International Tropical Animal Nutrition Conference

Volume I

October 4-7, 2007
National Dairy Research Institute Karnal, India

M. P S. Bakshi . M. Wadhwa

Animal Nutrition Society of India

International Tropical Animal Nutrition Conference
Volume I Invited papers

October 4-7, 2007 National Dairy Research Institute Karnal - 132001, India

M. P. S. Bakshi and M. Wadhwa
Department of Animal Nutrition Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University Ludhiana-141004, India

ANIMAL NUTRITION SOCIETY OF INDIA INDIAN COUNCIL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH

Prelude
The Animal Nutrition Society of India, is pleased to have organized International Tropical Animal Nutrition Conference ‘TROPNUTRICON-2007’ at National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal in October 2007. The conference’s theme ‘Animal Nutrition in Tropics- Constraints and Opportunities’ has the relevance of the information to all involved in promoting improved and affordable livestock husbandry practices to the resource- poor, throughout the tropics. The conference would include a series of deliberations, on available feed resources and their efficient use either by manipulating rumen microbes or by modifying the activities of enzymes involved in digestion and utilization of end products at cellular level or by partitioning the nutrients for productive purposes or by processing the feed resources to make available the nutrients or by using feed supplements or by finding potential alternate feed resources, or by modifying the existing feeding practices/systems, from all over the world, especially from tropical countries. The whole purpose is to have sustainable system, because Sustainability necessitates getting beyond environmentalism which is a movement against pollution while sustainability is a movement towards new actions and behaviors. We feel confident that prudent adoption of the recommendations of this conference will lead to wealth creation for many poor people of tropics, which keep livestock and provide them with an opportunity to escape from poverty and sustain in clean environment. With this hope, we welcome delegates from all over the world to Karnal. We are very grateful to the participants who shared their experiences, without their generous participation, these proceedings would not have been achieved. The endless efforts put in by our staff especially Ms Kamal preet Kaur and Dr Jasmin Kaur, friends and the family members is duly acknowledged.
M P S Bakshi M Wadhwa

CONTENTS
1. Tropical animal nutrition with emphasis on animal adaptation and products E. R. Ørskov -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 Transformation of animal nutrition education to match future need Ashok Rathore ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6 Biotechnological advances in animal production S. K. Gulati, M. R. Garg, P. L. Sherasia, B. M. Bhanderi, T. W. Scott --------------------------------------------------------------------- 20 Ruminal anaerobic fungi for improving digestion and utilization of fibrous feeds in ruminants J. P. Sehgal and Sanjay Kumar -------------------------------------------------------------- 24 Bioactivity of phytochemicals in some lesser-known plants and their effects and potential applications in livestock and aquaculture nutrition Harinder P. S. Makkar -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 32 Combined strategies guarantee mycotoxin control Devendra S. Verma ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 49 Nutritional challenges for poultry and pigs in the post antibiotic era S. S. Sikka and Jaswinder Singh ------------------------------------------------------------- 53 Score of utilizing unconventional phophorus supplements in broilers R. P. S. Baghel ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 65 Nutrition and nutrient delivery system for fish farming Vijay Anand and G. Ramesh -------------------------------------------------------------------- 73 Pasture based feeding systems for small ruminant production and its relevance in tropics S. A. Karim and A. K. Shinde ----------------------------------------------------------------- 80 Sustainable intensive meat production system for goats and sheep in tropics N. P. Singh ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 91 Heat stress and dairy feeding program Jason Park ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 105 Code of practice on good animal feeding in relation to food safety M. R. Garg and B. M. Bhanderi ---------------------------------------------------------------- 108

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Metrological aspects and strategies to reduce uncertainties in greenhouse gas emissions from livestock Prabhat K. Gupta and Arvind K. Jha ------------------------------------------------------- 116 Environmental pollution and animal productivity D. Swarup ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 125 Safety and wholesomeness of genetically modified crops for livestock, poultry and aquaculture: focus on insect-protected crops in India G. F. Hartnell and B. G. Hammond ----------------------------------------------------------- 132 Potential of GM plants, current status, feeding to animals and open questions Gerhard Flachowsky --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 141 Efficacy of herbal feed additive for livestock M. J. Saxena, K. Ravikant and Anup Kalra -------------------------------------------------147 Implications for minerals deficiency in ruminants and methods for its amelioration C. S. Prasad, N. K. S. Gowda, D. T. Pal ---------------------------------------------------- 152 Strategic supplementation of minerals to livestock: An Indian perspective Tapan K. Ghosh and Sudipto Haldar ---------------------------------------------------------163

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Tropical animal nutrition with emphasis on animal adaptation and products
E. R. Ørskov Macaulay Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH, UK

It is of course possible to write books about the subject above so this paper will be a summary of my own experiences of tropical agriculture and philosophies derived from them. First of all we need perhaps to define what is tropical. Most people of course expect the tropics to be hot but with varying degrees of humidity. However, for several years, I had a project with animal production some 2000 m up on the slopes of Kilimanjaro in Tanzania, almost on the Equator, I can assure you that at that altitude it can also be cold. Adaptation to dry and hot climates with fluctuating supply of nutrients An excellent example of an animal adapted to an extreme climate is no doubt the camel. Both Dromedary and Bactrian camel are well adapted to hot and dry and cold conditions, but in slightly different ways. The camel has not only an ability to be comfortable in very hot and dry climates; it can do without food and water for many days. The dromedary at least is biochemically adapted with an enzyme system that ensures a very low requirement of glucose. In fact they can generate reducing equivalent from C2 unit i.e. fat so that even at 10 d starvation there is no increase in blood ketones e.g. β-hydroxybutyrate (β-OH) (Wensvoort et al., 2001) which is unlike ruminants. When food and water become available they can drink very large quantities and very rapidly convert even glucose to fat stores (Wardeh and Dawa 2006). The most important fat store is in the hump so the fat is stored in a specific region which make for much easier thermoregulations. Ruminants on the whole need a 1 1 1

small supply of feed every day to avoid glucose deficiency. In our intragastic nutrition studies we found that if cattle were fed about one third of energy maintenance their elevation of β-OH was slight (Ku Vera et al., 1989). In sheep the level of feeding needed to avoid elevation of β-OH is lower (Ørskov et al., 1998) suggesting that sheep may have a lower glucose requirement than cattle. An elevation of β-OH signifying glucose deficiency will lead to excessive loss of lean tissue as reducing equivalents required for utilization of fat are generated from the protein turnover cycle. At starvation or fasting the urine N excretion is about two times greater than it is when there is no elevation in βOH due to use of glucose precursors from the protein turnover cycle. Bos indicus also has a fat store in the hump rather than evenly spread subcutaneously to help thermoregulation during hot seasons and when there is fluctuation in the supply of nutrients. Bos taurus on the whole is less well adapted to hot climates with fluctuating supply of nutrients. Sheep in hot regions with a fluctuating supply of nutrients have also adapted by having fat stores in their tail e.g. Awassi sheep whose tails carry more than 5Kg of fat; some sheep also store fat in their dewlap e.g. Maasai sheep in Africa. Many breeds have a hair coat rather than wool e.g.Maasai sheep and many other breeds. A sleek hair coat reflects much of the sun’s heat whereas a wool coat insulates from it. Goats on the whole tolerate fluctuating supply of nutrients better than cattle since they are browsers and have access to nutrients, sometimes high quality nutrients such as tree leaves, which cattle being graz-

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ers have not. Sheep also do better than cattle as they are grazer/browsers but not as selective as goats. Apart from Bos indicus some other cattle breeds are well adapted to hot regions where there is not too much fluctuation in nutrient supply e.g. Bos bantang in Indonesia, Bos frontalis in Yunnan and indeed Chinese and Vietnamese yellow cattle. Humid tropics The best adapted animal for the humid tropics is undoubtedly the buffalo but under extreme conditions it needs access to water or mud to assist in thermoregulation Low oxygen The Yak cattle in the high Tibetan Plateau and Mongolia and the South American camelids e.g. Llama and Guanaco (Campero, 2006) and Alpaca and Vicunna (Otazu, 2006) are outstanding in their adaptation to low oxygen tension at great altitudes as is the Bactrian camel in the Gobi desert (Wardeh and Dawa, 2006). The Yaks do not do well at high oxygen concentration in lowlands. They are also extremely well adapted to fluctuating supply of nutrients and also to cold winters as they have a long coat of hair. Even their milk production is related to nutrient supply. They normally have a calf every two years but have virtually two summer lactation periods for each calf (Weiner et al., 2003). They respond to nutrient supply in the second summer even though milk production had virtually stopped in the winter when little feed was available. It is of course also possible that the calf has physiologically adapted to less demand for milk in the winter period. Adaptation to low quality feed As a generalization roughages and grasses are of lower quality in tropical as opposed to temperate regions. However, cattle breeds in the tropics are often adapted to this by having a higher rumen volume relative to body weight enabling them to 2 2 2

have longer retention time of roughage and so digest it more fully. Mould et al. (1982) for instance showed that cattle in Bangladesh had a rumen volume amounting to about 35% of live weight compared to about 20% for Holstein cattle. Chinese yellow cattle likewise can fatten on much poorer diets due to higher rumen volume relative to body weight. Buffaloes too are outstanding in this respect with high rumen volume and long retention time giving generally a slightly higher digestibility of roughage compared to cattle. Buffaloes are also more efficient than cattle in recycling urea to the rumen, even purine derivatives are recycled (Thanh and Ørskov 2006), and thus the N concentration in roughages needed to satisfy the requirement of rumen microbes is less for buffaloes than cattle. This is one area of research where more data is needed to describe different types of animals and their adaptation to local feeds. Nutrition and heat production It is a fact that the main energy source for ruminants is the volatile fatty acid (VFA) arising from the anaerobic fermentation of food by rumen microbes. The utilization of energy by the animals is less efficient from VFA than for instance from glucose. Ørskov et al. (1979) found that at least 40% of the energy of VFA infused into the rumen was dissipated as heat. In addition to this the cost of eating and propulsion of roughage through the gut is high so capture of metabolizable energy for productive purposes is generally less than 50%. This has the effect that in hot areas the animals will often limit their intake of food according to how much of this waste heat they can dissipate even if the quality of the feed could have enabled them to eat more. If the need for ME is high, e.g. for milk production by dairy cows, the animals will then be in negative energy balance. While fat stores can be used during negative energy balance the consequent glucose requirement will be met by metabolising tissue protein, which depress immunity to disease and delay ovulatory cycling activity and so prolong the calving interval. The consequence is that cattle

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in tropical regions will generally have lower production of milk and even growth rate compared with the cattle in temperate regions as they cannot sustain sufficient food intake to meet the need for very high milk yield. The heat stress will limit their intake. If the animals are kept inside, their environment can be controlled by air conditioning, but this is generally not an economical option. It is of course also possible to reduce heat stress somewhat by shelter and air movement. However, I have often seen differences between animals in their ability to dissipate heat. I observed for instance in South China Holstein cattle panting like dogs while Jersey cows were comfortably chewing their cud and in Mexico Creole cattle eating comfortably and yielding milk well while Holstein cattle were suffering from heat stress. Animal products In many countries including East and SouthEast Asia livestock perform many functions; they are multipurpose not single purpose. This aspect was discussed by Ørskov and Viglizzo (1994) and is summarized in Table 1, with a comparison between market oriented and single purpose systems and social value oriented and multipurpose systems.
Table 1. Comparison between single purpose system and multipurpose system. System Multi purpose Social value oriented Economic goal Profit maximization Risk minimization Cash generation Family support Productivity Stability and sustainability Control of Human control Environmental environment control Breeding goal Homogeneity Biological diversity Philosophical Specialistic Holistic approach Scientific Single discipline System discipline approach Statistica Meanl Variance emphasis Main effects Interactions Single purpose Market oriented

The contrasting economic goals, the driving forces that distinguish the two systems, are profit maximisation, cash generation and productivity in the market oriented sector, and risk minimization and stability in the social value oriented sector. It is most important that often the environment is under human control in market oriented systems. Thus beef animals are kept in feedlots at least during part of their lives with complete environmental and nutritional control so that weight gains, milk yields etc. are similar in dry and wet seasons and in summers and winters. This has an effect on the breeding goal which is homogeneity in the market oriented sector as this increases the prediction of profitability. The homogeneity may be achieved by use of tools such as artificial insemination and embryo transfer. For the social value sector diversity has survival value as the environment is not predictable but varies from year to year. It is unfortunate that almost everywhere animal research is focussed on homogeneity and single products. This is understandable but not excusable because most research is funded by countries with intensive animal production industries. The philosophical approach can be specialistic e.g. concentrated on one aspect of production while in the social value sector the philosophy has to be holistic, as animal production is part of a system interacting with families and with plants and soils. University courses traditionally focus on single disciplines e.g. animal nutrition, animal production, animal breeding, whereas in relation to the social value sector there should be system disciplines. Normally statistical emphasis is directed towards the mean and main effect but in the social value sector there should be emphasis on the variance and interactions as these concern survival value in an environment that varies from year to year. Clearly animals from the social value sector will not generally be able to compete with market oriented animals on the single product for which the latter have been selected for many years to achieve. 3 3 3

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Generally, there is little direct transfer in that direction though it might serve to enhance genetic diversity. However transfer of animals from the market oriented to social value oriented sector is pursued relentlessly by western livestock dealers pretending to solve problems and aid the farmer in the social value sector. Animal selected under environmental control and with high quality feed and produce a single product are asked to produce and survive in an area where the environment is not under control. There are plenty of examples of disasters and relatively few successes. The average lifespan of Friesian cows exported to developing countries is about 15 months. They have great problems and yet the expert of so-called superior breeds continue relentlessly and uncritically under the guise of aid! Nutritional support can then be achieved by importation of feed but this is expensive and neglectful of local feed resources. Beef cattle produced in western temperate countries on high quality feeds are often, apart from growth rate, selected for high carcass weight relative to live weight which essentially results in selecting against rumen volume. These animals are exported as upgraded animals to areas where the local feed of low quality requires a large rumen volume for its intake and digestion. It is however leaving a country very vulnerable. Intensive poultry production in Indonesia was supported by cheap feed from America. When the currency was devalued by 80% in 1998 most of the poultry industry went bankrupt. The small farmers producing chickens from local resources survived. Various levels of crossbreeding with single purpose animals can be attempted. It is interesting to note that Cuba where breeding policy used to depend on the use of cheap feed from USSR is now reducing the amount of Holstein blood in their dairy herds. In the tropics, and elsewhere too, livestock kept in their proper interaction with soil, plants and people make a tremendous contribution to resource management, to soil fertility, high quality food such as milk and meat, and to security as a type of bank. 4 4 4

Separating animals from this interaction, as by keeping them in large feedlots, is not a sustainable system. Animal manure becomes a polluting waste product, instead of contributing to soil fertility. Many cities even in Asia and Africa are surrounded by intensive animal enterprises to provide meat and milk for the townsfolk, but the manure causes pollution and the feed has to be transported from rural areas or imported. This system causes immense environmental damage and should be stopped. The increased demand for animal products for the cities should if possible be used as a tool to decrease rural poverty. Animal production should be encouraged from rural areas where the feed is available but here our politicians have to recognise that small farmers cannot take risks or tolerate large price fluctuations. Given security it is my experience from many countries that small farmers will respond by increasing animal production when the conditions are right. This has so many advantages for soil, plants, people and environment in general. Organizations such as WTO must recognize this. Intensive animal production closely around cities promotes the very opposite, poverty, pollution and soil deterioration. REFERENCES Campero, J.R. (2006) Llama and Guanaco general perspective. ICAR Technical Series, 11: 1118. Ku-Vera, J.C., MacLeod, N.A. and Ørskov, E.R. (1989) Energy exchanges of cattle nourished by intragastric infusion of nutrients. In: Energy metabolism of farm animals. (Y. van der Honeny and W.H. Close, eds.). pp. 271-274. Proc. 11th Symp. Lunteren (EAAP 43), Pudoc, Wageningen. Mould, F.L., Saadullah, M., Haque, M., Davis, C., Dolberg, F. and Ørskov, E.R. (1982) Trop. Anim. Prod., 7: 174-181. Ørskov, E.R., Grubb, D.A., Smith, J.S., Webster,

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A.J.F. and Corrigall, W. (1979). Br. J. Nur., 41: 541-551 Ørskov, E.R. and Viglizzo, E.F. (1994) Outlook Agric., 23: 81-89. Ørskov, E.R., Meehan, D.E., MacLeod, N.A. and Kyle, D.J. (1998) Br. J. Nur., 81: 389-393. Otazu D.A. (2006) Alpaca and Vicuna general perspective ICAR Technical Series, 11: 31-36. Thanh Vo thi Kim and Ørskov, E.R. (2006) Anim. Sci., 82: 355-358.

Wardeh, M.F. and Dawa, M. (2006) Camels and Dromedaries: general perspective ICAR Technical Series No 11: 1-10. Weiner, G., Jianlin, H. and Ruijun, L. (2003) FAO RAP Publication 2003/2006. Regional Office for Asia & Pacific, FAO, UK Bangkok Thailand. Wensvoort, J., Kyle, D.J., Ørskov, E.R. and Bourke, D.A. (2001) Rangifer, 21: 45-48

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Transformation of animal nutrition education to match future need
Ashok Rathore Department of Animal Welfare and Veterinary Science Institute Allahabad Agricultural Institute-Deemed University, Allahabad-211007, India

Agricultural improvement has been called the most difficult task, a nation can face (Sommer, 1975). It is difficult, yes, but not impossible. In developing nations like India the system of education in Animal Science in general, and animal nutrition in particular, requires a fundamental revamp. The primary focus, need to increase efficiency of animal production and marketing at local level; extension and adoption of existing technologies; applied research and empowerment of local women. There is an urgent need to integrate and re-work the curricula for the need of poor communities in rural areas. These courses (animal sciences and animal nutrition) should be organized with integrated rural development as the over all objective and should avoid purely academic approaches. People in the field are asking for support and assistance in improved livestock production through improved management encompassing improved nutrition for the livestock, which sadly is frequently ignored and neglected in traditional curricula and rural development program. All too often we underestimate the time needed to plan a good course of study. Furthermore, those teaching the courses should also do extension work to prevent their becoming isolated from the needs and problems in the farmers’ fields. What is needed; is practical hands-on training that supplements and reinforces the more formal didactic approach of the classroom. The course of study should begin by arousing interest and motivating the participants to try out innovation. Then it should make sure they know enough to experiment successfully. Finally, it should encourage them to teach others and show them how to do it. Scotland was one of the first 6 6 6

countries to start ‘extension’ service when the universities decided to ‘extend’ their educational efforts beyond the university boundaries, although the term ‘extension’ was introduced in Cambridge University. The concept was then taken up in the USA, particularly in the agricultural field. There, graduates were employed to work in the rural areas under the guidance of a nearby university. Their job was to introduce new ideas and skills to farmers. Since then, ‘Extension’ has spread to almost all countries in the world. Many of the people in the farming communities are suspicious of governmental workers, so trust and friendship need to be built up. A practical and more realistic approach will encompass such know-how as nutrition, breeding, feeding, management, and treatment of farm animals (cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and poultry etc.). It is useless to have such information stored or locked up in files and inaccessible theses. Practical education and training for the graduate and postgraduate students, who will be working with the rural workers must over come bureaucratic inertia and lack of political will. There exists a general apathy among the rural poor who often can see no leadership showing them the way out of their unenviable situation. These problems should be replaced with an enthusiasm engendered by learning practical methods for improvement, and inspired by those privileged to assist them in making headway towards their desired targets for production. There exists “a serious gap in the myriads of volumes available is any serious attempt to relate theories to practice and address them to the practitioner in the field”. It would seem that practitioners do not write and theoreticians remain in the abstractions of their theories

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(Stoesz, 1972). It seems to be characteristics of human nature that people learn more effectively from mistakes, their own as well as others, than their success. Village people are interested in works that responds not to the general needs of the region, but to their own specific needs. Having no experience with large institutions, they tend to interpret bureaucratic inflexibility as an insult, a sign of indifference, or an ultimate Refusal of help. It is usually the case that general apathy among the rural poor is associated with abstruse documents that are too scientific to be of practical use for farmers. This, along with generally low literacy levels (Table 2) and poor skills in English language, makes it vary hard for appropriate information and knowledge to be disseminated among farmers in rural areas. If sufficient government funds are put in to the proper and practical education for our students, (who will be working with the rural farming communities), the reward both the farming families and to India will be huge. Responsible government simply can not afford to neglect it. There are many tools that are used in, teaching and research at our universities. One of the toolsthe National Research Council’s (NRC) nutrient requirement series represents the primary publications of the Committee of Animal Nutrition (CAN). These publications have been used throughout most of this century for research and education purposes. The continued update of the reports in this series is critical to our next generation of academics and scientists. Whether they are of use to farmers is highly questionable. Global situation Within the next 25-30 years, the world’s population will increase to nearly 8 billion people. All of that increase will occur in the developing countries. The overwhelming majority of undernourished people live in Asia and Pacific. During seasonal food shortages and in times of famine and social unrest, the 7 7 7

number of undernourished people increases. Nearly 13 million children under 5 years of age die every year from preventable diseases and infections such as measles, diarrhea, malaria and pneumonia or from some combination of these. According to some estimate, malnutrition is a factor in one-third of these cases (Table 1 and 2).
Table 1. Major nutrition problems 30 % of children under five years of age are underweight; 199 million children suffer from protein energy malnutrition; 40 million people suffer from vitamin A deficiency; 2 billion people are affected by or at risk from iodine deficiency disorder; 2 billion people are affected by or at risk from iron deficiency anemia. Table 2. Under-nutrition, basic services and poverty 800 million people lack adequate access to food; 158 million children under five years of age are malnourished; 800 million people lack adequate access to health services; 1.2 billion people lack access to safe water; 1.3 billion people live below poverty line 2 billion people lack sanitation facilities; 1 billion people lack adequate shelter; 842 million adults are illiterate;

Past generation Over the past few decades, at least spill over of agricultural technology from rich countries to poor countries demonstrated increased production and food security for many parts of the developing world, however, recent developments in both the developed and developing world means that poor countries may no longer be able to depend, as they have in the past on spillovers of new agricultural technologies and knowledge from richer countries, especially advances related to enhanced productivity of staple foods. And a consequence of these changes, simply maintaining their current agricultural Research and Development (R & D) policies may leave many

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developing nations as technological orphans in the decades ahead. Developing countries may have to become more self-reliant and perhaps more dependent on one another for the collective benefits of agricultural R & D and technology. Many developing countries are facing serious shortage of funding and institutional constraints that inhibit the effectiveness of local R & D. Together these factors may lead to serious food deficits. The number of publications that have been used by past generations of researchers and educators peaked in the mid-70s and since that time the interval between revisions of the publications has increased and the number of publications produced per year has decreased. These trends reflects the fact that the rapid pace of science produces more material that must be reviewed with each revision, which requires more time and resources to put in to practical use – that is, making practical use of the extended knowledge at grass root level to benefit the rural communities. The Indian agricultural research and education systems have a long and distinguished history that evolved from a decentralized, imperial system into a highly centralized one created to respond to the food crisis in the 1960s. With the goal of increased food production as the driving force, the system grew rapidly, through both central and state fiscal appropriations. The impacts of these investments were impressive, India became self-sufficient in food, and numerous studies have documented high payoffs. Technology transfer In the 1990s, new challenges arose, forcing changes in the organizations and funding of education and research in India. Food security is now only one of several goals of the current education and research system. Privatization and liberalization of the economy and challenges of sustainable resource management and diversification are now placing new demand on the system. Some lessons 8 8 8

can be learned from the past. First political commitment through sustainability of public funds is essential. Despite the transition at independence and successive governments of different political ideologies thereafter, however, as the system expands and becomes more complex, a number of organizational and management problem emerge. These problems could be addressed with appropriate management leadership and willingness to learn from the past, as well as from contemporary institutional developments in education and research systems around the world. Improved communication technology has resulted in revisions of the reports on food-producing animals. These reports have evolved from static documents containing tables with numerical values to become more dynamic with the incorporation of computer models, which should make the reports more useful. These days there is a need to move beyond using reports and text books to educate. Now it makes sense to use hands-on education and training to meet local needs, at the grass-root level by: 1. Supplying adequate relevant materials which can be easily understood by local groups; 2. Sufficient training of extension workers who are able to communicate development information; and 3. Make available reliable materials which are not expensive. Deliberate action is needed: To ensure enabling political, social and economic environment; To eradicate/alleviate poverty and inequality; To pursue sustainable food, agricultural and rural development policies; To ensure that food, agricultural trade and overall policies foster food security; and To meet emergency food requirements in ways that encounter recovery, rehabilitation and development.

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Because of direct impact of the climatic changes and increasing population in developing nations, global food production and loss of arable land has become one of the most urgent problems facing humanity. Should climatic alteration from greenhouse warming and enhanced ultraviolet levels impose further stress on agricultural systems, the prospects for increased food production would become even less favorable than they are at present. To make animal nutrition education relevant to the local need we should aim to: Explain the range of livestock feeds and feeding methods available for Animal production, using accepted industry terminology, explain the role of energy foods, including the sources and functions of those foods in animal diets; Explain the functions of the major nutritional group, including proteins, vitamins, minerals and trace elements in animal diets; Explain on-farm methods used to evaluate feeding including selection of feeds and feed digestibility; Explain the dietary value of pastures, including grasses, cereals, and other edible as well as non-edible plants, and their by-products for animal feeds; Explain the dietary value of seeds, including oil seeds, legume seeds and their by-products and food sources for animals; Evaluate the dietary value of fodder plants, including trees and shrubs and their by-products, as a food source in animal production, determine suitable feed rations for a farm animal maintenance program at a reasonable cost; Analyze the method(s) to determine suitable feed rations in a farm animal production program; and Explain the factors affecting the composition of feed ration in animal production. 9 9 9

Course coverage It is generally agreed that payoffs to agricultural education could be higher with a stronger research-extension interface. The weakness of current system can be attributed to a number of factors. First, because adaptive research and technology transfer is considered to be less challenging, few scientists and educators are attracted to it. Second, scientists working in technology assessment and transfer are disadvantaged because performance-evaluation criteria tend to emphasize the number of research publications. Third, most scientists lack the skills to assess farmers’ research needs and design appropriate technologies; they also lack operating expenses for on-farm research. Livestock is one such opportunity, driven by increasing incomes in developing countries, the demand for livestock products- meat, eggs and dairy products is increasing at a far greater rate than the demand for staple crops. India is a tropical country, having largest livestock wealth, with highest bovine population, and second in sheep population and sixth highest in poultry. India’s large livestock population, considered by some as an asset that is provided in plenty by nature, but seen by others as burden. India is presently the world’s largest dairy producer (due to, vast number of low producers-cattle and buffaloes). Operation flood is an Indian scheme by which about 10 million small-scale producers, producing as little as a couple of liters each day, have been integrated into the market. However, in India many of the poor farmers are land less, and many of these landless poor are women- women constitute about 70% of the poorest of the poor. A major key to managing change is proper diagnosis of problems and situations, keeping in mind that the performance of the whole is not the sum of the individual parts, but is a sequence of the relationship of the performance between parts. Thus problems cannot be solved separately, since they are interdependent. Basically farming/agriculture is

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about human interference with nature in such a way that animal and plant products can be harvested. Yet this interference can cause serious problems to the environment unless it is done carefully. Pro-poor innovative systems In developing countries, a major problem is how to get new ideas and technologies to poor people. Trying to implement new ideas and technologies has been expensive and traditional extension systems have failed to help rural poor. This TROPNUTRICON-2007 Conference will be deliberating into how we can organize and get communities involved in sharing knowledge. The oldfashioned farmer field-school approach is now being tested as a way to disseminate information about livestock innovations with an emphasis on animal nutrition. It is a technique brings group of people together around a common interest such as breeding small ruminants. The farmers request information about a particular topic or technology. They may be explicit about their concerns and what they want a technology to accomplish for them. The farmers themselves may initiate the research and they help shape the innovation. There are institutions, governmental as well as non-governmental organizations and universities that can address policy and there are those that address technology. They have the potential to move development along a path that is beneficial for the poor who rely on livestock for what little income they have. This, however, requires a targeted effort. It will not happen by default. Many of the issues are international, are complex and require a wide range of skills indicating that collaboration must transcend institutional and national boundaries. Australia’s role, the livestock revolution: A pathway from poverty The northern part of Australia is, where intensive research is done on tropical agriculture. Australia is successful in livestock production. Particu10 10 10

larly important is the fact that researchers and educators are interested in understanding tropical animal diseases (Rathore, 2007a) both inside and outside Australia, because these livestock keepers have the same problems. The Office International des Epizootics (OIE) estimates that animal disease may result in losses of up to 20% of production (OIE 1993). When dealing with livestock in the tropics, Australia has first-hand experience that puts researchers in a more advantageous position than, for example, those working in Nordic countries. Australia has developed interesting institutional innovations in managing research, such as the Cooperative Research Centers Programs – build links between industry, universities and research agencies to achieve world-class research and innovation. It is attractive to consider how such innovations can take on a more international role. Australia is closer than other developed countries to developing nation like India in South-East Asia. Australia has valuable experience and assets to offer that reach beyond trade exports. As Australia is a model of successful tropical agriculture, opportunities will present themselves in areas such as training and consulting, with possibilities of sharing and passing on expertise that will benefit the entire region. In the future Australia’s role will probably be to build the livestock industry in the developing world, providing knowledge, services, genetic resource training. Livestock research, development and training promising opportunities for improvement of the lives of poor farmers, helping them step out poverty and offering broader benefits for all. Since 1971, when ‘poverty eradication’ became the main theme of development planning, improving livestock has been recognized by the Indian Government as an important tool for poverty alleviation and funds were provided for development and research programs. The focus of such programs, however, has been improvement in the production of livestock commodities for income

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generation, applying the western model and assuming that ideal conditions would be provided. As a result, the programs have had mixed results and many reports on the impact of livestock development programs concluded that ‘there is no clear evidence to show impact on poverty’ and that ‘adoption of western technology by the resource poor has been negligible’. Agriculture has changed dramatically especially since mid 50s. Food and fiber productivity soared due to new technologies, mechanization, increased chemical use, specialization and governmental policies that favor maximizing production. These challenges allowed fewer farmers with reduced labor, to produce the majority of food and fiber in the developed nations like the U.S. and Australia. It is not necessary, nor even desirable, for countries developing today to follow the same path towards development as did the developed world. Previously, as countries developed, people moving into cities readily found employment as industrialization was taking place on a large scale. Simultaneously, the number of people required to work in the livestock industry was greatly reduced because mechanization had taken over many jobs. Contemporary thinking is that by bolstering and developing agricultural production beyond subsistence levels, it will be possible for people to support more of the population on the land. People not able to sustain themselves on the land are drifting into cities. But people who are now migrating into cities have little prospect of employment and, without jobs; they are forced into slums - at an enormous cost to society. We need to take such potential dangers into account as we work out our strategies. In order to alleviate rural poverty we need our future agricultural and veterinary graduates to be better educated, but to be proactive, and well equipped to assist rural communities. These graduates will be able help the rural communities by extension of their knowledge so that the farmers will be better equipped to manage their livestock. 11 11 11

As a result they will be more productive and will improve their economic base on which rural communities depend, especially with regard to local food production (for humans as well as livestock). The consequential growth of the rural economies can lead to increased trade with other countries with prospects of benefits flowing globally. A continuing major effort in international research and education in agriculture and natural resource management is required to provide for the continuing increase in world population. These efforts must extend to the underlying reasons for poverty in developing countries, and to issues surrounding continuing environmental degradation. Improving the food supply: diet modification, increasing demand for livestock and products In 2030, it is estimated that out of the eight billion people in this world, six billion will be in the developing world. That is where the population is growing, and it will continue to grow particularly rapidly in Asia, where we expect 50% of that additional growth. It is calculated and widely cited that 1.2 billion people are living on a cash income of less than a dollar a day. Three-quarter of these people live in rural areas. The proposed Animal Welfare & Veterinary Science Institute at Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Science (at Allahabad, U.P. India) recognizes the importance of agricultural education, research and development in agriculture, forestry and natural resource management and will be a power-house for economic progress in India where rural communities are dependent on local food and livestock production and resource management. It will be advancing India’s national interest through poverty reduction and the sustainable development for poor rural community. The success of Green Revolution lay primarily in its use of fossil energy for fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation to raise crops as well as in improved seed. It greatly increased the energy-intensiveness

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of agricultural production, in some case by 100 fold or more. The Green revolution was technologically suited to special circumstances: relatively level land with adequate water for irrigation and fertilizers, and in nations that could acquire the other needed resources. The green Revolution has been implemented in a manner that has not proved to be environmentally sustainable by better education. The technology has enhanced soil erosion, polluted groundwater and surface-water resources, and increased pesticide use has caused serious public health and environmental problems. Fossil fuelsstarting with oil – are now being depleted and will not be available for a long to sustain the techniques of the Green Revolution. At the present time only 3, of 183 nations are major exporters of grain, the United States, Australia and Canada. With the present patterns of distribution and consumption current food supplies appear insufficient to provide satisfactory diets for all. Although a recent FAO report indicates that chronic under-nutrition in developing countries has improved some what. It is generally agreed that among a number of important global changes, economics and social well-being must improve for that large fraction of the world’s people now in poverty. This includes better education, better infrastructure, and more and better quality food. Ruminant livestock like cattle, goat and sheep, graze about half of the earth’s total land area (During amd Brough, 1992). In addition, about onequarter of the world cropland is devoted to producing grains and other feeds for livestock. About 38% of the world grain production is now fed to livestock. In the United States, for example, this amounts to about 135 million tons/year of grain, of a total production of 312 million tons/year. If developed countries, moved toward more- vegetableprotein diet rather than their present diets, which are high in animal foods, a substantial amount of grain would become available for direct human consumption. There are a number of ways by which cropland productivity may be raised that do not 12 12 12

induce injury over the long term, that is, are sustainable. If these technologies were put into common use in agriculture, some of the negative impacts of degradation in the agro-ecosystem could be reduced and the yields of many crops increased. These technologies include: Energy intensive farming: While continuation of the rapid increases in yields of the Green Revolution is no longer possible in many regions of the world, increased crop yields are possible by increasing the use of fertilizers and pesticides in some developing countries in Africa, Latin America and Asia. However, recent reports indicate a possible problem of declining yields in the rice-wheat systems in the high production areas of South Asia. And as depletion of oil and gas becomes more severe, the production of fertilizers and pesticides will become too costly to sustain Livestock management and fertilizer sources: Livestock serve two important functions in agriculture and food production. First, ruminant livestock convert grass and forages, which are unsuitable for human foods, into milk, leather/fiber, blood and meat for use by humans. They also produce enormous amount of manure and urine and other byproducts useful for crop production, biogas and a number of innovative products. Soil and water conservation: The loss of productive soil has occurred as long as crops have been cultivated. This loss arises from soil erosion, salinization, water-logging, and urbanization. Nutrient depletion, over-cultivation, over-grazing, acidification and soil compaction contribute as well. Many of these processes are caused or are aggravated by poor agricultural practices. Soil erosion, a problem throughout the world, is the single most serious cause of degradation of arable land. The high rate of soil erosion now typical of world agriculture land emphasizes the urgency of stemming this loss, which in itself is probably the most threatening to sustained levels of food production. Improved conservation of water can enhance rain-fed and irrigated crop yields.

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Crop varieties and genetic engineering: The application of biotechnology to alter certain crop characteristics is expected to increase yields for some crops, such as developing new crop varieties with better harvest index and crop that have improved resistance to insect and plant pathogen attacks. Maintaining biodiversity: Conserving biodiversity of plants and animal species is essential to maintaining a productive and attractive environment for agriculture and other human activities. Greater effort is also needed to conserve the genetic diversity that exists in crops and animals worldwide. This diversity has proven extremely valuable in improving crop productivity and will continue to do so in the field of animal breeding and genetic improvement in the future (Rathore, 2007). Improved pest control: Because insects, diseases and weeds destroy about 35% of potential pre-harvest crop production in the world, the implementation of appropriate technologies to reduce pest and disease losses would substantially increase crop yields and food supplies. Irrigation can be used successfully to increase yields, which also happens if abundant water and energy resources are available. The problems facing irrigation suggest that its worldwide expansion will be limited. Owing to developing shortages of water, improved irrigation practices that lead to increased water in plants’ root zones are urgently needed. Constraints and challenges for educating livestock industry personnel in India A wide range of solutions would be needed to address the many problems that have been identified. There is an urgent need for improved information gathering, based on active surveillance and quickly collection of reliable data. Information must be able to be gathered and processes quickly so that it is still relevant when it is used for decision making. There is great challenge to alleviate poverty, 13 13 13

produce more and safer food, especially of animal origin, against shrinking animal bio-diversity and increased global trade. There must be a livestock revolution in developing world to meet the projected demands of more than double the meat and milk consumption over the next 20 years. This demand can not only be met by an increased number of animals; increased productivity is also required to avoid degradation of natural resources. The potential of indigenous breeds in developing countries is often inadequately documented and under-utilized. Diversity in animal genetic resources is invaluable for future development. There is a need for conservation programs that increase animal productivity and maintain the necessary genetic diversity. Often past conservation programs have failed. Good and simple examples that demonstrate effective breeding strategies, which take into account environmental, economic and infrastructure constraints, must be developed. Research and capacity building at all levels is required to improve the knowledge of indigenous and alternate animal genetic resources in different region of the developing world. The implementation of sustainable breeding strategies in the developing countries will be instrumental in increasing awareness of the roles of livestock and their genetic diversity. There is need to develop and sustain partnerships for international livestock research and education, with priorities for development –oriented livestock research that will increase outputs that improve the wellbeing of poor people. However, there are a number of difficulties in expanding food supplies in developing nations, some of these are: 1. There is a need to decrease global fossil-fuel use and halt deforestation, in order to lessen carbon emissions to the atmosphere. These steps are in direct competition with the need

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to provide sufficient energy for intensive agriculture and for cooking and heating using firewood. A major decrease in fossil-fuel use by the industrial countries would require 25 years at a minimum to implement fully, even in favorable circumstances. Yet a three-or fourfold increase in effective energy services to the earth’s people will be required to yield the improvements needed in the quality of life in a world of eight billion people. 2. Even assuming that sufficient fossil or other fuels will be available in the future to support energy-intensive agriculture in developing countries, several constraints appear to make this difficult. These include: the high economic costs of energy and problem associated with new technologies. Any solution must be able to be practically applied and be appropriate for the situation in which it will be used.

3.

Research and educational priorities Crop-livestock integrated farming system; Feed resource utilization and improvement; Nutrient requirements and germplasm evaluation; Socio-economic analysis, policy issues and developing alternative technologies; Genetic evaluation, biological markers and production and processing of quality male germplasm and freezing technology; Development of latest diagnostics and vaccines for augmenting animal health; Reproductive biotechnology; Improved reproductive efficiency; Rapid genetic up gradation of livestock; Scientific exchange, training and recruitment of staffs; Resource management (sustainable). 14 14 14

Creation of public awareness and human resource development No enterprise can be successful unless it is accepted by the community. To improve the livelihood and the livestock production of the underprivileged families, we need to understand their way of life and their perceptions about the role of livestock in their livelihood. Human societies all over the world have developed social and cultural bonds and affinities with certain species or breeds of animals. This has resulted in the integration of certain breeds as a part of human life. Numerous religious rituals, festivals and folklores are intimately connected with native domestic animals. In some societies ownership of certain breeds confers on their owners a status symbol and authority (Sahai, 1998). It is now globally accepted that conservation of animal genetic resources is essential, but overriding economic consideration often jeopardize the attempt to preserve them (FAO, 1999). The population of farm livestock is markedly high in relation to the land and other resources. The overall productivity of farm animals in India is distressingly lower than in America, Australia and Europe. The multi-functionality of livestock and their existence in developing countries, particularly in small holder production systems - directly link them with poor rural communities and concern millions of resource poor landless agricultural laborers and small and marginal farmers. While most of the livestock are owned by underprivileged families, reliable statistics are not available on the number of livestock owned by a family (neither for rural or urban populations). Recent statistics (Government of India 2004) show that on an average 25% of households belong to the under-privileged category. According to Vidyanathan (1988, 1989), economics of bovine production in relation to livelihood encompasses: Bovines are mainly maintained for animal power and milk, cattle for bullocks and buffaloes for milk; Buffaloes are mainly maintained for milk pro-

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duction but more buffaloes are reared by resource rich farmers and in feed surplus areas, compared to cows; There is strong link between milk production and feed availability; Milk production can generate employment and income for smallholders and landless farmers. However, they need financial and institutional support and better access to feed resources and livestock services; There is inadequacy of hard data on economic related aspects; Requirement of bullocks is decreasing in some areas; and Buffaloes (and goats also) appear to be the animal of the future and their population is increasing. Women in livestock production The role of women in livestock production varies among underprivileged groups and between regions. In tribal communities, women have a greater role in livestock production as well as in the sale of produce, while pastoral women are generally involved in looking after the newly born and sick animals. Amongst most of the other backward communities, women have a greater role with small animals and backyard poultry, while men manage large animals (Rangnekar 1992). Within the context of improving livestock production, it is crucial that women’s involvement in livestock research and development (R & D) is promoted. In the context of livestock development, following are suggested: In the under-privileged rural sector improved livestock productivity knowledge and skills of women - and their greater involvement in livestock production and development - will quicken the rate of improvement both qualitatively and quantitatively; and When they are working in developed areas 15 15 15

where they have access to organizational support the under-privileged can adopt more advanced livestock production systems; Under grain fed conditions, diversified croplivestock production systems, in which livestock and crop ‘niche’ well, together, are the best way to improve sustainability and livelihoods of the underprivileged. Livestock wealth and its contribution to the national GDP Over 64% of population of India lives in rural sector and is mainly dependent on land and animals. 69% of the farmers have less than 1.0 hector land and 21% of farmers have between 1.0-2.0 hectors of land. According to 2005-2006 statistics 50% of rural labor force is landless farmers. Poverty causes pronounced deprivation in human wellbeing encompassing material deprivation, poor health, literacy and nutrition, vulnerability to shocks and changes, and having little or no control over key decisions. One billion can not read or write, 1.2 billion lack access to safe drinking water, 35% of world’s poor live in India (refer Table 2). The poorest of the poor often do not have livestock, but if they acquire animals, their livestock can help them along a pathway out of poverty. Poor people should not be regarded as burdensome to society. Rather, they represent an economic opportunity needs to be taped. India’s poverty ratio is disgracefully 28%. Because despite spending enormous sums, the government has failed dismally to provide every village with the five basics of growth: all weather roads, electricity, telecom, functioning schools and functioning health centers. The low GDP indicates high level of inefficiency in the agricultural sector. However, if the livestock production can be improved by selecting livestock with higher productivity, it will provide people with work, more food, income, traction, fertilizer and fuel; but it will also act as catalyst to

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transform subsistence farming into higher income generating enterprise, allowing poor to join the market economy. The GDP for the current fiscal year (2006-07) in India will touch 9.2%, hitting the 9.4% mark for the second successive year, bringing close to magical double digit levels of 10%. Economists have said ‘high growth seem sustainable in the future’. But what is the advantage of such economic growth when our farmers in Uttar Pradesh, Maharastra, Bihar and other states in India are still committing suicide everyday as they do not get adequate return from their produce? A liter of milk costs same as a liter of bottled water in India. What a paradox! Policy, education, research, technologies and innovations What should we do? How can education and research help? Research and education can influence policies in a number of ways. In India small holder dairying has become an economic story, farmers with only a small patch of land can keep a cow by zero grazing it (by utilization of agricultural waste and by-products), cash from this milk helps pay school fee and provide for other needs of the family. The conventional Western approach, as found in many developing countries, is to enforce pasteurization. But about 85% of the milk in India and other developing countries is sold raw, this means they are acting illegally. But they continue selling their raw milk, and the practice goes on without quality control. In general, people buying raw milk traditionally boil it before consuming. Throughout much of the developing world livestock are raised in mixed farming systems, where animals very often have different functions. Livestock activities are normally integrated into the existing farming systems. Animals are kept mainly for the purpose of food security and poverty alleviation, which involves millions of small, landless and marginal farmers. Livestock in India is characterized by very large numbers, across all species. In 16 16 16

2000, it had 218.18 million cattle, 93.77 million buffaloes, 57.96 million sheep, 123 million goats, 16 million pigs and 402 million poultry. India ranks first in cattle and buffaloes, second in goats, third in sheep and seventh in poultry. Livestock biodiversity is a valuable asset and provide insurance and buffer in adverse situations. The Indian sub-continent occupies a pre-eminent position in so far as its animal genetic resources are concerned. Over 140 breeds of livestock including cattle (30), buffaloes (10), sheep (40), goats (20), camel (4), horse (6), pigs, donkey, mule, yak and mithun including poultry (18) have been distributed over the large area spread in different agro-ecological zones of the country. Livestock in developing countries contributes up to 25% of agricultural GDP and 600 million rural people rely on livestock related activities for their livelihood. Animal production can be increased with or without greatly increased feed consumption. Any of the following scenarios or their combinations can increase animal production: Increased use of feed; More efficient use of feed; and Improved animal breeds, proper management and animal raising techniques. Increased use of feed places further pressure on the environment (unless new feed items can be developed that will rely little on the natural resources). However, more efficient use of feed, and improved animal breeds and raising techniques, will reduce feed use, or put in other word, will relatively ‘increase’ feed supply. Advances in these two areas hold great potential to increase animal production without much direct pressure on environment. For example, improving the capacity of the rumen to digest high-fiber diets could dramatically improve prospects of animal production, particularly in areas with easy access to roughages with low feed quality. In the case of pigs and poultry, feed-rates have improved by 30-50 % over the past decade,

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in part through breeding and in parts through the addition of enzymes to feeds. Still in mono-gastric animals, only 25-35% of the nutrients consumed are captured in the final products. Further understanding of digestive physiology and biochemistry can be expected to improve feed utilization in these animals (Bruinsma, 2003). Access to capital and information (knowledge and education) In most countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America, animal husbandry services are mainly oriented towards men. Veterinary services and extension programs and advisory services have been mainly designed by men for men. Extension personnel are often not trained to teach technical subjects to women or to react to their specific questions. We need trained women, who will have empathy to deal with this issue. Trend in animal product consumption: role of livestock in the household nutrition The rapid rise in livestock production in developing countries has been confronted in recent years by dwindling grazing resources for ruminant animals and a pattern of effective demand largely centered on rapidly growing mega-cities fueled by non-agricultural development. The latter increases pressure for rapid industrial approaches to satisfying urban meat demand. Together this trends help explain the large share of non-ruminants in the production increases in both the North and the South. The feeding of cereals to ruminants in the North has declined, a consequence of increased cattle grazing. This, along with the much larger increase in nonruminant production in the South, helps explain a relatively shift to the South in the use of feed cereal. China will double its consumption of meat by 2020, while India and other South Asian countries will lead the large overall increase in milk consumption. China dominates the overall picture in both production and consumption of meat (Table 3). 17 17 17

Table 3. Trend in the use of cereal as animal feed, 106T Region 1983 1993 78-84 3 12 55 3 194 442 636 1997 91-111 2 15 58 4 235 425 660 2020** 226 4 28 101 8 444 511 954

China 40-49 India 2 South East Asia 6 Latin America 40 Sub-Saharan Africa 2 Developing world 128 Developed world 465 WORLD 592

(** The 2020 projections are from the July 2002 version of the IMPACT model)

Because of taste factors and the relatively high cost of handling perishable final products, most meat and milk will be produced where it is consumed. Developing countries will account for 63% of meat production and 50% of milk production in 2020. China alone will account for 31% of meat production, but only 3% of milk production. The growing population of the world needs not only more animal proteins and products but specific constituents, and there is pressure to multiply livestock species and make improvements and conservation of dwindling resources with modern biotechnologies. The potential of livestock to reduce poverty is enormous. Livestock contribute to food and nutritional security. Animal products such as meat and milk are sources of high-quality protein and certain vitamins and minerals help promote general health and alleviate poor growth and poor mental development. The following table highlights inadequacy of animal protein and calories available to people in developing countries (source FAO 2002).
1990 Calories Protein Developed world Developing world 938 253 59.1 14.8 2002 Calories Protein 358.0 87.3 56.9 21.0

Training in livestock management Compared to women men have easier access to technology and training, mainly due to their strong

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position as heads of the household and greater access to off-farm mobility. In most developing countries, research and planning activities in the livestock sector, such as breeding, handling, feeding and health care, are largely dominated by men. Official livestock services are often controlled by men and extension personal are primarily men who are not accustomed or trained to teach technical subjects to women. Extension programs and educational materials are mainly designed by, and oriented towards, men at present. In many societies, women’s access to information and training in modern livestock management and dairying continues to be limited and even indirect. Successful training should be oriented towards those household members who execute these tasks. Only through a carefully planned gender approach can livestock production goal and successful training of women and men be achieved. Projects should identify and consider specific socio-cultural conditions of women, their needs and time constraints. Mobility of women is often limited and illiteracy high. Successful training can only be reached if these restrictions are considered and activities, approaches, methods and materials adapted according to meet the specific conditions. Quality gender training should be practical and situational. Resource persons should be both males and females. It is also important to consider the age of the resource person. Role of farmers’ organizations in education and livestock development There is little information on experience of farmers’ organizations, their impact at the local and regional level, and how they influence and impact on gender-related issues. Farmers’ organization can play a vital role in the livestock development process. Input-supply organizations may grow and become centers for services such as artificial insemination, bulls for breeding, veterinary assistance, milk collection and processing, and marketing of animal and animal products. 18 18 18

The experience of Andhra Pradesh in India shows that the membership of dairy cooperatives is largely dominated by men. Dairy cooperatives offered opportunities to men from backward communities to have access to benefits, emerge as leaders and gain visibility. Women only achieved symbolic representation and little opportunities for them to assume positions as managers, planners or director. In Orissa state (India) it seems that participation in cooperatives benefits both men and women in terms of marketing. But there is no significant impact on increasing women’s decision making or enhancing their leadership qualities. However, in these societies women’s cooperatives can only be successful if the husband first agrees to his wife’s participation. Nobel laureate Mohammed Yunus, with his Grameen (Villagers’) Bank has rewritten the conventional rules of banking where the poor were not regarded as creditworthy. Over the years, the bank has given loans totaling over $5 billion: small amount of collateral-free, working capital to the poor for self employment. The repayment rate is a healthy 98%. An internal survey by the bank showed that 58% of its borrowers had moved above the poverty line. Women have been the greatest beneficiaries. Yunus says “we focused on women because we found giving loans to them always brought more benefits to the family”. (“Whereas, the technology of the experiment stations has been overrated, that of local farmers has been underrated). REFERENCES Bruinsma, J. (2003) World Agriculture: Towards 2015/2030. An FAO Perspective. Earth scan, London PP 169-170. During, A.T. and Brough, H.B. (1992) Reforming the livestock economy, in State of the World, (Brown L.R. ed.). W.W. Norton & Co, New York, P 66-82.

