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Fault Identification and Location Estimation for a

Distributed System Using Simulated Voltage Sag


Meden C. Pare
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute
University of the Philippines Diliman
Quezon City, Philippines

Abstract—This paper replicates a portion of a previous work II. VOLTAGE SAG SIMULATION
that used simulated voltage sag data based algorithm to locate
possible faulty sections.
Voltage Sag or Dip is a short duration voltage
Keywords—fault location; power quality; voltage sags variation where there is a decrease to between 0.1 to 0.9pu in
rms voltage or current at the power frequency for durations
from 0.5 cycles to 1 minute [1-3].
Voltage sags and momentary power interruptions are Voltage Sag matrix is a binary square matrix which shows
probably the most important power quality problems affecting which buses will be below the threshold voltage for every
industrial and large commercial customers. These events are scenario when a fault occurs in each bus.[4, 7]
usually associated with fault somewhere in the system. Short-
circuit fault in distribution system often causing enormous
losses to utility and customer. Such losses can be reduced if
the location of the fault can be located as quickly as possible.
[1, 2]
A common technique by the utilities to locate fault is by
trial and error technique. In this method, the fault location is
determined by patrolling along the feeder. The location is
usually guessed by an experience operator before sending the
repairing crews which is costly, time consuming and exposed
the crew to danger.
Various automated fault location techniques have been
proposed for distribution system. In general, fault location
techniques can be divided into three categories, which are
impedance-based method, knowledge-based method and
travelling wave method, however these methods require more
information of the distribution system. [1]
Taken into consideration the limitation of available
information in distribution system, the proposed method in
this paper uses single measurement at the primary distribution
bus to estimate fault location. The measured voltage sags will
be matched with the voltage sag data and voltage equation
stored in the database. These data are obtained from fault
analysis. The match will give the location of the fault in term
of distance from particular bus in the section. Since the
method depends on the simulated database, any changes such III. REPLICATED WORK
as load variation in the system can be addressed by updating A paper entitled Fault Location Estimation for Distribution
the database. The method also not costly for implementation System Using Simulated Voltage Sag Data has been published
since it requires only single measurement at the main last 2007. The general process flow of this research work can
substation. [1] be described by Figure 1. The basic idea of the method comes
from finger print identification concept. One bus will be
monitored for the corresponding voltage and angle and will be
compared to the simulated voltage sag in the database.

Fig. 1 General process of the replicated paper

A portion of the paper’s methodology was replicated for
this study [1]. For this project, it is assumed that the type of
fault is already known and it happens to be a three phase fault.
The algorithm on global search for finding the possible faulty
sections was done. For the test system, a 69-bus radial IEEE
Test System Data was used [6]. Figure 2 shows the one line
diagram of the 69-bus system.

Figure 2: One Line Diagram 69-bus system

Table 1: Branch Data of 69-Bus Test System

The aim of the global search is to find all the section that
bounds the measured voltage and angle. This section is
considered as the possible faulty section. The boundary can be
presented in the form of graph in Figure 3.

Figure 3: Faulty Region for Section a-b

A given voltage and phase angle values that fall inside this
region will be considered caused by fault at this section. For
the voltage sag simulated data, MATLAB was used to The ranking of the results will depend on the matching
generate the required data by combining z-bus program of value given by the following equation:
SAADAT and the paper of Goswani.
Matching measurement is based on the mismatch between
the distance obtained from voltage magnitude equation and
distance obtained from phase angle equation.
Figure 4 shows how the distance is obtained using both
types of equations. Both functions are representing a voltage
sag profile along two adjacent buses. The equation can be
linear, non-linear and constant depending on the value of the
impedance. The larger the impedance, the more non-linear the
changes will be. On the other hand, small impedance will The matching is considered 100% match if the value is
produce linear and almost constant changes. In the paper [1], equal to 0. The lower the value, the higher the matching
the equation is assumed to be a polynomial type with the accuracy. This will also provides an estimation of the faulty
degree of two. The general equations are as follow: distance in the section from bus a in the section a-b.
Table shows the simulated voltage sag data for the test
system that was used. The program for this study only requires
the positive and negative sequence impedance data.

