environment (DOE) of Ministry of Environment and Forests, Ministry of Communications, Ministry of Power, Energy and Mineral Resources; some nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are involved in raising awareness and urging government agencies to take appropriate steps for reduction of air pollution. To ease traffic congestion, two flyovers have recently been built in Dhaka. Some universities and research organizations are also involved in monitoring air quality and conducting research on air pollution related topics. A major project of the Government is the Air Quality Management Project (AQMP) funded by the World Bank. It is implemented through DOE. AQMP will establish some more CAMS in Dhaka and other cities vig. Chittagong (the port city) and Sylhet. Another small project Bangladesh Environmental Management Project (BEMP) is also being implemented by DOE through Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) funding. Some of the main concerns regarding air quality in Bangladesh are: (i) high sulfur diesel used by buses and trucks (ii) poor road infrastructure in Dhaka city accompanied by poor traffic management leading to huge traffic jams. Only recently some electronic traffic signal system have been installed. (iii) too many brick kilns around Dhaka city to feed the current construction boom of apartments and shopping malls. These brick kilns use cheap high sulfur imported coal, firewood, old tires, etc. (iv) DOE has a big agenda but too few professional people to implement and enforce the rules it makes. It is a rather weak organization. (v) lack of coordination among the concerned Ministries:
essay writing competition.g. initiated the establishment of a National AQM Network held a Stakeholders’ Workshop on AQM prepared an AQM system for Bangladesh raised public awareness about air quality prepare an action plan for Dhaka II. Manila is concerned with some of these issues and the RETA achieved the following in Bangladesh: held two regional workshops to take stock of the situation organized and coordinated the principal stakeholders in air quality management (AQM) organized a training program for DOE staff with a reputed international consultant. etc. traffic management) Despite DOE’s efforts. 1 . etc. Bangladesh Environmental Lawyers’ Association (BELA) Federation of Environmental Journalists of Bangladesh (FEBJ) and Bangladesh Centre for Advanced Studies (BCAS). poster competition. (v) Newspaper articles about AQM and problems (especially in The Daily Star and the Independent).) Environment & Forests (weak DOE. (iv) Short courses/workshops on Environmental Management (including AQM) at the Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET). trucks. This effort is supported by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and MOEF. (vi) Undergraduate and graduate courses on Air Pollution and Control at BUET and other public/private universities (vii) DOE programs (e. Training Programs at DOE under AQMP/BEMP. etc. FEJB also publishes Report on the State of Environment. little activity focused on indoor air pollution (IAP) Regional technical assistance (RETA) 6159 of the Asian Development Bank (ADB). the same course material was delivered in all 4 SASEC member countries. pricing. exhibitions. This group also lobbies the Government for taking necessary steps to ensure better air quality. route permits. Members of the FEJB write informative articles in local newspapers on environment issues including air quality. other vehicles. etc. Bangladesh each year. Pubic Awareness on AQM in Bangladesh Ongoing activities are: (i) Radio and TV programs on air quality including interviews/panel discussions.(vi) Communications (old buses. BELA has mobilized resources through High Court interventions on environmental issues. (iii) BAPA organizes protest meetings and marches with banners and festoons to sensitize people about the importance of air quality in their lives. (ii) Programs by environmental NGOs led by national NGOs— Bangladesh Paribesh Andolon: Bangladesh Movement for Environment (BAPA). no enforcement) Home Affairs (police. seminars. BCAS is involved with climate change issues among other environmental subjects.) on World Environment Day.) Energy & Minerals (fuel policy.