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FAO (1999) Global strategy for the management of farm animal genetic resources – Exclusive breed initiatives for domestic animal biodiversity (IDAD) FAO, Rome. FAO (2002) World Agriculture: Towards 2015/ 2030. Summary Report. FAO, Rome. OIE (1993) World Animal health. Paris, Office International des Epizootics. Rangnekar, S.D. (1992) Women in livestock production in rural India. In: Proceedings of 6th AAP Animal Science Congress held in Bangkok, Thailand. pp 271-285. Rathore, A.K. (2007) Endemic and emerging animal diseases of economic importance and their control and action plan to alleviate rural poverty for the poor goats and sheep keepers in India. In: National Conference on Emerging Diseases of Small Ruminants and their Control under W.T.O. Regime held in Makhdoom, Farrah, Mathura , U.P. India, February 3-5, 2007. Rathore, A.K. (2007a) Animal genetic resources: Conservation and improvement. In: Proceed-

ings of National Symposium on Role of Animal Genetic Resources in Rural Livelihood Security, held at Ranchi, Jharkhand, India, February 8-9, 2007, pp 89-100. Sahai, R. (1998) Domestic animals genetic resources of India-Biodiversity and conservation; status reported by National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources, Karnal, India. Sommer. J.G. (1975) U.S. Voluntary Aid to the Third World: What is its Future? Development Paper 20, Washington D.C. Overseas Development Council, December 1975. pp. 12. Stoesz E. (1972) Beyond Good Intentions. Newton, Kansas, United Printing Inc. p. xii. Vidyanathan, A. (1988) Bovine Economy in India. Oxford & IBH publishing Co., Pty Ltd., New Delhi. Vidyanathan, A. (1989). Research in Livestock Economy: An overview in livestock economy of India. Indian Society of Agricultural Economics. Oxford & IBH publishing Co., Pty Ltd., New Delhi.

19 19 19

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Biotechnological advances in animal production
S. K. Gulati1, M. R. Garg2, P. L. Sherasia2, B. M. Bhanderi2, T. W. Scott1 1 Faculty of Veterinary Science (B19), University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia 2 National Dairy Development Board, Anand, India

In tropical regions there is intensive pressure on land use caused by the increase in human population. This influences the type of feeding systems for ruminants, which are typically fed on low quality roughages, some supplemental green fodder and agricultural by-products. It is recognized that voluntary feed intake and digestibility of tropical grasses are lower then temperate species. Straw based diets are commonly used in the Indian sub-continent; they have a poor digestibility ranging from 28-58% and low nutritive value. This results in reduced feed intake, often to levels below maintenance for substantial periods, severely limiting productivity. Therefore, to overcome these deficiencies research has concentrated on the development of feed additives and mineral supplements specifically designed for different regions. The application of feeding systems (NRC 2001) and ration balancing programs (Anon, 2003-2004), to assist dairy farmers in improving productivity are in progress. In recent years the development of rumen inert or by-pass nutrient feed additives and macro/micro mineral supplements have been a focus in India to improve ruminant productivity. This paper will summarize some of the recent developments. Rumen by-pass (R-BP) proteins and amino acids In designing protein and or amino acid supplements for lactating ruminants it is desirable to produce supplements with an amino acid content that is complementary to microbial protein, which is considered to be the best available source of essential amino acids for milk synthesis. 20 20 20

In India, by-pass protein feed supplements have been developed by screening protein meals for their amino acid composition and then developing suitable chemical treatment procedures. Commercial by-pass protein plants have been established at cattle feed plants Itola, Vadodara and Godhra, Panchmahal, in Gujarat State; similar plants in other locations are currently being developed. Table 1 summarizes the results of feeding these RBP-protein feed supplements.
Table 1. Nutrient profile of protein meals Sunflower meal Rapeseed meal

Natural Optimally Natural Optimally By-pass By-pass By-pass treated g/kg g/kg g/kg g/kg Crude protein RUP RDP 330 330 400 99 248 160 321 82 240 EAA available for absorption Cysteine 0.73 1.84 1.95 Methionine 0.52 1.31 1.14 Isoleucine 1.33 3.32 2.90 Leucine 2.02 5.06 6.10 Phenylalanine 1.25 3.12 2.76 Lysine 1.14 2.85 4.12 Hisidine 0.67 1.69 2.01 Arginine 2.34 5.85 4.26 400 304 96 3.71 2.17 5.50 11.58 5.28 7.82 3.82 8.09 9.6 9.44 12.41

Milk response, L 8.4 9.5 8.5 Net gain, Rs/animal/d Cow 9.61 Buffalo 14.99 Gulati et al., 2002; Garg et al., 2005a

Rumen by-pass (R-BP) fat There are two fundamental reasons to develop R-BP fat and apply the technology to ruminants, these are:-

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To increase the supply of bio-active essential fatty acids that influence productivity, energy balance and nutrient partitioning. To improve the functional and nutritional properties of milk/meat fat. In many dairy production systems the energy density of rations is low and the high yielding dairy animals loose body weight heavily in the first quarter of lactation. This not only affects the lactation yield but also reduce the reproductive efficiency; for example in India the inter-calving period in dairy animals is in the range 16-18 months. The use of fat supplements is important not only for overcoming the energy deficit, but is also gaining significance in relation to improving reproductive function and fertility (Staples, 1998). The fatty acid composition of the fat supplement and the amount and type of fatty acids absorbed from the small intestine appear to positively influence ovarian follicular number and size, life of the corpus luteum and embryo survival - the overall effect being to improve herd fertility. Rumen protected fat supplements containing a high proportion (50-60%) of linoleic acid were used to improve pregnancy rates in Hereford cattle (Wilkins et al., 1996). A recent development relates to the potential role of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA's) in lactating ruminants; feeding dairy cows a R-BP CLA mixture of isomers containing trans-10, cis-12, resulted in a reduction of milk fat content, increased milk production, improved tissue-energy balance and nitrogen retention in cows during early lactation (Shingfield et al., 2004). In recent trials, feeding a R-BP CLA mixture containing 10g /d of the trans-10, cis-12 isomer for 15 days to Jaffarabadi buffalo, reduced the milk fat content and fat yield by 27% and 22% (8.6 vs 6.3 % and 699 vs 547 g/d, for control vs R-BP CLA respectively); (Fig. 1). Further long term studies are required to assess the impact of RP-CLA on energy balance, nutrient re-partitioning, reproductive performance 21 21 21

(reduced inter-calving intervals) in buffaloes to allow a cost-benefit analysis.
10
Milk Fat Total Fat Yield 800

8

700

6

600

4

500

2

400

-1

0

3

6

9

12 16

22

Days

Fig. 1 Effect of feeding R-BP CLA on the fat content and yield of Jaffarabadi buffalo

The second reason to develop and use R-BP fat supplements relates to the functional and nutritional properties of milk fat. Majority of the dietary fats are hydrogenated in the rumen and this together with fatty acids synthesis in the mammary gland produce a milk, which has physically a hard fat e.g. poor spreadability of butter and perceived to be nutritionally undesirable because of the high proportion of saturated fatty acids The most effective procedure to protect dietary fatty supplements from ruminal hydrogenation is to encapsulate the oils in a matrix of formaldehyde treated protein and these products contain about 65-85% rumen inert or protected fat (Gulati et al., 2005). Feeding these RP oilseeds supplements to lactating dairy ruminants drastically alter the fatty acid composition of milk and improves butter spreadability and essential fatty acid content (see Table 2). Minerals Supplementation of minerals helps in efficient utilization of absorbed nutrients and in so many other ways, for improving growth, milk production and reproductive efficiency (McDowell, 1992). Surveys/ mineral mapping have been conducted by the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) and other

Milk Fat Yield (g/d)

Milk Fat (%)

Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India Table 2. Functional and nutritional properties of milk fat Fat fed g/d Melting characteristics Liquid at Liquid at 50oC 200oC 35.3 68.3 68.2 92.1 55.2 86.5 65.1 86.4

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Rumen by-pass bioactive fatty acids C18:1 c 24.1 32.6 22.8 21.5 C18:2 1.3 7.6 5.6 5.5 C18:3 0.7 2.2 1.1 5.1 C 20:5 0.51 C 22:6 1.09

Pasture PCS PSFO PSBLO

600 570 563

PCS-Protected canola /soybean; PSFO-Protected soybean /fish oil; PSBLA-Protected soybean /linseed oil Gulati, et al. 2005, 2002a

Indian institutes in various states (Garg et al., 2005). Based on mineral deficiency in the ration of animals in different agro-climatic zones, area specific mineral mixture formulations have been developed. With the NDDB’s assistance, fourteen mineral mixture plants have been set up in cooperative sector, in the States of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Kerala, Punjab, Haryana, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh (Table 3; Garg et al., 2007). Rumen by-pass (R-BP) anthelmentics Anti-parasitic agents are commonly given to ruminants as an oral drench into the rumen. In general they are subjected to: chemical and bacterial degradation losses of the active due to binding & association with fibre

uncontrolled absorption and excretion higher doses to be more effective against parasites resulting in higher costs contribute to accumulation of residues in edible tissue/milk residues in the environment Studies have demonstrated that the most efficient parasite chemotherapy relies on improved modes of drug presentation. More specifically, this is directed to “intelligent” formulations that target the anthelmentic (i.e., ABZ-Albendazole) to sites in the ruminant gut in a three stage release to maximise parasite exposure (Figure 2; Table 4) (Hennessy et al., 1992 and Gulati et al., unpublished data) whilst minimizing the need for repetitive drug use will be discussed.

Table 3. Mineral profiles of some feeds and fodders fed to dairy cows and buffaloes in different parts of India Feedstuffs Ca Dry fodder* Green fodder** 0.100.30 0.202.50 P Macro, % Na 0.100.20 0.201.20 0.040.10 0.18 Micro, ppm Zn Mn 5.038 1437 30.098.0 80 15109 27170 7.074.0 40

S 0.100.15 0.060.20 0.040.34 0.20

Cu 1.507.0 4.09.0 4.025.0 10

Fe 154691 2371500 42.0701 50

0.090.20 0.150.45 0.261.62 0.34

Concentrate ingredients*** 0.010.27 Requirements 0.42

*Straws of rice, wheat, sorghum, maize, bajra , dry grasses etc.; **Sorghum, maize, oat, lucerne, berseem green grasses etc.; ***Wheat, maize, bajra, sorghum, barley, cottonseed cake, groundnut cake, sesame cake, rice bran, wheat bran and pulse chunies. Mineral mixture formulation for a particular zone is worked out, based on the levels of minerals in feeds and fodder vis-à-vis requirement.

22 22 22

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Garg, M. R., Sherasia, P. L., Bhanderi, B. M., Gulati, SK, Scott, TW and George, PS (2005a) Indian Diary Sci. 58, 420-425. Garg, M. R., Bhanderi, B.M., and Sherasia, P. L., (2007) Indian Dairyman. Gulati S. K., Scott T. W., Garg, M. R. and Singh, D.K., (2002) Indian Dairyman, 54: 31-35.
Fig. 2 Quantity of ABZ released from protected particles relative to ABZ added

Future challenges: Although substantial progress has been made using many of the above technologies, there is a need to transfer knowledge at the village level to educate farmers to improve feeding regimes in a cost effective way. In the future
Table 4. Efficacy of a staged release and a conventional oral preparation Parasites H. contortus Worm Efficacy count (%) 3088 667 358 0 78 88 T. colubriformis Worm Efficacy count (%) 5699 2122 633 0 62 89

Gulati S. K., May, C., Wynn, P. C. and Scott T. W., (2002a) Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 98: 143-152. Gulati, S. K., Garg M. R. and Scott, T. W., (2005) Austr. J. Exper. Agric., 45: 1190-1203. Hennessy, D. R., Gulati, S. K., Ashes, J. R., Scott, T. W., (1992) Targeting of albendazole to sites of parasitism in the ruminant gastro-intestinal tract. Joint conference of the New Zealand and Australian societies for parasitology. Auckland, NZ. McDowell, L.R., (1992) Minerals in Animal and Human Nutrition. Academic Press. San Diego, CA pp. 49-51. NRC (2001) Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, 7th rev ed. National Academy of Science–National Research Council, Washington, DC. Shingfield K. J., Beever D. E., Reynolds C. K., Gulati S. K., Humphries D. J., Lupoli B., Hervás G. and Griinari J. M. (2004) J. Dairy Sci., 87: 635, 307. Staples, J. R., Burke, J. M., and Thatcher, W. W., (1998) J. Dairy Sci., 81: 856-871. Wilkins J. F., Hoffman W. D., Larsson S. K., Hamilton B. A., Hennessy D. W., Hillard M. A., (1996) Protected lipid/protein supplements improve synchrony of oestrus and conception rates in beef cows. In: International Congress Animal Reproduction, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, 13: 19. 23 23 23

Control Valbazen S/R

S/R - A stage-release preparation of Albenazole (ABZ) Valbazen® is an ABZ containing drench formulated by Smith Kline & Beecham Animal Health unpublished data; US Patent:5840324

more effort is required in extension /demonstration models and it is obligatory for governments at all levels to implement financial and organizational policies to achieve this goal. REFERENCES Anonymous, (2003-2004) Annual Report of Biotechnology Laboratory, National Dairy Development Board (NDDB), Anand, India. pp. 19-21. Garg, M.R., Bhanderi, B.M. and Sherasia, P.L. (2005) Anim. Nutr. Feed Technol., 5: 9-20.

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Ruminal anaerobic fungi for improving digestion and utilization of fibrous feeds in ruminants
J. P. Sehgal and Sanjay Kumar Dairy Cattle Nutrition Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal- 132 001, India

Cereal straws and agroindustrial by products are available in larger quantities for feeding to ruminants. These are poor in nutritional quality because of low protein and high lignin contents, but are potential source of cell-wall polysaccharides such as cellulose and hemicellulose. The high lignin and silica contents of these roughages reduce their digestible energy contents. In particular, lignin prevents close contact between the cell wall polysaccharides and the rumen microorganisms. Thus, upgrading of straw quality is still a central issue as a strategy for improving ruminant livestock production (Preston and Leng, 1987). During the past few decades, researchers have shown interest in physical and chemical treatment of straws (Jackson, 1977; Sehgal and Punj, 1983). Of the physical treatments, only chopping and soaking were feasible under village conditions. Soaking of chopped roughages, however, did not increase the feed intake further than up to a constant level. Wetting of crop residues was not useful in general, but definitely improved the intake of mechanically thrashed paddy straw, probably due to removal of oxalates, dust, silica and pebbles, etc. The other physical treatments like pelleting, steam processing, ionizing irradiation, grinding etc. were not found to be feasible at village level because of higher cost of equipments, increasing cost of energy for running the equipments, and for the cost of transportation of cereal straws and sugarcane bagasse from farm to plant and back. Chemical treatment of wheat straw using sodium hydroxide increased voluntary intake of straw by sheep (Alawa and Owen, 1984), goat (Sehgal 24 24 24

and Punj, 1983) and cattle (Ng'ambi and Campling, 1991; Flachowsky et al., 1996, 1999). However, excess requirement of water, environmental pollution and high cost of sodium hydroxide limited the use of this treatment of straws. The urea-NH3 treatment received a major attention as an appropriate technology of chemical treatment of straws (Owen and Jayasuriya, 1989; Brown and Adjei, 1995; Flachowsky et al., 1996, 1999; Celik et al., 2003; Sharma et al., 2004) but the improvements in digestibility of urea-NH3 treated wheat straw is temperature and moisture dependent and can not be used in temperate climate. The main advantage of enzymic methods was claimed to have a much greater control of the end products formed after the treatment and a little or no potential environmental pollution (Nakashima and Orskov, 1989). The two main approaches to the use of enzymes recently examined have been related to the use of cellulase, hemicellulase and lignase enzymes. The enzyme treatment increased the rumen soluble fraction and the rate of degradation of straws, though potential degradability remained unaffected. The advances in biotechnology have opened up novel approaches for increasing the nutritive value of cereal straws with microbes and allowing natural fermentation processes to enhance their feeding value (Langer et al., 1980, 1982; Pradhan et al., 1993). The solid state fermentation of wheat straw with aerobic white rot fungi was influenced by factors such as the species of fungi, substrate, temperature, moisture and nitrogen contents. Though the dry matter digestibility of straw increased, but a

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huge loss of substrate dry matter during fungus cultivation limited the applicability of this technology. Cereal straws treated with rumen bacterial culture (Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Fibrobacter succinogenes) in solid state and liquid state was reported to enhance the digestibility of nutrients (Lohakare, 1998). Simultaneously, interests in the ruminal anaerobic fungi were growing after their discovery by Orpin (1975), especially on their capacity for fibre digestion. These anaerobic fungi are unique and are only known strictly anaerobic fungi in the biosphere. The rumen fungi preferentially colonize highly lignified thick-walled sclerenchyma and vascular tissues. The fungal rhizoids penetrate deep into the recalcitrant tissues and digest cell wall components through enzymes, whereas bacteria act on peripheral areas. Rumen fungi have a strong fibrolytic activity, which helps in degradation of low quality roughages. They can break the linkages between lignin and hemicellulose. In vitro studies with different fungal species on degradation of cereal straws were found to improve dry matter digestibility and cell wall constituents (Manikumar et al., 2002, 2003, 2004 Thareja et al., 2006). Direct administration of Orpinomyces sp, a superior fibrolytic fungus was reported to increase growth rate, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen retention in sheep (Lee et al., 2000, 2004) and crossbred calves (Dey et al., 2004a,c) and buffalo calves (Tripathi et al., 2007a,b). Also oral administration of Piromyces sp WNG12 isolated from wild buffalo (Tripathi et al., 2007a,b) and Neocallimastix GR1 isolated from grazing goats (Thareja et al., 2006) showed higher growth rate in buffalo calves (Debanu Jit, 2006). Direct administration of Orpinomyces sp c-14 and Piromyces sp WNG-12 also showed higher milk production in buffalos (Swati, 2006). Zoospores of these anaerobic fungi have been developed in deficient media and their incorporation in sugarcane 25 25 25

bagasse and sugarcane bagasse based TMR have shown improvement in digestibility of nutrients and rumen fermentation pattern in in vitro (Sachin, 2007). Digestion and rumen fermentation of cereal straws Rumen fermentation of lignocellulosic feeds occur in a complex system that is influenced by many factors: (i) The physical and chemical nature of the fibre, (ii) The rate of ruminal digestion, (iii) The nature and population densities of the predominant species of fiber digesting microorganisms as affected by the prevailing ruminal conditions. Long back, Baker and Martin (1938) observed bacteria within the lacunae (i.e., zones of digestion) suggesting that adherence might be important in plant fibre degradation. Plant tissue particles entering the rumen are colonized by bacteria within 5 min, by protozoa within 15 min and by fungal sporangia and rhizoids within 2 hours (Demeyer, 1981). The bacterial attachment with the damaged surfaces of the substrate allows the microorganisms to control the substrate and its surroundings, and decrease the chance of being passed on to the omasum with the fluid portion of the rumen contents, which passes at a much faster rate than the solid fraction (VanSoest, 1982). Rumen anaerobic fungi and their role in fibre digestion Until the discovery of the anaerobic fungi in the sheep rumen by Orpin in 1975, the microbial population of the rumen was believed to be made up of bacteria and protozoa only. Since this discovery rumen fungi have been isolated from a wide range of herbivores (Gordon and Phillips, 1993; Ho et al., 1996; Ushida et al., 1997; Sehgal et al., 2002; Paul et al., 2003; Tripathi et al., 2007a,b, Thareja et al., 2006). They have a pH optimum at 6.5 to 6.7 and a temperature optimum at 39±1°C. It has been reported that these

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anaerobic fungi produce a wide range of hydrolytic enzymes viz4. polysaccharidases (endo-glucanase, exo-glucanase, xylanase, cellodextrinase, amylase), glycosidase (- and - glycosidase, -fructosidase, -xylosidase, -L-arabinofuranosidase, etc), esterase (acetyl xylan esterase, p-coumaroyl esterase, feruloyl esterase), pectin lyase and polygalacturonase (Pearce and Bauchop, 1985; Joblin et al., 1990; Kopecny and Hodrova, 1995; Dey et al., 2004 b) to utilize plant cell wall components. Rumen anaerobic fungi have a strong fibrolytic activity and preference for the thick-walled sclerenehyma and vascular tissues, and are capable of digesting various fibrous forages and various types of fibrous crop residues (Akin et al., 1983; Ho et al., 1996; Ushida et al., 1997; Manikumar et al., 2004; Dey et al., 2004a Tripathi et al., 2007a,b; Debanu Jit 2006, Swati 2006). The fungal rhizoids penetrate deep into the recalcitrant tissues and digest cell wall by means of enzymes. Rumen fungi can solubilize part of the lignin component of plant cell walls in culture, though there was no evidence of fermentation of lignin (Bernard-Vailhe et al., 1995). During the non-motile stage, the fungi colonize and degrade fibrous plant materials, thus enabling them to play a role in the digestion of fiber in the rumen. Orpin and Bountiff (1978) reported that rumen fungi appear to release zoospores within 30 min after feeding. Fungal zoospores swimming freely in the rumen fluid, locate freshly ingested plant fragments by chemotaxis of soluble carbohydrates diffusing from the damaged plant tissues. Fry (1986) observed that rumen fungi also have protease activities. Protease may have role in plant cell wall degradation, because the plant structural protein, such as extensin, increases the integrity of plant cell wall. Wallace and Joblin (1986) and Asao et al., (1993) also observed the protease activities and reported that possession of protease is a unique characteristic of rumen fungi, similar to rumen cellulolytic organisms producing cellulases. However, major ruminal cellulolytic bacteria are not proteolytic. 26 26 26

After attachment of zoospores to the feed particles, flagella are detached from zoospores, and then encystment and germination occur, followed by penetration of plant tissues by the rhizoids and form sporangia. Fungal colonization weakens the integrity of plant tissues and fragmentation of feed particles would proceed, thus causing digestion of feed particles (Calderon-Cortes et al., 1989; Akin et al., 1990). Influence of superior anaerobic fungi on animal performance Hillaire and Jouany (1989) worked with a continuous culture system (i.e., Rusitech), and observed that addition of one strain of Neocallimastix to the mixed rumen bacteria increased the degradation rate of wheat straw by 15 per cent. The elimination of rumen anaerobic fungi from rumen of sheep by chemical means decreased the plant fibre digestion (Gordon and Phillips, 1993). Ito et al. (1994) studied sheep rumen fungi for degradability and digestibility of rice straw and found that there was significant decrease in lignin residue content resulting in increased digestibility of rice straw. Studies indicated increased IVDMD and IVOMD, but a decreased NDF, ADF and ADL contents of straw with use of different anaerobic fungi, viz., Orpinomyces, Piromyces and Anaeromyces in comparison to control (Manikumar et al., 2002; Sehgal et al., 2002). It was also reported that the molar proportion of acetate increased with the simultaneous decrease in the production of propionate and butyrate by rumen anaerobic fungi. Further, it was observed that in both the rice and wheat straws, Orpinomyces sp (C-14) with double log dose (106CFU/ ml) showed the maximum hydrolytic activity and thus was found to be the most promising isolate than compared to others, i.e., Piromyces and Anaeromyces (Manikumar et al., 2002, 2003, 2004). Similarly, incubation of cereal straws, viz., wheat, paddy and chickpea straws with ruminal mixed fungal population increased dry matter, NDF,

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ADF and cellulose degradation in cattle and buffaloes (Sangwan et al., 2002). It has also been reported that the addition of anaerobic fungal culture Piromyces communis significantly increased not only the total bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria and anaerobic fungi but also the enzymetic activities of avicelase, CMCase and xylanase compared to the control (Lee et al., 2004) Gordon and Phillips (1998) reported an increase in voluntary intake of straw based diet from 7 to 12 percent, when the sheep were dosed through mouth with cultures of monocentric fungi isolated from herbivores other than sheep. Lee et al., (2000) isolated polycentric fungus Orpinomyces strain KNGF-2 from Korean native goat and administered to sheep @ 200 ml culture incubated for 7 days. Nutrient digestibility and nitrogen retention in fungus-supplemented group was found to be more than non-supplemented group (Table 1).
Table 1. In vivo nutrients digestibility in sheep dosed intraruminal fungal medium, fungal enzyme or whole fungal culture Item DM CP EE NDF ADF Hemicellulose Cellulose Cell contents (Lee et al., 2004) fungal medium 71.5 68.6 69.2 65.1 57.3 75.1 68.4 72.3 fungal enzyme 70.8 69.1 68.8 62.8 57.0 71.2 70.9 73.5 fungal culture 75.2 71.9 70.5 68.9 62.9 77.1 79.0 74.4

the improvement in nutritive value of wheat straw (Dey et al., 2004a). There was also a two and half fold increase in the fungal count in fungus-administered group of animals in this study. Studies conducted by Tripathi et al., (2007a,b) to investigate the comparative efficacy in improving the performance of buffalo calves following administration of anaerobic fungal culture (160 ml @106CFU/ ml/ calf on every 4th day) isolated from domestic cow (Orpinomyces sp C-14) and wild blue bull (Piromyces sp WNG-12) showed 29.7 per cent increased in growth rate of buffalo calves administered with Piromyces sp WNG-12 as compared to
Table 2. Performance of crossbred calves fed wheat straw based complete feed mixture without or with fungal culture (Orpinomyces sp) culture administration Particulars Control Fungal cultural administered 128.7 192.5 63.8 709.3 363.8 4.0 5.7 60.0 55.9 55.2 52.0 9.8 60.8

Growth rate, kg Initial BW Final BW Gain in BW Gain in BW, g/d Total DMI DMI, kg/d FCR Digestibility DM CF NDF ADF DCP TDN 131.0 186.3 55.3 614.8 366.8 4.1 6.6 of nutrients, % 53.9 50.3 44.4 42.9 Nutritive evaluation, % 9.1 55.3

No effect on feed intake was observed when growing crossbred calves were dosed with polycentric rumen fungus Orpinomyces sp C-14 culture (160 ml @106CFU/ml/calf/week). However, the growth rate and nutrient digestion was improved (Table 2) in fungus administered group in growing crossbred calves (Dey et al., 2004a). Also the TDN content of whole diet based on wheat straw was increased by 14.1per cent, which clearly indicated 27 27 27

(Dey et al., 2004a); a = after 90 days; Figures with different superscripts differ significantly P<0.05.

20.6 per cent to calves administered with Orpinomyces sp C-14 than the control animals. Feed efficiency of wheat straw based complete feed mixture was enhanced by 31.5 per cent following dosing of Piromyces sp WNG-12 to calves. The nutrient digestibility of wheat straw based complete feed mixture was increased by administration of both the fungal culture (Table 3).

Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India
Table 3. Effect of administration of Orpinomyces sp C-14 and Piromyces sp WNG-12 on growth rate, feed efficiency, nutrients digestibility and rumen fermentation pattern in buffalo calves Parameters Gain/calf/d FCR Control +Orpinomyces sp +Piromyces sp 641.2b 12.7b 62.1b 56.5b 55.7b 6.9b 11.6b 9.1b 78.1b 4.2

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494.2a 595.8b 9.7a 11.7b Digestibility of nutrients, % DM 53.5 60.3b a NDF 46.3 54.1 b ADF 41.5a 53.1b Rumen fermentation pattern, mg/dl pH 7.1a 6.9b TVFA, mM/dl 7.4 10.5b NH3 -N 17.2a 10.7b a TCA ppt N 47.7 72.3b No of zoospore (105/ml) 1.0 3.0

Oral administration of elite Neocallimastix sp GR1 isolated from grazing goats (250 ml @ 106 cfu/ml/buffalo calf on every 4th day) showed an increase in growth, nutrient digestibility, feed efficiency and %TDN contents of a wheat straw based total mixed ration than on control (Table 5).
Table 5. Effect of administration of Neocallimastix sp GR1 isolated from grazing goats on growth, nutrient evaluation and rumen fermentation of a wheat straw based ration in buffalo calves. Parameter Control Production performance DMI, kg/d 4.1a 4.1a a Gain, g/d 520.2 659.8 b a Feed efficiency, % 12.6 16.2 ab Nutrient evaluation, % TDN 52.8 a 59.6 b a DCP 6.7 7.2 b Rumen fermentation pattern, mg/dl Total VFA, mM/dl 10.3 a 13.4 b a NH3-N 13.3 8.7 b a TCA - N 52.7 71.1 b 5/ml a Fungal zoospore, 10 1.36 3.83 b 10/ml a No. of bacteria, 10 1.47 1.79 b 6/ml a No. of protozoa, 10 1.76 1.22 b (Debanu Jit, 2006); Figures with different superscripts differ
significantly P<0.05.

+Fungal culture

(Tripathi et al., 2007b) ; Figures with different superscripts differ significantly P<0.05.

Similarly, Swati (2006) found an increase in milk production, nutrient digestibility and %TDN contents of a wheat straw based total mixed ration in fungal culture administered groups (250 ml @ 106cfu/ml/ animal on every 7th day) of lactating buffalos than control (Table 4).
Table 4. Effect of administration of elite Orpinomyces sp C-14 isolated from domestic cattle and Piromyces sp WNG-12 isolated from wild blue bull on milk production, % feed efficiency, nutrients digestibility and nutritive value of wheat straw based total mixed ration in lactating buffaloes Parameter Total milk yield,kg Milk yield, kg/d 6% FCM yield, kg/d Feed efficiency* DM NDF ADF DCP TDN Control +Orpino- +Pirommyces yces 1446.2 8.0 9.6 67.1 52.8a 42.9a 39.9a Nutritive value, % 6.7 51.8 a 7.2 59.0 b 7.7 61.7 b 1516.7 8.4 10.3 73.0 58.9b 53.1b 48.9b 1527.1 8.5 10.5 81.1 62.7b 57.0 b 52.8 b

Digestibility of nutrients, %

# 180 days; Figures with different superscripts differ significantly P<0.05; *kg milk yield/100 kg DMI

Looking towards strategies for improvement/ enrichment of cereal straws especially for the fodder scarcity period or for dry season of the year the straws can be treated with urea- NH3 or can be supplemented with urea- molasses mineral blocks so as to enhance their digestible energy and protein value for meeting the nutritional requirements of ruminants in places where water supply is sufficient and temperature is optimum to degrade urea in to NH3. In the coming years biotechnological approaches like administration of superior rumen anaerobic fungi viz. Orpinomyces sp (C-14), Neocallimastix sp GR1 or Piromyces sp (WNG12) being isolated from domestic and wild ruminants (Sehgal et al., 2002; Tripathi et al., 2007; Thareja et al., 2006) into ruminants fed with cereal straw based diets would enhance their digestible 28 28 28

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energy for higher productivity. Thus Orpinomyces sp. (C-14) , Neocallimastix sp GR1 and Pyromyces sp. (WNG-12) being isolated from the domestic cattle, goats and wild blue bull are found to be promising fungi to break down the lignified material through their enzymes viz. p-coumaroyl and feruloyl esterases and can increase digestible energy contents of the fibrous feeds for ruminants. Recently zoospores of the these anaerobic fungi have been developed to incorporate in complete feed blocks so that these elite fungi can enter in to the rumen of animals those subsists on low grade roughages for enhancing digestibility of ruminants. Sachin (2007) produced Zoospores of Neocallimastix Sp GR-1 and Piromyces Sp. WNG-12 in a deficient media and showed that their incorporation enhanced the digestibility of nutrients of sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane bagasse based total mixed ration. All these experimental results indicate that these elite fungi could be exploited as probiotics. Further research is carried out to produce economically viable fungal zoospores of these isolated elite ruminal fungi to incorporate these into value added complete feed blocks consisted mainly of low grade roughages such as straws, stovers, sugar cane bagasse and small quantity of concentrate mixture for ruminants. Feeding ruminants with these high quality probiotic of elite fungal incorporated complete feed blocks can improve feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth and milk production of a low-grade roughage based complete feed mixture for higher productivity. REFERENCES: Akin, D.E., Gordon, G.L.R. and Hogan, J.P. (1983) Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 46: 738-748. Akin, D.E., Rigsby, L.L., Lyon, C.E. and Windham, W.R. (1990) Crop Sci., 30: 990-993. Alawa, J.P. and Owen, E. (1984) Anim. Feed Sci. Tech., 11: 149-157. 29 29 29

Asao, N., Ushida, K. and Kojima, Y. (1993) Lett. Appl. Microbiol., 16: 247-250. Baker, F. and Martin, F. (1938) Nature, 141: 877. Bernard-Vailhe, M.A., Besle, J.M. and Dore, J. (1995) Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 61: 379381. Brown, W.F. and Adjei, M.B. (1995) J. Anim. Sci., 73: 3085-3093. Calderon-Cortes, J.F., Elliot, R. and Ford, C.W. (1989) Influence of rumen fungi on the nutrition of sheep fed forage diets. In: The Role of Protozoa and Fungi in Ruminant Digestion (J.V. Nolan, R.A. Leng and D.I. Demeyer, eds.). Penumble Books, Armidale, Australia, pp.181187. Celik, K. Ersoy, I.E. and Savran, F. (2003)Pak. J. Nutr., 2: 258-261. Debanujit (2006) Influence of anaerobic fungal culture (neocallimastix sp) administration growth, ruminal fermentation and nutrient digestion in buffalo calves. M.V.S. Thesism HDRI, Karnal, India. Demeyer, D.I. (1981) Agril. Environ., 6: 295-337. Dey, A., Sehgal, J.P., Puniya, A.K. and Singh K. (2004a) Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci., 17: 820824. Dey, A., Puniya, A.K., Sehgal, J.P. and Sing, K. (2004 b) Microbial Biotechnology (P.C. Trivedi, ed), Aavishkar Publishers, Distributors, Jaipur, Rajasthan, Chapter 13: 283-296. Dey, A., Sehgal, J.P. and Puniya, A.K. (2004c) Ef Indian Vet. Med. J., 28: 325-327. Flachowsky, G., Kamra, D.N. and Zardazil, F. (1999) J. Appl. Res., 16: 105-118. Flachowsky, G., Ochrimenko, W.I., Schneider, M. and Richter, G. (1996) Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 60: 117-130.

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Fry, S.C. (1986) Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol., 37: 165-186. Gordon, G.L.R. and Phillips, M.W. (1993) Lett. Appl. Microbiol., 17: 220-223. Gordon, G.L.R. and Phillips, M.W. (1998) Nutr. Res. Rev., 11: 1-36. Hillaire, M.C. and Jouany, J.P. (1989) Effects of rumen anaerobic fungi on the digestion of wheat straw and the end products of microbial metabolism studies on a semi-continuous in vitro system. In: The Roles of Protozoa and Fungi in Ruminant Digestion (J.V. Nolan, R.A. Leng and D.I. Demeyer, eds.). Penumble Books, Armidale, Australia, pp.269-272. Ho, Y.W., Abdullah, N. and Jalaludin, S. (1996) Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci., 9: 519-524. Ito, K., Morita, Z., Kamel, H.E.M., Oura, R. and Sekine, J. (1994) J. Faculty of Agri. Tottori Univ., 30: 117-125. Jackson, M.G. (1977) Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 2: 105-130. Joblin, K.N., Naylor, G. and Williams, A.G. (1990) Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 56: 2287-2295. Kopecny, J. and Hodrova, B. (1995) Lett. Appl. Microbiol., 20: 312-316. Langer, P.N., Sehgal, J.P. and Garcha, H.S. (1980) Indian J. Anim. Sci., 50: 942-946. Langer, P.N., Sehgal, J.P., Rana, V.K., Singh, M. and Garcha, H.S. (1982) Indian J. Anim. Sci., 52: 634. Lee, S.S., Ha, J.K. and Cheng, K. (2000) Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 88: 201-217. Lee,S.S., Choi, C.K., Ahn, B.H., Moon, Y.H., Kim, C.H. and Ha, J.K. (2004) Feed Sci. and Technol., 115: 215-226. Lohakare, J. (1998) Use of ruminal cellulolytic bacteria to improve the nutritive value of 30 30 30

cereal straws. M.Sc. Thesis, National Dairy Research Institute (Deemed University), Karnal, India. Manikumar, B., Puniya, A.K. and Sing, K. (2002) Indian J. Microbiol., 42: 133-136. Manikumar, B., Puniya, A.K. and Sing, K. (2003) Indian J. Anim. Sci., 73: 312-314. Manikumar, B., Puniya, A.K., Sing, K. and Sehgal, J.P. (2004) Indian J. Exp. Biol., 42: 836838. Nakashima, Y. and Orskov, E.R. (1989) Anim. Prod., 48: 543-551. Ng'ambi, J.W.W. and Campling, R.C. (1991) J. Agri. Sci., UK, 117: 251-256. Orpin, C.G. (1975). J. Gen. Microbiol., 91: 249262. Orpin, C.G. and Bountiff, L. (1978) J. Gen. Microbiol., 104: 113-122. Owen, E. and Jayasuriya, M.C.N. (1989) Recent developments in chemical treatment of roughage and their relevance to animal production in developing countries. In: Feeding Strategies for Improving Productivity of Ruminant Livestock in Developing Countries. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, pp.205-230. Paul, S.S., Kamra, D.N., Sastry, V.R.B., Sahu, N.P. and Kumar, A. (2003)Lett. Appl. Microbiol., 36: 377-381. Pearce, P.D. and Bauchop, T. (1985) Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 49: 1265-1269. Pradhan, K., Singh, S. and Bhatia, S.K. (1993) Predominant ruminal bacterial isolates of cattle and buffalo fed gram straw-mustard cake diet. In: Proc. 6th Animal Nutrition Research Workers' Conference, Bhubaneshwar, pp.98-99. Preston, T.R. and Leng, R.A. (1987) Matching ruminant production systems with available

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resources in the tropics and subtropics. Penambul Books, Armidale, Australia. Sachin (2007). In -vitro biodegradation of sugarcane bagasse based ration using zoospores of different fungi. M.V.Sc Thesis. National dairy Research Institute. Karnal-132001. India. Sangwan, D.C., Shiv Kumar, Bhatia, S.K. and Singh, S. (2002) Indian J. Anim. Sci., 72: 174-179. Sehgal, J.P. and Punj, M.L. (1983) Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 9: 155-168. Sehgal, J.P., Punia, A.K., Kishan Singh and Prasad, K.S.N. (2002) Use of ruminal anaerobic fungi to improve the nutritive value of cereal straws. Annual Report, NDRI, Karnal. pp.14. Sharma, K., Dutta, N. and Naulia U. (2004) Livestock Res. Rural Develop., 16, 245-251 Thareja A, Puniya AK, Goel G, Nagpal R, Sehgal

JP, Singh K. (2006) Arch. Anim. Nutr. 60: 412-417. Swati, S. (2006) Nutrient utilization and milk production in buffaloes fed wheat straw based ration supplemented with isolates of rumenanaerobic fungi. Ph.D. Thesis, NDRI, Karnal, India. Tripathi, V.K., Sehgal, J.P., Puniya, A.K. and Singh, K. (2007a) Anaerobe.13: 36-39 Tripathi VK, Sehgal JP, Puniya AK and Singh K. (2007b) Arch. Anim. Nutr. 61: 416-23. Ushida, K., Matsui, H., Fujino, Y. and Ha, J.K. (1997). Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci., 10: 541550. VanSoest, P.J. 1982. Nutritional ecology of the ruminant. O&G Books, Corvallis, Oregon. Wallace, R.J. and Joblin, K.N. (1986) FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 29: 19-25.

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Bioactivity of phytochemicals in some lesser-known plants and their effects and potential applications in livestock and aquaculture nutrition
Harinder P. S. Makkar Institute for Animal Production in the Tropics and Subtropics (480b) University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart, Germany

According to an estimate by FAO, the human demand for food fish is expected to touch 110 million metric tones by 2010 from the current level of consumption of about 90 Mtn. This, along with the 'Livestock revolution' taking place, especially in developing countries, coupled to continued human population growth, urbanization and income growth are imposing a huge burden on the environment and resources. Livestock production is under tremendous political and social pressure to decrease pollution and environmental damage arising due to animal agriculture. Some antibiotics and growth promoters such as monensin, avoparcin, flavomycin, virginiamycin and somatotropin have been shown to be effective in enhancing feed conversion efficiency and increasing livestock productivity and in reducing environment pollutants. However, these antibiotics and growth promoters have been banned in the EU since 2006, mainly because of antibiotic resistance being passed on to human pathogens and risk to humans of chemical residues in animal products. As a result of this, scientists have intensified efforts in exploiting plants, plant extracts or natural plant compounds as potential natural alternatives for enhancing livestock productivity. The Plant Kingdom might provide a useful source of new pharmaceutical entities, medicines and bioactive compounds that may be used for enhancing animal production and health; and food safety and quality, whilst conserving environment. This paper discusses work on the effects of various phytochemicals in ruminant and fish species. 32 32 32

1.

Plants containing anthelmintic compounds

The gastrointestinal nematode parasitism is one of the major constraints to livestock production, especially when the animals have a poor nutritional status. Subclinical infections of gastrointestinal nematodes such as Ostertagia circumcinta, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, and Haemonchus contortus decrease feed intake, body weight gain, and milk and wool production. There is a growing realisation that chemical anthelmintic treatment, on its own, may not provide a long-term strategy for managing parasites in grazing animals. The widespread development and prevalence of resistant strains of nematode parasites and public concern over drug residues excreted in animal products have stimulated efforts to identify and use plant-based anthelmintic compounds. Studies conducted on calves in Bangladesh showed that pine apple (Ananas comosus) and neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves have anthelmintic effects (Akbar and Ahmed, 2006). Fresh pine apple leaves (1.6 g/kg body weight) and fresh neem leaves (1 g/kg body weight) (both leaves on dry matter basis were 200 mg/kg body weight) given as a single dose were compared with that of albendazole given at a rate of 7.5 mg/kg body weight. On day 7, the efficacy of albendazole (100 % reduction in faecal worm egg count) was significantly (P <0.01) higher than those of pine apple and neem leaves (76 and 55 % reduction respectively); and on day 14, the percent reduction in faecal worm egg counts for albendazole and pine

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apple (88 and 82 % reduction) were significantly (P <0.05) higher than that for neem leaves (56 % reduction). In the same study, urea molasses multinutrient block was used as a vehicle for giving these plant materials to dairy cows kept on research station. Freeze dried leaves were incorporated in the blocks so that the intake of these leaves is 200 mg dry matter/kg body weight of animals. The intake of the blocks was 500 g per day per cow (40 mg dry matter/kg body weight of animal/ day) and the blocks were fed for a total of 5 days. After 15 days of consumption, pine apple leaf containing blocks decreased faecal worm egg counts by 72 % and the one containing neem leaves decreased by 45%. On the other hand, the block free of these leaves reduced the count by only 5 %. These values after 60 days post-treatment were 84, 63 and 18 % respectively. Similar results were obtained when these blocks were tested in milking cows in farmers' houses. Both the herbal remedies when incorporated into the block significantly increased milk yield (26 %) and live weight of animals (15 %) compared to non-medicated blocks. The feeding of blocks containing pineapple and neem leaves increased net profit by 122 % and 33 % respectively (Akbar and Ahmed, 2006). These efficacy data of all three treatments indicate that pine apple leaves are better herbal anthelmintics than neem leaves. In Vietnam and Myanmar, leaves of pine apple and Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) have also been found to have potential in controlling intestinal parasites and increasing productivity (Doan et al., 2006; Daing and Win, 2006). The extent of use of these blocks, cost : benefit ratio and increase in income of farmers on using these medicated blocks have been summarised in Makkar (2006). Although cysteine proteases (bromelain) present in pine apple plant is considered to have some anthelmintic properties, there is a need to identify active principle in pine apple leaves and to investigate its presence in various germplasm existing in Asia and Africa and in different countries within Asia. Another plant which seems to have 33 33 33

direct effect on gastrointestinal nematodes is Eucalyptus. It has been shown to be effective against Trichostrongylus colubriformis, and Haemonchus contortus (Lorimer et al., 1996). These effects are attributed to the presence of tannins/polyphenols in Eucalyptus. 2. Plants containing saponins Saponins are steroid or triterpene glycoside compounds found in a variety of plants. The saponin-rich plants having potential for exploitation in ruminant and fish production systems are presented. Effects on ruminants Rumen fermentation: Various saponins affect gas and microbial mass production to different extents in the in vitro gas system containing buffered rumen microbes and feed. For example, Acacia saponins decreased gas production, but increased microbial protein without affecting true digestibility. On the other hand, addition of Quillaja saponins did not affect gas production, but increased microbial protein and truly degraded substrate. The effects of Yucca saponins differed from those of Quillaja or Acacia saponins. Yucca saponins decreased gas, increased microbial protein and increased true digestibility, suggesting that the saponins affected partitioning of degraded nutrients such that higher microbial mass was produced at the cost of gas, and/or short chain fatty acids (SCFA) production (Makkar, 2005). These saponins increased efficiency of microbial mass synthesis. Liu et al. (2003) showed an increase in microbial protein synthesis in the presence of tea saponins in an in vitro fermentation. However, Wang et al. (2000a) showed that microbial protein synthesis increased at a low level of Yucca saponin (15 µg/mL) but decreased at higher concentrations (75 µg/mL). Other in vitro studies using the RUSITEC system did not show any significant effect of sapindus saponins (Hess et al., 2003a) or of Yucca saponin (100 mg sarsaponin/kg feed) (Eliwiniski et al.,

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2002) on microbial protein synthesis. At low concentrations Panax ginseng, Yucca and Quillaja saponins have been shown to stimulate growth of Escherichia coli and rumen Prevotella (Bacteroides) ruminicola (Sen et al., 1998a; Wallace et al., 1994). Abreu et al. (2004) found an increase in duodenal flow of microbial-nitrogen in sheep fed Sapindus saponaria fruit. However, Hristov et al. (1999) did not obtain a significant effect of Yucca saponin on mcrobial protein flow to the intestine in heifers. An increase of microbial nitrogen supply, efficiency of microbial-nitrogen supply, and fecalnitrogen excretion with increasing levels of Sapindus rarak extract was observed, but this increase was not significant. Effects of various saponins on ammonia levels and SCFA production have been recently reviewed (Wina et al., 2005a). The decrease in rumen ammonia concentration may be due to an indirect result of the decreased protozoa caused by the added saponins. Fewer protozoa would mean less predation and lysis of bacteria, hence, less release of the products of protein breakdown. Reduction in ammonia may also be due to the fewer protozoa in the rumen since protozoa contribute a substantial amount of the total rumen nitrogen. Saponins also form complexes with proteins and could decrease protein degradability. Quillaja saponins decreased protein degradability of the concentrate but not of hay (Makkar and Becker, 2000). These observations suggest that the nature of diet plays a considerable role in determining the effects of saponins. It may be noted that saponins could also decrease rumen proteolytic activity. The addition of S. saponaria fruit to a sheep diet decreased plasma urea suggesting that less ammonia was absorbed from the rumen (Abreu et al., 2004). This would also decrease the energy lost in detoxification of ammonia by liver and its discharge in urine as urea, contributing to the higher productivity. In addition, saponin addition would provide environmental benefits due to lesser discharge of feed nitrogen to the environment. 34 34 34

Rumen ecology: Some information is available on the effects of saponins on specific rumen bacteria. Using pure culture, Wallace et al. (1994) observed that the saponin fraction of Y. schidigera, when added at a concentration of 1 % to the medium, stimulated the growth of Prevotella ruminicola, did not affect the growth of Selemonas ruminantium, suppressed the growth of Streptococcus bovis and completely inhibited the growth of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens. The same fraction at much lower concentrations (0-250 µg/ml) in pure culture exhibited anti-bacterial activity towards noncellulolytic bacteria, i.e. Streptococcus bovis, Prevotella bryantii B14 (formerly P. ruminicola) and Ruminobacter amylophilus (Wang et al., 2000b). Fibrobacter succinogens were unaffected but Ruminococcus albus and Ruminococcus flavefaciens were virtually unable to digest cellulose in the presence of Yucca saponins. Wang et al. (2000b) concluded that Yucca saponin negatively affected the Gram-positive bacteria more than the Gram-negative bacteria. The concentration of RNA from Fibrobacter sp. remained constant and was not affected by S. rarak extract either in vitro or in vivo (Wina et al., 2005b). Using RUSITEC, the number of cellulolytic bacteria was reduced by 30 % when 0.5 mg/ml Yucca extract was added to alfalfa hay. It was also demonstrated that cellulolytic bacteria are more susceptible to Yucca extract than amylolytic bacteria (Wang et al., 2000b). In an in vivo study, Diaz et al. (1993) observed a significant increase in cellulolytic and total bacteria in the rumen of sheep fed with S. saponaria fruit. Thalib et al. (1996) also reported that total cellulolytic bacteria increased when sheep were fed with a methanol extract of S. rarak. However, a dramatic decrease in the RNA concentration of Ruminococci in short term feeding of S. rarak extract and disappearance of this effect upon long term feeding indicated that there may be an adaptation of Ruminococcus sp to S. rarak saponins. The mechanism of adaptation of bacteria to saponin still needs to be clarified. An increase in the

