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TECHNICAL CHAMBER OF GREECE – HELLENIC CONCRETE SECTION

JAPAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS


20th November 2009, ELECTRA PALACE Hotel

Advancement of technology
to improve seismic performance
of concrete bridge after Kobe earthquake

Hikaru NAKAMURA
Nagoya University, Japan
Hanshin-Awaji (Kobe) Earthquake
Date : January 17, 1995
Magnitude : 7.2
Type : inland type due to active fault
Depth of epicenter : 14km
Max. Acc. : 818cm/s2
The dead persons : 6425
Economic Loss 100billion Euro

Collapsed highway piers


the supporting columns collapsed over 600m
Earthquakes in Japan from 1960-2009
over magnitude 6.5

1960 1970 1980 1900 2000

Earthquake history Earthquake map


Strong earthquakes occurred many times and in all area

Impossible to avoid damage due to earthquake!


Economy loss forecast due to
future earthquakes
Economy loss forecast and
occurrence probability
Economy loss Probability
(billion Euro) during 30
years
Inland 700
earthquake in 70%
Tokyo
Tonankai and 350
Nankai 50%
earthquake
Tokai 200 86%
Earthquake
Probability map of earthquake

9Big earthquake risk


9Loss of huge money
9Loss of many human life
CONTENTS

¾Damage of concrete structures


due to recent earthquakes in Japan

¾Advancement of seismic design


- JSCE Standard Specifications
for Seismic Performance Verification -

¾Advancement of seismic performance


- Seismic Retrofit method, Seismic isolation
and Vibration Control Technique -
CONTENTS

¾Damage of concrete structures


due to recent earthquakes in Japan

¾Advancement of seismic design


- JSCE Standard Specifications
for Seismic Performance Verification -

¾Advancement of seismic performance


- Seismic Retrofit method, Seismic isolation
and Vibration Control Technique -
Recent strong earthquakes concrete
structures were damaged
1: Kobe, 95.1.17, M7.2
2: Tottori,00.10.6, M7.3
3: Geiyo, 01.5.24, M6.7
4: South of sanriku-oki,
6
03.5.26, M7.1
5 5: Miyagi-oki, 03.7.26, M6.2
10 7 6: Tokachi-oki, 03.9.26, M8.0
9 4
7: Niigata-ken chuetsu,
2 04.10.23, M6.8
8 8: fukuoka-oki, 05.3.20, M7.0
3 1 9: Noto Hanto,
07.5.25, M6.9
10: Niigata-ken chuetsu-oki,
07.7.16, M6.8
After Kobe Earthquake, the concrete structures have been
damaged due to several earthquakes in Japan.
Mechanism of earthquakes

9Inland type: occur at fault and epicenter is near ground surface


Kobe(M7.2) , Tottori(M7.3), Off miyagi(M6.2), Niigata(M6.8)
9Interplate type: occur at interplate and epicenter is relatively deep
Off Tokachi(M8.0)
9Intraslab type: occur inside plate and epicenter is deep
Geiyo(M6.7), South of sanriku-oki(M7.1)
magma
Japan reservoir volcano Japan
0
sea trench
Eurasian Inland
plate
50km Interplate
mantle

e
Intraslab

at
100km

pl
Outbreak of
fic
ci
magma
Pa

150km
Mechanism of earthquakes
Kobe Earthquake
on January 17, 1995
Kobe Earthquake occurred at Hyogo
Prefecture in 1995.

Magnitude : 7.2
Type : inland
Depth of epicenter : 14km
Max. Acc. : 818cm/s2

Many Concrete Structures were collapsed.


First experience of big Inland type earthquake at city area.
Damage due to Kobe Earthquake on
January 17, 1995
Geiyo Earthquake
on March 24, 2001

The Geiyo Earthquake occurred at


Aki-nada in the Seto Inland Sea

Magnitude : 6.7
Type : intraslab
Depth of epicenter : 50km
Max. Acc. : 830cm/s2
Damage due to Geiyo Earthquake on
March 24, 2001

146 piers in RC elevated bridges of Sanyo Shinkansen were damaged.