It was particularly important as a means of promoting and publicizing local air quality networks. The establishment of a local network was initiated under RETA 6159 where 38 organizations/ individuals were approached. BELA. The network was found useful during the Stakeholders’ Workshop in Dhaka in January. Full Abstracts of all available research papers on AQM in Bangladesh have now been uploaded in CAI-Asia Website. The activities of the network can be enlarged and sustained in future. This needs communications through the concerned Ministries. City Corporations and Government Research Organizations e. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI) and Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI). National Air Quality Network Some individuals and organizations in Bangladesh are already involved with the international network CAI-Asia. BCAS and FEJB. The Better Air Quality Workshop (BAQ 2004) was held at Agra on 6-8 December. 2 . i) The National AQM Network needs to be expanded by including more members form private and government agencies. may be persuaded to join the network. At the BAQ 2004 workshop. Conclusions and Recommendations One of the major components of RETA 6159 is the establishment of the Bangladesh National Air Quality Network. V. the Unit Coordinator was the Facilitator for Country Group Networking Session on December 6. The network needs to be expanded by including NGOs and bodies such as BAPA. The workshop provided a very useful forum of national air quality experts and other stakeholders and made recommendations for AQM in Bangladesh. the implementing agency of RETA 6159.III. Most of these recommendations were incorporated in the joint recommendations presented at the BAQ Workshop (Appendix 2). nominating focal points to be part of the network (Appendix 1). All the participants from Bangladesh and a set of recommendations were finalized. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council (BARC). IV. Hard copies of all available literature on Bangladesh AQM are now available in DOE. Out of these 20 responded positively. Compilation of abstracts of all available research publications were sent out to all the network members through email. 2005.g. One scientific paper and four poster papers were presented by Bangladesh participants. 2004 and provided a suitable international forum for national and international experts working under RETA 6159 to discuss air quality management issues in Bangladesh. The workshop was attended by participants including most of the members of the National AQM Network. The following recommendations are now made for the sustainable development of the Bangladesh National Air Quality Network. AQM Literature A comprehensive list of all AQM literature available on Bangladesh was compiled and e-mailed to all national network members.
The concerned person must be suitably qualified and have interest to mitigate the air quality situation in Bangladesh. Unfortunately. iii) iv) v) vi) 3 . The BNAN secretariat may involve itself in raising public awareness through e-mails to newspapers. Bus & Truck Owners Association were invited to join the Stakeholders' Workshop. Learnings and encouragement from neighboring countries should be incorporated in future activities. The National Network may strive to have constant contact and good coordination with CAI-Asia. For sustainable upkeep of BNAN. ii) A permanent Secretariat for the Bangladesh National AQM Network (BNAN) should be established at one of the universities or the DOE. specifically in Dhaka. Donors may be approached for an annual grant to sustain and nourish the network.Owners' Associations e. printouts and leaflets for distribution in educational institutions. CAI-Asia should keep regular contact and support to BNAN. A willing volunteer should be identified with possible support from donors. the institution offering this service should be provided with some reasonable budget to carry out its activities.g. to achieve sustainability. additional efforts must be undertaken to involve such participants as their contribution would be critical.
com Fax: E-mail: 2. Md. Maqbul-E-Elahi Senior General Manager Strategic Planning and Resource Mobilization Division Petrobangla.Appendix 1: Organizations for Network for AQM in Bangladesh 1. Planning Division BCIC. Phone: Fax: 4.) 812-6257 (Res. Phone: 3. 955-9281-82. 02-801-8092 Name of Organization: Bangladesh Chemical Industries Corporation Focal Point Name: Dr. Mirza Muhammad Husain Deputy Director (Executive Engineer) Dte. BPDB WAPDA Building (5th Floor). Petrocentre 3. 85. Dhaka-1000. Dhaka-1207. Md. BCIC Bhaban 30-31. Phone: 5. of Project Planning. Name of Organization: Bangladesh Meteorological Department Focal Point Name: Begum Arjumand Habib Deputy Director Storm Warning Centre. Phone: 811-4941 4 . Dilkusha. Phone: 911-4388(Off. Motijheel C/A Dhaka-1000. 956-2140-41 880-2-956-4120 Name of Organization: Bangladesh Power Development Board Focal Point Name: Engr. Bangladesh Meteorological Department Agargaon. Mirpur-1 Dhaka-1216. Kaimul Haq Biswas General Manager. 716-3620. Kawran Bazar C/A Dhaka-1215.) 880-2-811-8230 bmdswc@bdonline. Gas & Mineral Corporation (Petrobangla) Focal Point Name: Mr. 955-4820 Name of Organization: Bangladesh Oil. Name of Organization: Forest Department Focal Point Name: Nurul Islam Director National Botanical Garden.