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thickness of their cell wall was observed when Prevotella bryanti in pure culture was adapted to Yucca saponins (Wang et al., 2000b). Anaerobic fungi are important in the rumen for digesting fibre, but they only comprise a small proportion of the total mass of the rumen microflora. There is little information on the effect of saponins on ruminal fungi. In pure culture, Wang et al. (2000b) demonstrated that fungi, Neocallimastix frontalis and Pyromyces rhizinflata are highly sensitive to Yucca schidigera saponins from, and even at a low concentration of these saponin (2.25 µg/ ml), the growth of both fungi was completely inhibited. However, Muetzel et al. (2003), using a membrane hybridization technique showed that fungal concentration was not significantly reduced when increasing levels of saponin containing Sesbania pachycarpa were included in an in vitro fermentation system. The fungal population was significantly higher when sheep were fed with 25-50 g/day of S. saponaria (Diaz et al., 1993) for 30 days. An adaptation of fungi may occur during long term feeding. Studies on the effect of saponins and their products on methanogens (archaea) have attracted a lot of attention lately because of the potential for improving the environment by decreasing the production of 'greenhouse gases'. However, these studies concentrated more on the measurement of methane emission than on the methanogens themselves. As some methanogens (10-20 % of total) live in association with protozoa (Newbold et al., 1997; it was expected that reducing protozoa would also reduce methanogens, thus reducing methane production. The addition of Yucca extract to a high roughage diet or to a mixed diet containing hay and barley grain did not reduce methane emission in the RUSITEC (Sliwinski et al., 2002a, b). However, reduced methane emissions in an in vitro system were obtained by adding sarsaponin, extracted from Yucca to a starch diet and to a mixed diet (Lila et al., 2003). Pen et al. (2006) also reported de35 35 35

crease in methane production by Yucca extract when incubated with a roughage based diet in an in vitro system. In this study, a decrease of protozoal number and increase in microbial population were observed by both Yucca and Quillaja extracts; however, the latter did not reduce methane production. Suppression of methane emission was also achieved by the supplementation of S. saponaria fruit (containing high levels of saponins) in the RUSITEC (Hess et al., 2003b). The occurrence of glycosides of diosgenin (steroidal saponin) in Fenugreek seeds has been well recognized for several decades. Saponins may kill or inactivate protozoa, resulting in a lower predation of bacteria by protozoa which will result in a larger bacterial population and a slower protein turnover in the rumen, leading to an increase in bacterial nitrogen flow to the duodenum and increase in productivity (Makkar and Becker, 2000. As mentioned above, Yucca, Quillaja and Acacia saponins enhanced both microbial mass production and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis (Makkar, 2005). Methane emission was also suppressed when sheep were fed S. saponaria fruit. However, the suppression of methanogenesis was not associated with decreased methanogen counts, suggesting a suppression of activity per methanogen cell. Similarly, saponin in S. rarak extract did not reduce the archaeal or methanogen RNA concentration either in vitro or in vivo studies (Wina et al., 2005a). In most studies, methanogens have been measured using the anaerobic culture technique and cell counts of methanogens were measured as colony-forming units or methanogens have been measured using in situ hybridisation technique, and these studies are limited to the effects of various oils and individual fatty acid supplementation. The methanogen cell count determination using culture-based techniques has disadvantages of non-specificity and that not all microorganisms can be cultured (Makkar and McSweeney, 2005). Recently Goel et al. (2007a) found that saponin rich plant materials such as

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Sesbania (Sesbania sesban) and Knautia (Knautia arvensis) leaves and seeds of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) increase the partitioning of the nutrients to microbial mass and decrease marginally the methane production per unit of feed degraded. The saponins isolated from these plants also did not reduce the methane production; however, Fenugreek saponin rich material seemed to have the potential to increase: the rumen efficiency in terms of lowering C2:C3 molar proportion, ammonia uptake without adversely affecting substrate true degradability and total bacterial population as indicated by lower Ct values observed using quantitative PCR. On the other hand, these saponins had negative effect on fungal population with tendency to increase fibre degrading bacterial population (Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Fibrobacter succinogens). The decrease in methanogens and protozoal numbers did not lead to reduction in methane by saponin rich materials, which highlight lack of correlation between the protozoal reduction with methanogenesis. A closer look on the association of methanogens to protozoa and interspecies hydrogen transfer mechanisms among different microbial communities could explain the mechanism behind these observations (Goel et al., 2007b). Persistency of effects: It has been observed that some plant products lose their effects on continuous ingestion of the plants by animals. Their effects are short-lived due to microbial adaptation. This calls for development of strategies to beat the microbial adaptation. A negative effect of saponincontaining Sesbania sesban on protozoal counts or activity was evident in the in vitro studies but not in sheep fed S. sesban since the protozoal counts in the rumen increased markedly after several days of feeding (Newbold et al., 1997; Ivan et al., 2004). Based on these results, Newbold et al. (1997) suggested feeding saponins intermittently to prevent a quick increase in protozoal counts in the rumen. Thalib et al. (1996) showed that feeding saponin extract every third day kept the protozoal counts low even after 3 weeks. On the other hand, S. 36 36 36

rarak saponins did not lose their defaunating activity until 27 days of feeding to sheep (Wina et al., 2005a). Machmueller et al. (2000) also reported persistent effect of coconut oil and oilseeds on methane suppression up to 7 weeks. A challenge would be to develop those approaches for using plants, plant extracts or plant products, which sustain their effects in the rumen microbial ecosystem. Evidence exists on the hydrolysis of saponins to sapogenin and epimerization and hydrogenation of sapogenin in the rumen. The relative efficacy of original saponins and that of aglycon (sapogenin) and its epimerized and hydrogenated products towards various effects reported above is not known. Other effects: Saponin levels (as diosgenin) of 0.07-1.64 % have been observed in seeds Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) of (Taylor et al., 2002). In our laboratory 3 % saponin (as diosgenin) were recorded in fenugreek seeds (Goel et al., 2007b). The seeds are known to reduce blood cholesterol and produce lower concentrations of cholesterol in milk and also to improve the profile of functional fatty acids (Shah and Mir, 2004). Antiviral activity of saponins from Glycyrrhiza radix, immunostimulant activity of saponins from Quillaja saponaria Molina, and hypo-glyceamic and anti-diabetic activity of saponins from Fenugreek (Francis et al., 2002c) have also been demonstrated. Yucca, Quillaja, S. rarak and Enterolobium cyclocarpum saponins have been shown to increase productive parameters such as wool production, growth and milk production in animals on roughage based diets (Wina et al., 2005c). The effect of Quillaja saponins was concentration and sex dependent. The growth rate was significantly higher for male lambs at 40 ppm level, and at 60 ppm the growth rate was higher than the control but the increase was not significant. On the other hand, inclusion of Quillaja saponins at these levels decreased the growth rate of female lambs (Makkar, 2000). These effects seem to be mediated by hormones. Further studies are needed in this area. Supplementation of steroidal saponins in feeds has

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also been shown to be beneficial to fattening lambs and steers and monogastrics (Makkar, 2000). Saponins have also been implicated in toxicity to ruminants. The major symptoms are photosensitization, gastroenteritis and diarrhea. Some forages which contain saponins and produce these toxic symptoms are Brachiaria decumbens grass, species of the Panicum genus, and Drymaria arenaroides and Tribulus terrestris weeds (Wina et al., 2005b). Toxicity of other saponin-containing plants such as Narthecium ossifragum, Tribulus terrestris, Agave lecheguilla and Nolina texana has also been described (Flaoyen et al., 2004). Effects on fish Fish mortality: Saponins have been reported to be highly toxic to fish because of their damaging effect on the respiratory epithelia. It was reported that the oxygen uptake of perch, Anabas testudineus, increased with a concomitant increase in the red blood cells, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, after the fish had been in water containing 5 mg per litre Quillaja saponin for 24 h. Penaeus japonicus that had been previously exposed to concentrations of 20 mg per litre of saponin for 24 h increased both respiration rate and metabolism (measured as increase in oxygen uptake and ammonia excretion) during a 6 h detoxification process (Chen and Chen, 1997). Bureau et al. (1998) observed that Quillaja saponins damaged the intestinal mucosa in rainbow trout and Chinook salmon at dietary levels above 1500 mg per kg. The condition of the intestines of these fish was similar to that of fish fed a raw soybean meal diet indicating the role of saponins in causing the damage. Krogdahl et al. (1995), however, did not find any negative effects when soya saponins were included in the diet of Atlantic salmon at levels similar to those likely to be found in a soybean meal (30-40 %) based diet. In the same study, an alcohol extract of soybean meal caused growth retardation, altered intestinal morphology, and depressed mucosal enzyme activity in the lower intestine. 37 37 37

Quillaja and Yucca saponins did not have any lethal effects on common carp. Addition of Quillaja saponaria saponins (No. 2149; Sigma, St. Louis, USA) at a level of 40,000 ppm in aquaria containing carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) did not lead to death of the carp in 18 h and feed consumption was not affected. On the other hand, yucca saponins (DK sarsaponin 30TM, Desert King International, Chula Vista, CA 91911, USA) at 10,000 ppm did not cause mortality in the first 3 h, but all fish were found dead after 18 h. These results showed that Quillaja and Yucca saponins are not highly toxic to fish (Makkar and Becker, 2000). Feed intake and behaviour: Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) consumed standard fish meal-based diets mixed with up to 1000 mg/kg of all the saponin concentrates (QS: Quillaja saponaria saponins, No. 2149; Sigma, St. Louis, USA; YS: DK sarsaponin 30TM, Desert King International, Chula Vista, CA 91911, USA) without any hesitation. There was no mortality or abnormal behaviour of fish fed up to this concentration of saponins. On the other hand, standard diets containing 2000 mg/kg of the Quillaja saponin concentrate induced high mortality in firstfeeding tilapia larvae (Steinbronn, 2002). Fish growth: Common carp and Nile tilapia juveniles fed diets containing QS (150 and 300 mg/kg in the diet) had significantly higher rate of body mass gain, and the growth-promoting effects of QS were most pronounced during the initial period of feeding (Francis et al., 2001b). The growth promoting effects of QS was most pronounced at 150 mg/kg diet for carp; whereas, the dietary level of 300 mg/kg induced maximum effects in tilapia. The absolute increase in weight was higher compared to control even at higher dietary levels of 700 mg/kg in Nile tilapia. Concentrated steroidal yucca saponins (YS) at levels of 50 and 100 mg/kg also did not affect growth of common carp significantly. Here the 50 mg group seemed to perform better than the 100 mg group and the control group at the end of a 10-week

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feeding experiment. The hemolytic triterpenoid Gypsophila saponins (GS) concentrated using chromatography also did not significantly increase growth rate at levels of between 5 and 250 mg/kg in diets of common carp after eight weeks of feeding even though absolute growth was higher in all the saponin fed groups compared to control (Francis, Makkar and Becker, unpublished data). The addition of QS to the diet also reduced the amount of feed required for the synthesis of tissue protein. The food conversion ratio (FCR) was lower in carp fed a diet containing 150 mg/kg and tilapia fed 300 mg/kg of QS compared to the respective controls. Common carp fed diets containing GS and YS did not differ significantly from controls in regard to FCR. The mechanisms contributing to growth-promoting effects of saponins, especially QS which induced significant growth increases, are yet to be fully clarified. Diverse effects of dietary saponins include an increase in the permeability of intestinal membranes to dietary nutrients (Francis et al., 2002c) and/or a stimulation of the activity of digestive enzymes, which increases the efficiency of feed nutrient utilisation. Dietary QS significantly increased the activity of carp gut enzymes, amylase and trypsin and liver enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cytochrome c-oxidase (CO). This shows that it could stimulate digestion of proteins and carbohydrates in the gut and promoted both the respiratory chain and lactate fermentation. The ratios of LDH to CO decreased with QS supplementation indicating the promotion of aerobic metabolism. In addition, initial investigations into the effects of saponins on membrane transport reveal an increase in paracellular transport of inert markers on application of QS to the mucosal side of isolated tilapia intestinal membrane (Francis, Makkar and Becker, unpublished observations). It also remains to be determined whether the saponins themselves or their breakdown products (e.g. sapogenins) in the intestines enter the blood of the fish and cause their effects systemically. From the extent of effects that saponins have on various physi38 38 38

ological processes it is expected that either saponins or their breakdown products enter the body through the intestinal membranes. We have described the ability of saponins to influence serum hormone levels (Francis et al., 2002c). However, some dietary components may produce systemic effects even without actually entering the body (Tschöp et al., 2000). It is to be seen whether saponins induce the synthesis and release of such hormonal intermediaries in the digestive system. Even though the results seem to indicate a stimulatory effect of saponins, particularly QS, on fish growth, gaps exist in our understanding of the mechanism of action of the saponins in fish. Future research in this area should concentrate on understanding the physiological mechanisms by which dietary saponins increase growth and feed conversion efficiency in carp and tilapia. Tilapia reproduction: Sexually mature female tilapia consuming a diet containing 300 mg/kg of QS did not spawn over a period of more than three months. Regularly spawning adult tilapia when put on a diet containing 300 mg/kg of QS stopped egg laying from the next ovulation cycle onwards (Francis and Becker, unpublished observations). In another experiment the sex ratio of tilapia larvae fed a diet containing 700 mg/kg of QS continuously over a six-month experimental period deviated significantly from the normal 50:50 ratio in favor of males (Francis et al., 2002b). This deviation from the normal sex ratio in favor of males was also evident (but not statistically significant) in the treatment groups receiving lower quantities of QS (150 mg/ kg diet) in the diet. Continued observations revealed that production of fry was completely suppressed in ponds where fish from the 2000 mg/kg saponin group were stocked even after the removal of saponins from the diets (Steinbronn, 2002). This could point to a sterility of either males or females, which implies a potential for control of reproduction in tilapia using QS. Normal fry production was observed in fish that previously received 150 and 500 mg/kg of QS.

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Saponins have been previously reported to affect the release of hormones, such as leutinizing hormone (LH), from the pituitary (Benie et al., 1990) and hence this hormone is considered to regulate all aspects of teleost reproduction (Suzuki et al., 1988a), particularly final oocyte maturation and ovulation (Suzuki et al., 1988b). It was therefore postulated that induction of changes in LH secretory pattern by QS or its degraded products absorbed from the intestine might be responsible for the observed effects on reproduction. Quillaja saponins was found to stimulate LH release from dispersed tilapia pituitary cells in vitro (Francis et al., 2002c). The retarding effects on egg production in adult females and the capacity for sex inversion in tilapia fry fed saponin-containing diets indicate effects at the hormonal level. Data from gonadosomatic index measurements also support this contention. Efforts to identify any saponin-induced change in the level of one of the key hormones in reproductive functioning, the LH, did not reveal any dose dependent patterns. The effect of saponins on levels of reproductive hormones should be further studied by monitoring of hormones such as 11-keto-testosterone, estrogen, testosterone and gonadotropic hormones in vivo. Once the optimum dietary level of saponins that produces complete sex inversion in tilapia fry or prevents egg production in female tilapia is determined, this effect of saponin will have considerable potential in tilapia aquaculture where one of the major problems is over production of fry that do not grow to marketable size. Other effects. Saponins also have molluscicidal activity. Acacia saponins had a strong molluscicidal activity and Quillaja and Yucca saponins very low (Makkar and Becker, 2000). As mentioned above in context to rumen fermentation, protozoa are highly susceptible to some saponins. The use of saponin-containing plants for possible control of fish protozoal diseases such as White Spot Disease, Costiasis and Trichodiniasis needs investigation. Fish are also highly susceptible to some saponins. A challenge would be to identify saponins 39 39 39

which affect protozoa causing these diseases and do not adversely affect fish. 3. Plants containing tannins

The multiple phenolic hydroxyl groups in tannins lead to the formation of complexes primarily with proteins and to a lesser extent with metal ions, amino acids and polysaccharides. Although research on tannins has a long history, considerable additional research must be carried out to fully exploit benefits of incorporating tannin-rich plants and agro-industrial by-products in livestock feed and to develop strategies to manage these resources effectively so that tannins do not produce adverse effects. Some of the beneficial effects of tannins are enhancement of rumen undegradable protein and making feed protein available post-ruminally for production purposes, enhancement of efficiency of microbial protein production, and protection of ruminants from bloat. Some tannins are also known to have strong anti-carcinogenic and anti-oxidant activities. Protection of protein from degradation in the rumen. The potential benefits of tannins containing temperate forages, e.g. Lotus corniculatus, Lotus pedunculatus, and Hedysarum coronarium have been demonstrated in numerous studies in New Zealand Min et al., 2003). Lately few studies have appeared showing beneficial effects of strategically feeding of tannin-rich tropical plants. Feeding of 100 g of air-dried Acacia cyanophylla leaves with 200 g of soya bean meal increased daily gain of lambs, offered oaten haybased diets, by 55 %, possibly as a result of protection of soya bean protein from degradation in the rumen by the leaf tannins and an increase in protein availability post-ruminally. To achieve such effects, soya bean meal should be offered after consumption of the acacia leaves. Under these conditions, diet total phenols (as tannic acid equivalent) : diet protein, and total tannins (as tannic acid equivalent): diet protein ratios were 0.043 and 0.021 respectively. Inclusion of higher amounts of

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Acacia leaves to the concentrate had adverse effects on productivity (Ben Salem et al., 2005). Similarly, Bhatta et al. (2000) showed inclusion of 7.5 % of tamarind (Tamarindus indica, Linn) seed husk in the concentrate diet (0.75 % tannin content in the diet) increased milk production and growth rate, which was attributed to the protection of dietary protein from degradation in the rumen. Nsahlai et al. (1999) also demonstrated the potential use of tropical tanniniferous shrub/tree foliage to increase the proportion of rumen undegradable protein in sheep diets. They ascribed the increased growth rate in sheep fed on teff straw and supplemented with oilseed cakes with small amounts of Acacia albida pods, rich in condensed tannins, to increased organic matter and nitrogen intake and/or to a more efficient use of nutrients. A simultaneous benefit obtained in these studies was the partitioning of excreted nitrogen in a manner that lower nitrogen was excreted in the urine and higher in the faeces, thus making available manure with higher level of nitrogen for crop production. In the tropical countries, up to 70 % of urine-nitrogen can be lost to the environment. Lower release of nitrogen in urine by tannins will decrease environmental pollution. Increase in efficiency of microbial protein synthesis. Microbial protein synthesis in vitro, expressed as 15N incorporation into microbes per unit of shortchain fatty acid production is higher in the presence of tannins. Although tannins decrease the availability of nutrients, they cause a shift in the partitioning of nutrients so that a higher proportion of available nutrients is channelled to microbial mass synthesis and lesser to short-chain fatty acid production (Makkar, 2003). These results suggest that the in vivo beneficial effects of tannins, at low levels of intake, could also be due to higher efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in the rumen. Decrease in the protein degradability of feed protein in the rumen and increase in the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis are beneficial for ruminants, since they increase the supply of non-ammonia nitrogen to the lower intestine for production 40 40 40

purposes. In addition, these effects lead to proteinsparing effects in ruminants and decrease methane emission and nitrogen excretion to the environment, thereby reducing emission of environmental pollutants besides producing more meat, milk and wool. It is important to know the levels of tannins for such positive effects to realise. The concentration of tannins should not be too high so that the true digestibility of the substrate is appreciably decreased. At these high concentrations of tannins, the advantage provided by the higher efficiency of microbial protein synthesis (higher proportion of truly degraded substrate leading to microbial mass synthesis) will be offset by the absolute lower amount of truly degraded substrate. Feeding strategies need to be designed to exploit the beneficial effects of tannins. Other beneficial effects of tannins. Tannins also protect ruminants from bloat and have anthelmintic effects (Kahn and Diaz-Hernandez, 2000). In the past decade, many reports have emerged showing anthelmintic effects of tannins/polyphenols and the benefits they could provide to livestock by decreasing nematode load in extensive production systems based on grazing (Singh et al., 2003). These effects on nematode are attributed to an improved protein supply due to increased rumen undegradable protein and their availability postrumen and to the direct action of tannins against nematodes. Recently in Tunisia, it was shown that Acacia cyanophylla foliage, a tannin-rich legume shrub species, has an anti-parasitic effect in sheep. The faecal worm egg count in Barbarine lambs fed previously on oaten hay reduced by 68 % on feeding Acacia foliage for 25 days. However, inclusion of the legume did not affect the composition and the structure of the parasite genera recovered after copro-culture (Akkari et al., 2006). Legume tannins could also enhance quality of the silage by preventing excessive degradation of feed proteins. Tannins from browses are also effective against Clostridium perfingens and can be used to control C. perfingens mediated diarrhoea in pigs during the change of feed from liquid to solid feed (Makkar, 2003).

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Hydrolysable tannins, 4,6-0-isoterchebuloyl-Dglucose and isoterchebulin present in terminalia macroptera bark have antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis (Conrad et al., 2001). Another hydrolysable tannins, punicalagin present in some Ethiopian medicinal plants was active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains (Asres et al., 2001). Tannins from Vaccinium vitis-idaea could be used for treatment of periodontal diseases since they have antimicrobial activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia (Ho et al., 2001). Tannins from bearberry and cowberry have also been shown to have antibacterial effects against Helionactor pylori (Annuk et al., 1999), Syzygium jambos, Styaphyloccus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica (Djipa et al., 2000). The use of tannins for control of mastitis should be considered. This is of particular importance in organic animal agriculture. Proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins), both in free form and bound to proteins, have been shown to have free radical scavenging abilities and decreased the susceptibility of healthy cells to toxic agents. Tannins isolated from leaves of various multipurpose trees and browses have anticarcinogenic activity (Perchellet et al., 1996). Most polyphenols have strong antioxidant properties and inhibit lipid peroxidation and peroxygenases. Pistafolia A, a gallotannin has strong free radical scavenging properties (Wei et al., 2002). A number of hydrolysable tannins including ellagitannins and 1-o-galloyl castalagin and casuarinin (present in Eugenia jambos) have been shown to have activity against cell carcinomas and tumor cell lines (Yang et al., 2000). Catechins, polyhydroxylated flavonoids are widely present in browses and tree leaves. These undergo considerable microbial and tissue biotransformations, which are present in blood. Efforts need to be directed on evaluation of these novel compounds for enhancing animal health. Tannins have also been found to affect meat colour. Feeding of tannin-containing acacia or sulla leaves or carob pulp has been found to produce 41 41 41

meat of lighter colour. The addition of tannin-inactivating agent, polyethylene glycol reversed this effect, suggesting that the lighter colour produced is due to tannins (Priolo et al., 2005). Decrease in blood heamoglobulin and iron utilization by tannins (Garg et al., 1992) could contribute to the lightness of the meat. The lighter meat produced as a result of tannin feeding could have consumer preference in some regions. Fatty acid composition is associated to the risk or the prevention of several human illnesses. Tannin-containing feeds could also increase n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid, and lower n-6 fatty acids in meat, thus enhancing its nutritional properties for human consumption. This change possibily results from the inhibition of ruminal biohydrogenation (Priolo et al., 2005). Skatole exerts negative effects on meat flavour and quality. Skatole is originated by deamination and decarboxylation of the amino acid tryptophan by rumen microbes. In vitro studies have shown that condensed tannins from Lotus corniculatus reduced the production of skatole, which was attributed to decreased rumen protein degradation by Lotus tannins (Schreurs et al., 2004). Tannins could play a role in decreasing fat skatole in meat from animals allowed to graze good quality grass and other pastures containing high protein content (Vasta and Priolo, 2006). Toxicity by tannin-containing plants: The presence of tannic acid, a hydrolysable tannin at a level of 2 % in the fish (common carp; Cyprinus carpio L.) diet produced adverse effects after day 28 of feeding. No such adverse effect was observed in common carp on inclusion of 2 % quebracho tannin (a condensed tannin) in the fish diet. In carp, toxicity of tannic acid is higher than of quebracho tannin. Protein sources of plant origin containing high amounts of tannins and in particular hydrolysable tannins should be used with caution as fish meal substitutes in carp diets (Becker and Makkar, 1999). Oak poisoning from the consumption of oak leaves and yellow-wood toxicity from the leaves of Terminalia, Clidemia, and Ventilago in

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livestock have been attributed to the presence of hydrolysable tannins, in particular gallotannins (McSweeney et al., 2003). Rumen microbes are capable of degrading hydrolysable tannins. The toxicity, therefore, appears to be due to absorption of degraded products of hydrolysable tannins and higher load of phenols in the blood stream, which is beyond the capability of liver to detoxify them. 4. Plants containing multi-bioactive compounds Two widely occurring tropical plants, Moringa oleifera and Jatropha curcas are discussed in this section. Moringa oleifera Moringa oleifera Lam (synonym: Moringa pterygosperma Gaertner) belongs to a monogeneric family of shrubs and trees, Moringaceae. It is considered to have its origin in the northwest region of India, south of the Himalayan Mountains. Moringa seeds contain between 30-42 % oil, which is edible and the press cake obtained as a by-product of the oil extraction process contains a very high level of protein. Some of these proteins (approximately 1 %) are active cationic polyelectrolytes having molecular weights between 7-17 K Dalton. The cationic polyelectrolytes proteins have antibacterial properties and bind strongly with rumen microbes. At high levels of their incorporation, rumen fermentation is inhibited, but at low levels these protect feed proteins from degradation in the rumen (Makkar and Becker, 1998 and hence can be used to enhance rumen undegradable protein. Gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria pathogenic for humans showed only a slight reduction of viability with the Moringa protein (Suarez et al., 2005), while viability of E. coli was inhibited by four orders of magnitude. The use of antibacterial Moringa proteins for controlling mastitis is also being investigated by us. Moringa seeds have several compounds like 42 42 42

4-(á-L-rhamnopyranosyl-oxy)benzyl glucosinolate, 4-(4’-O-acetyl-á-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy) benzyl isothiocyanate, 4-(á-L-rhamnopyranosyl-oxy)benzyl isothiocyanate, Niazimicin, and Pterygospermin, Flavonoids (quercetin and kaempferol, quercetin, kaempferol, rhamnetin, isoquercitrin, and kaempferitrin) etc. with interesting activities. These compounds are known to have anticancer, antibacterial and hypo-tensive activities. Antioxidant activity of these compounds has also been reported (Wim and Jongen, 1996). These compounds also have the potential to control agricultural and public health insect pests (Tsao et al., 1996). Helicobacter pylori is a major cause of gastric and duodenal ulcers and a major risk factor for gastric cancer. This bacterium was found to be highly susceptible to 4-(aL-rhamnopyranosyloxy) benzyl isothiocyanate and various other isothiocyanates, which are degraded products of glucosinolates (Fahey et al., 2002; Haristoy et al., 2005). Pal et al. (1995) have reported that the methanol fraction of moringa leaf extract possesses antiulcer activity against induced gastric lesions in rats. Flowers of Moringa are considered to possess medicinal value as a stimulant, aphrodisiac, diuretic, and cholagogue, and they have been also reported to contain flavonoid pigments such as quercetin, kaempferol, rhamnetin, isoquercitrin, and kaempferitrin (Nair and Subramanian, 1962). The administration of extracts of Moringa leaves along with high-fat diet to rats decreased the high-fat diet induced increases in serum, liver and muscle cholesterol levels (Ghasi et al., 2000). Studies conducted in our laboratory show that Moringa leaves have very strong antioxidant activity. The flavonoids such as quercetin and kaempferol were identified as the most potent antioxidants in Moringa leaves. Their antioxidant activity was higher than the conventional antioxidants such as ascorbic acid which is also present in large amounts in Moringa leaves (Siddhuraju and Becker, 2003). Moringa leaves have also been shown to increase breast milk production. In Philippines, women consume Moringa leaves

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to enhance breast milk production. In India, tribal and indigenous people use fresh leaves as a natural antioxidant in buffalo and cow ghee (butter oil) preparation, which is considered to enhance shelf life of ghee. The extracts of these leaves also appear to have cancer preventive effect, which was assayed by the differentiating activity against human promyelocytic leukaemia cells (HL-60) (Siddhuraju and Becker, 2003). Moringa seeds contain phytate, cyanogens and glucosinolates. The pods of M. oleifera contain a glycoside niazine possessing an o-nitrile thiocarbamate group alongwith thiocarbonate, carbamate, and isothiocyanate glycosides, which are considered to have hypotensive effects (Faizi et al., 1997). Jatropha curcas Jatropha curcas (L), although a native of tropical America, is now available throughout Africa and Asia. Various parts/products of the plant hold potential for use as bio-fuel, animal feed, inclusion in medicinal preparations and source of honey. Jatropha plants have been mainly investigated as a source of oil. The seed kernel of the plant contains about 60 % oil that can be converted into biodiesel. The seed cake remaining after oil extraction is an excellent fertilizer. The level of essential amino acids of the defatted kernel meal are higher than that of FAO reference protein except for lysine (Foidl et al., 2001). However the presence of high levels of antinutrients (trypsin inhibitor, phytate and lectins) and a toxic factors (phorbol esters) prevent its use in animal feeding (Makkar and Becker, 1997a; Goel et al., 2007c). The Carp (Cyprinus carpio L) were found to be highly susceptible to phorbol esters present in the seed meal of the toxic variety of Jatropha curcas. The threshold level at which phorbol esters caused adverse effects was 15 ppm (15 µg/g) in the diet (Becker and Makkar, 1998). Carp could be a useful species for bioassay of phorbol esters. 43 43 43

The phorbol esters are effective bio-pesticides against diverse fresh water snails. Snails act as intermediate hosts of schistosomes in many tropical countries. Extracts from J. curcas L. was found to be toxic against snails transmitting Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium (Rug and Ruppel, 2000). The phorbol esters from the Jatropha plant could become an affordable and effective component of an integrated approach to schistosomiasis control. Jatropha oil or methanol extract of Jatropha oil containing phorbol esters has also been shown to have strong insecticidal (Mengual, 1997), and pesticidal effects (Solsoloy and Solsoloy, 1997). Jatropha seeds are also a good source of phytate (Makkar and Becker, 1997b). Several beneficial effects of phytate including cancer prevention, reduction in iron-induced oxidative injury and reversal of initiation of colorectal tumorigenesis, and prevention of lipid peroxidation have been reported (Singh et al., 2003). Jatropha leaves are used to cure various diseases. A novel cyclic octapeptide named as curcacycline has also been isolated from Jatroph latex. This cyclic octapeptide has been shown to inhibit classical pathway activity of human complement, and proliferation of human T-cells (van den Berg et al., 1995). Anti-inflammatory compounds isolated from leaves are flavonoids apigenin and its glycosides vitexin and isovitexin, the sterols stigmasterol, beta-D-sitosterol and its beta-D-glucoside (Chhabra et al., 1990). The Jatropha latex has a proteolytic enzyme, curcain which was found to better wound healing properties than nitrofurazone (Nath and Dutta, 1997). 5. Conclusions and future perspectives In the last decade there has been changing perceptions regarding the therapeutic potential of various plant secondary metabolites, which traditionally have been termed as antinutrients. It is hoped that the information collated and discussed here would lead to further exploration and usage of plants or

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natural plant products as a sustainable and environmentally friendly approach (clean, safe, and green agriculture) for decreasing environment pollutants and enhancing animal productivity, which will be a 'winwin' situation for both farmers and the society. Levels of phytochemicals are both environmentally induced as well as genetically controlled. The concentrations of plant secondary metabolites and their activities in biological systems vary with maturity of the plant and plant parts, in addition to soil conditions, water and light availability and other environmental conditions in which the plant is growing. This poses a challenge in the use of plants or plant products in livestock, food or cosmetic industry, because of batch-to-batch variation in the product quality. This demands the availability of a simple but robust bioassay to evaluate the quality of the product, based on the property for which it will be used. A robust bioassay could enable the estimation of the biological activity of a batch/product in a defined unit, and different batches could be harmonized to produce a product containing the same number of unit every time. Another challenge, particularly for ruminants, would be to beat the microbial adaptation and develop supplementation strategies to obtain persistent effects. The activities of phytochemicals are also diet dependent. Equally challenging would be to integrate the use of plants containing bioactive compounds in livestock and aquaculture production systems. 6. Acknowledgement The suggestions and inputs of Drs. George Francis and Klaus Becker on the effects of saponins on fish growth and reproduction are thankfully acknowledged. REFERENCES Abreu, A., Carulla, J. E., Lascano, C. E., Diaz, T. E., Kreuzer, M. and Hess, H. D. (2004) J. Anim. Sci., 82: 1392-1400. 44 44 44

Akbar, M.A. and Ahmed, T.U. (2006) Improving animal productivity and reproductive efficiency: development and testing medicated urea- molasses multi-nutrient blocks in rural farms of Bangladesh. IAEA-TECDOC 1495, pp. 13-27, IAEA, Vienna, Austria. Akkari, H., Dargouth, M.A., Ben Salem, H., Abidi, S., (2006) Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. (In press). Annuk, H., Hormo, S., Turi, E., Mikelsaar, M., Arak, E. and Wadstrom, T. (1999) FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 172: 41-45. Asres, K., Bucar, F., Edelsbrunner, S., Kartnig, T., Hoger, G. and Theil, W. (2001) Phytother. Res. 15: 323-326. Becker, K. and Makkar, H.P.S. (1998) Vet Human Toxicol, 40: 82-86. Becker, K. and Makkar, H.P.S. (1999) Aquaculture, 175: 327-335. Benie, T., El-Izzi, A., Tahiri, C., Duval, J., Thieulant, M.L., (1990) J. Ethno. Pharmacol., 29: 1323. Ben Salem, H. Makkar, H.P.S., Nefzaoui, A., Hassayou, L. and Abidi, S. (2005) Anim Feed Sci. Technol., 122: 173-186. Bhatta, R., Krishnamoorthy, U. and Mohammed, F. (2000). Anim Feed Sci. Technol, 83: 6774. Bureau, D.P., Harris, A.M. and Cho, C.Y. (1998) Aquaculture, 161: 27-43. Chhabra, S.C., Mahunnah, R.L.A. and Mshiu, E.N. (1990) J. Ethnopharmacol., 28: 255-283. Chen, J.-C. and Chen, K.-W. (1997) Aquaculture, 156: 77-83. Conrad, J., Vogler, B., Reeb, S., Klaiber, I., Papjewski, S., Roos, G., Vasquez, E. , Setzer, M.C. and Kraus, W. (2001) J. Nat. Prod., 64: 294-299. Daing, T. and Win, Y.T. (2006). IAEA-TECDOC 1495, pp. 77-90, IAEA, Vienna, Austria.

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Diaz A., Avendano, M. and Escobar, A. (1993) Livestock Res. Rural Dev., 5: 1-6. Djipa, C.D., Delmee, M. and Quetin-Leclercq, J. (2000) J. Ethnopharmcol., 71: 307-313. Doan, D.V., Nguyen, V.T., Nguyen, N.T. and Ha, T.K.L. (2006) Development of urea-molasses multi-nutrient block (UMMB) and medicated UMMB (MUMB) for ruminants in Vietnam. IAEA-TECDOC 1495, pp. 139150, IAEA, Vienna, Austria. Eliwiniski, B. J., Soliva, C. R., Machmuller, A. and Kreuzer, M. (2002) Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 101: 101-114. Fahey, J.W., Haristoy, X., Dolan, P.M., kensler, T.W., Scholtus, I., Stephenson, K.K., Talalay, P., and Lozniewski, A. (2002) Sulforaphane inhibits extracellular, intracellular, and antibioticresistant strains of Heliobacter pylori and prevents benzo[a]pyrene-induced stomach tumors. Proc. National Acad Sci., USA, 99: 76107615. Faizi, S., Siddiqui, B.S., Saleem, R., Noor, F. and Husnain, S. (1997) J. Nat. Prod., 60: 13171321. Flaoyen, A., Wilkins, A.L. and Sandvik, M. (2004). The metabolism of saponins from Yucca schidigera in sheep. In Poisonous plants and related toxins (T. Acamovic, C.S. Stewart and T.W.Pennycott, eds.), pp. 210-214, CABI Publishing, UK. Foidl, N., Makkar, H.P.S. and Becker, K. (2001). The potential of Moringa oleifera for agricultural and industrial uses. The miracle tree (ed. Lowell J. Fuglie), CTA Publication, p. 4576. Francis, G., Levavi-Sivan, B., Avitan, A. and Becker, K. (2002b) Comp. Biochem. Physiol, 133: 591-601 Francis, G., Kerem, Z., Makkar, H. P. S. and Becker, K. (2002c). Brit. J. Nutr., 88: 587605. 45 45 45

Francis, G., Makkar, H.P.S. and Becker, K. (2005) Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 121: 147-157. Garg, S.K., Makkar, H.P.S., Nagal, K.B., Sharma, S.K., Wadhwa, D.R. and Singh, B. (1992) Vet. Human.Toxicol., 34: 161-164. Ghasi, S., Nwobodo, E. and Ofili, J.O. (2000) J. Pharmacol., 69: 21-25. Goel, G., Makkar, H.P.S. and Becker, K. (2007a) Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. (In press). Goel, G., Makkar, H.P.S. and Becker, K. (2007b) J. appl. Microbiol. (submitted). Goel, G., Makkar, H.P.S., Francis, G. and Becker, K. (2007c) Int. J. Toxicology, 26: 279-288. Hristov, X., Fahey, J.W., Scholtus, I. and Lozniewski, A. (2005) Planta Med., 71: 326330. Hess, H. D., Kreuzer, M., Diaz, T. E., Lascano, C. E., Carulla, J. E., Soliva, C. R. and Machmuller, A. (2003a) Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 109: 79-94. Hess, H.D., Monsalve, L.M., Lascano, C.R., Carulla, J.E., Diaz, T.E., and Kreuzer, M. (2003b) Aust. J. Agric. Res., 54: 703-713. Ho, K.Y., Tsai, C.C., Huang, J.S., Chen, C.P., Lin T.C. and Lin, C.C. (2001) Antimicrobial activity of tannin components from Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 53: 187191. Hristov, A. N., McAllister, A., Van Herk, F. H., Cheng, K. J., Newbold, C. J., Cheeke, P. R. (1999). J. Anim. Sci., 77: 2554-2563. Ivan, M., Koenig, K.M., Teferedegne, B., Newbold, C.J., Entz, T., Rode, L.M. and Ibrahim, M. (2004) Small Rum. Res., 52: 81-91. Kahn, L.P. and Diaz-Hernandez, A. (2000) Tannins with anthelmintic properties. In: Tannins in Livestock and Human Nutrition. (Brooker, J.D. Ed.), ACIAR Proceedings No., 92: pp. 130139.

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Krogdahl, A., Roem, A. and Baeverfjord, G. (1995) Effects of soybean saponin, raffinose and soybean alcohol extract on nutrient digestibilities, growth and intestinal morphology in Atlantic salmon. In: Quality in aquaculture. (Svennevig, N., Krogdahl, A. eds.), Proc. Intl. Conf. Aquaculture. Eur. Aquacult. Soc. Spec. Publ. No. 23, Gent, Belgium, pp. 118-119. Lila, Z.A., N. Mohammed, S. Kanda, T. Kamada and H. Itabashi (2003) J. Dairy Sci., 86: 33303336. Liu, J. Y., Yuan, W. Z., Ye, J. and Wu, Y. (2003) Effect of tea (Camellia sinensis) saponin addition on rumen fermentation in vitro. In Matching herbivore nutrition to ecosystems biodiversity. Tropical and subtropical agrosystems. Proc. the Sixth International Symposium on the Nutrition of Herbivore; Camacho, J. H., Castro, C. A. S., Eds.; Merida, Mexico, 2003; Vol. 3, pp 561-564. Lorimer, S.D., Perry, N.B., Foster, L.M. and Burgess, E.L. (1996) J. Agric. Food Chem., 44: 2482-2845. Machmueller, A., Ossowski, D.A. and Kreuzer, M. (2000) Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 85: 41-60. Makkar, H.P.S. (2000) Roles of tannins and saponins. In: Effects of antinutrients on the nutritional value of legume diets (Krogdahl, A., Mathiesen, S.D., and Pryme, I.F., eds.), p. 103-114, COST 98, Volume 8, Brussels, EU. Makkar, H.P.S. (2003) Small Ruminant Research, 49: 241-256. Makkar, H.P.S. (2005) Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 123-124: 291-302. Makkar, H.P.S. (2006) Improving animal productivity through meeting nutrient deficiencies with multinutrient blocks, enhancing utilization efficiency of alternate feed resources, and controlling internal parasites: a summary. IAEA-TECDOC 1495, pp. 1-9, IAEA, 46 46 46

Vienna, Austria. Makkar, H.P.S. and Becker, K. (1997a) J. Agri. Sci., Camb., 128: 311-322. Makkar, H.P.S. and Becker, K. (1997b) Jatropha curcas toxicity: identification of toxic principle(s). In: Toxic plants and other natural toxicants (Garland, T , Barr A. C. eds), Proceedings 5th International Symposium on Poisonous Plants, San Angelo, Texas, USA, May 19-23, CAB international, New York, pp 554-558. Makkar, H.P.S. and Becker, K. (1998) Moringa oleifera seed meal and protreins on rumen fermentation in vitro. Annual Report, Institute for Animal Production in the Tropics and Subtropics, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany. Makkar, H.P.S. and Becker, K. (2000). Beneficial effects of saponins on animal production. In: Saponins in food and feedstuffs and medicinal plants (Oleszek, W. and A. Marston Eds.), Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht. 281286. Makkar, H.P.S. and McSweeney, C.S. (2005) Methods in gut microbial ecology for ruminants, Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.New York, pp. 237. Mengual, L. (1997) Extraction of bioactive substances from Jatropha czrcas L. and bioassays on Zonocerus variegatus, Sesamia calamistis and Brusseola fusca for characterisation of insecticidal properties. In: Biofuels and industrial products from Jatropha curcas (Gübitz, G.M., Mittelbach, M., Trabi M., eds.), DbvVerlag für Technische Universität Graz, Graz, Austria, McSweeney, C.S., Makkar, H.P.S. and Reed, J.D. (2003) Modification of rumen fermentation for detoxification of harmful compounds. International Symposium on Nutrition of Herbivores, pp. 239-270, Merida, Yucatan, Mexico, 2024 October.

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Min, B.R., Barry, T.N., Attwood, G.T. and McNabb, W.C. (2003). Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 106: 3-19. Nair, A.G.R. and Subramanian, S.S. (1962) Curr. Sci., 31: 155-156. Nath, L.K. and Dutta, S.K. (1997) Acute toxicity studies and wound healing response of curcain, a proteolytic enzyme extracted from latex of Jatropha curcas Linn. In: Biofuels and industrial products from Jatropha curcas (Gübitz, G.M., Mittelbach, M., Trabi M., eds.), DbvVerlag für Technische Universität Graz, Graz, Austria, p. 82-86. Newbold, C.J., El Hassan, S.M., Wang, J.M., Ortega, M.E., and Wallace, R.J. (1997) Brit. J. Nutr., 78: 237-249. Nshalai, I.V., Umunna, N.N. and Osuji, P.O. (1999) Livest. Prod. Sci., 60: 59-69. Pal, S., Mukherjee, K. and Saha, B.P. (1995) Phytother. Res., 9: 463-465. Pen, B., Sar, C., Mwenya, B., Kuwaki, K., Morikawa, R. and Takahashi, J. (2006) Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 129: 175-186. Perchellet, E.M., Moutaseb, H.U., Makkar, H.P.S. and Perchellet, P. (1996) Int. J. Oncology, 9: 801-809. Priolo, A., Bella, M. Lanza, M., Galofaro, V., Biondi, L., Barbagallo, D., Ben Salem, H. and Pennini, P. (2005) Small Ruminant Research, 59: 281-288. Rug, M. and Ruppel, A., (2000) Tropica Medicine and International Health. 5: 423-430. Sen, S., Makkar, H.P.S. and Becker, K. (1998a) Letters in Appl. Micribiol., 27: 35-38. Shah, M.A. and P.S. Mir (2004) Can. J. Anim. Sci., 84: 725-729. Steinbronn, S. (2002) Impact of dietary Quillaja saponins on growth, sex ratio and reproduction of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus 47 47 47

L.) under field conditions in Bangladesh. Master Thesis, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany. Siddhuraju, P. and Becker, K. (2003) J. Agric. Food Chem., 51: 2144-2155. Singh, B, Bhat, T.K. and Singh, B. (2003) J. Agric. Food Chem., 51: 5579-5597. Sliwinski, B.J., Soliva, C.R., Machmuller, A. and Kreuzer, M. (2002a) Anim. Feed Sci. Tech., 101: 101-114. Sliwinski, B.J., Kreuzer, M., Wettstein, H.R. and Machmüller, A. (2002b) Arch. Anim. Nutr., 56: 379-392. Solsoloy, A.D. and Solsoloy, T.S. (1997) Pesticidal efficacy of formulated Jatropha curcas oil on pests of selected field crops. In: Biofuels and industrial products from Jatropha curcas (Gübitz, G.M., Mittelbach, M., Trabi M., eds.), Dbv-Verlag für Technische Universität Graz, Graz, Austria, p. 216-226. Suarez, M., Canarelli, S., Fisch, F., Chodanowski, P., Servis, C., Michielin, O., Moreillon, P. and Mermod, N. (2005) Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 49: 3847-3857 Suzuki, K., Kawauchi, H. and Nagahama, Y. (1988a) Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 71: 292301. Suzuki, K., Kawauchi, H. and Nagahama, Y., (1988b) Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 71: 302306. Taylor, W.G., Zulyniak, H.J., Richards, K.W., Acharya, S.N., Bittman, S. and Elder, J.L. (2002) J. Agric. Food Chem., 50: 5994-5997. Thalib, A., Widiawati, Y., Hamid, H., Suherman, D. and Sabrani, M. (1996) J. Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner., 2: 17-20. Tsao, R., Reuber, M., Johnson, L. and Coats, J.R. (1996) J. Agric. Entomol., 13: 109-120. Tschöp, M., Smiley, D. L. and Heiman, M. L. (2000) Nature, 407: 908-913.

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van den Berg, A.J.J., Horstein S.F.A.J., Ketternesvan den Bosch, J.J., Kroes, B.H., Beukelman, C.J., Leeflang, B.R., and Labadie, R.P. (1995) FEBS Letter, 358: 215-218. Vasta, V. and Priolo, A. (2006) Meat Sci., 73: 218-228. Wallace, R.J., Arthaud, L. and Newbold, C.J. (1994) Appl. Environ, Microbiol. 60: 17621767 Wang, Y., McAllister, T. A., Yanke, L. J., Xu, Z. J.; Cheeke, P.R. and Cheng, K. J. (2000a) J. Sci. Food Agric., 80: 2214-2122. Wang, Y., McAllister, T.A., Yanke, L.J. and Cheeke, P.R. (2000b) J. Appl. Microbiol., 88: 887896. Wei, T., Sun, H., Zhao, X., Hou, J., Hou A., Zhao Q. and Xin, W. (2002) Life Sci., 70: 18891899.

Wim, By and Jongen, F. (1996) Porc. Nutr. Soc., 55: 433-446. Wina, E., Muetzel, S. and Becker, K. (2005a) J. Agric. Food Chem., 53: 8093-8105. Wina, E., Muetzel, S., Hoffman, E., Makkar, H.P.S. and Becker. K. (2005b) Effect of secondary compounds in forage on rumen microorganisms qualified by 16S and 18S rRNA. In: Applications of gene-based technologies for improving animal production and health in developing countries, (Makkar, H.P.S. and G.J. Viljoen eds.), Springer Science and Business Media, Inc., New York, 2005, pp. 397-410. Wina, E., Muetzel, S., Hoffmann, E., Makkar, H.P.S. and Becker, K. (2005c) Anim Feed Sci. Technol., 121: 159-174. Yang, L.L., Lee, C.Y. and Yen, K.Y. (2000) Cancer Lett., 157: 65-67.