The shear failure with the spalling of cover concrete was observed by
12 piers among these. Photo shows a damaged two story RC rigid
frame elevated bridge. The feature of damage is that severe diagonal
shear crack was observed in the middle layer beam.
Tokachi-Oki Earthquake
on September 26, 2003
The Tokachi-Oki Earthquake occurred at
southeast offshore of Hokkaido and the
magnitude was 8.0.
Tsunami was also observed. It was typical
inter-plate type earthquake.
Magnitude : 8.0
Type : inter-plate
Depth of epicenter : 42km
Max. Acc. : 972cm/s2

The feature of the earthquake ground


motion was that long-period wave is
dominant and the duration time is long.
A fire of the oil storage tank occurred due
to sloshing and the effect of the long-
period wave have been paid to attention.
Damage of Toshibetsu-gawa railway bridge

Damage of a pier Damage of floor slab

Typical Damage
For pier, the spalling of the concrete cover and the buckling of the
longitudinal re-bars occurred.
For the floor slab at the end of girder, damage occurred due to the
collision between girders.
Damage of Chiyoda highway bridge

Damage of a pier Damage at a support

Left photo shows the flexural failure in the piers in which spalling of
concrete cover and buckling of the longitudinal re-bars were observed.
Right photo shows the punching shear failure at support due to
horizontal force from anchor.
Damage of Uroho-gawa railway bridge

Capacity

Moment

The spalling of the concrete cover and buckling of the longitudinal


re-bars occurred at cut-off plane of the longitudinal re-bars.
South of Sanriku-Oki Earthquake
on May 26, 2003
The South of Sanriku-Oki Earthquake
occurred at Off Miyagi Prefecture in 2003.

Magnitude : 7.1
Type : intraslab
Depth of epicenter : 71km
Max. Acc. : 1106cm/s2

The feature of the earthquake ground motion


is that short-period wave is dominant.
Damage due to South of Sanriku-Oki
Earthquake on May 26, 2003

damaged one story RC elevated bridges

The severe damages were observed in 5 one story RC


viaduct of Tohoku Shinkan-sen constructed in 1977 to 1978.
The feature of these damages was that the end columns are
mainly damaged.
Damage of four bay one story
RC viaduct of Shinkan-sen
a

b SB(spalling of cover concrete) SD(crack lwidth < 1mm)


SC(crack width > 1mm) No observed crack

(a) damage of end column (view from a) (b) damage of intermediate column (view from b)

Two of the end columns failed in shear with the spalling of the cover
concrete, while others were observed diagonal cracks. The damage
due to flexure hardly observed.
The feature of structures is that the end columns has severe condition
for shear failure, because they are shorter than intermediate columns
to support simple beam between elevated bridges.
Process of repair and strengthening
of damaged structures

Restoration procedure was (1) injection of epoxy resin to cracks, (2)


restoration of cross section by shrinkage compensating mortar, and
(3) steel jacketing.

May 26: earthquake occur


Restoration finished
May 27: shinkan-sen start to drive slow speed only in 3 days
May 29: shinkan-sen drive normal speed again
Niigata-ken Chuetsu Earthquake
on October 23, 2004

The Niigata-ken Chuetsu Earthquake


occurred at Mid Niigata Prefecture.
It was caused by inland active fault.