K.M. 0171-059753 880-821-715-257 saidur-cee@sust. Acting Director IFRD. Savar. Saidur Rahman Chowdhury Civil and Environmental Engineering Shahjala University of Science & Technology Sylhet-3114. Muhibur Rahman Professor Department of Chemistry University of Dhaka. Bangladesh. 0171489789 880-2-7708069 email@example.com Name of Organization: University of Dhaka Focal Point Name: Dr. Ext.edu Mohammad Majibur Rahman Lecturer Department of Environmental Science Jahangirnagar University. 770-8478-85.). Phone: Fax: E-mail: 9. Phone: Fax: 7. Qudrat-i-Khuda Road Dhanmondi.Savar. Dhaka-1342. Dhaka-1205. Ext. Dhaka-1000. 880-2-811-613 Name of Organization: Bangladesh Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (BCSIR) Focal Point Name: Mrs.edu. BCSIR Dr. Phone: 966-1920-4859 (Off). 862-2908 88-02-8613022 Name of Organization: Jahangirnagar University Focal Point Name: A. Rokeya Akhter Khanam. M. 770-8609 880-2-7708069 envsci@juniv. Rashidul Alam. Lecturer Department of Environmental Science Jahangirnagar University. 862-8432. saidur 96_97 @hotmail.Fax: 6. 011826204 (M) 5 .edu Name of Organization: Shahjalal University of Science & Technology Focal Point Name: Mr. Phone: Fax: E-mail: 770-8478-85.). Dhaka-1342 Focal Point Name: Phone: Fax: E-mail: 8.370(Off.370(Off. Bangladesh.
net Name of Organization: Bangladesh Resources Management & Development Company Focal Point Name: Engr. 29 Kemal Ataturk Avenue Road#17. Phone: Fax: E-mail: 11. 880-2-812-6082. aecl@ dhaka. 10/17. Phone: Fax: E-mail: 12.edu Name of Organization: Independent University Focal Point Name: Dr. Road-91 Gulshan North Avenue (1st Floor) Phone: 880-2-885-7549. Mirza Azim Ahmed Senior Vice President Bangladesh Resources Management & Development Company House-40/1. Banani C/A Dhaka-1213. 0189503315 (M) 880-2-882-3959 mahossain @iub.edu. Ext. 861-5583 mmrahman@udhaka. 8138.com. env@northsouth. 988-5611-20. Dhaka-1212.bd Name of Organization: Adroit Environment Consultants Ltd. 152 882-3030 ashiq@ northsouth.edu. 885-7551 6 . Focal Point Name: Nasir Uddin Khan Managing Director Adroit Environment Consultants Ltd. Iqbal Road (1st Floor) Dhaka-1207. 988-4498.BTA Tower. 988-1681.10 Baridhara. 880-171565728 880-2-815-5542 nukhan @bdcom. Ext. Ali Hossain Professor School of Environmental Science & Management Independent University Plot No.3. M. Ashiqur Rahman Lecturer Department of Environmental studies North South University. Road No. Phone: Fax: E-mail: 13.Fax: E-mail: 10. Bangladesh.net Name of Organization: North South University Focal Point Name: M.
Name of Organization: Dhaka Transport Co-ordination Board Focal Point Name: Md. Setu Bhaban New Airport Road.com. firstname.lastname@example.org. 955-2213 interoil@agni. Ainun Nishat 7 . 861-3051 swapanb @dhaka.Fax: E-mail: 880-2-882-6182. dkislam@global-bd. Iftekhar Enayetullah 988-4774 987-3002 988-4774 956-4732 wastecon@dhak. Employees’ Hospital) Dhaka-1000.net 14. DTCB. Name of Organization: IUCN Focal Point Name: Prof.com. 880-2-885-9207(O). Mamunur Rahman Pollution Control and Planning Officer (PCPO) PCPO. 018-921-6080(M) pcpodtcbbd@yahoo. Golam Sarwar Public Analyst Public Health Laboratory Dhaka City Corporation Secretariat Road (Opposite Govt. susdev@aitlbd. Phone: 957-0254 0171-978-164 16. decon@agni. Name of Organization: BAEC Focal Point Name: Phone: Dr. Banani Dhaka-1213 Phone: Fax: E-mail: 15.com. 880-2-913-4731(R).net Name of Organization: Dhaka City Corporation (DCC) Focal Point Name: Md. Swapan Kumar Biswas 862-6528 Fax: E-mail: 17.net Name of Organization: Waste Concern Focal Point Name: Phone: Mr.com Fax: E-mail: 18.