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Combined strategies guarantee mycotoxin control
Devendra S. Verma Biomin, India

Numerous strategies are evolving for control of mycotoxins, some clearly more practical and effective than others. Novel approaches combining different strategies that counteract mycotoxins through diverse biological and dietary interventions show greatest promise. Mycotoxins are toxic chemical products formed by fungal species, mainly those belonging to the genera Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium, that colonise crops in the field or after harvest and thus pose a potential threat to human and animal health. There are hundreds of mycotoxins known, but few have been extensively researched and even fewer have good methods of analysis available. The major classes of mycotoxins, in terms of agricultural relevance, are aflatoxins, zearalenone, trichothecenes (e.g. deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin), ochratoxin A, fumonisins and the ergot alkaloids. In farm animals a mycotoxin-contaminated diet may lead to substantial economic losses due to feed refusal, poor feed conversion, diminished body weight gain, immune suppression, interference with reproductive capacities and residues in animal products. Mycotoxins exhibit a great variety of biological effects in animals: specific tissue damage, central nervous system effects and digestive disorders, to name a few. However, mycotoxin-related losses in performance, reproductive disorders and immunesuppression, resulting in a higher susceptibility to disease, are of major concern. Even though recommended agricultural practices have been implemented to decrease mycotoxin production during crop growth, harvesting and storage, the potential for significant contamination still exists. According to the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), at least 25% 49 49 49

of the world’s crops are contaminated with mycotoxins, despite increased efforts of prevention. The significance of these unavoidable, naturally occurring toxicants to human and animal health are reflected in the increase in mycotoxin regulations and global trans-shipment of agricultural commodities and highlight the need to provide successful counteracting strategies. No single treatment Certain treatments have been found to reduce levels of specific mycotoxins. However, no single method has been developed that is equally effective against the wide variety of mycotoxins which may co-occur in different commodities. Moreover, detoxification processes that appear effective in vitro (i.e. in the laboratory) do not necessarily retain their efficacy when tested in vivo (i.e. in feeding trials). The efficacy of physical treatments (e.g. washing, separation, roasting, UV irradiation, solvent extraction) depends on the level of contamination and the distribution of mycotoxins throughout the grain. Subsequently the results obtained are uncertain and often connected with high product losses. Moreover, some of these physical treatments are relatively costly and may remove or destroy essential nutrients in feed. Chemical methods require not only suitable reaction facilities but also additional treatments (drying, cleaning) that make them time consuming and expensive. Only a limited number of tested chemicals are effective without diminishing the feed’s nutritional value or palatability. Treatment of contaminated feed with ammonia was once the most

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attractive method. Although early studies showed this technique to be safe and effective, ammoniation has not been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration due to the potential toxicity and carcinogenicity of the resulting products. Over the course of several extensive research projects involving scientists from all over the world, a unique, continuously improved concept has been developed to successfully deactivate agriculturally relevant mycotoxins present in feed. The new concept is based on three different mycotoxincounteracting strategies: (1) elimination of the toxin (adsorption), (2) elimination of the toxicity (biotransformation) and (3) elimination of toxin-related effects. Adsorption eliminates aflatoxins The most well-known approach to detoxification of mycotoxins involves the use of nutritionally inert adsorbents with the capacity to tightly bind and immobilise mycotoxins in the gastrointestinal tract of animals, thus reducing their bioavailability. In several independent scientific studies, hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicates (HSCAS) have proven to be the most promising adsorbents. Mixed into feed they markedly diminish aflatoxin uptake by the blood and distribution to target organs, thus avoid aflatoxin-related diseases and the carryover of aflatoxins into animal products. Unfortunately the efficacy of these adsorbing substances is quite limited against zearalenone (ZEA), ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisins (FUM) and totally ineffective for trichothecenes such as deoxynivalenol (DON), T-2 toxin and diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS). However, today adsorption is not only an economically feasible, but a well-established and scientifically proven approach to prevent aflatoxicoses in farm animals. The efficiency of aflatoxin-adsorption mainly depends on the chemical properties of the adsorbent used. Several screening studies carried out in cooperation with Austrian 50 50 50

universities in order to find the best adsorbents with regard to aflatoxin-deactivation and safe application showed that a synergistic blend of minerals afforded maximum, pH-independent activity at an inclusion rate as low as 0.5 kg/t without removing essential nutrients from the diet. Biotransformation of trichothecenes, ZEA and OTA In the course of extensive research activities in the field of biological detoxification (1988 – 2004), “biotransformation” has been shown to be a unique practical method to successfully counteract less- and non-adsorbable mycotoxins. Defined as the enzymatic degradation of mycotoxins leading to nontoxic metabolites, biotransformation has been successfully applied since 1991. Continuous research finally led to the most recent development of patented microbial supplements able to detoxify all kinds of trichothecenes, zearalenone and ochratoxin A. A safe bacterial strain (Eubacterium sp.) was found to have trichothecene-detoxifying activity and was named BBSH 797 after the research team that discovered it in July 1997: During its metabolism BBSH 797 produces specific enzymes that eliminate toxicity of trichothecenes by selective cleavage of their toxic 12,13-epoxy group. Both in vitro and in vivo efficacy of the strain were scientifically proven. In the course of a several-year research project, the efficacy of the live yeast species Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans, named after its unique property to “eat” and thus detoxify both, zearalenone and ochratoxin A was established. Incubation experiments with the strain and subsequent cell culture studies at the University of Utrecht in the Netherlands proved successful in the degradation of 1 ppm ZEA. Additional in vitro studies with OTA-concentrations as high as 5 ppm revealed a complete detoxification within a maximum of 1 hour. In vivo activity of T. mycotoxinivorans was

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investigated at the University of Gödöllö in Hungary. Addition of the yeast strain to the diet clearly improved weight development and feed conversion rate of animals. Moreover, animal losses and cases of diarrhea were lower in control and trial groups (A, C, D, E, F) than in the toxin group (B). A feeding trial conducted at the University of Maribor in Slovenia revealed that the negative influence of high OTA-doses (1 ppm) on the performance of broilers could be totally neutralised by addition of T. mycotoxinivorans. The final weight of the trial group (toxin and yeast added) was on average 83 g higher than that of the positive control (toxin, no additive) and even better than the negative control. Elimination of toxin-related effects The total number of mycotoxins is not known, but toxic metabolites of fungi could potentially number in the thousands. The number of mycotoxins actually known to be involved in diseases is considerably less, but even this number is difficult to assess, due to the diversity of their effects on animal systems. Natural intoxications by mycotoxins are often more complex than can be related to those experimental studies utilising one mycotoxin. Therefore, natural responses may be the result of two or more toxins. The immune system, for instance, is not only a key target of the major classes of mycotoxins, but also of ergot and fescue alkaloids, citrinin, patulin and gliotoxin, to name a few. Hepato-toxic effects are not exclusively attributed to aflatoxins, ochratoxins and fumonisins, but also to sporidesmin (New Zealand, Australia: facial eczema), rubratoxins and phomopsins (Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, USA: lupinosis). All of these will produce significant liver damage when given to animals. Finding successful detoxification strategies for agriculturally relevant mycotoxins is not an easy task; several years of intense research were necessary to 51 51 51

the develop methods described above. However, finding respective strategies for minor classes of mycotoxins, that might act synergistically and contribute to various mycotoxicoses, is probably impossible. Thus, different methods are advised for non-adsorbable and non-degradable toxins. A blend of scientifically studied and carefully selected plant and algae extract are have been studied that are able to eliminate toxin-related effects such as immune suppression, liver-damage or inflammation. Herbs that support immune function are general immune-system-stimulators (immunostimulants). They increase resistance by mobilising “effector cells” which act against all foreign particles rather than just one specific type. Immunestimulating extracts have been selected using different in vitro test systems. Numerous preparations of plant and algae origin were compared in a macrophage activation assay. Macrophages are one of the major cells of the unspecific immune system responsible for consuming invading microbes (i.e. for phagocytosis of pathogens). Thus, substances which are able to enhance the activity of macrophages lead to enhanced phagocytic activity and subsequently to a strengthened immune system. A synergistically acting blend of plant and algae extracts finally gave the best results. The immune stimulating effects of these substances were further confirmed in a lymphocyte proliferation test. The liver-protecting effect of some plant derived substances was demonstrated in a broiler feeding trial carried out at the National University of Colombia. A total of 144 chicks were fed a commercial starter mash ration which contained the hepato-protective additive and/or two hepato-toxic substances: pyrrolizidine alkaloids and aflatoxin B1 (200ppb). A clear difference (52.5 g) in body weight gain was observed between the toxin and the trial group. Feed intake and relative liver weights followed a similar trend, indicating that the birds completely overcame the adverse effects caused by the hepato-toxic substances.

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Conclusion The isolation and characterisation of microorganisms that are able to bio-transform mycotoxins in the intestinal tract of animals is a major breakthrough in successful mycotoxin control. The biological methods described above may become the technology of choice, as enzymatic reactions offer a specific, irreversible, efficient and environmentally friendly way of detoxification that

leaves neither toxic residues nor any undesired byproducts. Research teams working in this field are convinced that combinations of selected adsorbing agents and bio-transformation methods will ensure an effective control against mycotoxins taken in with contaminated feeds. Selected plant and algae extracts that counteract effects of non-degradable and nonadsorbable toxins complete the picture for control of mycotoxins to bare minimum possibility.

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TROPNUTRICON - 2007

Nutritional challenges for poultry and pigs in the post antibiotic era
S. S. Sikka and Jaswinder Singh* Department of Animal Nutrition, *Department of Veterinary & Animal Husbandry Extension, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana-141004, India

Use of antibiotics as growth promoters (AGP) in pig and poultry feeds started with from their discovery in the late 40’s. The exact mechanism as to how AGP’s promote growth is not entirely clear. It is widely assumed that AGP’s act mainly through their effect on intestinal flora. With less than 10% of intestinal microflora identified, there has been little chance of fully understanding AGP’s mode of action. It is postulated that AGP’s allow the animal to express their natural potential for growth which is achieved through their direct influence on bacteria in the gut ( Bedford 2005). AGP’s benefit the livestock by reducing the total number of intestinal micro-organisms and /or creating a more favourable balance between beneficial and non-beneficial ones. AGP’s are directly responsible in depressing the microbial growth in the gastro-intestinal tract which in tern results in reduced gut motility, reduced mucin secretion, reduced toxin (eg ammonia and biogenic amune from protein formulation) production, increase digestive enzyme output, the uptake of nutrients along the alimentary canal hereby improving the dig. and reduce the opportunity for harmful bacteria to establish in the gut. The overall outcome of use of AGP’s is the availability of more nutrients for growth and production. Antibiotics as routine feed additives are used at low concentration which appears to prevent some diseases. Over use of antimicrobials may diminish their effectiveness and the strains of resistant bacteria would arise. Of the 1,415 micro-organisms known to cause diseases in humans 60% are ZOONOTIC. The situation become more alarming as resistant genes, through the food chain, are flowing freely be53 53 53

tween animal and human bacteria. Of great concern was the possibility that resistance generated on the farm could lead to a loss of effectiveness of key antibiotics in human medicine. Therefore EU has banned the most of AGP’s in the feed from 2006. Ban on use of AGP’s has created the need to explore the alternatives that can improve the general health status and enhance the immunity to fight against disease (Bosi & Trevisi, 2006). Barriers: Prevention of harmful bacteria from entering the intestines by the oral route is the first line of defence. Acidic conditions of the stomach due to the secretion of hydrochloric acid acts as a powerful antimicrobial barrier. This mechanism is inadequately developed in the newly weaned piglets. Lactic acid originating from the fermentation of lactose by lactic acid bacteria (naturally occurring and probiotic additives) is helpful but limited by the relatively small amount of bacterial activity in the stomach and proximal small intestine. Anything that increases acid production post weaning (Prebiotic SCFA, Probiotic Lactic Acid) can enhance antimicrobial competence and improve the barrier to orally acquired pathogens. Bacterial metabolism: The main end products of bacterial carbohydrate metabolism are acids, short chain fatty acids (SCFA) mainly acetic, propionic and butyric acids. SCFA are weak organic acids with bacteriostatic properties in common with the organic acids used as preservatives. SCFA play an important role in the prevention of potentially harmful bacteria escaping the stomach

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and migrating forward through the small intestine, but more important is the reverse flux of harmful bacteria from hind gut to small intestine. The presence of fermentable carbohydrates in the pigs diet reduce protein fermentation, reducing toxic substances such as ammonia, amines, skatol and indole. Higher butyrate concentrations contribute to a healthier intestine because butyric acid is a strong stimulator of the gastrointestinal cell growth, not only for the colonocytes, but also for the enterocytes of the small intestine. (Pouillard 2003). Immune cells form part of the intestinal epithelial lining who’s function is to monitor, react and coordinate a response to the components of the intestinal microflora. Pre and probiotics increase the chances of a favourable response to the monitoring process, minimising immune activation with its highly beneficial impact on appetite and nutrient partitioning to growth. Growth responses to Pre and Probiotics achieve statistical significance during the first 14 days after weaning of piglets which confirms they can be fast acting in their influences. (Corrent, 2002). Balance of gut microflora: There is a delicate balance between the beneficial bacteria (Lactobacilli, Bifidobacteria and Eubacteria) and the potential pathogenic bacteria (E Coli, Salmonella, Staphylococci, Listeria, Shigella, Veillonella, Brachyspiro (Serpulina), Clostridia and Coliforms) in the gut . The ideal ratio between beneficial and pathogenic bacteria should be 9:1 which is subject to alteration due to factors like drug administration, stress, environmental and managemental changes, spoiled feed or change in gastric pH. The pig monitors what bacteria are within its gut and reacts to what is there. Pigs grow faster or slower according to what it ‘sees’ in its gut! The digestion efficiency in poultry and pigs depend upon the microorganisms which live naturally in its digestive tract. The microbial population present in the intestine of chicken comprises more than 90% of all the living cells in the bird. At least five hundred bacterial species colonise the pigs intestine ( 1011 cfu/ g intestinal contents). This is ten times more cells than 54 54 54

the number of cells in the pig body. The intestinal microflora have important and differing effects, including regulation of epithelial cell turnover, competition for ingested nutrients, modification of digestion, competitive exclusion of pathogens, metabolism of mucus secretions and modulation of mucosal immunity (Hooper et al., 2002). To make the environment conducive for the beneficial bacteria pre and probiotics are added in the feed. These are beneficial nutritional modifiers for monogastrics. The use of the AGP’s is declining and the recent trends are to use their alternative (Table 1).
Table 1. Potential alternatives to AGP Compound Relative effectiveness +++++ ++++ Comments

AGP Zinc oxide

Plasma protein +++ Specific antib- ++ odies (egg yolk) Organic acids +++ DFM Prebiotics Enzymes ++ ++ ++

Botanicals/ nutraceuticals Essential oils

+ +

Standard for comparison Decrease in scoured & improved performance Increased feed intake and improved growth performance. Limited data but potentially promising Most effective in newly weaned pig and grower chick Promote beneficial bacteria in the gut Promote beneficial bacteria in the gut Improve digestibility of feed ingredients and subsequent improved gut health Many potential products which promotes growth Improve growth

The search for replacements has been severely hampered by a lack of understanding of how AGP’s work. The interest of nutritionists is increasing towards natural substances like botanicals, herbs, nutraceuticals, enzymes etc. During the recent past, research activities were focused on the area of use of phytogenic feed additives and botanicals / herbs. Several foods/feeds contain certain compounds that improve the growth and production efficiency

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by providing either the nutritional balance, improving the metabolism or preventing the disease. Moreover at the same time there is increased interest over the food safety, environmental contamination and the general health risks which have made NATURAL the norm, promoting the trend towards alternative strategies to manage and feed the poultry birds and pigs without reliance on antibiotics. Such foods are labeled as pronutrients, adaptogens, dietetics, nutracines, nutraceuticals or multifunctional additives. Nutraceuticals: The term nutraceuticals is a combination of nutrients and pharmaceutical. Their use is not a newer concept, but it is an example of history which is repeating itself.
Year 2000 1200 1500 1900 1950 2000 BC AD AD AD AD AD Prevailing medical advice Here eat this root This root is heathen , say this prayer Prayer are superstitious, drink this potion This potion is snake oil, Swallo this pill This pill is ineffective, take this antibiotic This antibiotic is synthetic, eat this root.

Word ‘Nutraceutical’ was first coined by Stephen Defelice, the founder Chairman of “Foundation for Innovation in Medicine (FIM)”. Booth (1997) defined veterinary nutraceuticals as a non drug substance that is produced in purified or extracted form and administered orally to provide agents required for normal body structure and function with the intent of improving health and well being of animals. Recently, Sarah (2003) reported that nutraceuticals must improve the performance effectively & economically, with little therapeutic use, without causing cross resistance to other antibiotic at actual use level, without involving with transferable drug resistance, without causing any deleterious disturbance to the normal gut flora and should not create environmental pollution. Moreover these must be non toxic to the animals and its handlers. Nutrition based health (NbH):- A new concept, according to this concept feed and feeding 55 55 55

programmes must be designed to reduce stress and to assist the animals in resisting disease challenges (Adams, 2005). Judicious use of various nutrients and bioactive feed components like acidifiers, antioxidants, bacterial inhibitors, enzymes, flavours etc. to support animal health is the right approach of NbH. A term ‘pronutrient’ i.e. a micro ingredient included in the formulation of animal feed in relatively small amounts with specific physiological and microbiological functions different from any other nutrient is included in the feed additive list. Many active ingredients from plants must be considered pronutrients due to their effects against the colonization of different pathogenic organism and stimulation of beneficial bacteria eg zinger for the treatment of dysentery. Broadly nutraceuticals / natural therapy is classified as Herbs & Botanicals, Antioxidants (Vitamins C, A, beta carotene), Enzymes and Prebiotics and Probiotics or Direct Fed Mcrobials (DFM). Herbs/botanicals: Vegetative parts of the plants (leaves, bark, fruit, roots, seed and their extract) containing a variety of chemical compounds that are used as body restoratives are called herbs. While drugs are made from any part of plant, (root, leaves, bark etc) essential oils or any of a class of volatile oils obtained from plants, possessing the odour and other characteristic properties of the plant, used chiefly in manufacture of perfumes, flavours and pharmaceutical extract after hydro distillation. These chemical compounds are active in altering the physiological and biochemical processes in the body. Herbs and spices have compounds with antibacterial effects for example garlic contain allicin and ajoene which exhibits broad spectrum anti microbial properties (Naganawa et al., 1996) and is effective in reducing cholesterol of liver, breast and thigh muscle (Kopnjufca et al., 1997). Another example is of Yucca Schidiger which improve growth & FCR (Headon et al. 1991).

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Botanicals / herbs help in improving the performance by several ways like reducing the stress associated with handling, transport and poor health by providing nutrients and or active principles which act as anti stress agents, Being adaptogenic manage stress and improve egg production in birds, Increase the feed consumption due to the flavours present, Ensure the normal gut functioning, Improve the digestion by activating digestive secretions, Improve the feed conversion efficiency there by growth and production, Improve the liver functioning, Act as toxin binder and reduce the risk of mycotoxicosis, Normalize the kidney functioning, Improve the immunity as an immune modulater, Antioxidant, Act as coccidiostat and anti helminthic, Stimulate endocrine system, Stimulate intermediate nutrient metabolism, Stabilize gut environment, Ameliorate the effect of ANF’s present in the feed, Used for the treatment of bacterial (Yuan et al., 1993), viral (Yu & Zhu, 2000) and parasitic diseases (Pang et al., 2000), Reducing ammonia and other noxious gases in the GI tract through their binding to the saponins and excreted in the excreta and Reducing the ascitic mortality in broilers (Menocal, 1995). These properties of various herbs are due to the active secondary metabolites which belong to class of isoprene derivatives, flavonoides and glucosinolates. Intercation between different active components within and between extract may have either cummulative or antagonistic effect. Use of herbs in poultry and pig feeds are now gaining momentum as it claim to have no side effect, safe and eco friendly. A term botanical / natural broiler/ pig can be used when only botanical / natural materials are used for enhancing performance and prevention of disease. Use of some herbs in poultry feeds is recently reviewed by Sikka and Singh, (2007). Activity of herbs: Do the herbs have always the same activity? No, the desired activity of herbs is not always same due to variability of the composition of plant secondary metabolites, environmental conditions, different harvesting time, stage of matu56 56 56

rity, method of extraction and conservation, anti nutritional factor and nature of diet in which it is supplemented because it have to compete with nutrients present in the feed. Prebiotics: Prebiotics are short chained nondigestible compounds present in feed ingredients. These are mainly oligosaccharides (2-20 units of monosaccharides) and are found in soybean and rapeseed meal. Legumes, cereals and yeast cell walls contain respectively á-galactooligosaccharides (GOS), fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and mannanoligosaccharides (MOS). Some prebiotics are selectively fermented by Lactobacilli, Bifidobacteria and Eubacteria. Whilst being poorly utilised by the potentially harmful bacteria listed above. Both pre and probiotics modify the gut microbial population balance by promoting the growth of beneficial flora in the intestines (Flickinger & Fahey 2002) thereby providing a healthier intestinal environment. It is generally accepted that high villi : crypt depth ratios are indicators of a healthier and more efficient intestinal mucosa. Prebiotics have a beneficial effect on the gut integrity especially in the distal end of small intestine, the area with the greatest levels of fermentation. In a recent experiment, it was observed that ratios were enhanced in distal area, with enhanced fermentation along the entire small intestine (Decuypere, 2003). Through a variety of mechanisms prebiotics are thought to increase resistance to infection. Various proposed modes of action are enhancement of the physical barrier (modulation of paracellular permeability, mucosal trophic action), Improved functional barrier (mucosal immunity), Competitive adhesion to epithelial receptors. Increased SCFA production along the gastro-intestinal tract, Inducing a shift to a more saccharolytic (carbohydrate fermenting) flora, Reduction of intestinal pH and reducing the colonization of harmful bacteria, Excreting harmful bacteria, Competitive exclusion (colonisation resistance).

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Galacto-oligosaccherides (GOS), Mannanoligosaccharides (MOS), Fructo- oligosaccharides (FOS) are frequently used in poultry (Ishihara et al., 2000, Zhang et al., 2003) diets. FOS (derivative of inulin) stimulate the growth of Bifido bacteria, improve the mucosal morphology of the colon (Howard et al., 1995) and inhibit the growth of pathogenic microorganism such as clostridia and salmonella(Wang & Gibson 1993). Chen et al., (2005) revealed the increase in egg production and feed efficiency of layer with the use of dietary oligofructose and inulin. The inulin is required for the growth of Lactobacilli (Gibson, 1999). FOS has been reported to improve growth in the weaned pigs by 5.1 % and feed efficiency by 2.0% (Mul & Perry, 1994) On the other hand MOS found to improve daily weight gain by 7.4% and feed utilization by 5.2 % in nursery pigs. Spring and Privulescu (1998) revealed that oligosaccharides stimulate the secretion of cytokine and there by enhance the immune system of the pig to resist pathogenic bacterial challenge. Probiotics : The live microbial food supplement which when fed improve the intestinal microbial balance of the host are called probiotics or Direct Fed Microbials (DFM’s). Probiotics improve the survival with better growth, better feed conversion and inhibition of diarrhea in piglets. Lactobacilli, Streptococci, Bi-fidobacteria, Bacillus, Bacteriods, Pediococcus, leuconostoc, Propionibacterium, and some yeast (Saccharomyces cerevesiae) and fungi (Asperzillus oryzae) are commonly used DFM’s. B Subtilis and B licheniformis are commonly used in nursery pig rations as they are spore forming and are able to resist the environmental conditions of high temperature and moisture occurring during the pelleting process. Probiotics should be given once or twice, after which the bacterium should establish itself in the alimentary canal and replace disease-promoting micro-organisms but results are not convincing. Furthermore, it is practically impossible that probiotic bacteria could establish themselves in a stable alimentary canal sys57 57 57

tem. Therefore these must be added to the feed on a daily basis. Use of probiotic bacterial cultures have greater effect during the early stages of growth, when, the gut is sterile and when the alimentary flora of pigs are unstable, viz after weaning and subsequent to an extended period of treatment with antibiotics. Probiotics, improve health and growth by modifying intestinal microbial balance by several ways given below. Competitive exclusion, Adhering to intestinal mucosa (Jonsson and Conway, 1992), Preventing attachment of pathogens, (Green & Sainbury, 2001), Production of antimicrobial compunds (Hentges, 1992) such as bacteriocins and organic acids, Competition with pathogens for nutrients (Freter, 1992), Stimulation of intestinal immune responses, affect the permeability of the gut and Increase uptake of nutrients; Lee et al., 1999). Some bacterial cultures when fed in single or multiple (few doses) to newly hatched birds establish an intestinal flora quickly and it prevents colonization by pathogenic bacteria. For example lactobacilli acidophilus produces lactocidin which has antibacterial effects on E Coli. Lactobacilli modify gut pH, competition for nutrients and absorption sites, boost cell immune response, inhibition of bacterial growth by hydrogen peroxide production and cell signaling to turn off pathogenic function (Fuller, 1999). Competitive Exclusion(CE) preparations are not always pure cultures of bacteria and their microbial composition may not be completely known. Some CE cultures have proven effective in protecting chicks from Salmonella infections. Interest in the use of probiotics in poultry and pig diets is to curtail sub-therapeutic doses of antibiotics in feed. Like antibiotics, probiotics appear to have a more pronounced effect on farms where housing and hygiene are not optimal. Thomke and Elwinger, 1998). Supplementation of probiotics containing Lactobaccilus acidophilus, Streptococcus faecium and yeasac @ 0.025% in the diets of broilers were found to be beneficial in early stage

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of growth. Supplementation of yeast culture at 0.1 % level increased the body weight and performance of broilers due to quantitative and qualitative alteration in the digestive tract flora with better nutrient utilization. Use of combination of several strains at a time improved the weight gain and feed efficiency in broilers (Mazurkiewicz et al. 1992) and in chicks. Feeding of mixture of S. Cerevisae, L.Bulgaricus and S. thermophilus did not show any effect on the production of layers (Svetic et al. 1996). In pigs the intestinal microflora is capable of resisting the establishment of certain intestinal pathogens (Lopez & Marquez 1994). Bera & Samanta (2005) fed probiotics ( alone or in combination) to the piglets and reported superior growth performance in the pre and post weaning periods with yeast+MOS (YMOS), followed by Yeast + lactobacillus (YL) and control (C) with higher profit. Better FCR in pigs with yeast+lactobacillus and yeast+MOS was observed (Bera & Samanta, 2005. Inconsistent results reported earlier (Bhatt et al., 1995, Bolder et al., 1993; Yadav et al., 1994, Ramarao et al., 2004 and Panda et al., 2005) for chicks ,broilers and layers, Mohan et al. 1996) with the use of probiotics were due to variations in bacterial cultures used, age, factors related to feed composition and management practices adopted. Variability in the results may be due to difference in strain of organism used, dose levels, diet composition, feeding strategy, feed form and interaction with other dietary feed additives (Chesson 1994) Antioxidants : Nutrients in the body on oxidation release energy for various metabolic processes and physiological activities and to transform dietary nutrients into body tissue along with generation of heat. Autooxidation results in the production of free redicals which damage the cellular tissue and cause many disorders. To prevent autooxidation antioxidants are frequently used. Nutritional antioxidants are very helpful in reducing physiological stress both at an organ and cellular level due to free radical formation. Feed antioxidants help the birds and pigs by 58 58 58

protecting the feed nutrients during storage, Helping the absorption of the oxidation sensible substances in the GIT, Reducing aging by keeping the membrane intact, Enable the system for better exploitation of genetic potential, Improving the meat quality of broilers and pigs. In poultry diets mostly vitamins A, beta- carotene, E, C and its calcium and sodium salts, ethoxyquin, lecithin, butylated hydroxytoulene (BHT), propyl gallate, chelated metal ions are used as antioxidants. The beneficial effects of antioxidants are due to their scavenging nature for free radicals (Bulger & Hilton, 1998), maintaing the potency of dietary vitamins and stimulating bird’s immuno- responsiveness to infections. Antioxidant defence system includes the enzyme superoxide dismutase, catalase, & glutathione peroxidase. During stress free radicals in the body increase while the level of these enzymes decrease. Ascorbic acid also play a role in collagen synthesis, carnitine synthesis along with its primary function of antioxidants (Gross et al., 2000). It scavenges neutrophill oxidants, hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen peroxide and hypochlorous acid (Bulger & Hilton, 1998). Raju et al. (2005) revealed that herbal Vit C (0.025%) improve the performance of bird by alleviating the effect of aflatoxicosis. Similarly the primary physiological role of Vitamin E is to act as antioxidant (Matthai, 1996). Many studies have shown that supplementation of Vitamin C, E & A can attenuate the side effects due to extreme environmental stress (Njoku, 1986). Brahma Rasayana a polyherbal antioxidant was found useful in ameliorating the effects of free redicals generated due to heat stress (Ramnath et al., 2007). Herbs like garlic, green tea, amla also posses antioxidant properties. Organic acid/acidifiers: Organic acids posses antibacterial, anti mould activity and therefore have long been used as preservative to prevent spoilage of by checking microbial growth and are also used to maintain the proper gut health. Generally two types (Feed and Gut) of acidifiers are used in the feed industry. Feed acidifiers lower the pH of

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the feed and inhibit the growth of pathogenic microflora. This inhibition reduces the micro flora competing for the host nutrients and prevent the occurrence of diseases which results in better growth and performance. On the other hand gut acidifiers (organic acid) acidify the intestinal tract and modulate the intestine bacterial population in a positive and natural way. Since many harmful bacterial species have pH optimum for their growth around 7 where as useful bacterial species such as Lactobacillus and Enterococcus have their best growth pH around 6., Maintenance of healthy gut for proper productivity is of utmost importance. Amongst various options available to poultry and pig feed industry, short chain fatty acids have shown tremendous promise in maintaining gut health through their varied modes of action. Acidifiers have various functions in monogastric animals like help in maintaining an optimum pH in stomach, Stimulate feed consumption, Inhibit the growth and colonization of pathogenic bacteria, Prevents damage to epithelial cells of intestines, Reduce microbial competition with host for nutrients, Reduce endogenous nitrogen losses, Lower the incidence of sub clinical infections, Reduce the production of ammonia and other growth depressing microbial metabolites, Increase pancreatic secretions, Increase protein and amino acid digestibility by correcting activation and function of proteolytic enzymes, Improve energy digestibility, Increase mineral digestibility as acid ion complex with minerals, Serve as substrates in intermediary metabolism and have energy content, Check problem of Salmonella, E. coli, entritis and diarrhoea in pigs. Supplementation of organic acids improve the weight gain, feed consumption and feed utilization (Denli et al., 2003) reducing the production of toxic components by pathogenic bacteria and reduces the colonization of pathogens on the intestinal wall, thus preventing the damage of the epithelial cells (Langhout, 2000). In poultry diets organic acids are mainly used in order to sanitize the feed to avoid the problems 59 59 59

releated with salmonella (Berchieri & Barrow,1996). However, the inability of citric acid at the dietary concentration up to 1 % to prevent the salmonella colonization of the caeca. In poultry nutrition organic acid have not gained as much attention as in swine nutrition (Langhout, 2000). Edwin (2000) reported that addition of 2% lactic acid to the diet without growth promoters increased the weight gain by 2.6 % with improved FCR. Propionic acid based products were found effective in alleviating the enteritis and mortality syndrome in turkey poults ( Roy et al. 2002). Several organic acid like citric acid, fumaric acid, formic acid, propionic acid were tried on pig for their impact on the growth performance (Partanen & Mroz, 1999). Their supplementation in weaning pig diets give most pronounced impact on the growth performance (Roth & Kirchgessner, 1998). The incorporation of organic acids into nursery pig rations has been shown to reduce bacterial load and increase the digestibility of energy and amino acid in the ileum, resulting in improvement in feed efficiency and reduction in the incidence of diarrhea. These pigs often suffer from digestive problems due to infection of E coli. An insufficient production of HCl, digestive enzymes and feeding of high protein pre starter diets are another reasons for the digestive upset at this stage. Supplementation of organic acid increases the gastric proteolysis, protein and amino acid digestibility. The acid anion has been shown to complex with Ca, P, Mg, and Zn which results in an improved digestibility of these minerals. Kirchgessner and Roth (1988) also revealed the role of organic acid as substrates in the intermediary metabolism. Supplementation of 1.5% citric acid to control diets did not significantly effect the pH, concentration of VFA’s / non VFA or microflora (total anarobes, Lactobacilli, Clostridia, E. coli) in the contents from the stomach, jejunum, caecum or lower colon of weanling pigs. Similar results were reported for the Fumaric acid. Sodium fumarate when added to a control pig diet at a level of 0.3%, no significant effect of acid on the concentration of SCFA and the density of lactobacilli or E coli along the GI tract was observed. Supplementation

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of 1 % lactic acid lower the gastric pH (Thomlinson & Lawrence, 1981) and reduced the level of E coli in the duodenum and jeunum of 8 week old piglets (Cole et al. 1968). The addition of formic acid or potassium diformate reduces the pH, (Fevrier et al. 2001) and number of coliform bacteria in stomach, duodenum, jejunum and rectum of growing pigs (Overland et al., 2000). It was reported the reduction of caecal pH with the addition of a formic acid/ propionic acid blend in a concentration of 1% in the broiler chicken. Supplementation of benzoic acid though not approved as an additive or preservative in the pig or poultry feed but it is extensively used as food preservative in human nutrition. The preliminary results from the experiment with broiler chicken indicate the positive influence on growth. It seems that these short chain fatty acids can nearly compensate for the effects of antibiotic growth promoters in pigs , although these effects are less consistent. Excess level of strong dietary acid can reduce the pH too quickly after feed ingestion but the stomach may not develop its parietal secretary cells that produced HCl. This inhibits the normal gut development. Therefore use of organic acids must be done judiciously. Essential oils: Essential oils are highly concentrated extracts produced by further refinement of botanicals by hydro-distillation. Essential oils are used as flavouring agents to increase their attractiveness of the feeds. Essential oils have antimicrobial, antioxidant, coccidiostatic and even antiviral properties. (Wenk, C, 2003). Claims are also made for increased digestive enzyme secretion and improved immune function. Essential oils are standardised products, often based on a blend of plant metabolites such as allylisothiocyanates, thymol, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, capsaicin, piperin etc. Use of Essential oils in pig diets have improved performance with increased appetite (Janroz,et al., 2003). There are reports of synergy between organic acids and essential oils. The synergy is thought to come from the 60 60 60

ability of the essential oils to weaken bacterial cell walls, increasing its permeability to the organic acids. Enzymes: Non starch poysaccahrides or NSP ( cellulose, glucans and xylans etc) ) of the cereal grains (Henry, 1985) like wheat, rye, oats possess antinutritive activity (Annison & Choct, 1991) which leads to the formulation of viscous gel in the gut that intrferes the proper absorption of nutrients (Choct & Annison, 1992) and also produces sticky droppings in poultry. Similarly phytic acid and its salts as phytates present in the feedstuffs also binds minerals, carbohydrates, proteins and form insoluble complexes which make these nutrients especially minerals like phosphorus unavaiable to the birds and pigs and are excreted in faeces. The supplementation of exogenous enzymes in the diets decrease gut viscosity and improve the availability of nutrients from feed, lower the feed cost and help in reducing the environmental pollution by minimizing the waste excretion. Exogenous enzymes in the diets young animal complement the endogenous enzymes. Their use in the poultry and pig feed industry has become a routine (Sikka, 2003). The enzymes in pig and poultry feeds are added to counter ANF’s present in feed, To increase the availability of dietary nutrients, To improve the AME level of the feeds, To release the bound nutrients, To supplement the enzymes produced by young chicks/piglets due to immature digestive system, Pre treatment of certain feeds / ingredients such as feathers and offals. Phytase enzyme was found to improve the availability of phyatate phosphorus as well as other organic nutrients. Eeckhout et al. (1992) revealed that supplementation of phytase at 1000U/kg diet increases P digestibility by 36-55% in maize soy bean and 54-68% in wheat soybean diets given to 5 week old weaner. The supplementation of phytase improve performance and mineral retention. Similarly supplementation glycosidase has been found to increase the energy utilization in birds. Higher body weight gain and better feed efficiency

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in Japanese Quails with supplementing of 0.05%, non starch polysaccharidase (Edwin et al., 2004) and in broiler Srivastava et al. (2005) with enzymes mixture of amylase, cellulose, lipase and protease and in weaner pigs (Owsley et al. 1986) with diminsihing digestive disturbance (Partridge & Hazzledine,1997). The improvement was more in young pigs than older one. The use of beta glucanase and xylanase are beneficial with high fiber grains like wheat, barley and their by products (Sikka & Chawla 2002).Thomke et al. (1980) also reported that b-glucanases could improve performance in barley fed pigs. Alpha galactosiadse is used to breakdown the galactose units in raffinose and stachyose found in soyabean. The efficacy of enzyme supplementation depends upon types of diet, animals, chemical linkage in the substrate that need to be cleaved etc. Augmentation of immunity - immuno modulators: Nutrition and disease have close connection as the nutritional status of animal influence immunological function and resistance to disease.Health status of the organism is influencing the animals nutritional requirements. Many nutrients like protein & energy (Praharaj et al. 1999), methionine (Swain & Johri 2000), Vitamin A (Friedman & Sklan 1997), Vitamin E &Se, Singh et al. 2006), Vitamin C and trace element like Zn, Fe, Cu & Mn (Derdone 2002) have the immuno modulating ability. In pigs nucleotides, B glucans (Diluzio & Jacques 1985), vitamins, PUFA, antibodies from products such as blood derivatives (eg, plasma protein), freeze dried eggs containing pig related antibodies and possibly some whey protein products have been reported to improve the immune response. Reduced immune activity promotes growth by increasing appetite and partitioning nutrients to growth. Idea concept: Immuno modulation through nutrition gave birth to a new concept the ‘IDEA’ which stands for Impulse, Digestibility, Economic and Advance. The IDEA concept seeks to enhance immunity development, Giving opportunity for bet61 61 61

ter nutritional management of birds, Reduce feed costs, Reduce intestinal challenges by coccidia and bacteria without the use of drugs, Conditioning the gut for better coccidiosis management especially in broilers. The IDEA concept is simple but an innovative approach to feed management which redefines the birds nutritional and management needs during critical phases. Supportive dietary modification: Bacteriostatic approach is supported by alteration in the diet to reduce the amount of substrate available to the intestinal microflora. Diets must be modified to reduce “By-Pass Nutrients”! This is best achieved through increased digestibility of ingredients by the addition of enzymes, herbs, probiotics, acidifiers etc. The aim is to reduce the protein and carbohydrate fraction of the diet which can escape digestion and absorption and remain available as a food source for microbial fermentation by intestinal microflora. Bacterial fermentation of indigestible protein produces ammonia and biogenic amines which are toxic and increase the risk of diarrhoea. Piglet starter diets must be highly digestible and must encourage a shift to protein fermentation in the hind gut by being ‘carbohydrate’ deficient. The addition of fermentable carbohydrates (prebiotics) to pig diets reduces protein fermentation through increased carbohydrate fermentation in the hind gut. The reduced efficiency of bile salts can be countered by adding emulsifying agents (lecithin) directly to the diet and by improving the saturated to unsaturated fatty acid ratio in the diet to aid absorption. Alterations such as switching from DL-Methionine to Liquid MHA-FA, an organic acid, is another small change which can increase the antimicrobial status of a pig diet. The efficiency of the intestinal epithelium structure and function can be upgraded with the use of Betaine REFERENCES Adams,C.A. (2005) Feed International 26: 25-27. Annison, G. & Choct, M. (1991) World Poultry Sci. J. 47: 232-42.

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Bedford, M. (2005). Antimicrobial Growth Promoters. Worldwide Ban on the Horizon. p 49. Bera, J. & Samanta, G. (2005) Indian J. Anim. Nutr., 22: 156-159. Bhatt, R. S., Katoch, B. S., Dogra, K. K., Gupta, R., Sharma, K. S. and Sharma, C. R. (1995) Indian J. Poult. Sci. 30: 117-121. Bolder, N. M., VanLith, L. A. J. T., Putirulan, F. F. and Mulder, R. W. A. W. (1993) In. Proc, probiotics and pathogenicity (J fjensen, M. H. Hinton and R.W.A.W. Mulder, eds.) CONPDLO, Beekbergen, Netherlands, pp115-122. Booth, D. M. (1997) Pract. Vet:1248-1255. Bosi, P. and Trevisi, R. (2006) Immune response and nutrient intake. Biology of Nutrition in Growing Animals.343-363 Berchieri, A., Jr. and Barrow, P.A. (1996) Poult. Sci. 75: 339-341. Bulger and Hilton (1998). Gastroenterol Clin. North Am., 27: 403-419. Chen, Y. C., Nakathong, C. and Chen, T. C. (2005) Indian J. Poult. Sci., 4: 103-108. Chesson, A. (1994) probiotics and other intestinal mediators. In Principles of pig science (DJA Cole, J wisemann and MA varley ed) pp197214. Nottingham University Press. Nottingham. Choct, M. & Annison, G. (1992) Br. Poult. Sci. 33: 821. Cole, D.J.A., R. Beal, M. & Luscombe, J.R. (1968) Veter. Rec. 459-464. Corrent, S. (2002). Nutreco trial report, p 172. Decuypere, J. (2003). Western Nutrition Conference. Canada. Denli, M., Ferda Okan, & Kemal Celik (2003) Pakistan J. of Nutrition, 2: 89-91. 62 62 62

Derdane, M. (2002) Zinc and immune function. European J. Clin. Nutr., 3: 20-23. Diluzio, N.R. and Jacques, P. (1985) Glucans as immuno modulators. In Advances in immunopharmacology. (L Chedid, JW hadden F Spreadico, P Dukor, and Willoughby ed) Pub Permagon Press. NY. P-369-375. Edwin, S. C., Viswanathan, K., Mohan, B., & Purushothaman, M. R. (2004) Indian J. Poult Sci., 39: 241-245. Edwin, M.R. (2000) Feed Mix 8: 15-17. Eeckhout, W., De palpe, M. & Depalpe, M. (1992) revue de L’ Agril, 45: 183-193,209. Fevrier, C., Gotterbarm, G., Jaghelin-Peyraud, Y., Lebreton, Y., Legouevec, F. and Aumaitre, A. (2001) Effect of adding potassium diformate and phytase for weaned piglets. In digestive physiology of pigs. (Lindberg, J.E., Ogle B, ed) CABI publishing. 136-138. Flikinger, E. A. and Fahay, G. C. (2002) Br. J. Nutr., 2: 297-300. Freter, R. (1992) In: Probiotics. The Zcientific basis (R. Fuller, ed.), Chapman Hall, London, UK. 111-144 Friedman, A. and Sklan. D. (1997) World Poultry Sci. J. 48: 101-11. Fuller, R. (1999) Probiotics for farm animals. In probiotics – Acritical review (Tannock, g.w., ED) Horizon Scientific Press. Wymondhan UK. Pp-15-22. Gibson, G. R. (1999) J. Anim. Sci., 73: 82. Green, A. A. and Sainsbury, D.W.B. (2001) The role of probiotics in producing quality poultry products. XV European Symposium on the quality of poultry meat. 9-12. Sep-2001. Kusadasi/turkey 245-251. Gross, K. I., Wedekind, K. J., Cowell, C. S. et al.

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(2000) Nutrients in hand (Thatcher, C.D., Remillard, R.L. (eds) Small Animal Clinical Nutrition ed 4 Topeka, KS Mark, Morris institute. pp 21-107. Headon, D.R., Buggle, K.A., Nelson, A.B. and Killeen, G. F. (1991) In Biotech in feed industry Ed. TP lyons, Alltech tech Publication, KY .pp 95-108. Henry, R. J. (1985) J. Food. Sci & Agric. 36: 1243-1253. Hentges, D. J. (1992) In probiotics. The scietific basis (Fuller R. ed) Champman and Hall London UK .pp87-110. Hooper, L.V. et al. (2002). Annu Rev Nutr 22: 283-307. Howard, Md, D.T. Gordon, L.W. Pace, K.A. Garleb and M.S. Kerley (1995) J. Pediatr. Gastroenterology Nutr. 21: 293-303. Ishihara, N., Chu, D. C., Akachi, S. and Juneja, L. R. (2000) Poult Sci. 79: 689-697. Janroz, D. (2003) Anim. Feed Sci. 12: 583-596. Jonsson, E. and Conway, P. (1992) In Probiotics, the scientific basis ( R Fuller ed) Champman and Hall London UK .pp 260-316. Kirchgessner, M. and Roth F.X. (1988) Ubersichten Zur Tierernahrung 16: 93-108. Kopnjufca, V. H. Pesti, G. M. and Bakali, R. I. (1997) Poult. Sci., 76: 1264-1271. Langhout, P. (2000) Feed Mix Sp Lee, Y. K., Nomoto, K., Salminen, S., Gorbach, S. l. (1999) Handbook of probiotics, NY, John Wiley and Sons Inc. Lopez, D.C. & Marquez, G.P.C. (1994) Comparison of probiotic and antibiotic pig doses on preweaning performance of piglets. Proceedings of the 13th international pig veterinary society congress. Bangkok,Thiland. Pp 293. 63 63 63

Matthai, J. (1996) Indian J. Pediatr. 63: 242-253 Mazurkiewicz, M., Jamroz, D., Gawel, A., Wieliczko, A., Klimentowski, S. and Madej, J A. (1992) Medcyna Vet 48: 369-371. Menocal J A (1995) In Biotechnology in the feed industry (Lyons TP & Jacques KA eds.) Nottingham University Press, Loughborough. Mohan, B., Kadirvel, R., Natarajan, A. and Bhaskaran, M. (1996) Br. J.Poult. Sci., 37: 395-401. Mul, A.J. & Perry F.G. (1994) The role of fructo oligosaccharide in animal nutrition. In Recent advances in animal Nutrition. Garnsworthyand, P.C., Cole, D.J.A., ed) pp57-79. Nottingham University press. Nottingham. Naganawa, R., Iwata, N., Ishikawa, K., Fukude, M., Fujino, T and Suzuki, A. (1996) Appl. Environ Microbiol., 62: 4238-4242. Njoku P. C. (1986) Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 16: 17-24. Oswley WF, Orr DE & Tribble LF (1986) J. Anim Sci. 63: 497-504. Overland, M., Granli, T. Kjos, N.P., Fjetland, O., Steien, S.H., Stokstad, M. (2000) J. Anim. Sci., 78: 1875-1884. Panda, A.K., Raju M.V.L.N., Ramarao, S.V.K., Sharma S R (2005) Indian J. Anim. Nutr., 22: 37-40. Pang, F. H., Xie, M. Q. and Ling, H. H. (2000) Chinese J. Vet. med., 8: 1-3. Partanen, K.H. and Mroz, Z. (1999) Nutr. Res. Rev., 12: 117-145. Partridge, G. & Hazzledine, M. (1997) proceeding of american society of swine practitioner. Pp 183-193. Pouillard, P. (2003). International Forum Agrosante, 1-2 April.

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Praharaj, N.K., Reddy, V.R. and Rama Rao, S.V., Shyam Sunder, G. and Reddy, B.L.N. (1999) Archiv Fur Geflugelkunde, 63: 1-8. Raju, M. V. L. N., Ramo Rao, S. V., Radhika, K. and Chawak, M. M. (2005) Indian J. Poult Sci 40:36-40. Ramarao, S.V., Reddy, M. R., Raju, M.V.L.N. and Panda, A. K. (2004) Indian J. Poult. Sci., 39: 125-130. Ramnath, V., Rekh, P. S. and Sujatha, K. S. (2007) Amelioration of heat stress induce disturbances of antioxidants defence system in chicken by Brahma Rasayana. Evidence based complementary and alternative Medicine (eCAM). Roth, F.X. and Kirchgessner, M. (1998) J. Anim. Feed Sci., (7) 25-33. Roy, R.D., Eidens, F.W., Parkhurst, C.R. Quereshi, M.A. & Havenstein, G.B. (2002) Poult. Sci., 81: 951-957. Sarah, H. (2003) Poultry Industry, Alternative to antibiotics. www.engromix.com Sikka, S. S. (2003) Improving the production performance of poultry using feed grade enzymes. In Compendium “ Tech Adv. In Livestock & Poultry Production and Management- Specific Reference to Rural Development”. Sikka, S.S. and Chawla, J.S. (2002) Anim. Nut. Feed Tech. not. 2: 11-18 Sikka, S.S. and Singh, J. (2007) Nutraceutical vis a vis poultry nutrition. In Proceeding of XXIV annual conference of Indian Poultry Science Association and National Symposium on poultry production for rural employment and nutritional security. Punjab, pp-62-67. Singh, H., Sodhi, S. and Kaur, R. (2006) Br. Poult. Sci., 47. 714-9.

Spring, P. & Privulescu, M. (1998) mannon oligosaccharide;its logical role as a natural feed additive for piglets. In Biotech in the feed industry. Proceeding of Alltech 14th Annual Symposium (TP lyons & KA Jacques ed) pp 553-561. Nottingham University press. Nottingham. Svetic, M., Dumanovski, F., Kekej, M., Ivekovi, C.D. and Prpic, B. (1996) Nutr. Abstr. Rev., 66:121. Swain, B.K. and Johri, T.S. (2000) Br. Poult. Sci., 41: 83-88. Thomlinson and Lawrence (1981) cited from “ An overview of the effect of organic acids on gut flora and gut health. By Nuria canibe, Ricarda M Engberg and Bent B.Jensen, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences. Research Centre Foulum, Denmark. Thomke, S., and Elwinger, K., (1998) Ann. Zootech. 4: 245-271. Thomke, S., Rundgren, M. and Hesselman, K. (1980) In proc. Of the 31st European Association of Animal Production Germany. P-5. Wang, X. and G.R., Gibson (1993) J. Appl. Bact., 75: 373-380. Wenk, C. (2003) Asian Aus J. Anim. Sci., 16: 282-289. Yadav B. S., Srivastava R. K. and Sjukla, P. K. (1994) Indian J. Anim Nur., 11: 225-227. Yu, J. G. & Zhu, L.Y. (2000) J. Tradi Chi. Vet. Med., 6: 3-4. Yuan, Y. L., Fan ,Bt. & Zhang, Y. X. (1993) J. Tradi Chi. Vet. Med., 3: 6-10 Zhang, W. F., Li. D. F., Lu. W.Q. & Y., G.F. (2003) Poult. Sci., 82: 657-663.