Magnitude : 6.8
Type : inland
Depth of epicenter : 13km
Max. Acc. : 1722cm/s2

The earthquake occurred when


a Shinkan-sen was running.
Then, Shinkansen was derailed.
Damage of three bay one story RC frame
elevated bridge of Shinkan-sen
Dai-san Wanazu Bridge R1 of Joetsu Shinkansen

Damage of end column Column strengthened


by the steel jacketing

Left photo shows damage of end columns failed in shear. The end
columns show severe damage more than intermediate columns. This
failure is the same as the one explained in the South of Sanriku-Oki
Earthquake.
Damage of Uono-gawa Bridge of
Joetsu Shinkansen

(a) Panorama of Uono-gawa bridge (b) Close-up of damaged portion

The spalling of the concrete cover and buckling of the longitudinal re-bars
occurred at the mid height. Failure occurred at the cut-off plane of the
longitudinal re-bars. Lateral ties at that location detached.
Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake
on July 16, 2007
The Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake
occurred at Mid Niigata Prefecture.
It was caused by inland active fault.
Same type earthquake occurred 3 years ago
near the place.
Magnitude : 6.8
Type : inland
Depth of epicenter : 17km
Max. Acc. : 1018cm/s2

The earthquake occurred near


nuclear power station.
CONTENTS

¾Damage of concrete structures


due to recent earthquakes in Japan

¾Advancement of seismic design


- JSCE Standard Specifications
for Seismic Performance Verification -

¾Advancement of seismic performance


- Seismic Retrofit method, Seismic isolation
and Vibration Control Technique -
Similar damage due to recent earthquakes

Niigata-ken Chuetsu Earthquake Kobe earthquake

Shear failure of RC column


The damage due to Kobe earthquake is severer, but they are same failure type
Similar damage due to recent earthquakes
We already observed similar damage for several earthquakes

Niigata-ken Chuetsu(2004) Tokachi-oki(2003) Kobe(1995)

For all structures, the spalling of the concrete cover and buckling of the longitudinal
re-bars occurred at mid height in piers where the longitudinal re-bars are cut off

Most major life-line structures were


constructed in 1960’s and 1970’s in Japan.
Then, the knowledge and design code for
seismic performance were insufficient.
Change of JSCE Specification for Design
0.3
Allowable shear stress

1.2

reinforcement ratio(%)
JSCE
Railway

Minimum web
0.8 0.2 Highway

Effective depth 3m Example for square


0.4 0.1
Main bar ratio 0.5% section of 1m
length(D32)

0 0
1940 60 80 2000 1940 60 80 2000
year year
Allowable shear stress Min. web reinforcement ratio

Before 1986, the allowable stress design method was applied in JSCE
Specification. Then, the allowable shear stress is large value and the
minimum web reinforcement ratio is small value.
Therefore, structures constructed in 1960’s and 1970’s do not have
sufficient shear capacity. This is the reason that many concrete
structures failed in shear.
Many concrete structures were failed
roadways, railways, the port, and other lifelines

Three major reasons why many structures were damaged


‡ Underestimation of design seismic loads
‡ Underestimation of shear capacity
‡ Insufficient structural details
detaching of lap splices of web re-bar
buckling of longitudinal re-bar
breaking of longitudinal re-bar at spliced portion
New seismic design concept had been adopted
in Japanese code after Kobe earthquake
Change of JSCE Specification for Design
Structural Seismic
Allowable design design
Stress design
1986 Design
(one chapter)
Design

Limit state 1995 KOBE earthquake


design 1996 Seismic Performance
based design
design
Structural Seismic
performance 2002 performance
Performance verification verification
based design
Design 2007

At 1986, limit state design was adopted, then seismic design was described
as one chapter in the specification for design. After Kobe earthquake, seismic
design code was established based on the performance based design.
At 2007, it was included in design code again.
Change of JSCE Specification for
Seismic Performance Verification
1996 JSCE standard specification
for Seismic design
The methods for seismic performance verification of
concrete structures was described basically. It includes
definition of seismic performance, definition of design
earthquake ground motion, modeling and analytical
method and Structural details