Phone: Fax: E-mail: 19.bd afroza @che.ac.buet.buet.com ehsan @me.bd 8 .bd ashraf @bdcom.ac.ac.buet.org Name of Organization: BUET E-mail: quader@che. 880-2-989-0395/989-0423 880-2-989-2854 nishat @iucnbd.
2 Improvement of Dispersions Environmental engineers these days no longer believe in "Dilution is the solution to Pollution". then the pollutant emission rate will be the lowest possible. The main reasons are: nonavailability of monitoring equipment tedious nature of the work lack of awareness absence of emission regulatory rules and penalties.Filters the deep bed filter the bag house . automobiles.Liquid Scrubbing . Design procedures are also available.Appendix 2: BAQ Workshop Outputs 1. If this degree of control is determined for each class (e.Cyclones . no significant work or study has taken place about air pollution caused by the industrial sector. DOE can initiate a general survey of stationary sources of air pollution and the nature of pollutants in different industries.) and every member of that class is required to limit emissions to this maximum degree possible. it follows that if this philosophy is carried out rigorously we will have the cleanest possible air.g. These options are fully described in standard text books and hand books. Tall stacks are useful for better dispersion. With the introduction of emission regulatory rules DOE initially can ask the State Owned Enterprises (SOE) to procure equipment for 9 .3 Emission Standards The basic idea of the emission standard philosophy is that there is some maximum possible (or practical) degree of emission control. etc. Still dispersion sometimes improves a local situation. Because emission rate and air cleanliness are inversely related. 1. power plants. The degree varies between various classes of emitters but presumably can be determined for each class. a new plant can be located where its emissions will have their greatest impact in nonpopulated areas.0 1. Although some work has been done to monitor/check water pollution by different industries and of waterways of Bangladesh. 1. Also.1 Reduction of Air Pollution in Bangladesh Air Pollution Control of' Stationary Sources Gaseous Pollutants Absorption Adsorption Combustion Flue gas desulfurization Particulate Pollutants .Electrostatic Precipitation (ESP) These are all standard chemical engineering processes/operations now adopted by environmental engineers for reduction/control of air pollution from stationary sources.
It might be ensured by the policy planners and the DOE that the second 10 . Liquified Petroleum gas (LP-gas) and compressed natural gas (CNG) are potential low emission fuel for spark ignition engines. The service stations that fill CNG are more complex than petrol pumps. ERL . Any new plant/industry which is expected to produce air pollutants must show that it is incorporating emission control devices in the proposed plant before equipment are designed and ordered. they can then be asked for emission control measures step by step where necessary i. 1. enabling them to switch from LPG/CNG to gasoline. HSFO is used by some industries and small power plants.e. DOE itself needs trained manpower to check emission levels in the industrial sector. So far as the new industries are concerned DOE can set strict emission standards. Once DOE can introduce emission monitoring in the existing state owned enterprises. LP-gas or CNG is the complicated pressurized fuel supply system and the limited range of operation between fuel refilling. High sulfur furnace oil (HSFO) produced by ERL contains more than 4% sulphur by mass. One of the major disadvantages of using the gaseous fuels. In general.is about 35 years old now. DOE has to ensure this. In the whole of Bangladesh only lead free gasoline is marketed now. With 58 CNG filling stations in Dhaka city. easier emission standards for first 2 years and then slightly tough emission standards and strict standards say after about 5 years. major reductions in emissions are obtained with moderate losses in power (6 to 20%). many of which may be equipped with "dual fuel" capabilities.5% by mass sulphur which is definitely too high an amount.monitoring air pollution. These have to be ensured during the project proposal and EIA study. But HSD produced at ERL contains about 0. GOB is considering to set up a second refinery in the country as ERL cannot meet the growing demands of diesel and gasoline in the country.4 Reduction of Air Pollution by Mechanized Vehicles Some of the general methods to reduce air pollution by mechanized vehicles are: Emission reduction by fuel changes Emission reduction by engine design changes External reactors The spark ignition internal combustion engine can be made to operate on fuels other than gasoline. Similar approach can be made for private sector industries specially those with already known emissions of pollutants. and the fuelling time is longer. ERL has to do the necessary revamping/BMR to produce diesel (HSD) of much lower sulphur content. LPG or CNG is a perfectly satisfactory fuel for gasoline engines. CNG is getting popular as a clean fuel. Loan giving agencies like banks must cooperate with DOE in this respect so that compliance is ensured at the design. In Bangladesh there is a GOB sponsored programme for conversion of fuel system in vehicles with CNG. when gaseous fuels are employed in engines designed to operate on gasoline. manufacture and procurement level before money is released.