Faulted Phase
Bus Voltage Angle
1 0 0
2 0.5 0
3 0.6389 3.7046
4 0.8296 0.7292
5 0.974 -0.388
The coefficients will depend on the type of equation as 6 0.9979 -0.094
follows: 7 0.9989 -0.0496
8 0.999 -0.0445
9 0.9991 -0.042
10 0.9995 -0.0252
11 0.9996 -0.0231
12 0.9997 -0.0174
For the simplicity of the project, a linear type is assumed 13 0.9998 -0.0128
for all sections of the power system. 14 0.9998 -0.0101
15 0.9999 -0.0083
16 0.9999 -0.0081
17 0.9999 -0.0076
18 0.9999 -0.0076
19 0.9999 -0.0072
20 0.9999 -0.007
21 0.9999 -0.0067
22 0.9999 -0.0067
23 0.9999 -0.0065
24 0.9999 -0.0063
25 0.9999 -0.0057
26 0.9999 -0.0055
27 0.9999 -0.0054
28 0.9129 0.0984
29 0.9933 0.0065
30 0.9982 -0.0706
31 0.9984 -0.0652
32 0.9991 -0.0458
33 0.9995 -0.026
34 0.9998 -0.0138
Figure 4: Equations of voltage magnitude and phase angle for section a-b 35 0.9998 -0.0098
36 0.9244 0.1835
37 0.9949 0.0054
38 0.9988 0.0012
39 0.999 0.001
40 0.9991 -0.0403
41 0.9994 -0.0321
42 0.9992 -0.0355
43 0.9994 -0.0301
44 0.9995 -0.0248 Figure 5: Results of the first simulation
45 0.9995 -0.0211
46 0.9998 -0.0127
47 0.9998 -0.0106
48 0.9998 -0.01
49 0.9998 -0.0093
50 0.9999 -0.0083
51 0.9999 -0.0082
52 0.9999 -0.0079
53 0.9999 -0.007
54 0.9999 -0.0059 Figure 6: Results of the second simulation
55 0.9996 -0.0212
56 0.9996 -0.0211
57 0.9998 -0.0138
58 0.9998 -0.0138
59 0.9182 0.2162
60 0.9934 0.0072
61 0.9965 -0.027
62 0.9969 -0.0275
63 0.9969 -0.0275
64 0.9992 -0.0121
65 0.9994 -0.0095
66 0.9994 -0.0093
67 0.9994 -0.0092 Figure 7: Results of the third simulation
68 0.9995 -0.0085
69 0.9995 -0.0085 VI. CONCLUSION
Faults and voltage sags are related issues. From the
Table 2: Simulated Voltage Sag for a 3-Phase Fault
replication of the study in Ref [1], the characteristic of a
voltage sag can be seen where the nearer the fault to the
measured point, the more drop the voltage will be. With
For testing purposes, the value for the fault voltages where
regards on the second simulation, the two possible faulty
just assumed to be known to see if the program can function sections were chosen because of the parallel connection on bus
properly on finding the fault locations. The program 4. The possibility of having two or more possible faulty section
automatically arranges the possible faulty sections based on cannot be avoided. The matching algorithm will give an idea to
the matching value. In this project, the first fault voltage is the repair crew which section should be first check or if
0.78 p.u. and has an angle of 0.01. The result is shown on possible check the two sections. The value of dV will also give
Figure 5. Only one section was pick as possible source of fault an estimate where did the fault occur.
which was section 2-28 and Figure 6 shows the result when
the monitoring device will detect a fault voltage of 0.92 and an VII. RECCOMENDATIONS
angle of 0.3. For this simulation, two sections of the system There is definitely a huge opportunity for improvement in
can be the possible source of the fault which was sections 4-5 this project. This work deviated from the original paper by
and 4-36. The program indicates that it is more possible that using a different test system. The effect of fault impedance was
the fault came from section 4-36. While on the third not observed yet on this study and using other types of fault.
simulation with a voltage of 0.9992 and and -0.035 angle. The Including a fault type identifier algorithm will also improve the
result shows three section possible and was shown on figure 7. said method. Series fault should also be observed using this
[1] H. Mokhlis, H.Y.Li, “Fault Location Estimation for Distribution
System Using Simulated Voltage Sag Data” University Manchester,
UPEC 2007
[2] J. Lamoree, D.Mueller, P. Vinett, W. Jones, “Voltage Sag Case
Studies”, Tennessee
[3] J J. Beiza, S. H. Hosseinian, B. Vahidi, “Fault Type Estimation in
Power System” Iranian Journal of Electrical & Electronic Engineering,
Vol. 5, No. 3, Sep. 2009
[4] Goswami, Gupta, Singh, Area of Vulnerability for prediction of
voltage sags by an analytical method in Indian distribution system
[5] Saadat, Power System Analysis 2nd Ed. McGrawHill 2002
[6] G. Mora, “Uncertainty and State Estimation of Power Systems”,
University of Manchester, 2012
[7] Park and G. Jang, “Stochastic Estimation of Voltage Sags in a Large
Meshed Network,” IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 22, pp1655-1664,