2002 JSCE standard specification


for Seismic performance verification 2007
Definition of seismic performance, definition of design
earthquake ground motion are same. The items of (1)earthquake
ground motion in verification, (2) evaluation for the effect of
ground, (3) verification technique(analytical method) were
enhanced based on the knowledge of seismic performance and
the advancement of the analytical technique. Moreover, it was
systematized that the more reasonable seismic performance
verification becomes possible.
Procedure to verify the seismic performance
based on ‘Seismic Performance Verification’
Setting Structure Setting
Seismic Performance
Modeling of
Structure and Ground Setting
Limiting Values
Setting
Ground Motion Response Analysis Nonlinear
analysis
Estimation of Verification
Response Values

END
In the specification, the methods how to consider these items are described.

nonlinear finite standard technique to verify


element analysis seismic performance
Seismic Performance
Seismic performance is classified into 3 cases
Seismic Function of the structure during an earthquake is maintained,
Performance 1 and the structure is functional and usable without any repair
after the earthquake.
Seismic Function of the structure can be restored within a short period
Performance 2 after an earthquake and no strengthening is required.

Seismic There is no overall collapse of the structural system due to an


Performance 3 earthquake even though the structure does not remain
functional at the end of the earthquake.

Concept
The damage is allowable for strong earthquake.
Performance 1 : serviceability
Performance 3 : safety
Performance 2 : serviceability and restoration ability
from social and economic points of view
Important point is to make clear damage for restoration process
Limit values for members
When the seismic performances of structures are verified,
limit values of response should be determined to assure
the defined seismic performance.
Seismic displacement of a member does not exceed the yield
Performance 1 displacement
Seismic shear and torsional capacity of a member, and ultimate
Performance 2 displacement of a member are not reached
Seismic shear capacity of vertical members and self-weight
Performance 3 support capacity is not exceeded

Performance 1 Performance 2 Performance 3


Load
yield
load shear failure
after yielding
flexural
Shear failure
failure
yield disp. ultimate disp.
Disp.
An example of skeleton curve of member
Earthquake ground motion in verification

Before Kobe Earthquake, the design seismic coefficient was


assumed as 0.2 and it was considerably small compared with the
earthquake ground motion at the location that structures damaged
in the Kobe Earthquake.

design earthquake ground motion was classified into two level


Level 1 Design Earthquake earthquake ground motion that is likely to
Ground Motion occur a few times within the lifetime of a
structure.
Level 2 Design Earthquake very strong earthquake ground motion that has
Ground Motion only a rare probability of occurrence within the
lifetime of a structure.

Level 2 ground motion is chosen from the ground motion caused by


an inland type beneath or close to the site and by large scale inter-
plate type occurring in the neighborhood of land.
Earthquake ground motion in verification

The earthquake ground motion used for seismic performance verification is


expressed as the time history waveform of acceleration.
This is examples of simulated earthquake ground motion waveforms at the
engineering base layer for inland type and inter-plate type. Inland type has
very large acceleration and Inter-plate type has long duration time.
800
600
400
Max. Acc. 749 gal
Acceleration(gal)

200
0
-200
-400
-600
-800
0 20 40 60 80
Time(S)

Examples of an inland type Level 2 earthquake ground motion


400

200 Max. Acc. 347 gal


Acceleration(gal)

-200

-400
0 20 40 60 80
Time(S)

Examples of a off-shore type Level 2 earthquake ground motion


Example of combination with seismic
performance and earthquake level
Maximum
Moment moment

Ultimate
Mm deformation
Damage My,Mn
location Yield
point

Railway frame structure θc θy θm θn Rotation angle

Level 1 earthquake – seismic performance 1 (no repair)


Rotation angle of all members should be less than θy

Level 2 earthquake – seismic performance 2 (short time repair)


upper and less than θn Rotation angle of pile is limited
underground beam to smaller value in comparison
column less than θn with other members, because
pile less than θm pile is difficult to repair.
Evaluation for the Effect of Ground
Methods to analyze the structure with ground
The response of a structure during an earthquake is strongly
affected by neighboring ground and others. Therefore, the whole
structural system including foundation or neighboring ground
should be analyzed.
ground

Engineering base layer


Engineering base layer

To consider the effect of ground, a coupled analysis modeled for


structure and ground should be use to obtain the response of
structure. Input place of the earthquake ground motion is at the
engineering base layer.
Evaluation for the Effect of Ground
Methods to analyze the structure and the ground independently

According to types or characteristics of structures and ground,


dynamic interaction between structures and ground can be neglected.
Then, the responses of the structures and the ground may be analyzed
independently.