20% m/m Max). they have simpler molecules than gasoline and thus take fewer chemical steps to be totally combusted to CO2 and H2O. they are more easily converted to all-gas state. the alcohols have some of the oxygen they need for combustion within their molecule. LPG. CH3OH. methanol.S. buses and irrigation pumps. the diesel BPC imports might as well be lower sulphur diesel to be sold only in Dhaka and Chittagong. When the compromises in engine design (required to meet exhaust emission standards by internal combustion engine modifications only) become too great.pollutants can be achieved. The presence of organic oxygen seems to promote more complete combustion. leading to lower HC and CO emissions. Pt-Rh Cat. These devices result in a decrease of HC and CO concentrations in the exhaust. Replacing 2-stroke 3 wheeler vehicles to 4-strokc engines has reduced air pollution caused by the baby taxies. All of them have high Octane Numbers. automobiles. Automanufacturers have developed the 3-way catalyst that promotes the reaction. Therefore. For all of these reasons. and ethanol C2H5OH can be used in slightly modified gasoline engines. external reactor system can be used.refinery to be built be able to produce lead free gasoline and diesel with much lower sulphur content (0. The reactors can be thermal or catalytic reactor type fitted with the exhaust system. trucks. The gasoline BPC imports is lead free gasoline. 95% destructions of all three . BPC imports a large amount of diesel and some gasoline to meet the needs of ever increasing population. tempoes and minitrucks to a significant degree. BPC mixes this with ERL produced gasoline. Similarly. This promotes complete combustion. Combustion is more likely to be complete with them than with gasoline. But the GOB can gradually put restrictions/limit/ban the import of old used vehicles. The two lowest molecular weight alcohols methanol. so that the engine that use them can have higher compression ratios and better fuel economy than ordinary gasoline engines. design standards for imported vehicles. In the present socio-economic situation it will be impractical to impose U. The advantages are: these fuels have lower boiling points than the highest molecular weight component of gasoline. and ethanol are considered as clean fuels. natural gas. With very close control of the Air/fuel ratio. 11 . Brazil has developed an ethanol-based autofuel system. This product is distributed in petrol pumps all over the country. This arrangement would definitely decrease the amount of sulphur dioxide emissions from mechanized vehicles. NO + CO + HC -----------------> N2 + CO2 + H2O. Since Bangladesh does not manufacture any engine for mechanized vehicles the option of emission reduction by engine design changes is ruled out. with resulting lower CO and HC emissions.