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Score of utilizing unconventional phophorus supplements in broilers
R. P. S. Baghel Department of Animal Nutrition College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, JNKVV, Jabalpur, India

The poultry industry in India is the fastest growing sector of Indian agriculture. The production of poultry meat has increased from 350.578 thousand tons in 1995 to 600 thousand tons in 1999 (Mohanti and Rajendran, 2003). Broiler production forms a major segment of poultry industry. In the year 1997, it was 630 million compared to mere 4 million in the year 1971. As per the latest report, India has about 650 million broilers and ranks 6th position in broiler meat production (Executive guide, 20032004). Broiler meat production at the same time increased to 1,050,000 tones in 1997 from 1, 21,000 tones in 1971 (ICAR, 2002). At this age of globalization poultry especially broiler industry is facing many problems leading to poor margin of profit. In broiler farming, feed contributes about 6570 % of the total cost of production. Besides energy and protein the next important input in their ration is mineral mixture. One of the acute mineral problems that have been constantly faced by the feed dealers and poultry owners is use of expensive phosphorus supplement. Singhal and Baghel (2003) reported the use of mineral mixture containing 57.6% DCP @ 3% or that containing 74.9% DCP @ 2% in broiler diet for their economical weight gain. Animal protein supplements are rich in phosphorus and are generally considered as totally available. While, vegetable protein supplements are low in phosphorus and their availability is only about 30% of total phosphorus (NRC, 1994). Phytate and phytic acid (or phytin) present in the plant sources are generally regarded as a main storage form of phosphorus in plant tissue. The amount of total 65 65 65

phosphorus bound as phytate phosphorus was highest in by product (73-84%) than oilseed meals (5182%) and cereal and millets (60-73%). Now days, animal protein supplements specially fish meal which contain higher amount of phosphorus are being used in lower quantities in place of vegetable protein supplements mainly due to presence of E. coli and Salmonella in them. Hence, there is demand for higher use of inorganic phosphorus in poultry diet. But the production and availability of traditional phosphorus supplement (DCP) is continuously decreasing in developing countries like India because of ban imposed on use of bone based dicalcium phosphate (DCP) in livestock feeds. As a result their cost is steeply increasing. Therefore, situation demands for use of alternate phosphorus supplements. A few alternate phosphorus sources such as bone meal (BM), rock phosphate (RP), heat treated rock phosphate (HTRP), diammonium phosphate (DAP), single super phosphate (SSP) are available at relatively low price compared to DCP and are being tried for their use in poultry diet. Use of rock phosphate (RP) Rock phosphate is available economically. The Ca: P present in it is like that of bone meal, which is thought to be optimum. But, as the RP contains high level of fluorine hence its inclusion in poultry diet is limited due to possible risk of fluorine toxicity. The concentration of fluorine in RP varies depending on the geographic sources (Lal and Prasad, 1989; Rama Rao, 2001) and utilization of

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phosphorus from it has been found to depend on the concentration of fluorine. Elimination of fluorine would render RP as a relative inexpensive source of phosphorus and calcium for poultry feed. The de-fluorinated RP contains fluorine in the range found in steamed bone meal (0.05%). Kick et al. (1933) reported that chicks could not tolerate fluoride levels higher than 3,600 ppm in their diet. While, Phillips et al. (1935) indicated that growth of chicks was inhibited by feeding 70mg of fluoride per Kg body weight per day. This level of fluoride was found to cause reduced growth and feed intake. Haman et al. (1936) observed that young chicks and adult poultry exhibited higher tolerance levels for fluorine than most mammalian species. Gerry et al. (1947) reported that in growing chicks maximum safe dietary level of fluoride was 300-400 ppm when fed as rock phosphate. Gerry et al. (1947 and 1949) further reported that raw rock phosphate containing about 3.4 per cent of fluorine, even at 1 per cent level depressed their growth. Weber et al. (1968) observed that increased level of fluorine in diet caused depression in growth rate but no significant difference were obtained in FCR, total plasma protein, body fat deposits, dietary metabolizable energy and liver and kidney enzymes (LDH, cytochrome oxidase and succinic dehydrogenase) activity. However, significantly higher levels of alkaline phosphatase were obtained in 1000 ppm fluorine fed group. Suttie et al. (1982) reported that the dietary fluoride tolerances were at least 400 ppm for leghorn chicks, 300 ppm for broiler chicks and 200 ppm for turkey poults. Abdelhamid et al. (1999) observed that feeding graded levels of fluorine (0, 25, 125, 625 and 3125 ppm fluorine) from sodium fluoride for four weeks (4-7 weeks of age) to broiler chicks resulted poor growth, feed conversion, high mortality, bone disorder, decreased relative weights of pituitary, adrenal, heart, liver, spleen, lungs, kidney, gizzard and changes in intestinal dimensions. Odongo et al. (2002) used varying levels (0, 25, 50, 75 or 100 %) of Busumbu rock phosphate (BRP) on performance and the mechanical properties of bone 66 66 66

in growing chicks and observed that DCP replacement significantly reduced the weight gain and dry matter digestibility but increased the feed to gain ratio in chicks. Further, increasing levels of BRP in the diet linearly reduced the % bone ash, Ca, Ca: P ratio, ultimate breaking force, bending moment, stress, and modulus of elasticity. These results suggest that excessive ingestion of fluorine from the BRP caused the reduction in chick’s performance. Thomas et al. (2007a) observed that use of RRP instead of DCP (40, 60, 80 and 100%) was highly economical when DCP was replaced @ 40% and it did not exert any detrimental effect on the carcass traits of broilers (Thomas et al., 2007b). Further, they also observed that HTRP can be used economically instead of DCP in broiler diet (Thomas et al., 2007c). The most economical level of replacement DCP with HTRP was 80%. Measures to reduce fluorine toxicity Research indicates that addition of aluminium sulphate greatly reduces the flurosis in hen. Storer and Nelson (1967) observed the response of chicks to various aluminium compound added to a purified diet. When 0.5% aluminium from four water-soluble compounds acetate, chloride, nitrate and sulfate was fed, mortality approached or reached 100%. Lower levels of aluminium as the chloride and the sulphate adversely affected the rate of growth, feed efficiency and bone mineralization. While, water-insoluble aluminium as the oxide and the phosphate caused no adverse effect on performance. Cakir et al. (1978) studied the alleviation of fluorine toxicity in starting broiler chicks and turkey with aluminium. Added fluorine level from sodium fluoride ranged from 0 to 1000 ppm, whereas aluminium levels varied from 0 to 800 ppm. Aluminium was fed either as aluminium oxide or aluminium sulphate. When fed as sulphate salt, 800 ppm of aluminium completely prevented toxic effect of at least 1000 ppm of fluorine. Aluminium oxide was not effective as an alleviator of fluorine toxicity. Johnson et al. (1985) indicated that feeding high level of supplemental

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niacin (0.8% calcium and 0.4 or 0.5% available phosphorus with 0.5, 0.1 or 0.3% aluminium or 1.0 or 1.5% niacin or both resulted in decreased bone strength in chicks with no change in mineral content of the tibia. Aluminium fed at the level of 0.3% of diet caused a decrease in bone strength with concomitant change in bone mineral content. Thomas et al. (2007a) observed use of aluminium sulphate @ 1% of fluorine content in the diet along with RP either had no significant influence or reduced the net return significantly (P<0.05). Further on similar type of diets Thomas et al. (2007b) observed that use of RRP with aluminium sulphate had no significant (P>0.05) influence on the carcass traits of broilers. Use of phosphatic fertilizers To reduce the cost of mineral mixture unconventional phosphorus sources have been found to replace DCP in broiler diet. It was observed that ammonium phosphate can be used as a source of phosphorus in practical chicken diet. However, its use was found to reduce the weight gains in broilers but differences were not significant. The inclusion of ammonium polyphosphate, 17:17:17 or 28:28:0 (N :P :K) replacing 50% DCP in broilers diet resulted in comparable body weight gains with those fed DCP reference diet. However, significant depression in weight gain and feed intake on feeding ammonium phosphate or single super phosphate was observed. Morever, performance of birds was depressed in birds fed agricultural grade as compared to feed grade phosphate. Rama Rao and Reddy (2003) studied the relative bioavailability and utilization of phosphatic fertilizer (ammonium phosphate, ammonium polyphosphate, single super phosphate and NPK) as a source of phosphorus in broilers and observed that relative bioavailability of phosphorus from ammonium polyphosphate was better for body weight gain than ammonium phosphate, single super phosphate or NPK while the reverse was true for bone 67 67 67

calcification. They also observed that fertilizers containing high fluorine (ammonium phosphate and single super phosphate) or NPK reduced performance in broilers and caused microscopic changes in liver, kidney and intestine in broilers. Barley et al. (2004) observed better performance and economical weight gain in broilers assigned mineral mixture containing agriculture grade mineral sources for zinc, manganese, and copper. They concluded that agriculture grade mineral sources can be safely used instead of laboratory grade mineral sources. Di Ammonium Phosphate (DAP) is a phosphatic fertilizer which contains nitrogen as well as phosphorus. It contains about 17% N and 20% phosphorus. The phosphorus content in it was much more similar to the value present in DCP. Sharma et al. (2003) tried to incorporate DAP instead of DCP in broiler diet and observed that increase in the level of DAP from 0 to 60% increased the performance of broilers significantly. Examination of visceral organs as liver, spleen, kidney, heart, proventriculus, gizzard and intestine confirmed that diet had no significant effect on these organs. Grossly no abnormality was observed. However, microscopically liver showed hyperaemia only in few cases especially in those fed higher levels of DAP. Further Sharma and Baghel (2004) reported maximum weight gain and better feed utilization along with performance index in broilers assigned 60% DAP instead of DCP in their mineral mixture. They realized that even complete replacement of DCP produced better performance in broilers. However, most economical performance was noted when DCP was replaced by DAP @ 60% in their mineral mixture. Like DAP, single super phosphate (SSP) a phosphatic fertilizer has been also tried in broilers diet as a source of phosphorus. Mishra et al. (2003) indicated that use of 20% SSP instead of DCP did not influence the weight gain significantly but when it was increased to 40%, increased their weight gains

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significantly. Gross and microscopic examination of visceral organs like liver, spleen, kidney, heart, proventriculus, gizzard and intestine did not reveal any significant changes. Further, Mishra and Baghel (2004) reported that use of 40% SSP instead of DCP was responsible for significantly better performance in broilers and higher use of it led to significant reduction in their performance. Mishra and Baghel (2007) also reported that dressed weight of broilers were not influenced significantly due to use of varying levels of SSP instead of DCP with and without ionophore. But use of ionophores led to significant reduction in eviscerated and drawn weights of broilers except in groups receiving 60% and 80% SSP diets where lower drawn weights were observed. Mishra and Baghel (2007a) indicated that use of SSP with and without ionophore did not produce any specific trend on the organ weights of broilers. As regard processing losses Mishra and Baghel (2007b) observed that use of SSP with and without ionophore had significant influence on the blood, feather, wing tips, and shank and visceral fat losses but had no influence on the head weight significantly. Use of ionophore mostly did not exert any specific trend on the processing losses. Deo et al. (2005) evaluated the efficacy of different phosphorus sources (calcium hydrogen phosphate, diammonium phosphate and single super phosphate) supplemented at graded levels in broiler diet in comparison to feed grade DCP. The performance of chicks in terms of body weight gain, feed intake and FCR was superior in groups fed DCP and single super phosphate supplemented diet than calcium hydrogen phosphate and diammonium phosphate supplemented diets. However, the dietary phosphorus levels did not affect body weight gain, feed intake, FCR and serum calcium concentration in chicks. They concluded that fertilizer grade SSP can be used in broiler diet in place of costly DCP as a phosphorus source without affecting growth performance and blood parameters, at dietary available phosphorus level of 0.4%. 68 68 68

Use of phytase enzyme To increase the phosphorus utilization in poultry, now a days enzyme phosphate is used as a tool. Denbow et al. (1995) studied the effect of phytase supplementation on phosphorus availability in soybean meal diet in broilers and observed that phytase supplementation improved the body weight gain and feed intake but the magnitude of response was greatest at low phosphorus diets. A high mortality (35-45%) was observed for 0.20 and 0.27% non-phytate diet without added phytase but decline to normal level with the addition of 200-400 U phytase per Kg diet. Ash percentage of toe and tibia and shear force and stress of tibia increased with added phytase. They also observed that the amount of phosphorus released increased with increasing level of phytase but the amount released per 100 U of phytase decreased. Released phosphorus ranged from 31-58% of phytate phosphorus for 250-1000 U of phytase per Kg diet. It was showed that microbial phytase supplementation of a low phosphorus diet increased growth and relative retention of total phosphorus, calcium, copper and zinc and improved bone mineralization in broiler chicken. Rama Rao et al. (1999) studied enhancement of phytate phosphorous availability in the diet of commercial broilers by adding phytase enzyme. Phytase supplementation @ 500 and 250 U per Kg diet, respectively significantly (P < 0.05) improved weight gain compared to un-supplemented basal diet. Viveros et al. (2002) reported that phytase supplementation had a favourable effect on the weight gain at 3 and 6 weeks of age and on feed consumption only at 3 weeks, while, their feed efficiency was not affected. The supplementation of phytase also increased Ca, P, Mg and Zn retention, increased tibia weight, tibia ash, Mg and Zn concentration in tibia and reduced the relative liver weight. Phytase supplementation also increased the plasma phosphorus level and serum AST activity, reduced plasma calcium and Mg contents and reduced serum ALT, ALP and LDH activities. For broilers 500-700 U of phytase per Kg of diet was

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equivalent to 0.5% of mono calcium phosphate or 0.6% DCP in maize-soybean based diet. Thomas et al. (2007c) observed that use of phytase improved the performance of broilers only with 80% level of HTRP but it did not produce any beneficial effect on the carcass traits of broilers (Thomas et al.; 2007d). Use of ionophores on performance of broilers and mineral utilization Ionophore has been found to affect the availability of minerals by influencing their absorption and is exclusively used in diets to improve efficiency and rate of gain. The inclusion of 90mg/kg of either monensin or lasalocid in broiler diets does not alter the balance of electrolytes required for optimum growth performance of broiler chickens. Use of ionophore had no significant effect on the growth performance in the starter phase while, in finisher phase use of lasolocid utilized food less efficiently than those given diets containing monensine. Spears (1990) reported that apparent absorption of phosphorus, magnesium, zinc and selenium increased by ionophore supplementation. Prasad et al. (1998) observed that monensin produced best result at the dose rate of 121 mg/kg diet. It was observed that coccidiosis decreased retention of calcium, zinc, and phosphorus during the acute stage of disease. So, anticoccidial ionophores certainly improved the absorption and retention of these minerals. Nejad and Pourreza (2000) indicated that addition of ionophores lasalocid and salinomycin caused significant reduction in body weight gain and feed consumption but increase the feed conversion. Further monensine at the level of 100 ppm in feed of broilers positively affected feed gain ratio. Body weight gains were not affected even with reduced feed intake. Mishra and Baghel (2004a) observed that use of maduramycine along with SSP did not produce any beneficial effect on the performance of broilers. While, Sharma and Baghel (2004a) reported that along with ionophore, utilization of phosphorus was better from DAP in broilers. 69 69 69

It was concluded that to reduce the cost of broiler production dicalcium phosphate a conventional phosphorus supplement can be replaced using unconventional phosphorus supplements like rock phosphate (40%), heat treated rock phosphate (80%), diammonium phosphate (60 to 100 %) and single super phosphate (40%) partially or completely. To improve the availability of phosphorus use of phytase enzyme was found beneficial. While, to reduce the fluorine toxicity addition of aluminium sulphate was found beneficial only at higher level of fluorine in the diet. At lower level of inclusion of rock phosphate its addition was not beneficial. REFERENCES Abdelhamid, J., Sohail, S.S. and Ronald, D.A. (1999) Poult. Sci., 78: 550-555. Barley, G.G., Mathur, M.M., Baghel, R.P.S. and Mukherjee, S.K. (2004) Evolving economic mineral mixture for broilers using agriculture grade trace minerals. Presented in XI ANC on “Nutritional Technologies for Commercialization of Animal Production Systems” organized by ANSI and ICAR, New Delhi at College of Vety. Sci. and A.H., JNKVV, Jabalpur, 5-7 January. Cakir, A., Sullivan, T.W. and Mather, F.B. (1978) Poultry Science., 57: 498-505. Denbow, D.M., Ravindran, V., Kornegay, E.T., Yi, Z. and Hulet, R.M. (1995) Poul. Sci., 74: 1831-1842. Deo, C., Shrivastava, H.P., Singh, N.B. and Tyagi, P.K. (2005) Indian J. Anim. Nutr., 22: 21-26. Executive Guide (2003/04) A statistical reference for poultry executives. In feedstuff’s for Livestock and Poultry. Published by Lead Center. NATP. C.A.R.I., Izatnagar. p 1.

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Gerry, R.W., Carrick, C.W., Roberts, R.E. and Hauge, S.M., (1947) Poul. Sci., 26: 323-334. Gerry, R.W., Carrick, R.E. Roberts and S.M. Hauge. (1949). Poul. Sci., 28: 19-23. Haman, K., Phillips, P.H. and Halpin J.G. (1936) Poul. Sci., 15: 154-157. I.C.A.R. (2002) Handbook of Animal Husbandry, 3rd revised edition. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi. Johnson, Z.B., Hellwig, H. and Waldroup, P.W. (1985). Poul. Sci., 64: 103-107. Kick, H, Bethke, R.M. and Record, P.R. (1933) Poult. Sci., 12: 382-387. Lal, D. and Prasad, T. (1989) Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 23: 343-348. Mishra, R.K. and Baghel, R.P.S. (2004) Studies on utilization of single super phosphate as a source of phosphorus in broilers. Presented in XI ANC on “Nutritional Technologies for Commercialization of Animal Production Systems” organized by ANSI and ICAR, New Delhi at College of Vety. Sci. and A.H., JNKVV, Jabalpur, 5-7 January. Mishra, R.K. and Baghel, R.P.S. (2004a) Effects of ionophore on utilization of single super phosphate in broilers. Presented in XI ANC on “Nutritional Technologies for Commercialization of Animal Production Systems” organized by ANSI and ICAR, New Delhi at College of Vety. Sci. and A.H., JNKVV, Jabalpur, n 5-7 January. Mishra, R.K. and Baghel, R.P.S. (2007) Use of single super phosphate instead of dicalcium phosphate with and without ionophore on the carcass quality traits of broilers. Presented in National symposium on “Recent trends in policy initiatives and technological interventions for rural prosperity in small holder livestock pro70 70 70

duction systems”. Organised by Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University and ISAPM at Tirupati, 20-22 June, 2007. A-33, p245. Mishra, R.K. and Baghel, R.P.S. (2007a) Effect of using single super phosphate instead of dicalcium phosphate with and without ionophore on the organ weight of broilers. Presented in National symposium on “Recent trends in policy initiatives and technological interventions for rural prosperity in small holder livestock production systems”. Organised by Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University and ISAPM at Tirupati, 20-22 June, 2007. A-33, p246. Mishra, R.K. and Baghel, R.P.S. (2007b) Processing losses of broilers influenced by use of single super phosphate instead of dicalcium phosphate with and without ionophore in their diet. Presented in National symposium on “Recent trends in policy initiatives and technological interventions for rural prosperity in small holder livestock production systems”. Organised by Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University and ISAPM at Tirupati, 20-22 June, 2007. A-33, p247. Mishra, R.K., Baghel, R.P.S. and Swami, Madhu (2003) Effect of single super phosphate on the pathological changes in broilers. Presented in National Symposium on “Basic pathology and Animal Disesases- A need for fresh approach in Indian Scenario” and XX Annual Conference of IAVP 2003 at College of Veterinary Science and A.H., JNKVV, Jabalpur, November 12-14, 2003. Mohanti, S. and Rajendran, K. (2003) Poult. Voice of India. 9: 32. N.R.C. (1994) Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, 9th edition. National Academy of Sciences, National Academy Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.

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Nejad, Y.E. and Pourreza, J. (2000) J. Sci. Technol. Agric. Natur. Res., 4: 93-104. Odongo, N.H., Plaizier, J., Van Straaten, P. and Mc Bride, B. (2002) Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 34: 349-358. Phillips, P.H., H.E. English and E.B. Hart (1935) J. Nutr., 10: 399-407. Prasad, A., Venketeshwarlu, V. and Ravikumar, P. (1998) Vety. Bulletin. 68: 284. Rama Rao, S.V. (2001) Br. Poult. Sci., 42: 376383. Rama Rao, S.V. and Reddy, V.R. (2003) Br. Poult. Sci., 44: 96-103. Rama Rao, S.V., Reddy, V. and Ravendra, V. (1999) Arch. fur Guflugelkunde,. 60: 75-79. Sharma, K.V. and Baghel, R.P.S. (2004) Studies on utilization of diammonium phosphate as a source of phosphorus in broilers. Presented in XI Animal Nutrition Conference on “Nutritional Technologies for Commercialization of Animal Production Systems” organized by ANSI and ICAR, New Delhi at College of Vety. Sci. and A.H., JNKVV, Jabalpur, 5-7 January. Sharma, K.V. and Baghel, R.P.S. (2004a) Effects of ionophore on utilization of diammonium phosphate in broilers. Presented in XI Animal Nutrition Conference on “Nutritional Technologies for Commercialization of Animal Production Systems” organized by ANSI and ICAR, New Delhi at College of Vety. Sci. and A.H., JNKVV, Jabalpur, 5-7 January. Sharma, K.V., Baghel, R.P.S. and Swami, Madhu (2003) Effect of diammonium phosphate on the pathological changes in broilers. Presented in National Symposium on “Basic pathology and Animal Disesases- A need for fresh approach in Indian Scenario” and XX Annual Conference of IAVP 2003 at College of Vet71 71 71

erinary Science and A.H., JNKVV, Jabalpur, November 12-14. Singhal, P. K. and Baghel, R.P.S. (2003) Indian J. Anim. Nutr., 20: 193-197. Spears, J. W. (1990) J. Nutr., 120: 632-638. Storer, N.L. and T.S. Nelson (1967). Poult. Sci., 46: 247-261. Suttie, J., G. Simon and Miles, R.D. (1982) Poult. Sci., 61: 1033-1037. Thomas, Annie, Baghel, R.P.S. and Sunil Nayak (2007a) Use of raw rock phosphate instead of dicalcium phosphate with and without aluminium sulphate on the economics of broiler production. Presented in National symposium on “Recent trends in policy initiatives and technological interventions for rural prosperity in small holder livestock production systems”. Organised by Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University and ISAPM at Tirupati, 20-22 June, 2007. A-35, p241. Thomas, Annie, Baghel, R.P.S. and Chitwan Kawatra (2007b) Use of raw rock phosphate with or without aluminium sulphate on the carcass characteristics of broilers. Presented in National symposium on “Recent trends in policy initiatives and technological interventions for rural prosperity in small holder livestock production systems”. Organised by Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University and ISAPM at Tirupati, 20-22 June, 2007. A-33, p240. Thomas, Annie, Baghel, R.P.S. and Chitwan Kawatra (2007c) Economics of broiler production due to use of heat treated rock phosphate with or without phytase instead of dicalcium phosphate. Presented in National symposium on “Recent trends in policy initiatives and technological interventions for rural prosperity in small holder livestock production systems”. Organised by Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University and ISAPM at Tirupati,

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20-22 June, 2007. A-36, p242. Thomas, Annie, Baghel, R.P.S. and Sunil Nayak (2007d) Use of heat treated rock phosphate with or without phytase on the carcass characteristics of broilers. Presented in National symposium on “Recent trends in policy initiatives and technological interventions for rural prosperity in small holder livestock production sys-

tems”. Organised by Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University and ISAPM at Tirupati, 2022, A-34, p240. Viveros, A., Brenes A., Arija I. and Centeno, C. (2002) Poult. Sci., 81: 1172-1183. Weber, C.W., Doberenz, A.R. and Reid., B.L. (1968) Poult. Sci., 47: 158-163.

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Nutrition and nutrient delivery system for fish farming
Vijay Anand and G. Ramesh ASA-International Marketing Asia Subcontinent, New Delhi, India

Aquaculture is the cultivation of fish, shellfish, bivalves and aquatic plants and. Thus aquaculture is an industry that encompasses a large group of aquatic animals and plants. Globally, there are hundreds of farmed aquatic animal and plant species. Global production from aquaculture is increasing by about 9 -11% per year and is, “The world’s fastest growing food producing sector,” according to the United Nation’s Food and Agriculture Organization. Aquaculture accounts for almost half of all seafood consumed globally. Seafood currently provides approximately 16% of all animal protein in the human diet. While the ocean capture fisheries have reached maximum sustainable yields the demand for fishery products are increasing and will continue to increase along with the growth in projected human population. China
India Philippines Indonesia Japan Vietnam Thailand Bangladesh Chile Norway US A Egypt

20,000,000 18,000,000 16,000,000 14,000,000 12,000,000 10,000,000 8,000,000 6,000,000 4,000,000 2,000,000 0 Carp Shrimp Tilapia Salmonids

Major aquaculture species groups globally

Global aquaculture production

Aquaculture in India India is the second-largest aquaculture producer in the world. India’s aquaculture is domi73 73 73

nated by carp production: about 80% of India’s aquaculture production is composed of carps of Indian and Chinese origin. Most carp production occurs in extensive, polyculture systems throughout India. But, in the last 20 years, carp production has intensified in several parts of India. The traditional polyculture has given way to the dominance of one or two species: catla and rohu. These fishes fetch high market prices. Typical pond yields range from three to eight tons per hectare per year. The ponds are fertilized, but not aerated. Farm-mixed feed comprising of rice bran and a plant protein source such as peanut oil cake or cottonseed oil cake is given to the fish. As farming operations have intensified, the limitations of farm-mixed feeds have become more apparent. Procuring and storing larger lots of raw materials, and preparing and administering larger quantities of feeds, stretch the logistic capabilities of farmers. More importantly, much of farm-mixed feeds is not eaten by the fish and only fertilizes the pond. Excess organic loading pollutes pond bottom and cause a wide variety of production problems. The profitability and long-term sustainability of intensive carp farming are threatened by continuing the existing feed use practices.

Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India
3,000,000

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2,500,000

naturally available diet with extra protein, carbohydrate and/or lipid. Fish, especially when reared in high densities, require a high-quality, nutritionally complete, balanced diet to grow rapidly and remain healthy. Protein Because protein is the most expensive part of fish feed, it is important to accurately determine the protein requirements for each species and size of cultured fish. Proteins are formed by linkages of individual amino acids. Although over 200 amino acids occur in nature, only about 20 amino acids are common. Of these, 10 are essential (indispensable) amino acids that cannot be synthesized by fish. The 10 essential amino acids that must be supplied by the diet are: methionine, arginine, threonine, tryptophan, histidine, isoleucine, lysine, leucine, valine and phenylalanine. Of these, lysine and methionine are often the first limiting amino acids. Fish feeds prepared with plant (soybean meal) protein typically are low in methionine; therefore, extra methionine must be added to soybean-meal based diets in order to promote optimal growth and health. It is important to know and match the protein requirements and the amino acid requirements of each fish species reared. Protein levels in fish feeds generally average 28-32% for catfish, 32-38% for tilapia, 38-42% for hybrid striped bass. Protein requirements usually are lower for herbivorous fish (plant eating) and omnivorous fish (plant-animal eaters) than they are for carnivorous (flesh-eating) fish, and are higher for fish reared in high density (recirculating aquaculture) than low density (pond aquaculture) systems. Protein requirements generally are higher for smaller fish. As fish grow larger, their protein requirements usually decrease. Protein requirements also vary with rearing environment, water temperature and water quality, as well as the genetic composition and feeding rates of the fish. Protein is used for fish growth if adequate levels of fats and carbo74 74 74

2,000,000

1,500,000

1,000,000

500,000

0
19 97 20 01 19 96 19 95 19 98 20 00 2 2 00 4 20 05 19 99 20 03 20 0

India aquaculture production

Use of formulated feed for carp cultivation is thus a sharp deviation from the existing traditional methods. As carps also fetch low value, the farmer usually puts off use of formulated feed, as it is a price sensitive issue. Nevertheless, the American Soybean Association- IM trusts that there is a scope for feed usage and demonstration of profitability if the complete technology package is developed and practiced. Fish nutrition Good nutrition in animal production systems is essential to economically produce a healthy, high quality product. In fish farming, nutrition is critical because feed represents 40-50% of the production costs. Fish nutrition has advanced dramatically in recent years with the development of new, balanced commercial diets that promote optimal fish growth and health. The development of new species-specific diet formulations supports the aquaculture (fish farming) industry as it expands to satisfy increasing demand for affordable, safe, and high-quality fish and seafood products. In contrast, supplemental (incomplete, partial) diets are intended only to help support the natural food (insects, algae, small fish) normally available to fish in ponds or outdoor raceways. Supplemental diets do not contain a full complement of vitamins or minerals, but are used to help fortify the

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hydrates are present in the diet. If not, protein may be used for energy and life support rather than growth Lipids Lipids are high-energy nutrients that can be utilized to partially spare (substitute for) protein in aquaculture feeds. Lipids supply about twice the energy as proteins and carbohydrates. Lipids typically comprise about 15% of fish diets, supply essential fatty acids (EFA) and serve as transporters for fat-soluble vitamins. A recent trend in fish feeds is to use higher levels of lipids in the diet. Although increasing dietary lipids can help reduce the high costs of diets by partially sparing protein in the feed, problems such as excessive fat deposition in the liver can decrease the health and market quality of fish. Simple lipids include fatty acids and triacylglycerols. Fish typically require fatty acids of the omega 3 and 6 (n-3 and n-6) families. Fatty acids can be: a) saturated fatty acids (SFA, no double bonds), b) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, >2 double bonds), or c) highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA; > 4 double bonds). Marine fish oils are naturally high (>30%) in omega 3 HUFA, and are excellent sources of lipids for the manufacture of fish diets. Lipids from these marine oils also can have beneficial effects on human cardiovascular health. Marine fish typically require n-3 HUFA for optimal growth and health, usually in quantities ranging from 0.5-2.0% of dry diet. The two major EFA of this group are eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA: 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA:22:6n3). Freshwater fish do not require the long chain HUFA, but often require an 18 carbon n-3 fatty acid, linolenic acid (18:3-n-3), in quantities ranging from 0.5 to 1.5% of dry diet. This fatty acid cannot be produced by freshwater fish and must be supplied in the diet. Many freshwater fish can take this fatty acid, and through enzyme systems elongate 75 75 75

(add carbon atoms) to the hydrocarbon chain, and then further desaturate (add double bonds) to this longer hydrocarbon chain. Through these enzyme systems, freshwater fish can manufacture the longer chain n-3 HUFA, EPA and DHA, which are necessary for other metabolic functions and as cellular membrane components. Marine fish typically do not possess these elongation and desaturation enzyme systems, and require long chain n-3 HUFA in their diets. Other fish species, such as tilapia, require fatty acids of the n-6 family, while still others, such as carp or eels, require a combination of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids Carbohydrates Carbohydrates (starches and sugars) are the most economical and inexpensive sources of energy for fish diets. Although not essential, carbohydrates are included in aquaculture diets to reduce feed costs and for their binding activity during feed manufacturing. Dietary starches are useful in the extrusion manufacture of floating feeds. Cooking starch during the extrusion process makes it more biologically available to fish. In fish, carbohydrates are stored as glycogen that can be mobilized to satisfy energy demands. They are a major energy source for mammals, but are not used efficiently by fish. For example, mammals can extract about 4 kcal of energy from 1 gram of carbohydrate, whereas fish can only extract about 1.6 kcal from the same amount of carbohydrate. Up to about 20% of dietary carbohydrates can be used by fish. Vitamins Vitamins are organic compounds necessary in the diet for normal fish growth and health. They often are not synthesized by fish, and must be supplied in the diet. The two groups of vitamins are water-soluble and fat-soluble. Water-soluble vitamins include: the

Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

TROPNUTRICON - 2007

B vitamins, choline, inositol, folic acid, pantothenic acid , biotin and ascorbic acid (vitamin C). Of these, vitamin C probably is the most important because it is a powerful antioxidant and helps the immune system in fish. The fat-soluble vitamins include A vitamins, retinols (responsible for vision); the D vitamins, cholecalciferols (bone integrity); E vitamins, the tocopherols (antioxidants); and K vitamins such as menadione (blood clotting, skin integrity). Of these, vitamin E receives the most attention for its important role as an antioxidant (Table 1). Deficiency of each vitamin has certain specific symptoms, but reduced growth is the most common symptom of any vitamin deficiency. Scoliosis (bent backbone symptom) and dark coloration may result from deficiencies of ascorbic acid and folic acid vitamins, respectively.
Table 1. Vitamin and mineral premix Nutrient Vitamin A Vitamin D3 Vitamin E Biotin Folic acid Niacin Pantothenate Pyridoxine, B6 Riboflavin, B2 Thiamin, B1 Vitamin, B12 Ethoxyquin Iron Manganese Copper Zinc Iodine Cobalt Selenium
1

cro-minerals) based on the quantity required in the diet and the amount present in fish. Common macrominerals are sodium, chloride, potassium and phosphorous. These minerals regulate osmotic balance and aid in bone formation and integrity. Micro-minerals (trace minerals) are required in small amounts as components in enzyme and hormone systems. Common trace minerals are copper, chromium, iodine, zinc and selenium. Fish can absorb many minerals directly from the water through their gills and skin, allowing them to compensate to some extent for mineral deficiencies in their diet (Table 1). Energy and protein Dietary nutrients are essential for the construction of living tissues. They also are a source of stored energy for fish digestion, absorption, growth, reproduction and the other life processes. The nutritional value of a dietary ingredient is in part dependant on its ability to supply energy. Physiological fuel values are used to calculate and balance available energy values in prepared diets. They typically average 4, 4, and 9 kcal/g for protein, carbohydrate and lipid, respectively. To create an optimum diet, the ratio of protein to energy must be determined separately for each fish species. Excess energy relative to protein content in the diet may result in high lipid deposition. Because fish feed to meet their energy requirements, diets with excessive energy levels may result in decreased feed intake and reduced weight gain. Similarly, a diet with inadequate energy content can result in reduced weight gain because the fish cannot eat enough feed to satisfy their energy requirements for growth. Properly formulated prepared feeds have a well-balanced energy to protein ratio. Floating fish feeds Floating feeds are typically in the density range of 300 to 400 g per liter. They are expanded pel76 76 76

Unit IU/kg IU/kg IU/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mcg/kg mg/kg Mineral premix PMX-F11 ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm

As fed 1200000 200000 20000 40 1800 40000 20000 5000 8000 8000 2000 500 40000 10000 4000 40000 1800 20 200

Premix ingredient quantities are per kg of premix.

Minerals Minerals are inorganic elements necessary in the diet for normal body functions. They can be divided into two groups (macro-minerals and mi-

Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

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lets varying in diameter from 1.5 to 10 mm in size. Fish farmers have proven that floating feeds result in better feed conversions due to the fact that the feed consumption can be monitored and adjusted so that feed is not wasted. Many fish species that consume floating feeds are fed on the basis eating all feed in a certain time frame. If fish consume all feed in less than the specified time then it is an indication to the farmer that more feed can be given. If feed is left over in the pond after the specified time frame, then it is an indication that over feeding has occurred. Floating feeds are extrusion cooked at about 24 to 27% moisture and expand 125 to 150% of the die hole size. Floating fish feeds are gradually becoming popular for commercial use in India. The biggest advantage offered by floating fish feeds is that it brings in a situation that is close to farming terrestrial animals where feed given to animals can be seen. When feed can be seen, the farmer is able to obtain a complete feedback on feeding status and all related feed management aspects. Floating fish feeds, which float on the water surface, make feeds visible to the fish farmer and help monitor feeding. Assessment on feeding therefore is direct. One needs to feed fish only as much as it demands. Feed wastage in case of floating feeds is minimal or absent depending on the expertise of the manager. In sinking feeds, visibility of feeds is absent and therefore feeding assessment is always indirect and there is scope for wastage of feed. Waste feed increases water nutrient and deteriorates water quality. Overview of ASA-IM approach Based on the experience of ASA-IM in China, it was decided that promoting a feed-based system for intensive carp production in India would involve both education and actual demonstrations of the technology on a practical level. This required identification of farmers and feedmill cooperators. The 77 77 77

feedmills were then provided with the technical expertise to produce extruded, soy-optimized feeds. The farmers were trained to practice feed-based production protocols and collect data. Profitability was used as the primary criterion for evaluating the economic feasibility of the new technology. In 2004 and 2005, we conducted full-fledged commercial demonstrations to show feedmills and farmers that soy-based extruded floating fish feeds perform well when used correctly. Results were disseminated by conducting frequent extension programs, seminars, on-farm consultations and by rendering services for business development activities for feed companies. Nutritionally balanced soy based feed was used for the trial (Table 2). Important considerations for use of floating fish feeds Pond size: For a feed based system with floating feeds, the ideal pond size should be less than
Table 2. Formula of the ASA 32/6, soymeal-based feed in 3-mm and 4-mm pellet sizes. Ingredient CP, % Inclusion rate 50.00 26.40 6.00 5.00 4.00 1.00 3.50 2.30 1.00 0.50 0.25 0.03 0.02

Soybean meal 47.5 Wheat, Feed flour 11.7 Corn gluten meal 60.0 Rice bran 15.0 Wheat midds 15.0 Blood meal, Ring-dried 93.0 Fish oil, Unspecified Calcium phosphate, Mono Soy lecithin Vitamin Premix Mineral Premix Stay C*-35% Ethoxyquin**-100%

Stay C is ascorbic acid polyphosphate manufactured by DSM and the % indicates the active level of ascorbic acid in the product**. Ethoxyquin is an antioxidant and the % indicates purity of the antioxidant.

one hectare with a water depth of not more than 1.21.3 m. Smaller ponds are desired because the farmer needs to determine the feed quantity visually once in

Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

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10 days. Note that in floating feeds, the fish tells the farmer how much to feed and it is not the farmer who determines how much to give. Visual determination of feeding response in a large pond is difficult and will lead to feed wastage and escalation of production cost. Also, deep ponds are not advocated as thermal stratification sets in during summers and causes acute water quality problems in ponds. Pond bottom: About three inches of the pond bottom carrying organic top soil should be removed after drying the pond. Not doing this is like having a ready fertilizer/pond nutrient that makes water too rich with plankton. Organic matter also acts as a ready inoculum for bacteria to proliferate. This is not desired in the feed based system. Pond water fertilization: In a feed based system no manure is advocated as total nutrition for fish is given through nutritionally balanced feed. Due to waste of fish in the pond, natural productivity of the pond water and soil, plankton will automatically develop and this is enough to sustain natural productivity. Plankton density is measured using a sechi disc and the ideal reading recommended is between 25-35 cm. In case plankton does not develop, addition of urea and super/triple phosphate as an initial dose can be applied to water. Excess fertilization is not recommended as it generates too much of plankton which makes the water too green and increases the organic load in pond water. Too much of plankton also compete with fish for oxygen and most often lead to critical dissolved oxygen levels (below 3 mg/l) that lead to fish mortality. Weaning fish on to floating feed: Fish in nurseries are usually habituated to taking plankton and the mash feed. It is a must to train fish for a minimum of one week on the floating feed on maintenance rations to train them onto floating feed. Not doing this will result in extra time taken for fish to accept feed and they loose growth for more than a week’s time in grow-out ponds. In addition to this, feed leftover in the pond due to non-recognition by fish will be an economic waste to the farmer. Satiation technique of 78 78 78

feeding is the most important tool in managing floating fish feeds and is explained later in this article. Satiation should be set by the third day of stocking to ensure that fish are getting complete feed right from the beginning. Non-feed trained fish will not facilitate satiation setting on the third day. In order to wean the fish prior to transferring them to grow-out ponds, feed should be on site at least 10 days in advance. Weaning of fish onto the floating feed is best done in separate small ponds. Satiation Feeding as an Important Feed Management Tool Satiation feeding method: This is the most important tool for the feed based system to become successful. Feed is money and little saved is lot of money saved to the farmer. The satiation method steps are as follows: One the first day fish are fed to full satiation in 30 min strict time cut off. Satiation can be efficiently done only if the fingerlings have been trained on to feed before stocking into grow out ponds. Rohu feeds actively for 30 min and the frenzy fades off after that. Only the active feeding time/behavior is considered. As total nutrition for fish is intended through feed, three feeds per day are a must. Keen observation is a must. Keep track of the feed eaten in 30 min. If for example 600 g feed was given and the fish consumed only 500 g then the satiation will be set for 500 g feed per feeding. This will be 1.5 kg feed per day. The leftover feed should be gauged to determine the feed consumed and the quantity left behind in the pond. Note that the fish has given the feedback on how much to feed it has consumed. After having determined the feed quantity required per day the farmer automatically weighs and feeds this quantity for the next 10 days.

Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

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The 10-day period should be followed strictly to change satiation. Even if the fish consumes all feed in 20 min instead of 35 min the original quantity should be maintained. The intention here is to slightly under feed the fish. Scientifically this has proven to yield better results. Towards the 8th and the 9th day the farmer should determine how much time the fish is taking to consume the feed. Usually the fish will take less time to consume the feed when compared to time taken on the first three days. Getting to know the feeding time on the 8th and 9th day will give the farmer a feedback on roughly how much feed can increased while setting the satiation for the next 10 days. Throw the feed into the pond all at one spot along with the wind direction to avoid it from getting washed on to dykes. Wind direction may change with season and at times on a daily basis. There is no need to distribute the feed over the entire pond. Note that feed will disperse by itself due to water and wind action. On cloudy days or during sudden environmental change fish may show reduced feeding. Keep watch for feeding response during these conditions and reduce feed in the next feed. Normal feeding is resumed once the weather conditions become normal. The feed-based ASA-IM method resulted in consistently faster fish growth, higher fish yield, better feed conversion and better economic returns than the traditional practice of feeding fish with a farmmixed feed (Table 3). Though the desired target for rohu in the TP method was an average of 500 g, water quality deterioration and consequent risk of high mortality from low dissolved oxygen syndrome (LODOS) stress led to harvest at about 400g average size. Though stocking density in the ASA-IM ponds was slightly more than twice that of the traditionally managed ponds, the ASA-IM ponds were able to support the higher biomass and produced 6.5 79 79 79

tons of fish/ha in less than 150 days. The average economic return in the demonstration was based on a set average farm gate price of 45 INR/kg (~ US$ 1/kg). The negative return on investment in the TP method appears to be due to low production output against significant input costs. Probably farmers in the area are farming many different animals and row crops concurrently that without keeping accurate records of input and output costs for each activity the farmers are not fully account for all costs associated with fish production.
Table 3. Fish production achieved in 2005 demonstration Traditional Practice Method* Date of stocking Date of harvest Number of days of culture Initial weight of rohu, g Final weight of rohu, g Estimated survival of rohu, % Total harvest weight, kg/ha Feed conversion ratio *Average return on investment, % 26 Feb. 2005 24 Aug. 2005 179 43 401 95 2634 5.29 -28 ASA-IM Method* 26 Feb. 2005 24 July 2005 147 47 494 100 6483 1.34 13

What the ASA-IM demonstration did show to the farmers was in addition to the use of a nutritionally balanced feed the right nutrient delivery system such as the use of floating feeds which brings about a system close to the feeding of terrestrial animals has the ability to predictably produce a high target biomass at minimal feed wastage with no disease or water quality issues and to return a positive profit. Other advantages included healthy pond bottoms without significant organic load, ease of operation with reduced labor, reduction in grow-out period and marketing benefits owing to uniform sized fish.

Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

TROPNUTRICON - 2007

Pasture based feeding systems for small ruminant production and its relevance in tropics
S. A. Karim and A. K. Shinde Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute, Avikanagar 304 501, India

Sheep husbandry is an integral component of livelihood and life style of millions of small holder farmers in difficult areas of the country. Sheep are reared on common property resources (CPR), rangelands, orans, stubbles, wasteland and fallow land under extensive system. Moreover sheep rearing in the country is not grain based and hence small ruminants do not compete with human and organized dairy sector for food and shelter rather live in absolute harmony with man and nature. Sheep husbandry plays a significant role in supplementing family incomes and generating gainful employment in the rural unorganized sector particularly among the landless, small and marginal farmers and women besides providing cheaper and nutritious meat and milk to rural people. Sheep population as per latest livestock census of 2003 stood at 58.2 million as compared to 39.1 million in 1951, with an increase of 49 percent. During the same period, population of goats has increased by 155 per cent. Total area available for grazing of sheep and goats in 1951 was 82.1 million ha, which included unculturable land, other uncultivated land, fallow land and permanent pastures: the grazing land has now decreased to 43.3 million ha due land reclamation for conventional agriculture and conversion of culturable land to concentrate jungle in process of colonization. Total area under grazing has deceased by 47 % during the last five decades while during the period the small ruminant population has increased by 105 %. This has resulted in over stocking and over grazing of available land by the animals. There is an urgent need to maintain stable grazing resources for sustainable small ruminant production in future by rehabilitating the community grazing land through establishment of 80 80 80

perennial greases and trees, and gradually eliminating the unproductive animals from population to spare available feed resources for optimization of production of quality animals. In the present paper, sheep and goat production systems followed by the farmers in the desert, hilly and mountainous areas of the country and strategies for improvement in productivity by better feeding on pasture based feeding system has been discussed. Most prevalent systems followed in the country are as below Migration system in plains of dry zone Sheep are reared either under sedentary or a migratory system under extensive range management. Sedentary system may be stall-feeding following cut and carry system, semi intensive stall-feeding or extensive grazing system. Migratory system may be long distance migration in dry plains or transhumance in hilly or mountain region of the country. The small ruminant production systems are influenced by availability of wasteland, community grazing land and forest areas and by market prospects. About 70-80 % of sheep flocks in arid region of the country are managed under migratory system. In spite of advancement of agriculture and effective land reclamation, migration still exists as a prime system for sheep rearing in semiarid and arid zone of the country. Only in very few cases nomadic/migratory system of sheep rearing has changed to settle life sedentary livestock rearing. Nomadic and transhumance production is found to be the best suited system for the use of fragile ecosystems of country. The topography, feed resources and socio-economic conditions of people besides, low and erratic rainfall, frequent drought and low intensity of crop produc-

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tion are some of the factors responsible for prevalent of migratory system in semiarid and arid region. Sheep during migration graze on barren and marginal land of dry zone followed by fallow lands in high rainfall areas of neighboring states. In migration frequent change of grazing land often provide them wide variety of vegetation, rich in minerals and other nutrients, which help meeting the requirement thereby improving production. In pastoral, rain fed and irrigated tracts of semiarid region, migration of one to two months is common practice. In earlier days, the migration and sheep rearing was complementary but in the recent years, with the socio-cultural and technological transformation, the functional relationship has undergone considerable changes. The temporary and permanent migration of sheep from the region is related with the rainfall. The number of movement of flock on migration is less in normal rainfall than in drought and famine years. In the recent year, the migratory routes followed by the shepherd have narrowed down due to extension of crop cultivation. The sheep population on migration and over crowding of grazing lands has exaggerated the problems of the shepherds. Deforestation and felling of trees for earning their livelihood by the communities living on the periphery and some times in the heart of the forest have further magnified the fodder the crisis for sheep and goats en route migration. Other vagaries of migration include exposure to seasonal stress, predators, poachers and loss of lambs, weaker animals and hurried disposal of wool. Moreover occasionally violent confrontation arises between the owners of migratory flocks and local population for sharing meager feed resources for their livestock. The problems faced by the sheep raisers during migration are: higher charges for entry of animals in other states, insufficient watering points thorough out the route of migration, decrease in area under grazing land with the establishment of wild life parks and sanctuaries, prohibition for entry of animals in developed forest, protection by local peoples for grazing of animals in their areas, prob81 81 81

lems of theft and dacoits in certain areas, inadequate marketing facilities in the migratory route for sale of lambs and spent ewes/rams and wool and improper distribution of animals during migration resulting in over crowding in certain areas. Additionally inability of new born lambs to walk long distances further magnifies the problems of migrating flock therefore they are transported along the migration on camel back, bullock carts, donkey, ponies and in some cases lambs are forced to walk with adult stocks in migration. Lambs under such harsh condition suffer from stresses of movement in migration resulting in poor growth and high mortality losses. It is therefore suggested that entrepreneurs/progressive farmers may adopt organized lamb rearing for mutton and breeder ram production by purchasing the weaner lambs from the farmers and rearing them under semi intensive and intensive system of production near some exist port or metropolis. Adoption of envisaged production system will render sheep raring as a profitable venture for sheep farmers and entrepreneurs ensuring quality meat for the consumers. Some of the suggestion for smooth functioning of migration system of sheep are: avoiding frequently change in route of migration and construction of enclosures by local shepherds in migratory route, establishment of check post in collaboration with Forest, Animal Husbandry, Police and Revenue Departments with communication facilities, provision of shelter in route of migration for protection of shepherds and animals from inclement weather, provision of Veterinarians for treatment and prophylaxis measures, provision of licensed weapon for protection of their properties while migrating through dacoits infested routes, controlled opening of forest areas for grazing of animals, development of shearing and marketing facilities of wool, animal insurance cover for preventing economic loss during casualties and provision of nutritional supplements at strategic locations to the animals as well as shepherds in migratory route.

Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

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Sedentary system in hills and mountain areas In low and mid- hills, lower valleys and Tarai region, sheep are reared under sedentary system where sheep are maintained in one area throughout the year and penned at homestead during night. The animals are managed either in stall-fed, semi stall-fed or free range grazing system. Majority of the sedentary flocks are maintained under an extensive system, where the sheep are driven to the grazing land for grazing during the day and are not supplemented at the stall. In the mid-hill and valley rotational grazing of sheep are followed. This system allows adequate re-growth of grasses and vegetation in between grazing. However, grazing of sheep in a limited areas round the year leads to heavy parasitic burden. Transhumance system in hills and mountains areas In the high hills and mountain areas, sheep are reared under transhumance system. Sheep move to different areas through out the year, and maintained entirely under grazing system. The flocks migrate from the foot hills to high Alpine ranges during summer months. Sheep move to upper hills after beginning of arable cropping and return later in the year after the crop has been harvested. Migratory flocks normally constitute 200-250 sheep and vary in size from 50- 600 sheep. Sheep belong to different owners and the shepherd usually own only part of flock. Every owner contributes to the shepherds food and clothing, and in addition the shepherd receives one or two sheep from the owner in kind for year long grazing charges. Some of the professional shepherds are Jaunsartes inhabiting at Dehradun, Jad of Tehri, Gaddis shepherd of Kangra, Kanoras from Rampur Bushahr, Bhakarwals and Karnahis of Muzzfarabad of Jammu and Kashmir and Garhwalis from hills of Garhwal who take sheep to alpine pasture for grazing. The flock follows a typical annual migration route, initiating migration during late February: flocks commence moving upward to the higher villages, reaching the foot hill 82 82 82

by April. During late spring and early summer, flocks continue to remain at a low altitude. Flocks leave the village for the Alpine pasture between April and May. During May to early July, flocks move steadily upward through the forest. During this season, shrubs and trees of deciduous forest are in flush, and growth of green forest is clearly evident. The sheep derive adequate fodder from summer pasture and improve their body weights. By July flock reach Alpine pasture and remain there up to early September. The alpine meadows provide them the most nutrition feed available throughout the year and at this time they attained maximum body weight. Flocks start descending from late September to early October through the forest in a similar manner as to their ascent route of movement. Feeding systems Extensive range management system: Extensive system of sheep rearing is most prevalent system in dry semiarid and arid zone of the country having excess grazing land and cheaper labor, where sheep is maintained on sole grazing with occasional top feed supplementation in lean season. Two systems of rearing are common in dry regions viz. exclusive extensive system where sheep migrate to long distance during feed scarcity and sedentary system where sheep are grazed around 4- 5 km from homestead. Poor vegetation cover is a routine feature in most of the grazing land and sheep on such land have access to poor quality and meager quantity of forage in round the grazing system except during 3-4 months of monsoon. Common grazing land in semiarid region of Rajasthan during monsoon and winter yield 4.92 and 1.36 DM q/ha respectively while the stubble after harvesting of kharif crops have standing biomass yield of 20.39DM q/ha. Tribulus terrestiris, Indigofera cardifolia, Crotolaria burhia, Zizyphus nummularia, Dactyloctenium aegyticum, Melilotus indica, are major native grasses, constituting sheep's diet during monsoon and Crotolaria burhia, Zizyphus nummularia, dead litter and

Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

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Azardirachta indica leaves during winter. Male and female lambs born from ewes maintained on common grazing land have birth weights of 3.47 and 3.26 kg and weaning weights (3 month of age) of 14.11 and 13.47kg respectively. Male lambs are sold @ Rs.400- 500 due to famine and scarcity of feed and fodder in the region at only 3 months age. In present rearing system the males and females lambs in farmers field during pre weaning phase have average daily gain of 118 and 113 g. Adult sheep maintained on grazing alone on these lands exhibit seasonal changes in body weight gain with peak weights during the month of November followed by gradual decline reaching the exhibiting lowest weight of year in March. In routine practices of sheep rearing under field condition, male and female are kept together in the flock throughout the year, resulting in round the year mating and lambing. The average lambing percentage of 83.8 in round the year free mating was reported in field flocks. Sheep in field flocks are shorn three times in a year and average wool yield of 407, 295 and 450g in June, September and March clips respectively with annual yield of 1151g per sheep. The sale of wool in the local markets provides Rs.54.60 per sheep (Singh et al., 2003). The production performance and economics of sheep rearing under intensive, semi-intensive and extensive systems in semiarid region Rajasthan has been studied (Porwal 2005). The cost of feed and labor inputs is major factors contributing for higher cost of rearing in intensive system in comparison to extensive system. However in relative term, sheep rearing under extensive system is more remunerative, provided the grazing lands ensure sufficient forage to animals through out the year. Semi-intensive System: In this system sheep are grazed for 4-5hours in a day then they are stall fed agricultural byproducts or tree leaves or hay or green fodder or supplemented concentrate mixture. Some amount of supplementation is provided to these animals in addition to grazing, In present sys83 83 83

tem of utilization of grazing land for raising of the sheep, it would not be possible to harvest desirable production because of poor to very poor condition of grazing resources, rapid shrinking of land and yield. Under such situation grazing plus supplementation is the choice of system for sustaining the sheep production in the tropics. The finishing weight of the male lambs is lower and the age at which it is attained is higher than desired. The production system required concentrate input, which although cost effective and economical, yet was notn adopted by the sheep farmers due their poor socio-economic conditions. The work carried out in the country has been reviewed that supplementation of limited amount of concentrate (1.5- 2.0 % of BW) in addition to free grazing provided marketable finishing weight of 25- 30 kg at six months of age. The weaner lambs maintained on Cenchrus pasture with concentrate supplementation @ 1.5 % BW were able to attain 27.3 kg at six months of age (Shinde et al., 1995). Growth study conducted on farmers Kheri weaner lambs maintained under extensive and semi intensive system of feeding management indicated that the finisher lambs at six months of age attained 22.7 and 30.3 kg with ADG of 70, 175 g with cost of feed input/kg gain nil and Rs.23.62, respectively. These lambs further continued during 6- 9 months period on free grazing with ad lib. concentrate supplementation attained 36.2, 42.7 and 37.6 kg providing ADG of 137 and 134 g indicating higher cost of concentrate input/kg gain in live weight in semi intensive (Rs.53.76) than in extensive (Rs.44.50) of feeding management. The results indicated that under organized feeding management, the feeding cost was uneconomical at 6- 9 months of age. In another study relative growth performance and feed conversion efficiency of Kheri weaner lambs adopted from the farmers indicated that grazing with concentrate supplementation @ 1.5 and 2.5% BW and ad lib. provided finishing weight of 20.9, 23.2 and 27.2 kg with ADG of 77, 98 and 151 g with cost of feed input/kg gain Rs. 28.99, 29.37 and

Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

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31.11 in the three feeding protocols respectively. Better growth rate and feed conversion efficiency with almost similar cost of feed input/kg gain in live weight in ad lib. concentrate fed lambs indicated that higher level of concentrate feeding has commercial applicability. Intensive system: Sheep are intensively reared either on complete stall-feeding on cultivable fodders or complete feeds or crop residues or agricultural byproducts. Stall-feeding of sheep is not common in the country except in male lambs where prime objective is to achieve maximum body weights at an early age. Stall-feeding is favored for milk and meat production in goats in urban and sub-urban areas. Lambs fed on complete feed consisting of concentrate (maize, barley grains, oilcakes, wheat and rice bran and molasses and roughage (tree leaves, cultivated grasses and legume) in ratio of 40:60, 50:50 and 60:40 attained body weights of 25-27kg at 6 month of age. The hot carcass weight of 10.3, 14.5 and 14.3kg in the extensive, semiintensive and intensive systems and dressing yield of 44.9% in the extensive and 48.8% in semi-intensive and 50.9% in the intensive system has been reported. The lean, fat and bone contents of 63.40, 8.52 and 15.32% in the extensive system, 61.85, 11.84 and 14.24% in the semi-intensive and 59.34, 16.29 and 12.34% respectively in the intensive system in lambs maintained under different systems has been reported (Karim, et al., 2007). Bharat Merino a promising genotype for wool production yields desirable carcass of acceptable quality with carcass fat ranging from 7- 10% under grazing and concentrate mixture supplementation at 9 month of age (Karim and Mehta 2007). Male kids after weaning at 3 months of age and fed on feedlot ration attained body weight of 25kg at 6 month with a dressing yield of 48- 51% and feed efficiency of 10- 12%. Intensive feeding of kids improved dressing yield and increased fat content of carcass but reduces bone and lean content when compared with semi-intensive system (Singh and Sahu, 1997). Native and crossbred lambs fed on ration consist84 84 84

ing of concentrate and roughage in 50:50 combination attained growth rate of 150 and 170g daily during 3- 6 month of age with feed efficiency of 12- 15 % (Karim and Rawat, 1996). Weaner lambs and kids maintained on intensive feeding during 3- 6 month of age provided higher dressing yield in sheep than goats, goats yield leaner carcass but tough meat than sheep (Sen et al., 2004). Economics of weaner lambs raised in different system of rearing has been worked out. It was found that lambs in intensive system and semi-intensive provided net return of Rs 1235 and Rs 1179 as against Rs 867 in extensive system through sale of meat. Avikalin and Malpura genotypes maintained under intensive feeding or grazing with concentrate mixture supplementation provided desirable carcass of acceptable quality with fat content of 7-11% at 6 month of age. Similarly the Awassi X Malpura crosses developed in the Institute were evaluated for carcass characteristics indicated that growth rate and feed efficiency was higher in Malpura X Awassi crosses than Malpura while dressing yield and cutability was similar in both the genotypes (Karim et al., 2002). Pre weaning growth of lambs under field condition is always found poor due to poor nutrition resulting in poor carcass weight and dressing yield at slaughter age. If these lambs are put under better nutrition during post weaning phase, they show compensatory growth during post weaning stage and desirable carcass traits (Karim et al., 2001). Grass pasture Major limitation to sheep and goat production from native ranges in dry zone of country is short supply of forage for longer part of year. Native ranges rehabilitated by perennial grasses improve the forage yield and ensures forage supply for longer period. The most suitable perennial grasses for arid and semiarid region are Cenchrus ciliaris, Cenchrus setigerus and Lasirus sindicus. Cenchrus ciliaris pasture yields 27-33 q DM/ha in semiarid region and under favorable conditions (rainfall and soil types)

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yield 29-49 q DM/ha in Cenchrus ciliaris (Rai et al. 1995). Lambs grazing on degrade rangelands attained 8- 9 kg body weights at 3 month and 1416k g at 6 months of age while on cenchrus pasture body weight of 18 kg at 3 month of age with 163 g average daily gains in lambs has been achieved. Birth, 3 and 6 months weights of 3.2, 13.9 and 20.6 kg respectively in Mutton Synthetic lambs grazed on Cenchrus ciliaris pasture has been reported by Singh, et al. (2003). Major limitation with cenchrus pasture is deteriorating yield and quality with maturity and found inadequate to support the optimum growth of lambs in late winter and summer seasons. Some kinds of supplementation either in the form of concentrate mixture or tree leaves are required. The supplementation of concentrate mixture at the rate of 1.5% of body weight in lambs and kids grazing on cenchrus pasture achieved body weight of 2726kg at 6 month of age. While lambs and kids under routine grazing system in field hardly achieved 1618kg at same age. Silvipasture Three strata forage system known as silvipasture in the drier and low rainfall areas in combination with arable cropping can sustain sheep production system with requirement of food for human consumption. Silvipasture can meet feed requirement of sheep and goats, with improvement of healthy environment. The crops (cowpea, groundnut and moth) with shrubs and trees can meet the need of food for human and feed for animals. Silvipasture comprising of grasses, shrubs and tree leaves can serve the purpose of forage and wood supply with environmental conservation for poor soil and water conditions. A hectare plot of three-tier silvipasture of Ailanthus excelsa trees and Dicrostachys nutans and Cenchrus ciliaris provided 31q fodder on DM basis (Sankhyan et al., 1996). Weaner lambs and kids attained body weight of 22- 24 kg at 6 month of age in silvipastoral system (Sankhyan et al., 1996). Hoggets gained body weight of 30 kg at 1 year of age on silvipasture 85 85 85

and 5 kg more than those maintained on cenchrus pasture. Avivastra sheep yielded 0.970 and 1.430 kg wool during autumn and spring clips under silvipastoral grazing system. It was found that feeding of Ailanthus excelsa leaves in silvipasture improved the milk yield in lactating sheep and goats (Shinde et al., 1996, Bhatta et al., 2002) other beneficial effect of pod bearing trees in silvipasture has been demonstrated by several workers. Prosopis cineraria and Acacia tortolis shrubs supplied good quality pods rich in protein, which plays an important role in flushing of sheep and goats during summer months in dry zones of country. The supplementation of tree leaves grown in silvipasture at stall in addition to grazing and ad lib. concentrate mixture feeding appears to be most desirable combination for intensive lamb production program (Tripathi et al., 2006). Pasture utilization system Rotational system, continuous system, deferred rotational, cut and carry, forward grazing and stripe grazing are in vogue system for pasture utilization in the developed countries. In India established pasture are limited and most prevalent system is continues grazing system with no provision of rest for rejuvenation of vegetation. Some of the studies conducted at CSWRI, Avikanagar, Rajasthan and IGFRI, Jhansi, UP indicated that rotational grazing help in applying equal pressure to all the areas and maintain stable resources. It also control growth of obnoxious weeds and improve edible vegetation species in the pastures and help in better regeneration and growth of grasses. In tropics pasture has little growth in other than monsoon season because of negligible precipitation and soil moisture. Moreover life cycle of native herbaceous species found in arid regions is completed within 3- 4 months. As such benefits of rotational system over others are not evidenced in tropics due to limited pasture growth for 3- 4 months. The study indicated that rotational grazing of pasture by sheep and goats reduced water run off and soil losses in semiarid region. Lambs

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and kids gained higher body weights at 6 months in rotational than in continuous grazing system. Deferred rotational grazing is another system for pasture utilization where one portion of area or paddock is protected from grazing during active vegetation growth phase for preparation of hay. Tethering of sheep and goats in cropped areas is adopted to prevent animals wandering into areas under intensive cropping. The goats are tethered on waste grazing areas close to crop field to regulate stubble grazing or close to stacks of crop straw to allow self-feeding. Grazing behavior and forage selection A better understanding of how herbivores graze in heterogeneous areas will help to improve animal production and to determine the impact of these herbivores on plant species and plant community change. Sheep make several adjustment in grazing intensity, pattern, diet selection and shade seeking to ameliorate the adverse condition of environment. Sheep and goats follow rhythmic periodicity in grazing pattern, where they grazed actively during morning and evening hours. Sheep makes several adjustments in food processing for efficient utilization of forage. Bite per minute declined from 35 in medium pasture allowance to 24 in low level of allowances (Shinde et al., 1997). Forage quality mainly fibre content of forage influenced the food processing behaviour. Ruminating rate (chew/bolus) of sheep increased from 62 to 67 while masticating rate (chew/ min) decreased from 69 to 63 with rise of acid detergent fibre of diet from 42 to 52%. Ruminating rate increased from 45 chew/min in monsoon when diet contained 68 % shrub and 32 % grass to 70 chew/min in summer when diet consisted of shrub alone. Shrub in comparison to grass contained more fibre and greater consumption of fibre in animals increased rumination rate for better utilization. Goats of north-western region are considered to be well adapted to high ambient temperature and spend considerably lesser hours of day under shade. Grazing hours of goats on pasture is negatively correlated 86 86 86

with ambient temperature, relative humidity, and forage supply from ranges (Bhatta et al., 2001). Goats have characteristic bipedal stance, which help in consumption of overhead portion of shrub species. This characteristic behavioural of goats helps them to maintain higher CP in diet despite sizable deterioration of CP content of ground vegetation in dry periods (Bhatta et al., 2001). Better knowledge of palatable species over other helps us to improved distribution of edible species in the grazing land and animal production. Animal species generally differ in their preference, and within each species consistent diurnal patterns of preference are frequently observed in herbivores. On pastures and rangelands, vegetation constraints become important because they alter rates of encounter of preferred forages. The availability of the different sward components can limit preference expression. Herbivores those have broad and flat muzzle have lesser ability to feed selectivity than species with narrow mouths and incurred incisor arcades. Sheep have a high ability to sort preferred plant components from others. The ability to walk long distances enables sheep to explored wider areas and influenced their encounter rates of preferred species. Sheep are basically a grazier animal, diet of sheep mainly constituted of grasses and forbs and little of browse species. Contrary to sheep, goats are browser species and their diet mainly consisted of browse and little of grasses. Goats in semiarid region preferred grasses only in monsoon when they were green and succulent in nature while in other season their preference is almost negligible probably due to maturity and fibrous nature. Goat diet contained 76 % shrubs and 24 % grasses in monsoon, while in winter and summer; diet was constituted of 100 % shrubs in semiarid rangeland of India (Shinde et al., 2000). The Prosopis cineraria shrub in desert environment is one of the main sources of foliage to goats. The P. cineraria constituted 93.2 g/kg of diet in monsoon, 166.6 g/kg in winter and 540 g/kg in summer. In summer, when most of the ground veg-

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etation dried off and very few shrubs species are available in the grazing lands, the goats diet primarily comprised of Prosopis cineraria (546g/kg), Acacia tortolis pods (158.0 g/kg) and Acacia senegal (158.0 g/kg). Cocculus pendulus, the most palatable climber, widely found only on Prosopis cineraria and remained green throughout the year. It constituted 102.4, 83.9 and 138.0 g/kg of goat diet in monsoon, winter and summer seasons, respectively. Sheep preferred quality nutrients with deterioration of pasture conditions to meet their dietary requirement. Preference index for CP in sheep on Cenchrus pasture progressively increased from 1.2 in monsoon to 2.1 in winter and 3.0 in summer, respectively (Shinde et al., 1998a) and 1.35 in monsoon to 1.78 in winter and 2.25 in summer in goats on native ranges (Bhatta et al., 2001). The increase selection intensity of CP helped them to maintain 13 % CP in diet throughout the year irrespective of sizable decline of pasture vegetation content. Nutrition of sheep and goats on pastures In arid and semiarid region sheep and goats depend on native ranges for the main source of forage supply. The deciduous plant species and a heterogeneous vegetation type of shrubs with an annual herbaceous understorey are the main component of these ranges. Prosopis cineraria, Acacia senegal and Acacia tortolis are the dominant shrub species and their leaves and pods offer a potential source of protein to animals during winter and summer. Melilotus indica, Tribulus terrestris, Crotolaria burhia, Celosia argentea and Indigofera cordifolia grass and forb species are occupied by understorey. Native vegetation showed typical pattern of growth in response to short period of rainy season followed by long spell of dry period. Such seasonal pattern has sizable influence on diet composition and intake of grazing sheep and goat in semiarid pastures and ranges. Goats on these ranges consumed 64.0 g/kgW 0.75 or 2.4 % of BW in monsoon when vegetation in grazing land 87 87 87

was sufficient and intakes decreased to 54.0g/kg W 0.75 or 2.0 % BW in winter and summer with maturity and deterioration of vegetation. Goats have ability to maintain constant level of intake despite wide variation in forage supply in different seasons because of their flexible and opportunistic grazing behaviour that enable them to adapt to various range conditions (Shinde et al., 2000). Sheep on Cenchrus pasture consumed 36.9 g/kg W 0.75 dry matter in monsoon, 64.0 g/kg W 0.75 in winter and 53.0 g/ kgW 0.75 in summer (Shinde et al., 1998b). Sheep consumed 3.44 g/kg W0.75 DCP in monsoon, 2.42 g/kg W0.75 in winter and 1.05 g/ kg W0.75 in summer on native ranges of semiarid region. The protein intake remained low and inadequate for growth and production. Cenchrus pasture improved forage yield and quality and sheep consumed 4.70 g/kg W 0.75 DCP in winter and 2.10- 2.50 g/kg W 0.75 in monsoon and summer. Sheep are unable to meet DCP requirement of pregnancy and lactation stages on Sewan and Cenchrus pastures and require the supplementation. In general protein intake of animals from pasture in semiarid regions is just enough for maintenance requirement during rainy season while in other seasons 25-30% below the requirement. Goats have better ability to meet their protein requirement because of greater consumption of browse species and overhead portion of shrubs. Goats on native ranges has DCP intake of 4.8, 3.1 and 4.5 g/kg W 0.75 in monsoon, winter and summer seasons and maintained 67- 95 g DCP per day, which was found sufficient for maintenance and out door activities (Shinde et al., 2000). In Cenchrus pasture goats has disadvantage because of poor cover of browse species. Goat intake on Cenchrus pasture declined from 4.10 g/kgW 0.75 in monsoon season to 2.90 g/kg W 0.75 in summer (Shinde et al., 1996). It is useful to have browse species for improving the nutrition of goat in Cenchrus pasture. In arid and semiarid region, forage from rangelands and pastures are usually poor in energy con-

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tent. Average energy content ranges between 67MJ/kgDM. Sheep and goats on an average consumed 1.0-1.5 kg DM daily are able to get 6- 9 MJ/kgW0.75, which is insufficient for maintenance and outdoor requirement. Sheep on Cenchrus pasture consume 0.74 MJ/kg W0.75 in monsoon and 0.42MJ/ kgW0.75 in summer. Energy intake of sheep sizably decreased from monsoon to summer. Energy intake of sheep during later winter on Cenchrus pasture was 0.37, 0.38 and 0.40 MJ/kg W0.75 during dry, pregnant and lactation stages. Goat consumed 0.90, 0.78 and 0.80 MJ ME/ kg W0.75 in monsoon, winter and summer (Shinde et al., 2000). Energy intake of goats remained low during dry, pregnancy and lactation. It was estimated as 1.22 in dry, 1.00 in pregnant and 1.04 MJ ME/ kgW0.75 in lactation in goats grazing on semi-arid rangeland of India. Energy expenditure at pasture Majority of sheep and goat flocks in the country are managed under extensive system where they traveled long distance while foraging in field. The energy expenditure of sheep and goats on pasture is more than those maintained on stall-feeding. Maintenance energy requirement of animals on pasture includes sum of basal metabolism, heat increment of feeding, muscular activities and thermoregulation. In general sheep on pasture spend 60-70% more energy than stall-fed animals. In dry zone of country, about 60-70% of flocks are maintained on temporary to permanent migration. These flocks would be spending sizably higher energy for maintenance because of longer distance covered. Sheep on pasture exposed to wide range of ambient temperature ranging from 8-10° in winter to 40-45°C in summer in semi-acid region of Rajasthan. Grazing of sheep on pasture at higher ambient temperature spend more energy for thermoregulation resulting in greater energy expenditure for maintenance. Sheep and goats in hilly and terrain graze on steep land and travel long distance in 88 88 88

the mountain region requiring still higher energy requirement for muscular activities than those flocks grazed in plains: sheep on ascent spent 10 times more energy than on plain land. The maintenance energy requirement of sheep on pasture of semiarid Rajasthan was reported as 43% (Shinde et al., 1998a) more than stall-fed. Sheep grazing on pastures of semiarid region spent 136.7kJ/kg BW in winter to 161.1 kJ/BW in summer and 223.7 kJ/ BW in monsoon (Shinde et al., 1998a). Role of small ruminants in environment conservation It is often believed that grazing of small ruminants help natural generation of trees and shrubs and also creates opportunities for local plant communities and their ecosystem. On the other hand, prevention of grazing results in dominance of shrubby plants, loss of grasses and eventually woodland. Grazing of sheep and goats in woodland also prevents fire by making breaks of dense flora. This implies small ruminants themselves provide more specific roles in the ecosystem: their dung is an important source of food for many insects and other wildlife. Small ruminants also help in dispersion of seeds in new areas. Goats help in dispersal of grass, bush and tree pods while browsing and defecate hard coat undigested seeds especially of pod bearing and xerophytes after acid treatment while passing through digestive system and fortifying it with nutrients in the form of fecal pellets and spread more uniformly all over the grazing areas (Acharya and Singh 1992). These seeds germinate in large number as soon as soil moisture conditions are favorable. Higher stocking density damages soil top layer and cause run off losses. The stocking density of 2- 4 goats/ha had no effect on runoff and soil loss in hot arid regions of Rajasthan in normal rainfall years. Similarly 3 sheep or goats/ha had no effect on deterioration of physical and chemical properties of soil rather improved it. Goat browsing tend to reclaim saline soil by consuming salt-laden leaves of range plants and contribute fertility to soil by

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even distribution of fecal pellets on land they grazed. Sharma and Ogra (1987) reported 27% more vegetative regeneration in goats paddock comprising of Cenchrus ciliaris, Dichrostachys nutans and Leuceania leucocephala. Goat saliva left on the bitten foliage adds nitrogen directly to the plant cells inducing quick growth. The biting of tender leaves and twigs by goats also induce number of tillers and faster regeneration of branch and foliage. In arid zones, overgrazing because of high stocking density of livestock, extensive cutting of fuel wood and cultivation of fragile lands has resulted in loss of plant cover and change of vegetation composition. The utilization of rangeland beyond the limit of their capacity, long history of misuse of rangeland resources has resulted in overgrazing. The misuse is caused by overstocking, usually associated with reduction in grazing areas, inappropriate use of rangeland resources with respect to grazing season, reduction in grazing areas and inappropriate distribution of animals. Livestock numbers have increased in arid zones at a rate close to demographic ones. The increased livestock populations in the country have overstocked rangeland. The higher livestock populations in fragile zones is ascribed to greater animal rearing because of surplus labor, lower landownership and poor crop cultivation. Continuous utilization of range resource by all kind of livestock has caused overgrazing since it reduced plant vigor, reproduction and regeneration. The dry land agriculture is expanding, which has reduced the size of grazing areas and put more pressure on the remaining rangeland. The concentrations of animals in certain areas are the main cause of overgrazing. The main factors that affect animal distribution are proximity to watering points, proximity to areas of better grazing quality and shepherding. The increasing grazing pressure increases the proportion of bare soil and more important reduce the amount of vegetation litter and soil fertility. The increased grazing pressure in common access lands leads to progressive erosion and decrease of soil fertility, lowering of water tables and loss of biodiversity. Higher 89 89 89

grazing intensities results also in soil compaction, higher run off and less infiltration. The present paper concludes that grazing land in the country are shrinking both in area as well as in yield and vegetation cover hence there is urgent need to rehabilitate these lands by establishment of perennial grasses or silvipasture to meet the forage requirement of small ruminants. REFERENCES Acharya, R.M. and Singh, N.P. (1992) The role of goats in conserving of ecology and livelihood security, Pre-conference Proceeding Plenary Papers and Invited lectures. V International Conference on Goats, held at New Delhi, 24 March. Bhatta Raghavendra, Shinde, A. K., Sankhyan, S. K.,Verma, D.L. and S. Vaithiyanathan (2001) Indian J. Anim. Sci. Bhatta Raghavendra, Shinde, A.K, Sankhyan, S.K. and Verma D.L. (2002) Indian J. Anim. Sci., 72: 84-86. Karim S. A., Santra, A., Sen, A. R. and Sharma, V. K. (2001) Indian J. Anim. Sci., 71: 955958. Karim, S. A. and Rawat, P. S. (1996) Indian J. Anim. Sci., 66: 830-832. Karim, S. A., Santra, A and Verma, D. L. (2002) Asian-Aust J. Anim. Sci., 15: 377-381. Karim, S.A., Porwal, Kuldeep., Kumar, Suresh and Singh, V.K. (2007) Meat Sci., 76: 395-401. Karim., S.A. and Mehta, B.S. (2007) Indian J. Anim. Sci. 77: 187-190. Porwal, Kuldeep. (2005) Status of sheep production in farmers flock and its improvement by scientific feeding practices. Ph.D. thesis submitted to Dr B.R. Ambedkar University, Agra. Rai, P.K., Yadav, M.S. and Sudhakar, N. (1995) Annals Arid Zone., 34: 111-114.

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Sankhyan, S. K, Shinde, A. K, Karim, S. A, Mann, J. S, Singh, N. P. and Patnayak, B. C. (1996) Indian J. Anim. Sci., 66: 1194-1197. Sen, A. R., Santra, A. and Karim, S. A. (2004) Meat Sci., 757-763. Sharma, K. and Ogra, J. L. (1987) Reaction of component of plant species of synthesized pasture under three-tier system to high intensity of grazing by goats and sheep in semi-arid zones. Proc. 3rd International Conf. on Goat, Brazil. Shinde, A. K., Karim, S. A., Patnayak, B.C. and Mann, J.S. (1997) Small Rumin Res., 26:119122. Shinde, A. K., Sankhyan, S. K., Raghavendra Bhatta, Verma, D. L. (2000) J. Agri Sci., Camb., 135: 429-436. Shinde, A. K., Karim, S. A., Sankhyan, S. K. and Bhatta, Raghavendra. (1998a) J. Agri. Sci., Camb., 131: 341-346.

Shinde, A. K, Karim, S. A, Sankhyan, S. K. and Bhatta, R. (1998b) Small Rumin. Res., 30: 29-35. Shinde, A. K, Sankhyan, S. K, Karim, S. A, Singh, N. P. and Patnayak, B.C. (1996) World Rev. Anim. Prod., 31: 35-40. Shinde, A. K., Karim, S. A., Singh, N. P. and Patnayak, B. C. (1995) Indian J. Anim. Sci., 65: 830-833. Singh, N. P., Sankhyan, S. K., Shinde, A. K. and Verma, D. L. (2003) Establishment, utilization and management of different types of pastures and silvipastures for sheep production. Annual Report CSWRI, Avikanagar. Singh, N.P. and Sahu, B.B. (1997) Indian J. Anim. Sci., 67: 87-89. Tripathi, M. K., Karim, S. A., Chaturvedi, O. H. and Singh, V. K. (2006) Livestock Res. Rural Devel., 18: 1-12.

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Sustainable intensive meat production system for goats and sheep in tropics
N. P. Singh Central Institute for Research on Goats, Makhdoom, Mathura-281 122, India

Two-third of the world's poor live in Asia below nationally defined poverty line and 65 % of them are poor livestock keepers who derive a large part of their household from domesticated animals. The rapidly changing patterns of demand for livestock and livestock products point to livestock production being an increasing component of the agricultural economies of Asia. The extent to which the rural poor will benefit from these changes depends on how livestock can be integrated into developing markets and whether cheaper livestock products benefit the rural poor as consumers as well as producers. There is scope for the two small ruminants - goats and sheep-to play an important role for smallholder farmers in accessing these new markets. Their significance, which is now being exploited in several countries, is that they are small livestock in high demand and can thrive on low inputs and local resources. Livestock population and production World's current population of cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats is around 1355.1, 174.0, 1081.1 and 807.6 million respectively. Asian region possesses about 33.61, 96.88, 42.29 and 64.33 % and India 13.65, 56.31, 5.79 and 14.87 % of the total world population of the four respective livestock species (FAO, 2005). Although the population of all the four species has shown increasing trend since 1951 the buffalo and goat population has increased more rapidly than others and they are considered the animals of the future for the country. The contribution of agriculture and allied sectors to the National Gross Domestic Product (GPD) has declined from 55 % in early 1950s to 23.9 % in 91 91 91

2001-02. But the share of livestock sector to agricultural GPD has increased from 18.1 % in 198081 to 25.5 % in 2001-02 (Sharma, 2004). Livestock provides food security in the form of milk, meat and eggs, employment, draught power, plant nutrients through manure, fuel and biogas, weed control, more equitable distribution besides source of income. Livestock are even more significant for people living in drought-prone, hilly, tribal and other less favoured areas where crop production is most uncertain. About 23 % of the world population living in developed countries consumes 3 to 4 times the meat and fish and 5 to 6 times the milk per capita as compared to those in developing countries (Delgado et al., 1999). But massive increases in the aggregate consumption of animal products are occurring in developing countries including India. Dastagiri (2003) has estimated the demand and supply of different livestock products by 2020 in the country. The projected consumption and production trends of livestock food products indicate that major surplus production is likely to emerge in milk, eggs, beef, buffalo meat and fish of the order of 85 million litres, 69 billion, 8 million, and 4.5 million tons, respectively. These results indicate that by 2020, India would not only be self-sufficient in these products, but would also have surplus production which could be exported to earn foreign exchange. There would, however, be shortage of 12 million tons of mutton and chevon. The small ruminant sector has tremendous potential to grow especially in the arid and semi-arid zones where sheep and goat husbandry plays a very vital role in livelihood security and economic sustenance of the people. But the

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productivity of the two species is low and there is dire need to evolve sustainable goat and sheep production systems to improve their productivity. Goat and sheep population and production The current world population of sheep is 1081.1 million and goats 807.6 million. Asian region possesses about 42.3% sheep and 64.3% goats of the world population. India with 5.79% sheep and 14.9% goats ranks sixth in sheep population and second in goat population of the world. China tops the world in goat population with around 195 million (FAO, 2005). The developed countries of the world have about 45.0% of the world's sheep and only 5.5% of the world's goats. The developing countries, on the other hand, have 55.0% of the sheep and 94.50% of the total goat population. Presently there are 8.1, 13.1 and 19.6 sheep and 5.4, 15.1 and 41.5 goats per 1000 hectares of land area and 17.2, 10.9 and 5.7 sheep and 11.6, 12.7 and 12.2 goats per 1000 human heads in the World, Asia and India respectively. India possessed a population of 124.36 million goats and 61.47 million sheep. Andhra Pradesh with 21.38 million sheep ranks first. Rajasthan, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu respectively occupy II, III and IV position. The goat population of 18.77 million is highest in West Bengal followed by 16.81 million in Rajasthan. Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra and Bihar respectively occupy III, IV and V position in the country. In spite of annual slaughter rate of nearly 30% in sheep and 40% in goats there has been a continuous increase in their number. The overall annual population growth rate during the period 1951-2003 has remained about 1 % in sheep and around 3.5% in goats. Sheep around the world contributed 8075.6 TMT of milk, 8025.0 TMT of meat, 2150.7 TMT of greasy wool and 1638.6 TMT of fresh skins annually. Sheep in India contributed only 2.92% of the meat, 2.39% of the wool and 3.24% of the skins produced world over. Goats, on the other hand, provided 11987.2 TMT of milk, 4198.9 TMT 92 92 92

of meat and 910.4 TMT of fresh skins world over and in India contributed 21.77% of the milk, 10.41% of the meat and 14.23% of the skins of the world production. The number of animals available for slaughter is comparatively higher in the country. But the meat yield per animal is lower than the world average. India with 11 % of the world livestock contributes only 2.13 % of the total meat. The demand for meat in our country is far more than the production. The demand is further augmented by the great scope for meat export and potential to earn foreign exchange. Importance of goat and sheep in Indian economy Goats and sheep are widely distributed throughout the country. Their contribution to the economy through production of meat, milk, fiber, skins, manure etc. is substantial constituting about 5.40 % of GNP of Agriculture Sector. The annual contribution was estimated to be Rs.10, 087.45 crores to the Indian economy (FAO, 2004). The size and magnitude of the contributions, however, have not been adequately assessed. A few reports available do justify their claim to equality if not superiority with other livestock. They are so vital to a very large human population that their contribution to national economy can not be over looked. They relatively much lower investments and facilities in terms of housing, feed, labour and health care. There is quick pay off due to fast multiplication and early maturity. The risk involved in goat and sheep farming is much lower when compared to other livestock and crop production. Goats and sheep are reported to be more economical than cattle and buffaloes under natural grazing on arid zone range. The indigenous goats were found 2.5 times more economical than indigenous sheep when maintained on a free range grazing on highly degraded land in semi arid ecology of Rajasthan. Sharma (1987) recorded significantly more meat and milk production per unit

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live weight per year from goats than buffalo, camel and sheep. The cost of production of goat milk worked out to be less than half than for cow's milk while milk from buffaloes was intermediate. The results of a socio economic survey in Rajasthan conducted by Ahuja and Rathore (1987) have revealed that the number of goats increased 3 times between 1951 to 1983 and goats accounted for 28.31% of the value of the livestock assets and for 16.19% of the gross receipts from crops and livestock. Studies have also revealed that the goats contributed up to 50.55% to the total cash income of a farm family in the hot arid region of the country. It is therefore, important that development programmes should focus on the efficient use of these renewable resources as well as explore ways and means of increasing their current level of production. Socio economic gains of goat and sheep The socio economic importance of goats and sheep in India is evident by the sharp increase in their numbers and contributions during the last about 30 years. Goats and sheep contribute milk, meat, fibre, skins and manure to the subsistence of small holders and landless rural poor. They play an important role in income generation, capital storage, employment generation and house hold nutrition. Their importance lies in the fact that human population is increasing very rapidly creating increasing demands for animal protein foods on the one hand and the feed resources for increasing large ruminants are decreasing due to shrinkage of grazing lands on the other. This demand can, therefore, be met with by increasing population of small ruminants. It is easier to increase their population than cattle and buffaloes because the capital investment is relatively low, land requirements per animal are small, reproductive rates are higher both due to shorter breeding interval and high prolificacy and they can be managed by spare family labour and do not require any serious 93 93 93

housing facilities and management skills. There is much less risk in goat and sheep farming in drought prone areas where large mortality occurs due to frequent droughts. They act as an insurance against disaster under pastoral and agriculture subsistence system. Goats have religious and ritualistic importance in India. They are offered as sacrificial animals both by Muslims on Id and by Hindus especially the worshippers of Goddess Kali. They are worshipped for their creative and generative powers and sexual virility. There are no religious taboos against consumption of goat and sheep meat. Goat milk is easily digestible because of small sized fat globules. It has much less allergic problems than the milk of other livestock species. It also has medicinal value and can ward off many diseases as the goats browse on variety of plants including medicinal ones. The sheep and goat skins are highly valued and have large export potential both in the processed form and as products. The bones of slaughtered and dead animals are utilized for bone meal manufacture. A goat or sheep produces about 150 kg of dry manure per year for use in crop production and gardening. Goat and sheep browsing accelerates growth of trees, shrubs and surface vegetation. They also act as seeding machines. They have higher dry matter and fibre digestibility and can subsist on poor woody vegetation. Goats and sheep are able to obtain more nutrients from the given environment in all seasons than other livestock species and are often the last species to leave the ecology during severe and continuous drought conditions. Production systems Although a number of sheep and goat production systems are in practice and vary from country to country and region to region within a country, in India these can essentially be included under three systems viz. Extensive, Semi-intensive and Intensive system. The emerging strategies for feeding small ruminants for sustainable meat production under

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different systems of feeding management are described belowExtensive system: Goat and sheep rearing plays only a secondary role to crop as well as other livestock production. It is primarily in the hands of poor, landless or small and marginal farmers who generally raise their animals on natural vegetation and stubbles supplemented by tree lopping under extensive system. It is the most common system throughout the country because the small size of sheep and goats has distinct economical, managerial and biological advantages over other livestock species. The sheep and goats usually owned by small farmers and landless are grazed together and tend to be herded over long distances in search of feed and water. The flock sizes are larger and animals belonging to several owners are run together. A low level of unpaid family labour represents the main input. The system is principally one of low resource use and a low level of productivity emerges from poor nutritional availability. While the livestock population has increased, large areas earlier available for grazing have been put under crop cultivation. The density of livestock per unit grazing area has greatly increased. Because of nonavailability of grazing in their home tract, sheep and goat owners resort to migration within the State or to neighboring States. The sheep and goat flocks are grazed on uncultivated lands and community grazing lands throughout the year and virtually no or very little supplementary feeding is provided. Extensive studies on evaluation of community grazing lands, developed pastures, semi-intensive and intensive feeding systems vis-à-vis performance and production levels in sheep and goats have been conducted and the results have been reviewed by Singh and Patnayak (1987), Patnayak et al., (1995), Shinde and Bhatta (2002) and Singh et al., (2004). Production levels on rangelands : The productivity of Indian sheep and goats is low, yet considering the poor nutritional availability, their production 94 94 94

cannot be considered as inefficient. Large areas available for grazing have now been put under cereal production. The density of livestock per unit grazing area has greatly increased due to an increase in the number of livestock and shrinkage of grazing lands. This has further resulted in reduction of grazing potential by replacement of more nutritious perennial grasses and legumes by low quality seasonal and annual ones. The natural rangelands in arid and semiarid regions are under very poor condition. These have never been harrowed, protected, fertilized, reseeded, irrigated or properly managed and could hardly stock one sheep/goat per hectare. The greatest limitation in our rangelands is on the availability of adequate energy throughout the year and adequate protein for more than half the year. The yield of unprotected common grazing lands varied from 0.6 to 6.4 quintals (Mann and Singh, 1982), 0.89 to 1.57q (Sankhyan et al. 1999) and 1.5 to 2.0q DM/ha. During different seasons of the year. Simple protection from grazing by the livestock doubled the fodder yield to 12.2q in first year and 17.97q DM/ha in the second year. Such protected rangelands could conveniently carry two sheep/ha. Although grazing on rangelands is considered cheapest method for sheep and goat production, over grazing of the available lands is causing serious problem of soil erosion and land degradation. The sheep and goat meat available in the market was coming either from old and culled adults or from male lambs and kids slaughtered any time between 9 months to one year of age and its quantity and quality was very poor due to poor market weights (15-16 kg), lower dressing percentage (3540) and narrow bone: meat ratio (1:3.5-4.0). Relative productivity of sheep on free-range grazing management on semi-arid land of Rajasthan was studied at CSWRI. An annual lambing rate of 82.5 % and kidding rate of 91.9 % was observed. The annual mortality was recorded to be 31.2 % in ewes and 7.1 % in does. The mortality in lambs was 16.4 % from 0 to 90 days and 56.6 % from 0 to 180 days age. It was 12.2 % from 0 to 90

Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

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days and 28.16 % from 0 to 180 days age in kids. The birth, weaning and six monthly body weights were 2.6, 8.6 and 12.5 kg in lambs and 2.9, 9.3 and 13.6 kg in goats respectively. The dressing percentage on live weight basis was recorded to be 34.3 in lambs and 41.7 in kids. The Beetal goat male kids reached a body weight of only 11.5 kg at weaning and 14.1 kg at 6 months age when maintained under free range grazing without any supplementary feeding with over all survivability of 87.5% up to six months age (Mishra, 1981). In another study annual lambing rate of 106.7 % and kidding rate of 153.3 % was recorded. The number of lambs born per 100 ewes per year was 110 and that of kids per 100 does per year was 193.3. The adult mortality rate was 16.6 % in cross bred sheep followed by 10.0 % in native goats, 6.6 % in crossbred goats and nil in native sheep. The mortality in the young was found to be 14.3, 12.1, 3.4 and 2.8 from 0 to 3 months and 12.5, 3.5, 5.4 and 5.7 % from 3 months to 6 months of age in crossbred sheep, native sheep, crossbred goats and native goats, respectively. The birth, 3 months and 6 months body weights were 3.2, 10.2 and 15.5 kg in crossbred sheep, 2.7, 11.3 and 16.6 kg in native sheep, 3.1, 11.1 and 17.0 kg in crossbred goats and 2.8, 10.6 and 15.7 kg in native goats, respectively. The relative productivity of sheep and goats on free range grazing on natural rangeland of arid region was also studied. Sheep showed decreasing trend in body weight from March to July and goats from March to April and thereafter showed increasing trend. Lambing rates varied from 95 to 100 % and kidding rates from 80 to 104%. Sankhyan et al., (1996a) studied the production performance of 50 native and 50 crossbred sheep and their followers maintained on 35 hectare of natural rangeland under farmers management. A lambing rate of 92, 96, 84 and 92 % in Malpura, Chokla, Avikalin and Avivastra sheep was recorded on the basis of ewes available during first year and 144, 145, 109 and 120 % at the end of the second year respectively. The adult mortality was 8, 4, 4 95 95 95

and 4 % during first year and 4, 3, 8 and 5% during the second year in the four breeds, respectively. The live weights of lambs harvested per ewe per year were 20.0, 16.65, 11.6 and 13.2 kg and per ewe per hectare were 2.28, 1.90, 1.33 and 1.50 kg in the four breeds, respectively. Production levels on developed pastures : We must get used to the idea that pasture is the valuable fodder for sheep simply because it is the cheapest way of supplying the protein, energy, minerals and vitamins necessary for maintenance and production. Cenchrus ciliaris and Cenchrus setigerus in semi-arid and Lasiurus sindicus perennial grasses in arid region were adopted for development of large-scale reseeded pastures. Legumes like cowpea, guar and moth were successfully introduced as nurse crops in the Cenchrus pastures during the first year of establishment. Inter-cropping of cowpea in the Cenchrus pasture significantly increased the dry fodder yield during the first year of establishment. Various perennial legumes like cowpea, Dolichos lablab, Clitoria ternata and Stylosanthes hemata were tried with Cenchrus ciliaris grass for establishment of grass-legume pastures. The Cenchrus- Dolichos mixed pasture gave highest yield. The DM yield could be improved to 38.78q/ ha by reseeding the rangelands with Cenchrus grass species (Mann and Singh, 1982). These reseeded grass pastures carried 4 to 5 adult sheep/ha. While, Cenchrus ciliaris pasture could provide sufficient grazing for 5 sheep round the year under semi arid conditions, the Lasiurus sindicus pasture could not do so under arid conditions. The Cenchrus grass pastures deteriorate in their nutrient content with advancing seasonal maturity and sheep grazing on these pastures fail to meet their nutrient requirements. It is therefore necessary to introduce legume component in the reseeded pastures. Incorporation of legume species viz. Clitoria ternata, Dolichos lablab, Lablab purpurium, Atylosia scarbaeoides and Stylosanthes hamata in Cenchrus pasture improved the yield, palatability and quality of the

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pasture. The yield of the grass-legume pasture improved to 86, 37.5, 45.0 and 59 q/ha forage with the introduction of the four respective legumes. Cenchrus with moth (Phaseolus aconitifolins), guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) yielded 13.0,14.9 and 19.2 q DM / ha more fodder than Cenchrus alone providing additional dry matter sufficient to carry two more sheep per hectare. The pasturelands reseeded with perennial grasses and legumes turn dry and deteriorate in quantity and quality of grazing material with advancing season and total dependence on them for maintaining sheep and goats throughout the year involves a great risk. During the period from December to June when the grazing material becomes scarce and the nutritive value of that available goes very down, the fodder trees serve as potential source of feed. Introduction of Ailanthus excelsa, Prosopis cineraria, Gymnosporia spinosa, Acacia nilotica, Azardirachta indica, Albizia lebbek, Bauhinia racemosa, Morus alba and Leucaena leucocephala fodder trees and Zizyphus nummularia and Dicrostachys nutans fodder bushes in different grass pastures was therefore studied in relation to improvement in quantity and quality of the biomass. Plantation of 50 fodder trees each of Prosopis cineraria and Ailanthus excelsa per hectare did not have any adverse effect on the growth of pasture grasses and legumes and provided an additional yield of 8-10 quintals dry matter when fully grown and lopped twice a year. A three tier silvi-pasture having 100 Ailanthus excelsa trees and Dichrostachys nutans bushes with ground cover of Cenchrus ciliaris yielded 5.3q from tree leaves, 2.3q from bush leaves and pods and 23.5 q from pasture grasses, totaling to 31.1 q DM/ha (Sankhyan et al., 1996b). The productive performance of sheep was studied on a Cenchrus ciliaris pasture by maintaining 20 ewes each of the two strains @ 5 ewes/ ha under rotational grazing system. A mortality rate of 10 % in Avivastra and 5 % in Avikalin was 96 96 96

recorded in adult sheep. While no mortality was observed in Avikalin lambs from 0 to 3 months age, 11.5 % of the Avivastra strain lambs died up to weaning. The average weaning weight was 10.9 kg in Avivastra and 11.2 kg in Avikalin lambs. Performance of Karakul and Marwari ewes on Lasiurus sindicus pasture under arid conditions indicated that Karakul ewes lost in body weight during lean period while Marwari ewes maintained. Weaner lambs grazed on Cenchrus grass or Cenchrus + Dolichos grass- legume pasture gained by 34 and 48 g/h/day respectively. Malpura, Chokla, Avikalin and Avivastra lambs grazed on protected rangeland respectively attained 21.8, 17.2, 19.3 and 18.3 kg body weight at 6 months of age. The ADG was 94, 78, 88 and 88 g/d during 3-6 months of age. Lambs in subsequent years hardly attained body weight of 13.7, 12.5, 14.1 kg in Malpura, Chokla and Avivastra breeds. Avivastra lambs attained body weight of 18 kg at 3 months and 27 kg at 6 months of age while grazing on Cenchrus pasture with concentrate supplementation @ 1.5% of body weight. Lambs raised on multi-tier silvi-pasture at a stocking density of 12 animals/ha for a period of 3 months attained a body weight of 18.0 kg at 6 months. Male lambs grazing on a silvi-pasture for a period of 4 months at a stocking density of 8 animals /ha attained 30 kg body weight at one year of age. The weaner lambs weighing 11.0 kg could attain only 16.0 kg body weight at one year of age when maintained on a Cenchrus ciliaris pasture alone, whereas lambs grazing on Cenchrus + Dolichos pasture reached 20.5 kg. The 10 kg lambs at weaning attained a live weight of 28 kg at the age of 7 months and 15 days on Dolichos lablab pasture. Singh et al. (2004) maintained a flock of 50 mutton synthetic ewes on a Cenchrus ciliaris pasture at the stocking rate of 3 adults and their followers per hectare for two years and recorded a lambing rate of 92 % per year and adult mortality rate of 3 % and lamb mortality rate of 20.5 % from 0 to 9 months of age. At birth, 3, 6 and 9 months, body weights during the three lambing seasons averaged 3.2, 13.9, 20.6 and 23.9 kg respectively.

Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

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The dressing percentage at 9 months age was 54.3 on empty live weight basis. The total live weight available for slaughter at 9 months was 1718.1 kg, which worked out to 17.2 kg per ewe per year. Annual wool yield was 2.21 kg in adults and 400 g in lambs in first shearing at 9 months of age (Singh and Sankhyan, 2003). Male Avivastra lambs at a stocking density of 8 animals /ha on a silvi-pasture attained a body weight of 30 kg (Shinde et al., 1994). Shinde et al. (1996) maintained 32 Avivastra sheep and 32 Marwari goats on a 16 ha Cenchrus ciliaris pasture for a period of three years @ 2 sheep +2 goats and their followers/ha. The sheep gained in their body weight by 6.2 kg and the goats by 9.4 kg during the first year. The lambing/kidding rate was 87.5 %. The sheep produced 2.4 kg annual fleece and the goats produced 714 g milk/ day during first 90 days of lactation. A pre-weaning ADG of 163 g in lambs and 136 g in kids was recorded. A total of 24.4 kg lamb weight/ewe and 37.5 kg kid weight/doe was harvested. Lambs and kids weaned at 3 months age and maintained @ of 12 animals/ha on a multi- tier silvi-pasture attained a live weight of 20.3 and 21.5 kg at 6 months of age (Sankhyan et al., 1996a). The Mutton synthetic ewes stocked @ of 12 sheep/ha maintained their body weights during pregnancy and produced higher birth weights and milk on two- and three- tier silvi-pastures as compared to those on natural rangeland and single- tier Cenchrus pasture (Shinde et al., 1996). Production performance of Kheri sheep and Marwari goats maintained on Cenchrus ciliaris pasture @ of two sheep and two goats/ha under different pasture utilization systems viz. continuous, deferred rotational, rotational and grazing plus supplementation was studied. Annual lambing and kidding rates were 63 and 59%. The birth, 3 and 6 months body weights were 2.2, 10.4 and 12.9 kg in lambs and 2.5, 13.9 and 19.0 kg in kids, respectively. Annual wool yield was 747g in all the four grazing management systems (Sankhyan et al., 2002). The influence of breeding season on lamb97 97 97

ing rate and lamb growth and survival in mutton synthetic sheep maintained on Cenchrus ciliaris pasture was studied by Singh et al. (2004). Significantly, higher number of lambing took place during spring (76%) followed by rainy (62%) and winter (46%) seasons. The birth weight of 3.48 kg in winter born lambs was higher than that of 2.85 kg in spring born lambs. The rainy season born lambs excelled in weaning (16.67 kg) and six monthly body weights (23.10 kg) over spring and winter born lambs. The study suggested that sheep be bred during spring and rainy season to obtain optimum production. Kids raised on Cenchrus ciliaris pasture with concentrate supplement @ 1.5% of body weight attained body weight of 15.4 kg at 3 months and 26.0 kg at 6 months of age. It is thus observed that reasonably higher reproduction rates, growth rates, survival rates, quantity and quality of wool and meat can be obtained from sheep and goats by maintaining them on perennial grass, grass- legume and silvipastures. Semi-intensive system: A kind of compromise between extensive and intensive systems is referred to as the semi-intensive system of sheep and goat production and management. It is a combination of free range grazing and stall-feeding. Integration of sheep rearing with arable cropping is also included where either the sheep or goats are tethered or cut and carry system of available fodder is employed. Animals belonging to several owners are combined for grazing which is mostly done morning and evening for 4 to 6 hours. The animals are supplemented with kitchen wastes, concentrate mixtures, crop residues, green and dry fodders and tree leaves etc. as per the availability. Thus, sheep and goats utilize all available feed resources including natural grasses, shrubs, bushes, tree leaves, crop residues, stubbles, weeds, cultivated fodders and concentrates etc. under this system. The level of nutrition was just optimum and surely better than that under extensive system. A series of experiments have been conducted

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at CSWRI and CIRG to workout the supplementary feeding requirements for different categories of sheep and goats. Supplementation of 400 g concentrate mixture in addition to grazing to Malpura lambs increased the carcass yield by 30% whereas supplementation of 550 g concentrate mixture resulted in an increase of 55% in the dressed carcass yield as compared to the lambs maintained on grazing alone. A very little difference in body weight gain and carcass yield with supplementation of 200 g concentrate mixture or 200 g cowpea hay to the grazing lambs was observed. A weaning weight of 11 kg was achieved when the Malpura and Sonadi male lambs were provided 150 g/head/day creep in addition to suckling up to 90 days age (Singh and Singh, 1981). While studying the performance of native lambs on 70: 30 and 50: 50 concentrate: roughage feedlot ration, grazing + 500 g concentrate supplementation and grazing alone recorded a total gain of 11.0, 10.0, 11.0 and 7.0 kg under the four feeding systems in 90 days after weaning and the lambs reached a body weight of 22, 21, 22 and 18 kg respectively, at 6 months of age. Bhatia et al. (1981) recorded a daily gain of 56.2 g on grazing on Cenchrus pasture, 91.9 g when supplemented with low energy-low protein and 112.3 g when supplemented with high energy and high protein ration fed at the rate of 300 g per day to Malpura lambs. A growth rate of 140 to 165 g per day was recorded when the mutton synthetic male lambs maintained on ad lib cowpea hay meal were supplemented with 300 g maize or barley grain. The control group lambs showed a daily gain of 94 g only. The lambs required 14.6 kg cowpea hay meal in control group as against 8 to 10 kg feed in the grain supplemented groups for each kg of live weight gain (Singh, 1985a). Krishna Mohan et al. (1984) reported that the live weight gain of 28 g/head/day in native lambs maintained on legume hay was improved to 47.1, 80.5 and 83.2 g when they were supplemented with 100, 200 and 300 g maize grain per day. The dressing percentage was also improved from 42.8 to 44.7, 47.4 and 48.7 respec98 98 98

tively. The Avivastra lambs and Marwari kids grazing on Cenchrus ciliaris pasture and supplemented with concentrate mixture @ 1.5% of body weight from 91 to 180 days of age attained 27.3 and 26.2 kg weight at six months of age. The dressing percentage on live weight basis was 44.5 in lambs and 48.9 in kids. The lambs yielded 1.30 kg wool in the first 6-monthly clip (Shinde et al., 1995). The Nali and Chokla synthetic lambs either only grazed for 8 hours or supplemented with ad lib. or 75%, 50% and 25% of ad lib concentrate mixture and initially weighing 11.2, 11.3, 11.4 and 11.2 kg at 75 days age attained a live weight of 24.1, 35.1, 32.6, 31.5 and 28.0 kg and produced 616, 1249, 1218, 876 and 863 g greasy fleece at 9 months age, respectively. The staple length also improved from 3.69 to 5.42, 5.41, 4.44 and 3.74 cm. The dressing percentage of 40.30 increased to 51.20, 48.90, 47.80 and 43.20 on live weight basis with increasing levels of supplementation. The percentage of edible offal and fat increased and the inedible offal, lean and bone decreased with the increasing levels of supplementation (Singh and Sankhyan, 2003, Singh et al., 2003a). Goat is primarily a browsing animal and performs well when browsed on variety of shrubby vegetation supplemented with concentrate mixture in addition to browsing. Total confinement and stall feeding is detrimental. Ad lib. supplementation of concentrate, hay and green to kids between 91 to 180 days age, in addition to browsing resulted in an increase of 44.8 % in pre-slaughter weight, 65.1 % in carcass weight and 14.3 % in dressing over the browsing alone. The kids when fed the above ration ad lib under stalls showed an increase of only 21.4 % in pre-slaughter weight, 39.7 % in carcass weight and 14.8 % in dressing over the sole browsing group. Parthasarthy et al. (1983) found a growth rate of 19.4, 41.7, 111.0 and 108.2 g a day in Beetal weaner kids from 91 to 180 days of age on ad lib browsing, browsing + green, browsing + concentrate mixture and browsing + concentrate mixture + green respectively. The dressing percentage was 45.74, 44.52, 48.17

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and 49.11 respectively. Parthasarthy et al. (1984) in another experiment, obtained a daily gain of 37.4, 87.4 and 73.3 g from 3 to 6 months and 62.6, 139.2 and 120.0 g from 6 to 9 months of age in the Sirohi x Beetal kids maintained on browsing, browsing + 756g/h/d concentrate and total stall feeding on feedlot ration (1038 g/h/d), respectively. The dressing percentage was 43.05, 43.65 and 48.50 at 6 months and 47.35, 52.10 and 53.10, at 9 months of age on the 3 respective feeding regimes. The kids thus showed an improvement of about 44.5 and 34.0% between 3 to 6 months and about 66.1 and 52.2% between 6 to 9 months respectively on browsing + supplementation and feedlot system of feeding management over the browsing alone. The Sirohi, Marwari and Kutchi does produced 84.4, 89.1 and 94.3 kg milk with no supplementation, 98.6, 96.1 and 93.2 kg with 150 g concentrate, 100.9, 115.7 and 110.0 kg with 300 g concentrate and 109.0, 106.4 and 101.1 kg with 450 g concentrate supplementation in addition to 8 hours grazing during 150 days lactation (Singh, 1992). The Sirohi does grazing/ browsing for 8 hours and supplemented with 150, 300 and 450 g/h/d concentrate mixture during last 45 days of pregnancy and first 150 days of lactation lost body weight when only grazed, maintained with supplementation with 150 g concentrate and gained in their live weights when supplemented with 300 and 450 g concentrate during pregnancy. The same does lost when only grazed or supplemented with 150 g concentrate but gained in live weights when supplemented with 300 and 450 g concentrate during lactation. The milk production was improved by 29.31 and 67.00 % and pre-weaning growth of the kids by 17.20 and 35.00 % with the three supplementary levels (Singh, 1996). Based on the above findings, suppl-ementary concentrate- feeding schedules for different categories of sheep and goats maintained for wool, meat and milk production under different climatic zones of the country have been developed. 99 99 99

Intensive system: The intensive system of sheep and goat production includes grazing on highly developed pastures and/or complete stall-feeding on cultivated fresh or conserved fodders, crop residues and concentrates. Although goats prefer to browse as compared to grazing, they are quite capable of making efficient use of cultivated pastures for meat and milk production similar to sheep. Stocking rates of 16 to 60 sheep or goats per hectare are feasible depending on the type of grass, level of fertilization and the presence and absence of legumes and fodder trees. This system requires high labour and capital investment and is suitable for only intensive meat production. In addition to providing better milk, wool, growth and carcass quality it also removes pressure from the community grazing lands. A growth rate of 92 and 100 g/ head/day in Malpura and Sonadi lambs maintained on a feedlot from 91 to 180 days of age was observed. Feedlot gains in Malpura, Sonadi and their crosses with Dorset and Suffolk were studie. Malpura, Sonadi, Dorset x Sonadi, Dorset x Malpura, Suffolk x Sonadi and Suffolk x Malpura lambs reached a body weight of 26.0, 25.4, 30.5, 31.3, 32.8 and 33.0 kg at 6 months of age under feedlot from 91 to 180 days of age with FCE of 14.1, 14.5, 18.6, 18.2, 18.5 and 18.3 % and the dressing % was recorded to be 50.9, 52.7, 51.7, 53.3, 50.0 and 50.3 respectively. A growth rate of 150 g/head/day in Avikalin lambs during 91 to 180 days of age on 50: 50 concentrates: roughage ration fed ad lib was reported (Singh 1980b). Prasad et al. (1981) have reported a growth rate of about 150 g in Avivastra and Avikalin male weaner lambs feed on 50: 50 concentrate: roughage ration with a feed efficiency of about 18.5 %. Performance of half bred lambs under individual feedlot up to 135 and 180 days of age or 22 and 30 kg body weight after weaning at 90 days on 50: 50 concentrate: roughage ration indicated that the feed efficiency at 22 kg finishing live weight was superior to that at 30 kg finishing live weight. Lambs on 70: 30 concentrates: roughage ration showed higher feedlot

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gains and carcass weights than those on 50: 50 rations. Crossbreds were 26 and 21 per cent superior to natives in feedlot gains and FCE. The FCE in Malpura and Sonadi lambs was 14.8 and 13.2 respectively from 91 to 180 days age. Singh (1982) observed a daily gain of 84 g during first 45 days and 175 g during the next 45 days after weaning at 90 days when the Malpura x Dorset half breds were maintained on 50: 50 concentrate: roughage feedlot ration. Kishore et al. (1984) recorded 205 and 207 g ADG in Avikalin and Avikalin x Dorset terminal cross males fed ad lib on 70: 30 concentrate: roughage from 91 to 180 days. The dressing percentage was 51.9 and 51.6 in the two breed crosses respectively. The total live weight gains in Malpura, Sonadi, Dorset x Malpura, Dorset x Sonadi, Nellore, Mandya, Dorset x Nellore and Dorset x Mandya were 9.1, 8.6, 11.7, 12.0, 8.3, 8.2, 12.5 and 12.2 kg respectively in feedlot over 90 days from 91 to 190 days of age was observed. The FCE was recorded to be 19.7, 27.6, 22.6 and 29.3 % superior in the crossbreds over contemporary natives. The growth rate of only 50 g and 54 g a day was recorded in crossbred lambs on ad lib cowpea and lucerne hay meal rations (Singh, 1985). The mutton synthetic lambs maintained on creep up to 67 days, on 70: 30 feedlot from 67 to 99th day and on 50: 50 feedlot ration from 99 to 130th day reached a body weight of 30 kg in a record time of only 130 days exhibiting average daily gain of about 200 g through out the period (Singh and Singh, 1984). The 60 days Mutton Synthetic and Malpura weaner lambs under intensive feeding had 160 and 151g ADG and 16 and 12 % FCE (Karim and Arora, 1997). While the removal of the lambs at 20 kg body weight was uneconomical, the lambs weighing 25 kg provided desirable carcass characteristics (Arora and Karim, 1995). Subsequent studies indicated that a finishing weight of 25 kg could be achieved by weaning the lambs at 60 days and intensively feeding for 73, 91 and 136 days with 160, 135 and 112g ADG and 18, 16 and 14 % FCE in MS, M selected and M lambs respectively 100 100 100

(Karim and Santra, 2000). The kids of Sirohi breed showed a daily live weight gain of 80 and consumed 7.7 kg feed for every kg of live weight gain when maintained on a complete feed based on 50 % cowpea hay meal in the stalls from 91-180 days of age (Singh, 1980b). The male kids weaned at 2 - 3 months age and fed under feedlot achieved slaughter weights of 25 kg at 5 to 6 months age with a dressing of 48 to 51%. The kids maintained under semi-intensive system reached the target live weight of 25 kg earlier than those under intensive system. The kids under semiintensive required less feed for a kg of gain than those under intensive feeding. The dressing % was superior under intensive system. The bone and lean percentage was higher under semi-intensive and fat % under intensive system (Singh and Sahu, 1997). Average daily gain was higher in lambs than kids under intensive system whereas the daily gains were similar under semi-intensive system. Dressing % in lambs and kids was found higher under semi-intensive (Shinde et al. 1995). The daily gains, milk intake, meat quantity and quality and feed efficiency were found superior in the Sirohi, Marwari and Kutchi kids maintained under semi-intensive as compared to those maintained under intensive or extensive system. The milk yield during 150 days of lactation was higher under intensive system than that under semi-intensive and extensive systems and in Sirohi does than that in Kutchi and Marwari does. The overall production performance of Marwari goats and kids was significantly better in semi intensive system of grazing management than that under intensive and extensive systems in respect of live weight and milk production. The intensive system however proved to be better than extensive system in all respect (Singh, 2003). Series of experiments have been conducted to develop economic feed formulations of lambs to attain 25 kg body weight at 130 days and 30 kg body weight at 150 days of age under different systems of feeding management. Several least cost

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feed formulations involving leguminous fodders, tree and shrub leaves), cheaper energy supplements and low cost protein supplements were developed and evaluated in the complete feeds to economize mutton production. It was observed that the lambs maintained on complete feeds containing tree leaves as the roughage source performed better than those receiving cultivated grass based rations. The feed grade damaged wheat being cheaper was tried and successfully incorporated in the complete feeds as a replacement of conventional and costlier energy sources like Maize, Barley and Jowar etc. with the objective to economize meat production without seriously sacrificing the live weight gains. Similarly, comparatively cheaper Guar meal, Guar korma, Mustard cake and Urea were used as protein replacements of costlier Groundnut and Cotton seed cake in the feedlot rations with the same objective in view (Karim et al., 2004). Based on these studies following two packages of practices for improving meat, wool and milk production in sheep and goats have been developed (Table 1 and 2).
Table 1. Performance of Goats under different Feeding Systems
Particulars Rangeland (Extensive) Developed Developed Intensive pastures pastures +Conc. (Semi- Supplementation extensive) (Semi-intensive)

Table 2. Performance of Indigenous and Crossbred sheep under different Feeding Systems
Particulars Breed Rangeland Developed Developed Inten(Extensive) Pasture Pasture + sive (Semi- Concentrate extensive) mixture

I CB Birth weight, kg I CB 3 m BW, kg I CB 6 m BW, kg I CB Dressing, % I CB Fleece weight, g I CB Adult mortality, % I CB Lamb mortality, % I CB

Lambing, %

58.5 55.0 2.5 2.8 9.2 10.5 13.5 15.2 38.5 40.5 620.0 710.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0

78.0 65.0 2.8 3.0 10.5 12.0 18.3 20.0 43.4 45.2 810.0 920.0 7.5 10.0 15.0 20.0

85.0 75.0 2.9 3.2 12.5 14.6 22.5 26.0 46.3 48.7 980.0 1150.0 5.0 7.5 10.0 15.0

90.0 80.0 3.0 3.4 14.3 16.5 28.8 35.0 48.5 51.4 1150.0 1340.0 2.5 5.0 5.0 10.0

I- Indigenous CB- Crossbred

Kidding rate, % Birth weight, kg 3 m BW, kg 6 m BW, kg 9 m BW, kg Dressing, % 150 day Milk yield, kg Adult mortality, % Kid mortality, %

68.0 2.7 9.0 14.0 18.4 40.5 65.0 10.0 20.0

87.0 2.9 11.0 17.5 22.5 44.3 86.0 7.5 15.0

113.0 108.0 3.4 3.2 16.0 14.2 27.5 25.5 32.8 29.7 50.5 52.0 110.0 94.0 2.5 5.0 5.0 10.0

Package for progressive farmers Sheep and Goat Farmer Cooperative Societies may be formed in the sheep and goat rearing areas. These Societies in association with the village Panchyats should develop improved silvi-pastures on the available community grazing lands with 101 101 101

financial assistance from the financial Institutions and subsidies being provided by the Central and State Governments. The registered sheep and goat flocks may be allowed to graze on these pastures judiciously for 6 to 8 hrs daily. In addition to grazing, the pregnant ewes/ does during last 30 days of pregnancy and the lactating ewes/does during first 60 days of lactation be supplemented with 300g/h/ d concentrate mixture containing 12%DCP and 65% TDN to ensure 2.5 to 3 kg birth weights and 14 to 16kg weaning weights in male lambs and kids. To ensure a weaning weight of 14 to 16kg, these male lambs/kids should be provided ad lib suckling, creep ration and green/dry leguminous fodders during pre weaning period and completely weaned at 60 days of age. These weaners may then be fed ad lib on complete feeds comprised of 50% concentrate and 50% roughage under stalls till they attain 25 to 30 kg finishing weight at around 5 to 6 months of age. Alternatively the lambs/kids be allowed to graze on available pastures and supplemented with concentrate mixture @ 2.0 to 2.5 % of the body weight

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till they reach the desired finishing weights. These finisher lambs /kids should then be sold by the farmers or their Cooperative Societies for slaughter to the consumers or the traders directly avoiding involvement of middlemen. Package for enterpreneurs The sheep and goat meat available in the Indian markets comes from old and culled adults and male lambs/kids slaughtered any time between 6 months to 1 year of age. The quantity and the quality of this meat is very poor due to poor market weights, lower dressing percentage and narrow bone: meat ratio as these lambs/kids are maintained on scrub vegetation like their dams and hence hardly attain a body weight of 15-16 kg at the age of 89 months when they are usually marketed. The dressing percentage varies from 35 to 40 and bone: meat ration from 1:3 to 1:4. The studies conducted at CSWRI have revealed that a marked improvement may be achieved in finishing weights and carcass yield and quality through intensive feeding of the male lambs and kids. A package of practices to be adopted by the entrepreneurs for intensive meat production has been developed. The male lambs/ kids produced and reared by the farmers in general and the progressive sheep/ goat breeders following the recommended package of practices in particular be purchased by the entrepreneurs at around 60 days of age and transferred from the villages to the Meat Production Complexes established near the cities. This will help in reducing the grazing pressure on shrinking pasturelands, lowering mortality and morbidity in the pre-weaned lambs/kids, early rebreeding and easy management of the flocks. These Complexes may be equipped with a Feed Compounding Plant capable of incorporating higher proportion of cheaper low grade roughages and agro- industrial by-products to manufacture economic complete feeds, Feedlot Animal Houses for intensive feeding of lambs/kids, Modern Slaughter House, Meat Processing, Product Manufacturing and By- Products Handling Machineries. The lambs/ 102 102 102

kids procured from the villages after weaning at 60 days age may be intensively fed on complete 50:50 or 60:40 concentrate: roughage feeds under feedlot up to 5 - 6 months of age when they attain finishing weight of 25-30 kg. These intensively fed lambs and kids be then sold as live animals in the National or International markets or slaughtered for selling fresh meat or their meat may be processed and converted in to different meat products for export purpose. Similarly, the slaughterhouse by- products be converted in to value added commercial products for commercial sale. Summary and recommendations Goats and sheep are important livestock species in India as they contribute greatly to the agrarian economy in arid, semi-arid and mountainous regions and play a very vital role in the sustenance and livelihood security of a large population of small and marginal farmers and landless rural poor. They are not destroyers of vegetation more than the large ruminants as blamed. They in fact act as regenerators of vegetation through dispersal of seeds in their droppings and vegetative propagation through browsing. Biomass production of the community grazing lands can be improved from 2.5 -3.5 to 25-30 q DM/ha through silvi-pasture development. A marked improvement in reproduction rates, milk yield, wool yield, live weight gains and quantity and quality of meat production can be achieved by grazing sheep and goats on developed two and three tier pastures and supplementing with concentrate mixtures and/or cultivated leguminous fodders and tree leaves at appropriate levels. It is possible to improve lamb and kid finishing weights from 15-16 to 30-35 kg and dressing yield from 35-40 to 45-50 % through nutritional interventions. Similarly, the annual wool yield may be enhanced from 900-950 to 18001900 g per sheep and milk yield in goats may be improved from 75-80 to 150-160 kg per lactation through the suggested nutrition and feeding management system. The areas in arid and semi-arid regions that cannot support cattle and buffaloes should,

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therefore, be identified, developed with low investment and utilized for small ruminant production. Community grazing lands should be improved in to two and three tier perennial pastures through reseeding with nutritious, perennial and high yielding grasses and legumes. Large-scale fodder tree plantations may be taken up on rangelands, wastelands, riverbanks, roadsides and bunds of ponds, canals and agricultural fields. The extensive system of sheep and goat rearing should be replaced with semi-intensive and intensive systems for commercial meat production. Strategic energy, protein and mineral supplements need to be provided to grazing animals for enhancing meat, milk and wool production. The locally available crop residues and agro-industrial by-products may be enriched and utilized for compounding cheaper complete feeds for different categories of sheep and goats as feed pallets and blocks. The suggested Packages of Practices may be popularized for adoption by the Progressive farmers and the Entrepreneurs for commercial meat production. Efforts should necessarily be made to provide remunerative price of the produce to increase the returns to the farmers through improved post harvest technology, value addition, marketing and exploitation of export potential. REFERENCES Ahuja, K. and Rathore, M.S. (1987) Goat and Goat Keepers. Institute of Development Studies, Printwell Publishers, Jaipur. Arora, A.L. and Karim, S.A. (1995) Indian J. Anim. Sci., 65: 1046-1048. Bhatia, D. R., Mohan, M., Patnayak, B.C. and Ram Ratan. (1981) Indian J. Anim. Sci., 51: 238-242. Delgado, C.M., Rosegrant, M, Steinfeld, H.Ehui, S and Courbois, C. (1999) Livestock to 2020: The next food revolution, Food, Agriculture and Environment Discussion Paper 28. IFPRI, Washington, FAO Rome and ILRI, Nairobo, Kenya. 103 103 103

Dastagiri, M. B. (2003) Indian J. Agric. Economics., 58: 729-740. F.A.O. (2004) Production Year Book. 58. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. F.A.O. (2005) Production Year Book. 59. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. Karim, S.A. and Arora, A.L. (1997) Indian J. Anim. Sci., 6: 536-537. Karim S. A. and Santra A. (2000) Small Ruminant Res., 37: 287-291. Karim S.A., Santra A. and Singh V.K. (2004) Fat lamb Production. A Bulletin Published by CSWRI Avikanagar. Kishore, K., Rawat, P. S. and Basuthakur, A. K. (1984) Indian J. Anim. Sci., 54: 507-511. Krishana Mohan, D. V. G., Reddy, K. S., Naidu, C. M., Munirathnam, D. and Reddy, K. K. (1984) Indian J. Anim. Sci., 54: 1170-1172. Mann, J.S. and Singh, N.P. (1982) Livestock Advisor 7: 23-29. Mishra, R. K. (1981) Indian J. Anim. Sci., 51: 885-887. Parthasarthy, M., Singh, D. and Rawat, P.S. (1983) Indian J. Anim. Sci., 53: 671-672. Parthasarthy, M., Singh, D. and Rawat, P.S. (1984) Indian J. Anim. Sci., 54: 130-131. Patnayak, B.C., Singh N.P. and Karim S.A. (1995) Transferable technologies for meat production in sheep and goats. Proc. 3rd National Seminar on sheep and Goat production and utilization held at CSWRI, Avikanagar April 8-10. Prasad, V.S.S., Bohra, S.D.J. and Kamal Kishore. (1981) Indian J. Anim. Sci., 51: 118-120. Sankhyan, S.K., Shinde, A. K., Karim, S. A. and Patnayak, B.C. (1996a) World Rev. Anim. Prod., 30: 27-35.

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Sankhyan, S.K., Shinde, A.K., Karim, S.A., Mann, J.S., Singh, N.P. and Patnayak, B.C. (1996b) Indian J. Anim. Sci., 66: 1194-1197. Sankhyan, S. K., Shinde, A. K. and Karim, S. A. (1999) Indian J. Anim. Sci. 69: 617-620. Sankhyan, S.K.; Shinde, A.K., Bhatta, R.; and Karim, S.A. (2002) Indian J. Anim. Sci., 72: 101-103. Sharma, K. (1987) Goat Rearing. A book published by CIRG, Makhdoom, Mathura. Sharma, V.P. (2004) Indian J. Agri. Econo., 59: 512-554. Shinde, A.K., Patnayak, B.C., Karim, S.A. and Mann, J.S. (1994) Indian J. Anim. Nutr., 11: 85-89. Shinde, A. K.; Karim, S. A.; Singh, N. P.; and Patnayak, B. C. (1995) Indian J. Anim. Sci., 65: 830-833. Shinde, A.K., Karim, S.A., Mann, J.S. and Patnayak, B.C. (1996) Indian J. Anim. Prod. Manag., 12: 30-33. Shinde, A.K. and Bhatta, R. (2002) Nutrition of Sheep and Goat on Pasture. A Technical Bulletin Published by CSWRI Avikanagar. Singh, N. P. (1980b) Indian J. Anim. Sci., 50: 903-904. Singh, N. P. (1980a) Indian J. Anim. Res., 14: 113-115. Singh, N. P. and Singh, R.N. (1981) Livestock Adviser 6: 7-10. Singh, N. P. (1982) Indian J. Anim. Sci., 52: 96-98.

Singh, N. P. and Singh, M. (1984) Feeding management of crossbred lambs for mutton production. Proceedings of the National Seminar of Animal Nutrition Society of India held on October 29-30, 1984 at HAU, Hisar. Singh, N.P. (1985a) Indian J. Anim. Sci., 54: 895-898. Singh, N. P. (1985b) Indian J. Anim. Sci., 55: 715-716. Singh, N. P. and Patnayak, B. C. (1987) feeding of sheep and goats for meat production. Proceedings of the National Seminar on Small Ruminant Production held on January 5-7 at CSWRI, Avikanagar. Singh, N.P. (1992) Indian J. Anim. Prod. Manage., 8: 42-46. Singh, N. P. (1996) Indian J. Small Ruminants, 2: 7-10. Singh, N. P. and Sahu, B. B. (1997) Indian J. Anim. Sci., 67: 87-89. Singh, N.P. (2003) Indian J. Small Rum., 9: 96-99. Singh, N. P. and Sankhyan, S. K. (2003) Animal Nutr. Feed Technol., 3: 189-194. Singh, N. P., Sankhyan, S. K. and Prasad, V. S. S. (2003b) Asian Austr. J. Anim. Sci., 16: 655659. Singh, N. P., Sankhyan, S. K. and Prasad, V. S. S. (2003a) Indian J. Small Rum., 9: 13-15. Singh, N.P., Sankhyan, S.K. and Shinde, A.K. (2004). Animal Nutrition and Feed Resource Development Research. A bulletin published by CSWRI, Avikanagar.

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Heat stress and dairy feeding program
Jason Park Cargill Animal Nutrition, India

General considerations Understanding heat stress and what to do to alleviate its negative effects is the first step in improving the situation for us and for our animals. The most comfortable temperature range for lactating cows is from 40 to 75o F (5 to 25o C) but it varies with humidity. Heat stress problems start when the temperature is greater than 75o F (25o C) and humidity is greater than 80% (Figure 1).

Heat stress can increase nutrient requirements up to 20% and water requirements up to 30%. However, while nutrient requirements increase, cows eat less with a decrease of dry matter intake that can reach 35% (Figure 2). Sweat increases the secretion of potassium while, with increased urination, cows lose more sodium as sodium bicarbonate in order to balance respiratory alkalosis. This results in a compensatory metabolic acidosis. Passage rate of ingesta and gut mobility decreases with a consequent decrease of intake. As body temperature increases, skin blood flow increases in an attempt to dissipate body heat. This reduces blood flow to internal organs, decreasing absorption and transport of nutrients and, as a result, milk production.

Fig. 1 Impact of temperature and relative humidity on THI and heat stress levels for pure Holstein breed.

In general problems start when the Temperature-Humidity Index (THI) reaches 80o F (27o C). Severe conditions of heat stress occur when the THI increases above 90o F (32o C). The problem is greater when the temperature remains high during the night as well. Transition cows, first calf heifers and high producing cows are affected the most. As well, calving difficulties and birth of smaller and less vital calves can occur along with a decrease of the immune response. 105 105 105

Adapted from: Managing and Feeding Dairy Cows in Hot Weather, Dr. Joe West, University of Georgia. Fig. 2 Impact of temperature on DMI, water consumption and milk yield.

A long period of heat stress causes a decrease of visible heat and irregular estrus intervals. As a consequence we should expect lower fertility derived from a decreased conception rate and embryonic mortality. An increase of uterus temperature of 1oF (0.5oC) may lower conception rate by

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13%. During pregnancy heat stress may cause a decrease of placenta growth. Modifications of housing facilities Mechanical interventions to modify housing environmental conditions yield the best results in a short time and with a favourable cost/benefit balance. General interventions: The first step is to take full advantage of natural ventilation. Facilities should have limited temperature differences from inside to outside. A light wind of 1.5 to 2 feet/ second (0.5 to 0.7 meters/second) can be sufficient to exchange the air in the interior of the facility provided it is correctly oriented and located away from other buildings and obstructions. Facilities should also provide adequate shade to limit exposure to direct sunlight. Specific interventions: The problem of heat stress is acutely felt in locations with an environment characterized by high summer temperatures coupled with high humidity levels. The problem will become more acute as production levels continue to rise due to genetic improvements and developments in the techniques of rearing and feeding cattle. Therefore, we are faced with the dramatic necessity of finding effective methods to manage heat stress; to better the well being of the cattle, and to increase production and quality of milk (Figure 3). Water evaporation, an endothermic process, is among the most effective techniques for cooling the environment by lowering body temperature. In this case ventilation generates an exchange of air in the housing facilities but most importantly, generating air flow close to the animals helps them to disperse body heat. This technique can be applied with success in all types of housing. Even a modest airflow of 1-1.5 feet/sec. (0.3-0.5 meters/ sec.) can help reducing heat stress. However, when air temperatures are higher than o 85 F (> 30o C) with high producing cows, air 106 106 106

Fig. 3 Changes in milk yield and maintenance requirements as temperature changes.

speed close to the animals should not be less than 2.75 feet/sec. (0.9 meters/sec.). This can be obtained with large fans that are able to move large volumes of air. Fans should be positioned 10 feet (3 meters) apart for every 1 foot (0.3 meters) of fan diameter. They should be angled downward at an angle of 15 to 30o so each fan is blowing at the floor directly below the next fan. Often the installation of these fans is done only in the feeding area to encourage cows to spend more time there and therefore creating more favorable conditions for greater intakes. This solution often results in a greater number of animals standing in this part of the barn with less time spent in the rest area. This can result in greater stress for the cows. Therefore, it is typically necessary to ventilate the resting area as well. Evaporative cooling: One technique is to use an evaporative cooling system based on the use of large coolers fitted with water soaked pads through which ventilation air passes. The air, cooled and high in humidity, is released into the barn to give the animals relief. This system gives good results in a closed cowshed, if adequately insulated, and if it is

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possible to use a system of forced and controlled ventilation. This system does not perform well in high humidity locations. A second technique is the combination of fans and misters. A series of high-pressure misters distribute water in fine droplets, part of which evaporates into the atmosphere, lowering the temperature, and part of which wet the animals. Fans operate at the same time as the misters and enhance evaporation off the animals’ skin. Cows can lose considerable quantities of heat, enough to keep body temperature constant without production losses, if evaporation is sufficient. This system will not work as well in high humidity areas. Feeding Feeding management: During periods of heat stress it is important to maintain a continuous supply of fresh diet and it should be provided in the coolest part of the feeding area. A continuous water supply must be available of linear water space per cow or one water hole for every 10 cows. Water requirements increase during heat stress conditions because water loss is the main means for body heat loss and thermoregulation. Water requirements also increase as a consequence of

decreased protein utilization and an increase in urinary catabolism. Diet formulation: Diet reformulation may alleviate some milk losses during periods of heat stress. Start with high quality forages that contain a higher concentration of digestible NDF. This will allow a decrease of the heat of combustion of the diet while maintaining adequate ruminal fermentation. Fat can be added to increase the energy density of the diet. Sources may include oilseeds, vegetable oil, tallow, and rumen inert fats. Care should be taken to ensure unsaturated fat levels remain low enough to prevent a decrease in fiber digestibility and total fat levels should not exceed 6-7% fat on a DM basis. Because fatty acids reduce absorption of Ca and Mg in the intestine, requirements of these minerals increase. In these cases diets should contain at least 0.9% Ca and 0.35% Mg. During periods of heat stress protein excesses aggravate the situation because nitrogen excretion requires energy. Balance diets for amino acids to prevent the feeding of excess crude protein. Potassium, sodium and magnesium should be 1.5, 0.45 and 0.35% of the DM, respectively. Use of salts and buffers (sodium bicarbonate) has little effect in preventing heat stress but are useful in supporting a cow’s homeostasis.

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Code of practice on good animal feeding in relation to food safety
M. R. Garg and B. M. Bhanderi Productivity Systems Group National Dairy Development Board, Anand 388 001, India

Food safety has become today a clear expectation from the consumer, world over. Healthy and safe animal products with minimum environmental pollution are some of the new requirements the animal feed industry is facing. As such guidelines are necessary to lay down the approach to provide general recommendation for safe feed to safe food. Undoubtedly, India has enormous potential to strengthen economy through expansion of domestic market and promotion of the export of processed value added livestock products. In addition to economic aspect, consumer’s health assumes paramount importance vis-à-vis food safety (Gilbert, 2005). One of the most important issues in the livestock sector is good animal feeding, as it has a major impact on the product, which ensues the Codex Code of Practice on Good Animal Feeding, officially adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission in 2004 the Task Force’s document, Code of Practice on Good Animal Feeding, is comprehensive and addresses all avenues of feed production. The goal of the code is to establish a feed safety system for food-producing animals which covers the whole food chain, taking into account relevant aspects of animal health and the environment. In order to minimize risks to the health of consumers, it focuses specifically on feed manufacturing and on-farm feeding practices. This Code is to establish a feed safety system for food producing animals which covers the whole food chain, taking into account relevant aspects of animal health and the environment in order to minimize risks to consumers’ health. In addition, the Code applies principles of food hygiene, already 108 108 108

established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC), taking into account the special aspects of animal feeding. The views expressed in the article by the authors are based on the literature available, not necessarily reflect the views of the organization to which they belong. Purpose and scope The main objective of this Code is to help ensure the safety of food for human consumption through adherence to good animal feeding practice at the farm level and good manufacturing practices (GMPs) during the procurement, handling, storage, processing and distribution of animal feed and feed ingredients for food producing animals. This Code of Practice applies to the production and use of all materials destined for animal feed and feed ingredients at all levels whether produced industrially or on farm. Environmental contaminants should be considered where the level of such substances in the feed and feed ingredients could present a risk to consumers’ health from the consumption of foods of animal origin. General principles and requirements Feed and feed ingredients should be obtained and maintained in a stable condition, so as to protect feed and feed ingredients from contamination by pests, or by chemical, physical or microbiological contaminants or other objectionable substances during production, handling, storage and transport. Feed should be in good condition and meet generally accepted quality standards. Where appropriate, good

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agricultural practices, good manufacturing practices (GMPs) and, where applicable, Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) Principles should be followed to control hazards that may occur in food. Potential sources of contamination from the environment should be considered. Feed ingredients Feed ingredients should be obtained from safe sources and be subjected to a risk analysis where the ingredients are derived from processes or technologies not hitherto evaluated from a food safety point of view. The procedure used should be consistent with the working principles for risk analysis for application, in the framework of the Codex Alimentarius manufacturers of feed additives, in particular should provide clear information to the user to permit correct and safe use. Monitoring of feed ingredients should include inspection and sampling and analysis for undesirable substances using risk-based protocols. Feed ingredients should meet acceptable and, if applicable, statutory standards for levels of pathogens, mycotoxins, pesticides and undesirable substances that may give rise to consumers’ health hazards. Labeling Labeling should be clear and informative as to how the user should handle, store and use feed and feed ingredients. Labeling should be consistent with statutory requirements and should describe the feed and provide instructions for use. Labeling or the accompanying documents should contain, where appropriate: Information about the species or category of animals for which the feed is intended; The purpose for which the feed is intended; A list of feed ingredients, including appropriate reference to additives, in descending order of proportion; Contact information of manufacturer or registrant; 109 109 109

registration number if available; Directions and precautions for use; Lot identification; Manufacturing date; and Use before or expiry date. Traceability/product tracing and record keeping of feed and feed ingredients Traceability/product tracing of feed and feed ingredients, including additives, should be enabled by proper record keeping for timely and effective withdrawal or recall of products if known or probable adverse effects on consumers’ health are identified. Records should be maintained and readily available regarding the production, distribution and use of feed and feed ingredients to facilitate the prompt trace-back of feed and feed ingredients to the immediate previous source and trace-forward to the next subsequent recipients if known or probable adverse effects on consumers’ health are identified. Feed and feed ingredients manufacturers and other relevant parts of industry should practice selfregulation/auto-control to secure compliance with required standards for production, storage and transport (Mcllmoyle, 2002). It will also be necessary for risk-based official regulatory programmes to be established to check that feed and feed ingredients are produced, distributed and used in such a way that foods of animal origin for human consumption are both safe and suitable. Inspection and control procedures should be used to verify that feed and feed ingredients meet requirements in order to protect consumers against food-borne hazards. Inspection systems should be designed and operated on the basis of objective risk assessment appropriate to the circumstances. Health hazards associated with animal feed All feed and feed ingredients should meet minimum safety standards. It is essential that levels of undesirable substances are sufficiently low in feed and feed ingredients that their concentration in food

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for human consumption is consistently below the level of concern. Codex Maximum Residue Limits and Extraneous Maximum Residue Levels set for feed should be applied. Maximum residue limits set for food, such as those established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, may be useful in determining minimum safety standards for feed. Feed additives and veterinary drugs used in medicated feed should be assessed for safety and used under stated conditions of use as pre-approved by the competent authorities. Veterinary drugs used in medicated feed should comply with the provisions of the Codex Recommended International Code of Practice for the Control of the Use of Veterinary Drugs. Borderlines between feed additives and veterinary drugs used in medicated feed may be set to avoid misuse. Feed additives should be received, handled and stored to maintain their integrity and to minimize misuse or unsafe contamination. Feed containing them should be used in strict accordance with clearly defined instructions for use. Antibiotics should not be used in feed for growth promoting purposes in the absence of a public health safety assessment. Feed and feed ingredients should only be produced, marketed, stored and used if they are safe and suitable, and, when used as intended, should not represent in any way an unacceptable risk to consumers’ health. In particular, feed and feed ingredients contaminated with unacceptable levels of undesirable substances should be clearly identified as unsuitable for animal feed and not be marketed or used. Feed and feed ingredients should not be presented or marketed in a manner liable to mislead the user. The presence in feed and feed ingredients of undesirable substances such as industrial and environmental contaminants, pesticides, radionuclides, persistent organic pollutants, pathogenic agents and toxins such as mycotoxins should be identified, controlled and minimized. Animal products that could be a source of the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) agent should not be used for feeding directly to, or for feed manufacturing 110 110 110

for, ruminants. Control measures applied to reduce unacceptable level of undesirable substances should be assessed in terms of their impact on food safety. The risks of each undesirable substance to consumers’ health should be assessed and such assessment may lead to the setting of maximum limits for feed and feed ingredients or the prohibition of certain materials from animal feeding. Production, processing, storage, transport and distribution of feed and feed ingredients The production, processing, storage, transport and distribution of safe and suitable feed and feed ingredients is the responsibility of all participants in the feed chain, including farmers, feed ingredient manufacturers, feed compounders, truckers, etc. Each participant in the feed chain is responsible for all activities that are under their direct control, including compliance with any applicable statutory requirements. Feed and feed ingredients should not be produced, processed, stored, transported or distributed in facilities or using equipment where incompatible operations may affect their safety and lead to adverse effects on consumers’ health. Due to the unique characteristics of aquaculture, the application of these general principles must consider the differences between aquaculture and terrestrial-based production. Where appropriate, operators should follow GMPs and, where applicable, HACCP principles to control hazards that may affect food safety. The aim is to ensure feed safety and in particular to prevent contamination of animal feed and food of animal origin as far as this is reasonably achievable, recognizing that total elimination of hazards is often not possible. The effective implementation of GMPs and, where applicable, HACCP-based approaches should ensure, in particular, that the following areas are addressed. Buildings and equipment used to process feed and feed ingredients should be constructed in a manner that permits ease of operation, maintenance and cleaning and minimizes feed contamination. Process flow within the manufacturing facility should

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also be designed to minimize feed contamination. Water used in feed manufacture should meet hygienic standards and be of suitable quality for animals. Chemical fertilizers, pesticides and other materials not intended for use in feed and feed ingredients should be stored separately from feed and feed ingredients to avoid the potential for manufacturing errors and contamination of feed and feed ingredients. Processed feed and feed ingredients should be stored separately from unprocessed feed ingredients and appropriate packaging materials should be used. Feed and feed ingredients should be received, stored and transported in such a way so as to minimize the potential for any cross-contamination to occur at a level likely to have a negative impact on food safety. The presence of undesirable substances in feed and feed ingredients should be monitored and controlled. Feed and feed ingredients should be delivered and used as soon as possible. All feed and feed ingredients should be stored and transported in a manner which minimizes deterioration and contamination and enables the correct feed to be sent to the right animal group. Transportation, of both raw materials and finished feed products, can introduce hazards that may compromise feed safety. Good, well managed stores for raw materials will not prevent the introduction of hazards if vehicles used for their transportation are not clean or have previously been used to transport hazardous materials that may contaminate the load. All personnel involved in the manufacture, storage and handling of feed and feed ingredients should be adequately trained and aware of their role and responsibility in protecting food safety. Feed and feed ingredients, processing plants, storage facilities and their immediate surroundings should be kept clean and effective pest control programmes should be implemented. Containers and equipment used for manufacturing, processing, transport, storage, conveying, handling and weighing should be kept clean. Cleaning programmes should be effective and minimize residues of detergents and disinfectants. 111 111 111

Machinery coming into contact with dry feed or feed ingredients should be dried following any wet cleaning process. Special precautions should be taken when cleaning machinery used for moist and semi-moist feed and feed ingredients to avoid fungal and bacterial growth. All scales and metering devices used in the manufacture of feed and feed ingredients should be appropriate for the range of weights and volumes to be measured, and be tested regularly for accuracy. All mixers used in the manufacture of feed and feed ingredients should be appropriate for the range of weights or volumes being mixed and be capable of manufacturing suitable homogeneous mixtures and homogeneous dilutions, and be tested regularly to verify their performance. All other equipment used in the manufacture of feed and feed ingredients should be appropriate for the range of weights or volumes being processed, and be monitored regularly. Manufacturing procedures should be used to avoid cross-contamination (for example flushing, sequencing and physical clean-out) between batches of feed and feed ingredients containing restricted or otherwise potentially harmful materials (such as certain animal by-product meals, veterinary drugs). These procedures should also be used to minimize cross-contamination between medicated and nonmedicated feed and other incompatible feed. In cases where the food safety risk associated with crosscontamination is high and the use of proper flushing and cleaning methods is deemed insufficient, consideration should be given to the use of completely separate production lines, transfer, storage and delivery equipment. Pathogen control procedures, such as heat treatment or the addition of authorized chemicals, should be used where appropriate, and monitored at the applicable steps in the manufacturing process. Records and other information should be maintained to include the identity and distribution of feed and feed ingredients so that any feed or feed ingredient considered to pose a threat to consumers’

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health can be rapidly removed from the market and that animals exposed to the relevant feed can be identified. On farm production and use of feed and feed ingredients To help ensure the safety of food used for human consumption, good agricultural practices should be applied during all stages of on-farm production of pastures, cereal grain and forage crops used as feed or feed ingredients for food producing animals. Three types of contamination represent hazards at most stages of on-farm production of feed and feed ingredients, namely: Biological, such as bacteria, fungi and other microbial pathogens; Chemical, such as residues of medication, pesticides, fertilizer or other agricultural substances; and Physical, such as broken needles, machinery and other foreign material. Agricultural production of feed Adherence to good agricultural practices is encouraged in the production of natural, improved and cultivated pastures and in the production of forage and cereal grain crops used as feed or feed ingredients for food producing animals. Following good agricultural practice, standards will minimize the risk of biological, chemical and physical contaminants entering the food chain. If crop residuals and stubbles are grazed after harvest, or otherwise enter the food chain, they should also be considered as livestock feed. Most livestock will consume a portion of their bedding. Crops that produce bedding material or bedding materials such as straw or wood shavings should also be managed in the same manner as animal feed ingredients. Good pasture management practices, such as rotational grazing and dispersion of manure droppings, should be used to reduce cross-contamination between groups of 112 112 112

animals. Land used for production of animal feed and feed ingredients should not be located in close proximity to industrial operations where industrial pollutants from air, ground water or runoff from adjacent land would be expected to result in the production of foods of animal origin that may present a food safety risk. Contaminants present in runoff from adjacent land and irrigation water should be below levels that present a food safety risk. Pesticides and other agricultural chemicals should be obtained from safe sources. Where a regulatory system is in place, any chemical used must comply with the requirements of that system. Pesticides should be stored according to the manufacturer’s instructions and used in accordance with Good Agricultural Practice in the Use of Pesticides (GAP). It is important that farmers carefully follow the manufacturer’s instructions for use for all agricultural chemicals. Pesticides and other agricultural chemicals should be disposed of responsibly in a manner that will not lead to contamination of any body of water, soil and feed or feed ingredients that may lead to the contamination of foods of animal origin which could adversely affect food safety. On-farm feed manufacturing Feed ingredients produced on the farm should meet the requirements established for feed ingredients sourced off the farm. For example, seed treated for planting should not be fed. It must be recognized that a wide range of raw materials are utilized by modern feed mills in the manufacture of animal feed. While cereals and oil seed products make up a large proportion of these raw materials, a wide range of by-products from the human food industry are utilized as raw materials in the feed industry. Storage times and conditions can influence quality parameters of raw materials, which, in turn, can affect feed safety. It is important, therefore, if feed quality and safety is to be assured, that only high quality raw

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materials must be sourced. Raw material quality must feature high on any HACCP plan implemented by a feed mill. Sourcing raw materials exclusively from stores that have implemented a HACCP plan and have been externally audited and approved, is a useful starting point, if raw material problems that can impact on feed safety are to be avoided. Equally, constant monitoring and evaluation of all raw materials must be carried out to ensure that documented standards are maintained. In particular, feed should be mixed in a manner that will minimize the potential for cross-contamination between feed or feed ingredients that may have an effect on the safety or withholding period for the feed or feed ingredients. Appropriate records of feed manufacturing procedures followed by on-farm feed manufacturers should be maintained to assist in the investigations of possible feed-related contamination or disease events. Records should be kept of incoming feed ingredients, date of receipt and batches of feed produced in addition to other applicable records. Good feeding practices Good animal feeding practices include those practices that help to ensure the proper use of feed and feed ingredients on-farm while minimizing biological, chemical and physical risks to consumers of foods of animal origin. Water for drinking or for aquaculture should be of appropriate quality for the animals being produced. Where there is reason to be concerned about contamination of animals from the water, measures should be taken to evaluate and minimize the hazards. It is important that the correct feed is fed to the right animal group and that the directions for use are followed. Contamination should be minimized during feeding. Information should be available of what is fed to animals and when, to ensure that food safety risks are managed. Animals receiving medicated feed should be identified and managed appropriately until the correct withholding 113 113 113

period (if any) has been reached and records of these procedures must be maintained. Procedures to ensure that medicated feed are transported to the correct location and are fed to animals that require the medication should be followed. Feed transport vehicles and feeding equipment used to deliver and distribute medicated feed should be cleaned after use, if a different medicated feed or non-medicated feed or feed ingredient is to be transported next. Stable feeding and lot/intensive feeding units The animal production unit should be located in an area that does not result in the production of food of animal origin that poses a risk to food safety. Care should be taken to avoid animal access to contaminated land, and to facilities with potential sources of toxicity. The animal production unit should be designed so that it can be adequately cleaned. The animal production unit and feeding equipment should be thoroughly cleaned regularly to prevent potential hazards to food safety. Chemicals used should be appropriate for cleaning and sanitizing feed manufacturing equipment and should be used according to instructions. These products should be properly labeled and stored away from feed manufacturing, feed storage and feeding areas. A pest control system should be put in place to control the access of pests to the animal production unit to minimize potential hazards to food safety. Operators and employees working in the animal production unit should observe appropriate hygiene requirements to minimize potential hazards to food safety from feed. Methods of sampling and analysis Sampling protocols should meet scientifically recognized principles and procedures. Laboratory methods developed and validated using scientifically recognized principles and procedures should be used. When selecting methods, consideration

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should also be given to practicability, with preference given to those methods which are reliable and applicable for routine use. Laboratories conducting routine analyses of feed and feed ingredients should ensure their analytical competency with each method used and maintain appropriate documentation. Indian scenario to produce safe feed for safe food Food safety is defined as the fundamental understanding and control of hazards associated with the production, processing, preparation and consumption of foods. Feed and food safety have been very much in public focus in recent times and this has led to some dramatic changes in the practice of feed manufacturing and livestock production. It is essential that feed production and manufacturer be considered as an integral part of the food production chain, as there is direct link between feed and the safety of foods of animal origin. Feed production must therefore be subjected to, in the same way as food production, quality assurance including food safety systems based on the principles of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system. Applying HACCP-principles ensures that all potential safety hazards are thoroughly analyzed, assessed and effective systems for monitoring the critical control points are placed in order for adhering to the stringent parameters (Speedy, 2001). Some of the measures that have been recently initiated on these aspects in India, are given below: Quality and safety of finished products: In India, attempts are being made in the organized sector that the finished products are manufactured, using internationally recognized systems of quality assurance. Hygienic practices of feed production: Feed should be produced using quality raw materials and Good Hygienic Practices (GHP). In India, programmes need to be implemented in organized sector, ensuring improvement in the quality of finished products for animal feeding. 114 114 114

Maximum levels of contaminants: The maximum levels of aflatoxins, heavy metals, veterinary drugs (antibiotics residues) and pesticide residues are increasingly becoming areas of major food safety concern. SPS measures permit members to adopt, if considered necessary, a higher level of protection based on risk assessment. Some members, like the European Union, have already enacted a new regulation prescribing very stringent levels of aflatoxins in milk and feeds. In India, various institutions are attempting to generate base line information on these contaminants, in feed and milk. Maximum residual limits (MRLs) of pesticides, heavy metals and other undesirable substances in cattle feeds that are proposed to Government of India (GOI) are g-BHC: 20 ppb, DDT: 5 ppb, Endosulfan: 10 ppb, Aldrin: 1 ppb, Arsenic: 2 ppm, Lead: 5 ppm, Fluorine: 20 ppm and free gossypol: 2000 ppm. Measures taken in India to control MRLs in finished products Limit for aflatoxin B1: Aflatoxin B1 is excreted in milk as M1 to the extent of 1 to 3 per cent. Codex limit for aflatoxin M1 in milk is 0.5 ppb. To ensure that this level is achieved in Indian milk, a maximum limit of 50 ppb has been proposed in compounded cattle feed under Bureau of Indian Standards specifications, based on the analysis of large number of compounded cattle feed raw materials, which is now under finalization. Besides, use of toxin binders is being propagated in cattle feed, to minimize level of M1 in milk. Restriction on heavy metals in mineral supplements: Many a times, dairy animals ingest sizable quantity of lead and arsenic through poor quality mineral supplements. A maximum limit of 20 ppm in mineral mixture has been kept for lead (Pb) and 7 ppm for arsenic (As). The maximum limits kept for Pb and As in dicalcium phosphate are 30 and 10 ppm, respectively. All samples of mineral mixtures and DCP are tested for these parameters in different laboratories in India (Garg and Bhanderi, 2006).