Earthquake ground motion


Base part of at ground surface
structures

Engineering Input to
Subsurface
base layer grounds structures

Earthquake ground
Motion for verification

First, only ground model is solved for input Then, only structure is
earthquake ground motion at the solved for obtained
engineering base layer and obtain the wave ground motion at the
form at the base part of structure. base part of structure.
Verification technique
(analytical method)

The seismic performance is verified by a nonlinear


analysis based on finite element method.

‹linear member beam element


z
Fiber model
beam element is divided into many
x cells with fiber technique In which
material stress-strain relationships
are considered.
y

‹planar member plate or layered shell element


Mechanical model using nonlinear analysis

The constitutive model of concrete, reinforcing bar, and


soil should be described with those hysteresis.

0(γ+
(τ+τa)r
γa)−a r−1 G
τy
τ−τa=G
(2G0γy)
1
Hysteresis curve G0
(loading) (γ a , τa )
skeleton curve
γy

(− γ a , − τa )
Hysteresis curve
(unloading)

A simplified hysteresis model of concrete dynamic shear stress-strain


curve of the soil

Stress strain relationship shall include


¾softening branch after peak stress
¾residual plastic strain
¾stiffness degradation on loading and reloading path.
Structural Details

It was observed many damages that are related to insufficient


structural details in Kobe Earthquake. Therefore, structural details
were greatly revised from 'Seismic Design(1996)’.

Revised points
9Development of longitudinal re-bar
9Splices of longitudinal re-bar
9Spacing of Lateral Re-bar
9Splices of Lateral Re-bar
9Anchorage of Lateral Re-bar
Development of longitudinal re-bar

Tensile re-bar shall be anchored into concrete sections not


subjected to tensile stresses. It may, however, be anchored into
concrete sections subject to tensile stresses, when the moment and
shear capacity are sufficiently greater than design shear force.

Cut off
plane

Vu : shear force
Vydl : design shear capacity at termination point of re-bar
Mu : flexural moment
Ml : flexural moment at termination point of re-bar
Mudl : design flexural moment at termination point of re-bar

Damage due to insufficient development


Splices of longitudinal re-bar

For the splices of longitudinal re-bar, the longitudinal re-bar shall be


spliced in a manner that the splices perform satisfactorily even
under repeated stress in plastic hinge zone.
Lap splices shall not be provided in plastic hinge zones subjected to
repeated stress.

Longitudinal reinforcement broke at


pressure welding portion in Kobe
earthquake.
Therefore, provision about splices
greatly revised.

Damage due to insufficient splices


Spacing of lateral re-bar

For spacing of lateral re-bar, it is necessary to provide sufficient


amount of lateral re-bar, because the lateral re-bars restrain the
progress of diagonal cracks, increase shear capacity, prevent buckling
of longitudinal re-bars, and also provide confinement of core concrete.

a≦b
s≦a/2 and s≦12φl

ties

ties(diameter φt)
(diameter φl) Shear failure Buckling
Damage due to insufficient amount of lateral re-bar
Anchorage and splices of lateral re-bar

The ends of ties shall be acute-angle hooks enclosing the


longitudinal re-bars and anchored in the core concrete.
For splices of ties, the ties should transmit full strength, even if the
spalling occurs. Considering this requirement, flare welding or
mechanical coupler are recommended.