1997 have been promulgated. Public Awareness campaign needs to be launched widely about the dangerous aspects of Indoor Air Pollution keeping in mind that cleaner fuels are more expensive. these options are also not applicable here.Since Bangladesh does not yet manufacture automobiles.1. 1995 and the Environment Conservation Rules. The automobile filling nozzle is fitted with soft gasket that effectively seals the automobile tank fill opening when the nozzle is in place. The health impacts of IAP can be mitigated by use of cleaner fuels. Also. 2. a second hose operating under a slight vacuum ducts the gasoline vapors to a central location where they are bubbled through the gasoline in the supply tank of the station.0 Legislation 3. The vapor condense in the gasoline. tuberculosis. 1997 following Standards and Rules have been set/framed and promulgated through Gazette notifications. improved stoves for biomass fuel and improved ventilation. But the Rules have not been in full operation because of absence of standards and regulatory measures for air pollution monitoring and control. catalytic reactors cannot be used with leaded and or high sulphur fuel because lead and sulphur act as poison to catalysts.5 Evaporative Losses from Petrol Pumps Filling stations can reduce evaporative losses of gasoline by installing a vapor control system on their pumps. But the health impacts are now being gradually recognised worldwide. The study reports that fuel choice affects IAP with natural gas and kerosene being cleaner than biomass fuels.0 Indoor Air Pollution Indoor Air Pollution (IAP) has not been investigated much in Bangladesh. 3. Inhaling smoke from cooking fuel such as biomass can have serious consequences for health. Under the Act of 1995 and ECR. Thermal reactors have problems of high temperature material requirement. (a) Ambient Air Quality Standards (b) Regulations for emissions of mechanized vehicles (c) Standards for specific pollutants for different industries 12 . Chromic bronchitis and acute lower respiratory infections among children are of concern to all of us. A recent World Bank study “detected dangerously high concentrations of particulates in indoor air for many poor households in Bangladesh”. A world Bank report estimates that “60% of deaths caused by air pollution are among children under 5 as a result of exposure to smoke from dirty cooking fuels”. Thus the system reduces the quantity of gasoline vapor (unburnt HC) discharged into the atmosphere during the automobile filling process at the stations. As one hose delivers gasoline. more space requirement and overheating of the reactor. asthma. 1. “There is also moderate evidence associating solid fuel use with a range of further health outcomes.1 The Environmental Protection Act. adverse pregnancy outcomes and possible heart disease”. including cataracts and blindness.
3. Smoke meters for this purpose have most commonly been based on either filter discoloration or on light absorption. Pollution due to leaded gasoline has been controlled by banning lead in the gasoline. It is felt that DOE can depute personnel to check all mechanized vehicles from emission view point at the BRTA Testing Premises. an objective readily achieved by proper engine maintenance and adjustment.3 The Environment Protection Act of 1995 does not say anything about authority of . Under the Environment Protection Act of 1995. 3.5 Gasoline engine exhaust emissions Pollution due to gasoline powered vehicles is primarily controlled through changes in the design and installation of suitable appliances right at the time of manufacture of the vehicle. There must be strict enforcement of zoning laws. 3. Within a few years. Since a well-tuned engine in good condition is the best means of minimizing pollution. It is easier to station Magistrates at the BRTA Testing premises.6 Recommendations regarding Reduction of Air Pollution in Bangladesh 3. scavenged with clean air. the photocell and lamp being moved from one to the other by a simple mechanism.1 Zoning laws should be framed for all cities and towns of Bangladesh. Many countries have therefore introduced legislation to limit such smoke.the DOE over what kind of mechanized vehicles are to be manufactured/imported in Bangladesh from emission viewpoint. Whether this should be done by DOE personnel at random or at routine intervals is a big question. control depends on the ability to measure black smoke density. As per existing rule Fitness Tests for all mechanized vehicles are done by BRTA at different centres all over Bangladesh. The question of manpower comes along. vehicle inspection is an important aspect. The now well-known Hartridge Smokemeter uses two identical measuring tubes.2 To control urban air pollution. In addition to this. random checks can be conducted on the streets for public awareness and compliance. one filled with a sample of exhaust smoke.3.4 Diesel engine exhaust emissions Black diesel exhaust smoke is readily noticeable and is a potential safety hazard. the other a reference tube. Therefore. The necessity of a Magistrate with proper legal authority comes up for taking any action against the offender. No industry or commercial enterprise should be allowed to be setup and produce/process any commodity within the 13 . 3.6. DOE is empowered to take smoke tests for vehicles emitting smoke. DOE may have to set rules and regulations regarding specifications of mechanized vehicles from emission viewpoint which are assembled/manufactured/imported in Bangladesh. detailed regulations for vehicle inspection have to be made and promulgated. using photocell techniques.
