• Emphasises the flow of data in a system and ignores the procedural aspects. • DFDs model the system from a functional perspective. • Tracking and documenting how the data associated with a process is helpful to develop an overall understanding of the system. • Data flow diagrams may also be used in showing the data exchange between a system and other systems in its environment • DFD is a prescription for construction - processes represented by circles. It transforms input into output. Ex. Compute- Tax, Validate Phne-no


- data flow, arrows between processes represent the flow of information from one part of the system to another. It is data in motion..bit, characters, messages, numbers. Data can be partial or full





- multiple input data streams and multiple data output streams are possible °if two adjacently placed inputs are both required then a * is placed between these.
A B * P

° if either of two adjacently placed inputs are required then a ring-sum is placed between these.
A + Q



data stores represented by parallel lines or open rectangle. It is collection of data packets at rest.
Data Store Data Store

o Store exist because of user’s requirement or convenient implementation.

o A flow from Data store can be single. partial or collection of data packets. delete or update data packets - data terminators represented by closed rectangle are also data stores but they are outside the System and can not be changed by modeler . o A flow to data store can be write.

Only show the flow of control. neat and clear . Ignore initialisation and termination assume the system never stops. output to the input. or middle-out . this is useful in drawing leveled DFD . .number the processes. Show more detail rather than less. data stores and data terminators .Use the * and ring-sum operators as appropriate The data flow should be correct for the level of detail concerned.Omit simple error paths from each transform to the outside world .Work from input to the output. data flow. .Avoid over complex DFD ( not more than 6 processes on one page .draw DFD as many times as required till it satisfies user and is technically correct.choose meaningful name for processes.STEPS IN BUILDING DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS .

beware of read only and write only stores) LEVELS OF DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS .. Levels should be consistent Guideline Flows coming into/going out of a circle at one level must correspond to the flows into/out of an entire figure at the next lower level which describes the circle .Different parts of the system may have different number of levels.Complexity of circle determines number of levels .DFD should be internally consistent and consistent with outside word ( every process should have input and output.


LEVELS OF DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS Data stores at different levels Guideline Show store at highest level where it is an interface between circles.At each level no more than 6 circles + related stores .Process specification of each circle should fit in one page else make another level . DS level 1 DS level 2 Development Heuristics . which further describes the interface circle. Then show at every level below.

DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS Fig 1: Leveling of DFD .

Fig 2: 0 Level DFD for College Registration System .

3) .Fig 3: 2 Level DFD for College Registration System (only Registration Process 1.

Fig 4: 1 Level DFD for College Registration System .

A Global function does not always exist .is a model showing the implementation constraints imposed by the user( determination of automation boundary i.e..THE YOURDON METHOD THE CARTESIAN PARADIGM Develop current physical model.Analyst Paralysis: First decomposition not apparent . Here processes can be human.model of the actual system user is using.pure or essential requirement of the new system Develop new physical model.model of pure or essential requirement carried out by the user’s current system Develop new logical model. which functions will be automated which will be manual The whole is made up of its parts Analysis is needed Properties . organizational unit Develop current logical model.

The Implementation Model The Essential Model What moves across the interface . State-transition diagram. . It consists of three parts Behavioral Model.outputs in response to stimuli .THE MODIFIED YOURDON METHOD Aim: To remove analyst paralysis .inputs needed by the system It consists of Environment Model and Behavioral Model Environment Model – defines the boundary between the system and rest of the word. DFF.describes the inside of the system to interact successfully with rest of the environment. data dictionary and process specifications.The Essential Model is the model of what the system must do in order to satisfy user requirements . It consists of models like ERD.

user management.d data stores shared by system and terminators.THE MODIFIED YOURDON METHOD THE ENVIRONMENT MODEL  Statement of purpose of the system It consists of brief. These data stores are either created outside the system and used by our system or created by our system and used by outside world. concise textual statement of the purpose of the system intended for top management.  Context diagram people. with whom the system interacts( external agent/ terminators) • • data received to be processed • data produced by the system sent to the outside worl. • • The boundary between our system and outside world . systems etc.

They are triggered by internal clock maintained by the syst. the event is generated to place the order Control event is associated with control flow in the system. However not every data flow in context diagram triggers an event *Temporal event event occurrence at fixed time or date Generate sales report every Monday at 0900 Hrs. . It can be regarded as binary dataflow which can be on or off and its status can be changed. They may need one or more dataflow in context diagram but these data flow do not trigger temporal events. *Control oriented event has control flow with it Events are internal to system and occur based on system status When inventory level go below certain level.THE MODIFIED YOURDON METHOD THE ENVIRONMENT MODEL  Event list: *Flow oriented event customer places order event occurrence upon data arrival ( corresponds to data flow in context diagram .

THE MODIFIED YOURDON METHOD THE BEHAVIOUR MODEL  Classical Approach top down from context diagram *Analysis paralysis -First decomposition not clear basis of number of analysts! as in an already existing system!!  New Approach event based .identify stores for every interface between processes .connect input/output to each process and do consistency checking .identify input/output for each process .define a process for each event in the event list having the same response .

Note: if an event has multiple responses then there is one process for each response After the first-cut behaviour model has been built Refine it .upward levelling *group processes having closely related responses/dealing with closely related responses *if a group of processes uses a data store not used by any other process group then make one process -downward levelling *if a process is not atomic then use functional decomposition  Data flow analysis what processes make up the system what data are used in each process what data are stored what data enter and leave the system .

listing of all data items .DATA DICTIONARY .for user/analyst communication Contains *meaning of flows/stores *composition of data packets/stores *values and units of elementary pieces of information in flows/stores *details of relationships between stores Conventions ** [] @ | = Comments One of several choices Key field of a store Choice Composed of .

+ () n{}m {}m Example: Example 1 and optional at least n. at most m zero or more. at most m tel no = (country code) + (area code) + number country code = area code = number Example 2 Product code = alpha alphanum = = alpha + alphanum 1 {letter} 1 0 (letter/digit} 6 {digit} 3 {digit} 5 = 7 {digit} 8 .

] first_name = { legal_character} middle_name = { legal_character} last_name = { legal_character} legal_character = [A-Z| a-z| 0-9| .| Mrs.Example 3 Customers Customer = = {customer} @ customer name + address + phone number customer name = courtesy title + first_name + (middle_ name) + last_ name courtesy_ title= [Mr.| Prof. range: 1—200* Checks • Every flow on DFD has been defined .] address= [shipping_ address | Billing_address| shipping_ address + billing_address] shipping_address = city_code + state_code + house_No.| Miss. Purchases = @ customer + 1{@ item_id + quantity_ purchased} Weight = * patient weight upon admission to hospital * * Units: Kg.| Dr. |…..

• all component of composite items have been defined • all elements in data dictionary are referred in DFD • notations are correct. no element is defined more than once Order processing DFD Order details + blank order f rm o Completed order f rm o Complete order f rm o V alidate order Signed order f rm o Signed order f rm o Recor d order Send to supplier Check and ed signed or er d + or er d notifica tion Order details Signed order f rm o Adjust av ble aila budget Order amount + account details Orders file Budget file Equipment procurement process .

Validate equipment specifica tion required Check ed spec.Delivery note Equipment Specify spec. Supplier data base Order details plus blank or er d form Install equipment Installa tion acceptance Accept deliv ered equipment Equipment details Equipment data base Check and ed signed or er f rm d o . Get cost estima tes Spec. + supplier + estima te Supplier list Find suppliers Choose supplier Deliv ery note Accept delivery of equipment Order notifica tion Place equipment order Check deli ered v items Installa tion instructions Equipment spec.

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