Acute-angle lap splices with


hook standard hooks

Shear crack open greatly Ties are detached


Damage due to insufficient details
flare
welding web re-bar did not transmit
stress after spalling
CONTENTS

¾Damage of concrete structures


due to recent earthquakes in Japan

¾Advancement of seismic design


- JSCE Standard Specifications
for Seismic Performance Verification -

¾Advancement of seismic performance


- Seismic Retrofit method, Seismic isolation
and Vibration Control Technique -
CONTENTS

¾Seismic Retrofit Technique


of Concrete Piers

¾Seismic Isolation and


Vibration Control Technique
Seismic Retrofit Technique
of Concrete Piers
We observed three typical damage.
¾Shear Failure of Reinforced Concrete Columns
Shear Strength Enhancement
¾Bucklingand Fracture of Re-bar
Ductility Enhancement(Confinement Effect)
¾Damage from Re-bar Cut Off Plane
Ductility and Shear Strength Enhancement
Seismic Retrofit Technique
of Concrete Piers

„ There are three major methods for


seismic retrofit of reinforced concrete
piers.
¾ reinforced concrete jacketing
¾ steel plate jacketing
¾ fiber sheets jacketing (Carbon / Aramid)
„ The best method is determined among them
considering cost, vicinity of construction site,
and handling of jacketing materials etc.
RC jacketing Steel plate jacketing FRP jacketing

superstructure

Injected longitudinal
direction
mortar Hoop Fiber
pier Rebar direction
Steel plate
Top coat

footing
RC jacket
RC jacket at the root

t=250mm t= 40mm t= 10~20mm


‡Cheep for construction ‡Additional cross ‡Additional cross
and maintenance. section is thin. section is thin.
‡ Thick additional cross ‡Retrofit materials is
section is need for light ( possible to
retrofitting. transport by human
power )
Examples of Retrofit Measure
Crane

Girder Girder

Steel Light,
plate High-
2m Strength
Fiber
Scaffold 2m
Cut-off Scaffold
Cofferdam Section

River River

Anchor

Steel Jacketing FRP Jacketing


Purpose of Seismic Retrofit

Retrofit of
Cut-off Zone

Enhancement
of Ductility
H-beam Retrofit in
Vertical Gap between Plastic Hinge Zone
Jacket and Top of Footing
Enhancement of Flexural
Strength by Anchor Bars

In order to enhancement only shear strength and ductility, there is vertical


gap between jacket and top of footing.
In order to enhancement of flexural strength, jacket is anchored to footing.
Then, the effect of basement should be considered.
RC Jacketing

Reinforced concrete jacketing has the advantage of cost for construction


and maintenance compared with the other two methods.
So if there is no restriction, reinforced concrete jacketing will be adopted.

Usual method
Steel Jacketing
MERIT
• Additional cross
section is thin
• Construction
period is short
DEMERIT
• Retrofit materials
is heavy

It will be often adopted to piers in


urban site considering the merits
FRP Jacketing

• Additional cross section is thin


• Retrofit materials is light and possible to transport by human power.
It will be adopted to narrow site, cut-off section
in middle height of piers, or high-pier.
Special Technique for Seismic
Retrofit of Concrete Piers

„ There are three major methods for seismic


retrofit of reinforced concrete piers.
¾ reinforced concrete jacketing
¾ steel plate jacketing
¾ fiber sheets jacketing (Carbon / Aramid)

Several special technique have been


proposed considering construction work.
Special Technique
– Coupler Joint Steel jacket
Quality of steel jacket method depend on welding work.

Merit
‡No welding work
¾ Good joint quality
¾ No scaffold

short construction time


Special Technique
– Rib Plate Method
Steel
Steel plate
plate with
with coupler
coupler joint
joint isis arranged
arranged out
out side
side of
of column
column

Steel Jacket Steel plate


Coupler
かみ合わせ継手 joint
鋼板取付け用
モルタル材
mortar rubber
弾性(ゴム)材
等辺山形鋼
Steel plate
補強鋼板

Coupler
かみ合わせ
継手joint

Steel
補強
plate
鋼板

The method is possible to construct by human.