residential areas. Barapukuria coal contains only 0. Transport pool should also undergo same fitness tests. Ministries and the Govt. These three wheelers are also responsible for noise pollution in towns. it may be in the form of a circular railway service. Thailand the Tuk Tuks have been flitted with 4-stroke engines in place of 2-stroke engines. Newspaper reports suggest that vehicles belonging to Government agencies are often defective from emission point of view.6. should be strictly banned in the brickfields.6. 3.6 Coal from Barapukuria coal mines in North Bengal would start coming out in about a year. Some of the imported coal contains high sulphur.6. 3. circular waterway or trolley buses with rubber wheels running on overhead power lines.10 Honking or blowing the horn by cars/buses/trucks etc. Appropriate investments may be made to produce products with lower sulphur content. Use of fuelwood. 3. buses. 3. will automatically be phased out because of discomfort/dislike of the consumers riding these. The product specifications of ERL products need to be reviewed and reset. 3. 3. Until the availability of our own coal. in Bangkok. 3. 3. Reportedly.11 To reduce air pollution in big cities due to cars/buses/three wheelers mass transit system needs to be introduced. Decentralization of industries should be kept in mind. three wheelers.6. etc.6. DOE may prescribe the upper limit of sulphur content of importable coal. Fitness tests of cars/buses/trucks/ three wheelers should be mandatory and worthwhile.4 Import and operation of too old/dilapidated buses and trucks (petrol/diesel)) may be restricted.6. should be severely restricted. These points should be taken into account by the planners right now. buses. Also. 3.8 Three wheelers with two stroke engine using a blend of gasoline/lub oil as fuel may be gradually phased out from other towns as well.6.g cars and other vehicles of the Police. burning of old tires. 14 .6. luxury trolley buses are introduced. it is almost a competition of blowing the horns and drive past the jams. manual rickshaws etc.6.9 4-Stroke engines may be fitted to the three wheeler vehicles in place of 2stroke engines.7 Paints containing lead may be gradually phased out within a time frame of 5 years so that the paint industry gets sufficient time for the switchover to appropriate raw materials.57% total Sulphur. 3.3 The second oil refinery to be built in Bangladesh should be so designed and installed so that it can produce low suphur diesel.2 Sulphur content of some of the ERL products like HSD and HSFO needs to be reduced.6. coal used in the brickfields are all imported. Green belts may be created between existing industrial areas and receptor areas.6. This will greatly reduce noise pollution in Dhaka and Chittagong.12 Traffic Regulation and Control. In Dhaka. trucks of Government agencies e.5 Regulations over automobile exhausts. In Dhaka. Cars. Right now. they should not be located in a radius of a minimum distance set by DOE from the periphery of the residential areas. 3. Once.
6.17 Garbage carrying trucks must be covered as in other civilized societies 3. Restricted parking with coin operated parking meters may be introduced in places.13 Rickshaws are one of the major causes of traffic congestions and jams in Dhaka city. on wayside shops may be phased out by law in 3 to 5 years time. occupy more road space per passenger. banks. clean mass transit system. the rickshaws may be banned from main roads. corporations. By-pass roads should be built e.6. The city needs about 4000 modern comfortable buses. etc.6.g. efficient service is available to everyone.18 Dumping of city garbage at landfills at the outskirts of cities/towns must be stopped. Landfill sites should be properly selected and landfill should be appropriately designed by environmental engineers specializing in landfill design. may be incorporated in a single City Transit System so that frequent. pedestrian overbridges and sidewalks (foot paths). Traffic jams increase air pollution because of the trapped mechanized vehicles.- - one of the ways to reduce congestions is to make more one way streets. . may be banned from busy commercial areas like Motijheel or Dilkusha C/A in Dhaka between 9 a. 15 . rickshaws etc.6. Public meetings both political and religious should not be permitted on public roads. Private cars with single passenger & driver. rickshaws and three wheelers will definitely fallout of favour of the public as these are unsafe. Number of rickshaws may be gradually reduced in Dhaka city.6. In Bangladesh.14 All the buses owned and operated by individual Government organisations. metal surface preparation. 3. Arrangements can also be made for private cars/three wheelers to enter these areas with extra permit available on payment from BRTA. If these can be introduced individual organizations do not have to own buses. traders should be ruthlessly banned from city roads. vehicles coming from the southern part of the country do not need to enter Dhaka city to go to the northern part. landfill sites do not mean sanitary landfill as is meant in western society. three wheelers. They may be allowed at specific areas only on public holidays. These may be held in the stadiums or other designated open spaces. A smaller number can operate in lanes and by-lanes where cars/trucks/buses do not operate. 3. hawkers. expensive.m. 3. Finally. Fly overs should be built at important and congested points in Dhaka city to ease traffic jams. ownership of private cars may be discouraged in big cities with heavy taxes like they have done in Singapore. well maintained. 3. Moreover. 3. etc.15 With the introduction of well organised. Hundreds of theses buses sit idle during office hours blocking city roads in commercial and office areas. to 5 p. insurance companies. Multistoried parking lots in office and commercial areas should be built to free streets from parked cars. Salesmen. with the easy availability of modern comfortable buses. Singapore has this kind of disincentives.m.16 Spray painting.6.
more one way streets. DOE may start with State Owned Enterprises e. 3.6. etc. It might mean working day and night for the workforce. radio and television against the habits of spitting and urinating in public places.6.20 Cattle must be carried on trucks within the city areas. There must always be a dialogue with DOE and the owners of the industries. potable water. Gradually. multistoried parking facilities. This will greatly reduce particulate matter in the air.3. etc. the rules should be applied to the smaller industries owned by the private sector. Cattle markets may be allowed outside the city limits.6.3 Appropriate legislation under Environmental Protection Act. These state owned large industrial units should be able to afford to take necessary measures. and sets emission standards to control air pollution. Poverty alleviation is a catchword for many.21 Ways and means should be found to create job opportunities in small towns and rural. people should pay fines for doing so.1 In Bangladesh main air pollution problems are due to: mechanized vehicles at urban centres emissions from industrial processes/brickfields indoor air pollution Air pollution in densely populated urban area like Dhaka city can be reduced to a considerable degree by taking the following steps: • import/production/consumption of low sulphur diesel • introduction of attractive. in parks.0 Conclusions 4. 3.introduce emission standards for vehicles and industries. areas.23 Once the DOE enacts the Regulatory Measures for Pollution control under the Environmental Protection Act of 1995. 4. Most of them end up living in slums devoid of sanitation. 3. over the years. The owners must be made to understand the benefits obtained through air pollution control. 1995 to . 3. Unless this is done people would continue to come to big cities in search of jobs and livelihood. Permission to hold temporary cattle markets on roads. Gradually.g. concerned industries should be given grace period to take necessary and appropriate measures for air pollution control. • strict fitness tests and smoke tests with heavy penalty for defaulters • efficient solid waste management system 4. Fertilizer Factories and the Pulp and Paper Mills of the Bangladesh Chemical Industries Corporation (BCIC). comfortable and modern Rapid Mass Transit System so that people do not need rickshaw • manual rickshaw be phased out from main streets • better traffic management with construction of fly overs. piped gas and not to speak of safety of the family members. These temporary cattle markets cause large scale pollution for several days.19 Any road dug up by any agency must be filled in and brought back to original shape within a maximum period of 15 days.22 Public awareness campaign should be launched through newspapers. These large units should be examples to be cited by DOE to the private sector smaller industries.6.2 4. 16 .6. But this has to be done at the village level to stop migration of people to the cities. within the city area may not be granted during the religious ceremonies.
Brickfields should be compelled to use low sulphur coal by banning import of high sulphur coal. 4. The city needs some more CMS. CMS are expected to be established in Chittagong and Khulna under the AQMP Project. GOB EIA Environmental Impact Assessment ERL Eastern Refinery Ltd. To save forests. For new industries. 4. MOEF.7 Only one Continuous Monitoring Station (CMS) has been established in Dhaka. DOE has a large mandate but too few people. appropriate emission control devices must be incorporated at the design stage and implemented during installation. brickfields must not use firewood.6 Air pollution control cell may be created at each of the Divisional Offices of the DOE with adequate manpower and equipment.4 Step by step reduction of pollutant emissions with ultimate penalty clause for existing industries.5 3000 brickfields surrounding Dhaka city need to be removed or may be supplied with natural gas. GOB Government of Bangladesh HSD High Sulfur Diesel HSFO High Sulfur Furnace Oil IAP Indoor Air Pollution LPG Liquified Petroleum Gas MOEF Ministry of Environment of Forests 17 . Existing law should be made tougher. 4.4. 4. Abbreviations BPC Bangladesh Petroleum Corporation BRTA Bangladesh Road Transport Authority CNG Compressed Natural Gas DOE Department of Environment.8 DOE needs more competent manpower. Brickfields must not burn materials like old tires which gives toxic emissions.
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