It will be applied to narrow site.
Special Technique
– retrofit underground or underwater parts
When bottom part of piers is retrofitted, the parts are usually
underground or underwater. Then, excavation work is needed.
RC
jacket

RC jacket
cofferdam

water

soil

Therefore, the retrofit technique without excavation work is


required for easy and quick construction work.
Special Technique
– Steel Pipe Strut Method
RC
jacket

¾Steel pipe driving in a ground


to footing
Hold concrete
of steel pipe ¾Construction of hold concrete
and RC jacket on the ground

Strut
( steel pipe)

The retrofit of pier bottom in a ground is constructed without excavation


work.
Steel pipe between hold concrete and footing is played as compression
strut to increase neutral axis and to reduce compressive deformation.
Special Technique
– Steel Pipe Strut Method

hold concrete

Steel pipe

Hold concrete construction

Steel pipe driving


Special Technique
– Steel Sheet Pile Method

Steel Sheet Pile ¾Pier in water is enclosed


RC Jacket
by steel sheet piles.
Infilled concrete
き ¾The space between pier
RC 巻
and steel sheet piles is
excavated and is filled by
River surface concrete.
¾Construction of RC
River bed jacket on the water
surface.

footing

The retrofit of pier bottom in a water is constructed


without cofferdam and excavation work.
Special Technique
– Steel Sheet Pile Method

RC jacket RC jacket
cofferdam
Steel sheet
piles

water water

soil soil

The method will be applied to the case of piers in


water or the difficult location of excavation.
Special Technique
– Steel Sheet Pile Method

RC jacket

Steel sheet piles


Special Technique
– Girder Collision Method

BIG Damage small damage

Usual method

Several retrofit methods are proposed for pier in the


Jacket water. Easiest method is no-retrofit of pier in water.

Permit collision of Girder to abutment using energy


absorption material. Then, the deformation of pier
in water can be decrease.

Reduce damage of pier in water


Other feature of damage at Kobe Earthquake

Unseating caused by bearing


failures were observed.

Unseating Prevention System


(Fail-safe System)
Unseating Prevention Devices
Connection cable

Restrainers
PELDAMPER

HONEYCOMB TYPE CELL TYPE

Girders are connected by cable, and restrainers of displacement are set.


Peldampers are set at several place in order to reduce the effect of collision.
Unseating Prevention Devices

Connection cable peldamper

Increase of seat width

Restrainers
Utilization of Seismic Isolator
„ Retrofit Concept
„ Elongation of natural period
„ Enhancement of damping

Seismic Isolation
Seismic Isolator

Several isolators as bearing have been proposed.

Pb Rubber Bearing Super-High Damping Rubber Bearing

72
Vibration Control System
Usual Design Expansion joint
Reduction of
displacement
Isolation
bearing unseating prevention
device Scale down of
expansion joint

Omission of unseating
prevention device
Vibration control
dumper is applied
Vibration Control Reduction of
Expansion joint seismic force
Isolation
bearing Dumper Scale down of
isolation bearing

Scale down of piers


Example of Damper
Several isolators have been proposed for
buildings. The technique is applied to bridge.

Bingham material damper Low yield stress steel damper


Damping using yielding behavior
Damping using the effect
of filler(silicon resin) Combination with bucking
prevention system
Vibration Control of Railway Viaduct

X shape damper brace method

Brace and damper


are combined.

brace

The method was developed in damper


order to control of displacement
of railway viaduct.
CONCLUSION

Following contents were presented.


¾Damage of concrete structures
due to recent earthquakes in Japan

¾Advancement of seismic design


¾Advancement of seismic performance
‡Japan has big earthquake risk and it is difficult to prevent the
damage due to earthquake perfectly.
‡As fundamental aspects of design method, accurate evaluation
of dynamic response and design system from construction to
restoration after earthquake are required.
‡Seismic retrofit greatly advanced after KOBE earthquake.
Isolation and vibration control technique will be important topic.
Thank You Very Much
for Your kind Attention !