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Ban on the use of animal origin feed ingredients for ruminants: As per the GOI’s directive, cattle feed manufacturers in India shall not use any of the animal origin ingredients in compound feed and mineral supplements. Ingredients, which are prohibited for use in cattle feed and mineral mixture, are blood meal, meat meal, meat and bone meal, fish meal, silk work pupae meal, poultry byproducts, dicalcium phosphate of bone origin and blood meal. REFERENCES Garg, M.R. and Bhanderi, B.M. (2006) Feed quality assurance: nutritional implications and regulatory aspects. In Proceedings of XII Animal Nutrition Conference on Technological Interventions in Animal Nutrition for Rural Prosperity held at Anand Agricultural University, Anand, January 7-9, 2006, pp. 119-123.

Gilbert, R. (2005) Global Feed Safety Codex and the Code. Proceedings of 47th National Symposium on Safety First: Farm to Fork organized by CLFMA of India, at Goa between 16th & 17th September, 2005. pp. 52-60. Mcllmoyle, W.A. (2002) Codes of good management practices (GMP) for the animal feed industry, with special reference to proteins and protein byproducts. In: Proceedings of Protein Sources for the Animal Feed Industry, Expert Consultation and Workshop held at Bangkok, 29th April-3rd May, 2002. Speedy, A.W. (2001) The Global Livestock Revolution: Opportunities and Constraints for the Feed and Livestock Industries, in Proceedings of the 43rd National Symposium on Growth Prospects under Globalized Scenario vis-à-vis Livestock Production and Trade, Goa.

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Metrological aspects and strategies to reduce uncertainties in greenhouse gas emissions from livestock
Prabhat K. Gupta and Arvind K. Jha Analytical Chemistry Section, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi-110012, India

Methane produced as part of the normal digestive processes of animals result in emissions that account for a significant portion of the global methane budget, about 65-100 million metric tons annually. Livestock is one of the most important key-source categories and contributes about 61% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from Indian Agriculture sector, which accounts for 78% CH4 and 84% N2O emissions among all anthropogenic source sectors. Most of the methane production from livestock is from enteric fermentation (around 90%). Ruminants (cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat) play a major role and their contribution is very high (98%). Among these cattle and buffalo alone contribute to 92% of methane production from enteric fermentation and is considered as key source category. Methane emission estimates from the ruminant animals or livestock have an element of uncertainty in some form or the other in the activity data and emission coefficients. In order to reduce uncertainties and refine the inventories by adopting appropriate activity data and emission coefficients, which reflect the country specific conditions (Indian) institutions comprising NPL New Delhi, NDRI Karnal, and CLRI Chennai with NPL as nodal has worked together. This paper touches GHG emission issues encountered during years 2002-04 National Communication phase-I (NATCOM-I) GHG measurements & inventory compilation exercise for base year 1994 and intend to dwell upon future efforts required to fill gap areas and further reduce uncertainties in a well coordinated, metrological standardized and network mode. 116 116 116

Processes governing methane emission from enteric fermentation Methane emission is characteristics of anaerobic fermentation in fore-stomach of ruminants. Ruminants have an expanded alimentary tract preceding gastric digestion in the abomasum. In the adult ruminant, the expanded gut (reticulo-rumen, generally termed rumen) represents about 85% of the total stomach capacity and contains digesta equal to the 10-20% of the animal's weight (Moss, 1994). Here large amount of coarse feedstuffs can be retained for a considerable period of time for extensive fermentation of materials (Moss, 1994). There are several species and strains of bacteria and protozoa survive in the rumen of animals constituting more than 200 species and strains of microorganisms, however only a small portion, about 10 to 20 species, are believed to play an important role in ruminant digestion (Baldwin et al., 1983). The main function of this group is to degrade plant polymers, which cannot be digested by the host enzymes. Thus these organisms help in degradation of cellulosic materials of feed intake for the digestion. The material is fermented in to volatile fatty acids, CO2 and CH4. These gases produced are waste products of fermentation as well as nutritional loss, which are mainly removed from rumen by eructation. In Indian condition this loss may be about 8-28 g CH4/ kg dry matter intake depending on species, production level, physiological state, and types of feed taken by animal (Singhal, et al., 2005). Hindgut fermentation is another important place of methane production in ruminants as well as monogastric animals. In sheep, hindgut fermentation may become important with diets of low digestibility. It has

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been estimated that 10-30% of digestive organic matter is digested in hindgut (Moss, et al., 2000). However most of the methane produced in hindgut is absorbed and excreted by the way of lungs and a very little amount is reported to pass as flatus. It is estimated that almost 2- 15% of the gross energy in the feed is lost as methane depending on level of feeding, composition of diet and digestibility (Holter and Young, 1992,). Rumen methanogenic archaebacteria utilize hydrogen and carbon dioxide or formate, acetate, methylamine and methanol for production of methane. The involvement of these bacteria in interspecies (collaboration between methanogens and fermenting species) hydrogen transfer alters the fermentation balance and results in shifts of overall fermentation from less reduced to more reduced end products. The major substrate for methane production in rumen is hydrogen and carbon dioxide or formate and minor substrate is acetate. The major factors affecting rumen fermentation are rumen pH, the turnover rate and both of these are affected by diet and other nutritionally related characteristics such as level of intake, feeding strategy, forage/ feed roughage length and quality. Both ruminant animals (cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat) and some non-ruminant animals (pigs, horses, mules, assess) produce methane. Cattle & buffaloes are the most important source of methane from enteric fermentation in India because of large population, large size and ruminant digestive system. Pseudo-ruminant animals (horses, mules, asses) and mono-gastric animals (swine) have relatively lower methane emissions because low methane-producing fermentation takes place in their digestive systems. Methane and nitrous oxide emission from manure management Methane is produced from the decomposition of manure under anaerobic conditions, especially when animals are managed in a confined area (dairy farms and beef feedlots), where manure is typically 117 117 117

stored in large piles or disposed of in lagoons/ liquid systems. Methane emissions from manure management are usually smaller than enteric fermentation emissions, and are associated with confined animal management facilities where manure is handled in a manner resulting in establishment of anaerobic condition. Livestock manure is mainly composed of organic material and water. When this organic material decomposes in an anaerobic environment, methanogenic bacteria, as part of an interrelated population of microorganisms, produce volatile solids and methane. The principal factors affecting methane emission from animal manure are the amount of manure produced and the portion of the manure that decomposes anaerobically and the climate of location. The end products of anaerobic decomposition are CH4, CO2, and stabilized organic material (SOM). Anaerobic decomposition process involves hydrolytic, acid forming, and methanogenic stages. Production of N2O during the storage and treatment of animal waste occurs by both nitrification & de-nitrification of nitrogen contained in wastes. The quantity of nitrous oxide produced depends on the manure nitrogen, the type of bacteria involved in the decomposition process and amount of oxygen and liquid present in manure management system. Enteric fermentation Emission factor for individual animal depends on bodyweight of animals, type of feed taken by animal, amount of feed intake, methane conversion factor, and performance of animal (Crutzen et al., 1986). Indian livestock mainly survive on roughage (crop residue) based diet. The important parameters in determination of emission factors are methane conversion rate (MCR) of different feed. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has given default MCR, which are compared with the Indian value, based on study in India (Table 1) and found to be significantly lower percentage of conversion of feed.

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Emission factors developed in India for inventorying GHG emission by different groups in due course of time based on the available data source at that time are compared with IPCC default values in following Table 2. It may be said that IPCC default values are relatively higher. The reasons are discussed elsewhere (Gupta et al., 2003).
Table 1. Comparison of methane conversion rates (% of gross energy) for India (Swamy et al., 2004).
Category IPCC ALGAS NATCOM-1 India

be the most appropriate for the livestock of each country. Further various workers tried to compute the emission factors based on available resource. Emission factors developed by NATCOM-I groups in India for dairy cattle are compared with available data for some of the Asian country and regional data of world are compared (Table 3) along with milk production data. Most of the buffalo population is confined in Asian countries. Table 4 gives comparative emission factors for buffalo. Manure management Country-specific emission factors for manure management largely depend on the distribution of animal population in different climatic zone (Gupta et al., 2007). IPCC summarized three climatic zone based on temperature profile: cool (temp<15oC), temperate (temp. 15-25oC) and warm (temp >

Cattle

Dairy Non-dairy (young) Non-dairy (adult) Dairy

6 0.5 6 0.5 7 0.5 6 0.5

7.0 7.0 7.5 7.0 7.0 7.5

4.8-6.0 4.8-5.0 4.8-6.0 5.5 3-4 5.5

Buffalo Non dairy (young) 6 0.5 Non dairy (adult) 7 0.5

The IPCC (IPCC revised guidelines, 1996) summarized the emission factors that are thought to

Table 2. Comparison of methane emission factors (Kg CH4/animal/year) developed by various workers in India in recent times for enteric fermentation Category IPCC default Indigenous Crossbred 0-1 year 1-3 year Adult 0-1 year 1-2 ½ year Adult Singhal et al., 2005* NATCOM2004 EF±SD 28 ± 5 43 ± 5 9±3 23 ± 8 32 ± 6 11 ± 3 26 ± 5 33 ± 4 50 ± 17 8±3 22 ± 6 44 ± 11 4±1 4±1 IPCC Singh and Mohini, 1996# 25.8 37.8 31.1 31.1 31.1 36 36 36 37.2 29.8 29.8 29.8 4.7 3.9 ALGAS, 1998 23 32 4 16 20 5 10 29 32 7 22 27 5 5 IPCC

Dairy cattle

46 33 46 39 Non dairy cattle 17 8 (indigenous) 25 16 25 31 Non-dairy cattle 17 10 (Cross Bred) 25 21 25 33 Dairy buffalo 55 69 Non dairy Buffalo 0-1 year 23 6 1-3 year 55 17 Adult 55 52 Sheep 5 4 Goat 5 3 Horses & Ponies 18 Donkeys 10 Camels 46 Pigs 1 *EF were consolidated based on weighted average; # They have derived EF on the basis of male population. For sake of comparison we took female means mature female and male for all non-dairy.

and female

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Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India Table 3. Comparison of methane emission factors for dairy cattle (Asian countries**, India* and world on regional# # basis) Country Milk production (kg/h/y) Emission factor (kg/h/y) 70.4 33 28 43 60 116.4 66.6 34 40 38 80 47 75 37 118 111 79

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Table 5. Emission factors (kg/h/y) for manure management in ruminants (data source IPCC EF database otherwise specified) Region
Western Europe Eastern Europe North America Western Europe Eastern Europe Oceania Latin America Africa Middle East Asia Indian Subcontinent

Climate
C T C T C T W C T W C T W C T W C T W C T W C T W C T W C T W

Dairy cattle
14 44 6 19 36 54 76 14 44 81 6 19 33 31 32 33 0 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 7 16 27 5 5 6
3.5±0.2

Non-dairy cattle
6 20 4 13 1 2 3 6 20 38 4 13 23 5 6 7 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2

Buffalo
3 8 17 3 9 16 1 1 2 4 5 5 1 2 3 4 5 5

China Combodia 170 India* Indigenous ~620.5 crossbred ~2091.5 Indonesia 1435 Japan Lactating Dry Laos 200 Malaysia 477 Myanmar 392 Philippines 2618 Vietnam 802 North Korea 2308 Mongolia 312 South Korea 8833 Taiwan 5414 Thailand Regional data North America 6700 118 Western Europe 4200 100 Eastern Europe 2550 80 Oceania 1700 68 Asia 1650 56 Latin America 800 57 Africa & middle east 475 36 India 900 46 India 460 29.5 India (ind.)* 329# 28 India (CB)* 1642# 43 * India's Initial National communication (NATCOM) **Kazuyo Yamaji et al.,2003 # FAO statistics (web site) # # Milk production data from FAO statistics and EF data from IPCC, guidelines,1996 table 4.4, page 4.11

India* Indigenous (wt. avg. for whole country) Adult Crossbred Adult

3.8±0.8

0-1Yr 1.2 DB 4.4+0.6 1-3Yr 2.8 2.9±1.4 NDB 0-1Yr 1.1 0-1Yr. 1.8 1-2½Yr 2.3 1-3Yr. 3.4 2.5+0.9 4.0

(*India's NATCOM, 2004); C-Cool, T-Temperate, W-Warm DB-Dairy Buffalo, NDB-Non Dairy Buffalo)

Table 4. Comparison of methane emission factor (kg/h/y) for enteric fermentation for buffalo in Asian countries India Category Dairy buffalo Non dairy Buffalo IPCC Default** 0-1 year 1-3 year Adult 55 23 55 55 IPCC*** 57-80# 23-50 23-50 55-77 NATCOM 50 + 17 8+3 22 + 6 44 + 11 67.5 38.4 56.5* 51.6 54.9 45-67# 23-50 23-50 55-77 #China # #Thailand Other Countries

*value is for others excluding breedable ** IPCC default for developing countries *** IPCC data for Indian sub-continent (EF Data Base of IPCC) # data for adult female in IPCC EF data base ## Kazuyo Yamaji, 2003

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Livestock population of India

Cattle

Buffalo

Sheep & goat

Other livestock

Methane Emission from rumen

Higher emission

Larger uncertainties

Emission mitigation options

Measurement of emission and emission factor (EF)

Precise EF and emission estimate

Reduction in uncertainties

Energy for different physiological purposes

Feed availability and nutrient standards
Indian feed standards and supply to livestock

Energy density of feed and other supplements

Gaseous emission measurements

NEm, NE a, NE l, NE w, NEp, NE g, NE wool, DE, etc. Measurement

Measurement by Bomb Calorimeter, etc.

Calorimetry, Facemask and Hood, SF6 tracer technique, IVDMD and Other methods

GE/Feed intake

MCR Methane emission factor

Methane emission mitigation Options: 1. Increasing feed efficiency 2. Modification of rumen 3. Increasing productivity, etc.

Reduced uncertainties and precise emission estimate

Reduced uncertainties and reduced methane emission

MCR= methane conversion rate, = Net energy for factor, NEm==Net energy for work, NE = Net energy for energy for activity, =Net energy for activity, NEl EF= emission lactation, NEw Net energy for maintenance, NEa =Net p NEl= Net energy for lactation, NEw=growth, NEw=for work, NEp= Netproduction (sheep), DE= digestible energy, for growth, pregnancy, NEg= Net energy for Net energy Net energy for wool energy for pregnancy, NEg= Net energy NEw= Net energy energy, IVDMD=In vitro dry matter digestibility energy, GE= Gross energy, IVDMD=In vitro dry matter GE= Gross for wool production (sheep), DE= digestible digestibility

Abbreviations: MCR= methane conversion rate, EF= emission factor, NEm= Net energy for maintenance, NEa

Fig. 1 Targeted livestock areas and expected outputs of overall work elements for future studies 120 120 120

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25oC). India is a vast and diverse country. The emission factors for manure management is developed by NATCOM-I group based on weighted average of the distribution of animals in different climatic zone. IPCC has summarized emission factors for different regions of the world including Indian sub-continent. These data were compared with the emission factor developed by NATCOM group of India in Table 5. Quantification of uncertainty reduced due to adoption of indigenous emission factors Total methane emission during 1994 from enteric fermentation & manure management is around 10.1 Tg (range 9 to 11 Tg). The livestock methane emission estimates from NATCOM are more (by 23%) as compared to ALGAS (1998) and are less (by 30%) when compared to estimates arrived by using IPCC default emission factors. Conceptual flow diagram (Fig.-1) depicts the targeted livestock areas and expected result of overall work elements for future studies. In NATCOM-1 efforts, three different approaches were adopted and the results were finally averaged to give national emission factor. These approaches were dry matter intake method (Singhal, et al., 2005), consideration of available nutrient in different Indian feeds (Feeding standard based) and the third based on IPCC good practice guidance equations on energy balance. In the IPCC guide lines 1996 document, data of body weights, milk production and gross energy intake etc. were mainly considered based on western countries practices including higher values for different animal performance data. The emission factors developed during NATCOM-1 were based on existing Indian specific data source of livestock information that were believed to represent the realistic condition in the country and are summarized elsewhere (Gupta et al., 2003). Data gaps Several data gap and discrepancies were identified/ encountered during NATCOM-1, which 121 121 121

remain unresolved due to several reasons. These gap areas may be summarized as follow; Data inadequacy in methane conversion factor: Study related to methane conversion of gross energy/ dry matter intake (% energy converted to methane) of animals is confined to higher bred (in terms of milk production) and must be done extensively for indigenous bred also which represents most (~80%) livestock population having wide variations in their performance characteristics in different agro-climatic regions. There is no institution in India which has all the in-vivo methane measurement techniques viz. calorimeter, tracer, hood and mask techniques etc. to generate transfer functions. Also no such data is available in an accurate and standardized way, which can have international traceability for GHG measurements. Higher value of coefficients used in the calculation: Coefficients used in the calculation of gross energy for animals are based on western equations in IPCC guidelines, hence may not be appropriate for India. Calculated gross energy is converted to dry matter intake using energy density of feed. Some of the reports from country reveal that IPCC good practice recommended energy density value (18.45 MJ/kg dry matter) is higher. Other coefficients used in calculating GE intake of animals are based on survey conducted in western countries (viz. coefficients for pregnancy for single/ double birth, for calculating net energy for maintenance, and activity corresponding to animal feeding situation, etc.). The energy density of feed has to be generated for country specific feed given to the animal. It is important to determine the quality of feed in terms of nutrient and energy. Several methodologies at various institutions are available for chemical characterization and energy evaluation of animal feed. However these methodologies may be compared and tested for their data quality, precision and accuracy. Further this data has to be comparable and traceable to national and international level to ensure quality of measurements.

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Body weight of non-descript bred is not available: Most of the cattle researches in terms of energy intake and GHG emissions are devoted for crossbred cattle in India. Some of the indigenous breeds (more productive in terms of milk) are also studied, and majority of such cattle (even species is not known for some of the cattle, but kept by farmers) constitutes more than 80% in India (however this percentage is decreasing gradually). Their body weight, feeding habits, milk productivity, etc. are either not well surveyed or even not described in majority of Indian states. This has lead to assumptions, uncertainty and bias in feed intake estimation as well as GHG emission estimates. Proper survey may be undertaken by the network institutions to generate this data. Data gap/ mismatch for the estimation of feed availability and feed required by animals: There are various reports available for the feed availability and ration given to livestock in various states as well as national level. However there exists wide dissimilarity in terms of reporting format as well as quantity. Some of the reports describe availability/ deficiency in terms of crude protein (CP), Organic matter (OM), Acid detergent fibre (ADF), etc. However some other reports describe green fodder, straw, hay, concentrate, etc. and some other in format of dry matter, forest produce, etc & there too reporting value mismatch. Proper survey and normalized reporting of feed data, which should have high quality (chemical characterization) is essential. Utilization pattern of dung / manure management system: No reliable data are available on different manure management system adopted in country and that too based on temperature profile (regional). Further there is variation among the feeding rations given to the animals, which reflect in the dung characteristics. There is a need for proper survey of manure management systems and related field methane & nitrous oxide measurement studies. Since India is a big country and there exist wide regional variation in livestock breed, compo122 122 122

sition of different types of livestock, livestock feed and climatic condition. The above data gap may be overcome in future by planned and coordinated study. It is, therefore, important to undertake a holistic study of methane and nitrous oxide emission from livestock of agriculture sector so that uncertainties stated above will be reduced in future GHG budget for NATCOM-II from India. Such studies will generate capacity and will provide opportunities to accomplish research needs of above gap areas in the livestock area of agriculture sector. GHG measurement methodology and metrological aspects Several techniques are used for CH4 measurement from enteric fermentation of ruminants. These techniques may include short-term in-vitro rumen liquor incubation to in-vivo respiration calorimeter (IAEA, 1992). The main techniques are enclosure technique, tracer technique and indirect methods. Enclosure technique comprises either total enclosure of animals or enclosure of their head area (head box, ventilated hood or face mask). Open circuit calorimetry is one of the important enclosure techniques, which was previously used for studying heat production (Cammell et al., 1980) in animal. This technique may be precisely applicable for methane measurement from ruminants in which whole animal can be kept in metabolic cage and emissions can be measured from rumen fermentation. In India, IVRI has an established calorimetry technique where experiments were conducted in the past (Chandramoni et al., 1998; Chandramoni et al., 2000). Another important technique for measuring methane from enteric fermentation is SF6 tracer technique (Johnson et al., 1994). This technique was used at NDRI Karnal for methane emission study from livestock (Berman et al., 2001; Mohini and Singh, 2001). Before use of SF6 tracer technique in India, workers tried to estimate methane emission by in-vitro technique. Earlier facemask technique was applied to study methane emission

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from enteric fermentation in India (Krishna, et al., 1978). In would be appropriate to establish all facilities (SF6, Calorimeter, Hood/ Face mask, Indirect technique) at one or two prime institutions in India. This will enable to generate transfer functions among these techniques. Further simpler technique like Hood/ Face mask may be applied in the field condition to get desired database for the country regarding in-vivo methane conversion of different feeds. Metrological aspects may be taken care for these techniques, which may be used, to generate data through a calibrated/ standardized practice in a coordinated manner and QA/QC may be maintained by using reference gas standards having national and international traceability in measurements. Animal feeds may be characterized by several simpler chemical/ instrumental approaches already in practice by various institutions. These methods, which analyze organic carbon, nitrogen, carbohydrate, etc., can be standardized also. A multi-institutional Indian network is necessary to carryout various tasks and responsibilities in different parts of the country and ensuring the quality of measurements through inter-comparisons, proficiency testing of the participating institutions, standardization of equipments calibration and measurements so that to have data traceable to international standards or top metrological quality. Besides these aspects related to quantification of uncertainty and improving accuracy in nation inventory estimate of methane, efforts should also be made for the in-vivo reduction of methane generation. There are several methods including supplementation of extra chemicals, lipids, plants extracts, etc. emphasizing rumen process manipulation. However care should be taken in using chemicals so that there should not be any adverse impact on animals or their production potential. Moreover there should not be traces of undesired chemicals in animal products before commercializing these methods for reduction of GHG emissions. 123 123 123

Conclusion Good practice guidance should be followed for the targeted groups of livestock, for the methane emission measurement using various techniques, which are of major source category like cattle and buffaloes with others viz. sheep & goat if possible. Earlier studies were mainly confined to crossbred and higher bred varieties, and majorities of the Indian livestock are nondescript. There may be large variation in methane emission within and between different agro-climatic regions of the country as well as animal category based on their feeding regime and other characteristics. The future network, which may represent most part of major livestock population and climatic regions, should be capable to generate data regarding feeding pattern, digestibility of different feed ration and bodyweight by quality survey and standardized traceable measurements for methane and nitrous oxide. Such metrological approach will reduce uncertainties in GHG estimation from Indian livestock. REFERENCES ALGAS. (1998) Asia Least cost Greenhouse gas Abatement Strategy, Asian Development Bank, Global Environmental Facility, United Nations Development Programme, Manilla, Phillipines. Baldwin, R.L. and Allison, M.J. (1983) Rumen metabolism. J. of Anim. Sci. 57: 461- 477. Berman, K., Mohini, M. and Singhal, K.K., (2001) Indian J. Anim. Nutr., 18, 325-329. Cammell, S.B., Beever, D.E., Skelton, K.V. , and Spooner, M.C. (1980) Lab. Prac. 30, 115-119. Chadramoni, C.M. Tiwari, S.B. Jadhao, Khan, M.Y., (1998) International J. Anim. Sci., 13: 33-36.: Chadramoni, Jadhao, S.B., Tiwari, C.M. and Khan, M.Y. (2000) AFST: 83: 287-300. Crutzen P J, Aselman, I. and Seiler,W. (1986) Tellus 38B: 271-284.

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Gupta, P.K., Jha A.K., Tomar, M., Singh, N., Swamy, M., Singhal, K.K., Garg , S.C., and Mitra, A.P. (2003) Greenhouse Gas Emission Uncertainty Reduction in Indian Agriculture Sector: Livestock", in Proceedings of the NATCOM workshop on Uncertainty Reduction in GHG inventories, 4-5 pp. 139-146. Gupta, P.K., Jha, A.K., Koul, S., Sharma, P., Pradhan, V., Gupta V., Sharma, C., and Singh, N., (2007) Environmental Pollution. 146: 219-224. Holter J.B. and Young, A.J. (1992) J. Dairy Sci, 75: 2165-2175. IAEA (1992) Manual on measurement of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Australia, 45-67. IPCC. (1996) Emission factor database: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change www.ipcc- nggip.iges.or.jp/EFDB/main.php IPCC. (1996) Good Practices guidance and uncertainty management in National GHG inventories Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change. IPCC. (1996) Revised IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Inter-gov-

ernmental Panel on Climate Change Krishna, G, Razdar, M. N. and Ray, S. N. (1978) Indian J. Anim. Sci., 48: 366-370. Mohini, M. and Singh G.P. (2001) Indian J. Anim. Nutr., 18: 204-209 Moss, A.R. (1994) Nutr. Abstr. Rev. (Series B) 64: 785-803 Moss, A.R., Jouany, JP. and Newbold, J. (2000) Ann. Zootech, 49: 231-253. NATCOM (2004) India's Initial national communication (NATCOM) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Ministry of Environment and Forest, Govt of India June 2004, pp 35. Singh, G.P., Mohini, M. (1996) Current Sci. 71: 580-582. Singhal, K.K., Mohini, M., Jha, A.K. and Gupta, P. K. (2005) Curr. Sci. 88: 129-127. Swamy, M., Singhal, K.K., Gupta, P. K., Mohini, M., Jha, A. K. and Singh, N., Reduction in Uncertainties From Livestock Emissions, In Climate change and India: Uncertainties reduction in green house gas inventory estimates. Universities Press (India) Pvt Ltd, Hyderabad, pp. 223-241.

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Environmental pollution and animal productivity
D. Swarup Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243122, India

“In the future, the problem of declining living standards in poor countries is likely to be worsened by environmental degradation. Today, environmental problems already affect the health and livelihoods of hundreds of millions. If drastic steps are not taken, the coming century will see billions of people suffer the consequences of pollution and scarcity of natural resources, especially, agricultural land and water” ( Frans Doorman, 2003) Pollution can be defined as the human alteration of chemical or physical characteristics of the environment to a degree that is harmful to living organisms. Some forms of pollution exert a destructive influence on human, animals and wildlife by killing or impairing the health of individuals. Synthetic chemicals, oil, toxic metals, and acid rain are included in this category of toxic pollutants. Autopsy lesions of ‘black lung disease’, similar to that observed in the coal miners, in the archeologically discovered body of an Eskimo woman who apparently had died about 1600 years ago in a landslide in the Bering sea region suggest that the anthropogenic pollution of the environment dates back to antiquity (Bell et al., 1990). However the magnitude of pollution has increased many folds during 20th century with rapid industrialization and expansion of mechanical transport and agroindustrial sectors. In recent times, humans release thousands of synthetic chemicals into the environment that has altered the distribution of many naturally occurring substances, thereby creating conditions that human, animal and wildlife species had never experienced before. On the basis of Millennium Ecosystem Assessment conducted between 2001 and 2005, United Nations reported that anthropogenic changes in ecosystem have been more 125 125 125

rapid and extensive over the past 5 decades than ever before, largely to meet rapidly growing demand for foods. At one time environment referred to only public health and sanitation, and pollution was defined in relation to human health hazard. But today, the environment and pollution has assumed vast connotation with ever widening frontiers involving several disciplines. As such, the effects of pollution are considered far extensive affecting various units of the biosphere. The major emphasis is now placed on multidisciplinary problem-solving approaches, and the animal scientists can contribute greatly to issues related to animal production, quality of the produce and the environment (Powers, 2003). Sensitivity to pollutants Different species vary in their sensitivity to toxic pollutants. Many domestic and wild animals have natural instinct and behavior to protect themselves against untoward environmental hazards. For example, grazing ruminants generally reject certain harmful plants; horses excrete in certain areas, which they avoid for grazing, and dogs instinctively take emetics to protect themselves. Birds are unusually sensitive to odorless coal gas and other air pollutants in coalmines (Schawbe, 1984). Behavior pattern of fish to avoid contaminated water and nesting behavior of birds on water bodies are used as indicators of water pollution and population trend of birds in a habitat provides indication to the quality of ecosystem. Pheasants are important indicator species and their presence or absence in an area is a good indicator of the health of ecosystem (Anon. 2004). In general, impact of the environmental pollution on animals can be categorized as:

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Pollutant burden without adverse effects, and minor adaptive physiological or behavioral changes Sub-clinical/sub-lethal effects characterized by minor pathological or behavioral changes- including decreased predator avoidance capacity resulting in increased susceptibility to predators, diminished foraging efficiency or success in prey capture, decreased fecundity, and impaired nest- building, courtship and prenatal behavior Lethal toxicity characterized by high morbidity and mortality Population and community effects characterized by change in population structure and function i.e. change in age structure or sex ratio, and density, abundance, or bio-mass of indigenous organisms. Impact of pollution The impacts of pollution on animals are associated with serious economic losses arising due to adverse effects on health and production. Residues of pollutants have been detected in food products originating from healthy animals harbouring pollutant burden and living in the industrial vicinity. This may adversely affect quality of milk, meat or eggs and many a times rendering these products unfit for human consumption. Adverse impact of pollutants on health and economy of livestock are reported globally. Frequent epizootics of lead toxicosis in lead smelting areas in US caused heavy economic losses to equine husbandry (Schwabe, 1984). The impact of fluoride pollution on Cornwall Island cattle Industry was so immense that the majority of farmers switched from dairy to beef cattle, and 63 of the 82 dairy cattle on a farm near aluminum smelter were slaughtered in one year (Krook and Maylin, 1979). One of the major hindrances to broiler industry is the adverse effects of ammonia produced within the house due to microbial degradation of litter. It is manifested in chronic respiratory diseases and, consequently, death leading to huge economic loss. In India, heavy mor126 126 126

tality in cattle and buffaloes due industrial lead toxicity was responsible for significant financial losses to farmers (Swarup and Dwivedi, 2002). Health impacts and production loss The severity of health impact of pollution depends on kind of pollution and pollutants, presence of interacting chemicals, extent and route of exposure, and species, age, physiology and nutrition of the exposed population. Undernourished, young, old, physiologically stressed and debilitated animals are more susceptible to pollution effects. Various industrial, transport and other polluting sources release host of specific and common pollutants such as oxides of sulfur, nitrogen and carbon, halogen gases, toxic heavy metals, volatile hydrocarbons, oxidants and ozone, to name a few. Many of these pollutants persist in the environment and can build up to high levels, even if released in small quantities. Many others undergo transformation and are converted into more dangerous forms than parent compounds. For example, inorganic mercury is converted into more toxic methyl mercury by certain bacteria in aquatic sediment. In ‘Minamata disaster’, the microorganisms converted inorganic mercury that was present in the effluent of a plastic manufacturing factory into methyl mercury. It was taken up by plankton algae and concentrated in fish and subsequently caused illness in cats and fishermen (Klaassen, 1996). Exposure to higher concentration of toxic chemicals induces specific acute toxicities, where as long term low level exposure causes chronic toxicity. Pesticide pollution: Chemical pesticides were introduced as an important tool for pest control and have been used extensively in human health operations and agricultural applications since late 1940s. The wide spread use, solubility in lipids, environmental persistence and bio-magnification potential of pesticides soon precipitated health hazards in animals. It has been noted that among all farm chemicals, pesticides owing to their toxic potential, pose the greatest hazard and are incriminated as

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the most common cause of poisoning in animals. Pesticides accounted for 85 (17.65%) of the 487 reported cases of poisoning in animals globally during 1986 to 1996 (Swarup, 2002). Principal portal of pesticides’ entry to livestock is their extensive and indiscriminate use in agriculture and veterinary practices. Animals may become contaminated with pesticides when treated with these compounds or via exposure to contaminated water, feed, buildings or pastures. Insecticides and fungicides are common pesticides contaminating animals. Once in the livestock system number of pesticides such as DDT, heptachlor, linden, etc persist and bioaccumulate in the biological system owing to their lipid soluble nature. Residues of these compounds in milk are of special concern because milk is consumed in large quantity by vulnerable population and they tend to concentrate in milk fat. It was estimated that 40% of the pesticides in human diet are found in meat, milk and egg and this exposure, except for occasional out-breaks has decreased in the past few years. In India, number of studies have revealed residues of DDT and BHC above MRL in most samples of the milk and milk products (Meral and Boghra, 2004). It has been observed that with imposition on use of these pesticides, their residue levels in milk have decreased considerably of late (Unnikrishanan et al., 2005). However, milk samples collected from areas where DDT had reportedly been used to kill mosquitoes revealed high levels of DDT and 25% samples had residue levels above MRL (Surendra Nath et al., 2002). The noticeable levels of DDT and HCH residues have also been reported in tissue samples such as adipose tissues, liver and kidney of cattle, sheep and goats in India (Surendra Nath et al., 1998). Exposure to pesticides via contamination of livestock system may not always occur at a level sufficient to cause acute effects and it is more likely to precipitate chronic, sub clinical and subtle effects. At low level of exposure, effects are diverse and can involve many systems including nervous, 127 127 127

immune and endocrine systems. Pesticides are also classified as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) and their effects on endocrine system may be responsible for reproductive, immunotoxic, developmental and carcinogenic effects. Many pesticides mimic or interact with estrogen hormone and this ability has been linked to breast cancer in women. Increase in occurrence of breast cancer was associated with increased use of pesticides in US. The pesticide residues in milk may be much hazardous to vulnerable populations, especially children, who not only consume more milk, but are also more sensitive to toxic substances due to their higher metabolic rate and larger brain size in proportion to body size than adults. Further, children have variable ability to activate, detoxify and eliminate toxic compounds from the body. However, despite findings pointing to presence of pesticide above permissible limits in considerably high proportion of milk samples in India, little information are available on chronic effects of pesticides on animal health and production. Heavy metal pollutants: Metals have been used by mankind for diverse purposes and their use for range of industrial activities in the modern period has been responsible for their ubiquitous presence in the environment as chemical contaminants. Various anthropogenic activities such as burning of fossil fuel, mining and metallurgy, industries and transport sectors redistribute toxic heavy metals into the environment, which persist for a considerably longer period and are translocated to different components of environment including biotic segment. Biologically, heavy metals play both beneficial and detrimental role. Metals such as copper, zinc, iron selenium, magnesium and manganese are essential components of several enzyme systems involved in variety of physiological activities. Some other heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, arsenic and mercury have little or no known beneficial biological activity and are generally regarded as toxic heavy metals. Irrespective of their role heavy metals tend to accumulate in the body because of their persisting nature and they generally combine with one or more

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bio-active ligands viz –OH, -COO-,- OPO3 H-, >C=O, -SH, -S-S, NH2 and >NH that are essential for normal physiological function and activate several enzyme system. Because of their universal presence in the environment, toxic heavy metals are translocated into livestock system via various sources such as contaminated feed and fodder, water and soil. More often than not, contamination occurs due to industrial pollution. But some times, natural sources may contribute to higher levels of toxic metals in environment. To cite an example, arsenic contamination of ground water is an important cause of poisoning in many countries including India, and most cases of arsenic exposure are associated with intake of contaminated water (Jin et al., 2004). An estimated 6 million people in WB, India are presently drinking water contaminated with arsenic >50 µg/L in an area of 38, 865 km2 (Chowdhury et al., 2001) which is well above the recommended permissible limit (WHO 1993). Ground water contamination with arsenic is also reported from Vietnam, Cambodia, Bangladesh, Taiwan, Argentina, Japan, Thailand, Chile, Mongolia, Finland, Hungary and the likes. Once in the animal system, the heavy metals can contaminate food chain and pose public concerns. Milk and milk products could be contaminated when milch animals consume water, feed and fodder grown in polluted environment (Swarup and Dwivedi, 2002) Various surveys conducted by us revealed higher levels of heavy metals in milk, eggs and other tissues of animals from industrial vicinity. Higher lead burden in blood and milk from animals reared in urban localities and around polluting industrial units have been documented from various parts of the India and elsewhere in the world (Baars et al., 1990). Milk lead concentration is exponentially related to blood lead (Swarup et al., 2005). It is expected that animals exposed to industrial lead will excrete higher lead in milk. In a study, buffaloes that had suffered from acute industrial plumbism were found to excrete high level of lead (1.13 ± 128 128 128

0.38 ppm) in milk after 6 weeks of discontinuation of exposure (Dey et al., 1996). Other than lead, higher levels of cadmium and mercury have been reported in livestock in some pockets of the country. Of all the toxic metals, lead has posed much serious problem to animal health and production in India and abroad. It is one of the commonest causes of poisoning in farm animals, particularly cattle and young animals are more susceptible. Sheep, goat and horses are also affected, but pigs are rarely exposed. The major sources of lead that can cause accidental lead poisoning in animals include paints which contain lead oxide (red lead), triplumbic tetraoxide, lead carbonate (white lead), lead sulphate or lead chromate. The chief sources of lead poisoning in cattle and other animals also include discarded waste materials including batteries, dump oil, oil paint container and bone-fire ash. Use of lead containing grease, motor vehicle lubricating oil also leads to accidental lead poisoning. Indiscriminate eating habits and pica in cattle, possibly due to phosphorous deficiency resulting in eating of hard object with impunity, enhances the chance of eating lead containing substances resulting in lead poisoning in ruminants. Contamination of forage and waterways close to shooting activities enhances the lead content of the soil. However, maximum reports of chronic lead poisoning in cattle were due to environmental pollution from lead, iron and steel industries, zinc smelter plant and from automobile exhaust. Animals reared around the industrial area and highways have higher blood lead level over and above the minimum toxic level (0.25ppm) that is attributed to emission from industries and motorized vehicles. Emission into air leads to fall out of lead on to the soil and fodder for animal use. Continual ingestion of such contaminated fodder results in chronic lead poisoning in animals. The poisoning is also emerging as a serious concern with the growing industrialization in India and several reports documenting lead poisoning in livestock in various parts of the country are now on record

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as compared to very few before 1980 (Dey et al. 1996, Dogra et al.,1996, Swarup et al., 2005). It could be due to expansion of lead-based industrial operation and cumulative toxic potential of lead. Toxic effects of lead range from peracute, acute, subacute to subtle depending upon the physical and chemical nature of the lead compounds, its composition, particle size etc. In acute poisoning, case fatality may be as high as 100%. In cattle, there is sudden onset of signs and the animal at pasture may succumb within 24 hours. Staggering, muscle tremor particularly of head and neck with champing of jaws and frothing from mouth are mainly encountered in acute toxicity. Nystagmus and snapping of eye lids are not uncommon. Blindness, cervical, facial and auricular twitching is consistent in acute lead poisoning in animals. Animals eventually fall with tono-clonic convulsions, pupillary dilatation, opisthotonus and muscle tremor. Animal becomes hyperesthetic to touch and sound with increased heart and respiration rate. An adult animal exhibits a characteristic frenzy maniacal blind look and use to charge fences and walls and attempts to climb or jump over objects. Head pressing is a characteristic sign in acute lead toxicity. Gastrointestinal involvement is manifested in diarrhea, cramping, abdominal distension and pain. Central nervous system involvement is seen up to 90% of lead poisoned cases, where as 60% cases show gastrointestinal problems. Death usually supervenes during the period of convulsions, mostly due to respiratory failure. In subacute lead toxicity in cattle, animal remains alive for three to four days and shows the clinical signs of dullness, anorexia, depression, loss of weight and eye sight, incoordination, staggering and sometimes, circling. The circling is not consistent and animal changes the direction of circling when it is confined within a stall or box. Muscle tremor, hyperesthesia and grinding of teeth are common along with mild abdominal pain, salivation, lachrymation and alimentary tract dysfunction. Ru129 129 129

minal atony is accompanied by constipation in early stage followed by foetid diarrhea. Animals remain unwilling to eat and drink and stand still, reluctant to walk, dull and depressed and sometimes, while walking reveals drunken gait. In some other circumstances, animals remain recumbent and die quietly. Major differentiating observations of polioencephalomacia from lead poisoning is that in the former eye preservation reflex is normal while in the latter it is absent or markedly diminished. Lead is also classified as a potential EDC, and may be responsible for reproductive and other hormonal problems in animals. Fluorosis: Small amounts of fluorine were considered essential for prevention of dental caries and osteoporosis in human. However, continuous ingestion of excess fluoride results in chronic fluoride toxicity commonly referred as fluorosis. In animals, the condition is manifested by bony exostosis, lameness, poor weight bearing, loss in performance and production, inability to masticate food materials, reduced feed conversion efficiency, poor digestibility and death (Swarup et al., 2001). Skeletal fluorosis is characterized by hyperosteosis, osteopetrosis and osteoporosis. Lameness is the first signs noticed in affected animals and animal often crawl on knee posture due fracture of phalanx. Long-term exposure to sub-toxic doses of fluoride can induce changes in cellular metabolism and macro- and micro-nutrient imbalances. Fluoride exposure also impairs reproductive functions and induces teratogenicity. High prevalence of sterility, repeat estrous cycle, stillbirth and birth to weak calves are often associated with chronic fluorosis. Intake of comparatively low dietary fluoride (8-12 mg/kg) for a year was responsible for significant increase in post-calving anoestrus and decline in fertility in cows (Van Rensburg and de-Vos 1966). Gaseous and other air pollutants: The air, which animals breathe, is frequently contaminated with air-borne pollutants such gases, particulates and bioaerosal and endotoxins. Some of these pol-

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lutants may have industrial origin, but more often, these arise from the animals facilities themselves. Gases like ammonia, hydrogen sulfide , methane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen dioxide mainly originate from decomposition of organic matters and respiratory excretions. They are collected in animal houses, particularly under poor ventilation and overcrowding conditions and affect the health, growth and production of animals. Excess ammonia in pigs has been associated with decreased growth, lowered average number of pigs weaned and porcine stress syndrome. Ammonia is considered as the most significant air pollutant in cattle barns and a concentration of 100ppm in poorly ventilated house can adversely affect pulmonary function in cattle. Hydrogen sulfide, an irritating gas, produces local inflammation of moist membranes of eyes and respiratory system. A host of particulates, consisting mainly dust and microorganisms are dispersed in air of animal houses from feed litter, manure and animal themselves. They can induce mechanical, chemical, infectious, immunosuppressive and toxic effects in animals. High dust levels in animal houses can be associated with mechanical irritation, overloading of lung clearance, lesions of mucus membrane and reduced resistance to infection. The high concentration of dust appears to cause reduced performance, and clinically recognizable diseases such as atrophic rhinitis in pigs. Microorganisms and dust together may induce allergic and hypersensitivity reactions, and intoxication by bacterial and fungal toxins. Airborne endotoxins have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypersensitivity pneumonia. In cattle and horse, asthma, allergic rhinitis and alveolitis are primarily associated with dust and toxins originating form mould feed, hay and straw. All these conditions are often associated with poor productivity in animals. Conclusion The quality of life on Earth is linked inextricably to the overall quality of the environment. 130 130 130

Growing pressures on air, water, and land resources and increasing incidence of animal and human health problems due to industrial pollution has focused global attention in recent years on finding novel ways to sustain and manage the environment. Specific toxicity , such as plumbism and fluorosis that posed serious health problems in animals in the developed countries some years back, have shown their emergence in India in the recent past. Although, there has been growing interest amongst researchers in clinico-epidemiological and management studies pertaining to pollution related animal diseases, still several gaps exist in the knowledge in this direction, which need attention of veterinary researchers and field veterinarians. Further, chemical pollutants may pose a major concern to food quality. Increase use of chemicals in veterinary practice as drugs, pesticides and feed additives, expanding industrial sector and food processing methods and environmental contamination are the principal portal of entry of chemical pollutants into livestock system and food products of animal origin. The presence of many of these chemicals, even in the residual form may be detrimental to public health. These pollutants, which can find their way in animal products as environmental contaminants can be reduced through judicious use and by improving management conditions at farms, periodic monitoring of residues level, establishment of regional laboratory with quality assurance facilities, strict implementation of SPS measures, extension of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) from farm to consumers stage. REFERENCES Anonymous. (2004) Pheasants of India. World Pheasant Association India. New Delhi, pp.35. Baars, A. J., Beek Hvan, Visser, I. T. R., Delft, W., Van, Fennema, G., Lieben, G.W., Lautenberg, K., Nieuwenhuijs, J. H. M., Coulander, PADEL, Pluimers, F. H., Haar, G. Van, De, Jrna, T., Tuinstra L. G. M. T., Zandstra, P. and

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Bruins B. (1990) Tijdschrift voor diergeneeskunde 115: 882-890 Bell, P. A., Fisher, J. D., Baum, A. and Greene, T. C. (1990) Environmental Psychology. 3rd Edition. Harcoust Brace Jovanovich College Publ. Chowdhury, U. K., Rahman, M. M., Mandal, B. K., Paul, K., Lodh, D. and Biswas, B.K. (2001) Environ. Sci., 8: 393-415. Dey S, Dwivedi S K and Swarup D. (1996) Vet. Record, 138: 336. Dogra R K S, Murthy R C, Srivastava A K, Gaur J S, Shukla L J and Varmani B M. (1996) Archives of Environ. Contamination and Toxicology., 30: 292-297. Jin Y, Sun G, Li X, Li G, Lu C and Qu L. (2004) Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 196: 396-403. Klaassen C D. (1996) Heavy metal and heavy metal antagonists. In: Goodman and Gillmans. The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. Krook L and Maylin G A. (1979) Cornell Veterinarian, 69: 1-77. Meral M and Boghra VR. (2004) Indian J. Dairy Sci., 57: 291-303. Powers W J. (2003) J. Dairy Sci., 86: 1045– 1051 Schwabe C W. (1984) Veterinary Medicine and Human Health. 3rd edn. Baltimore/ London,

Williams & Wilkins. pp.562-77. Surendra Nath B, Sarwar, Usha MA and Unnikrishanan V. (2002) Indian J. Dairy Biosci., 13: 98-101 Surendra Nath B, Unnikrishnan V, Gayathri V, Chitra PS Preeja CN and Raama Murthy MK. (1998) J. Food Sci. Technol., 35: 547-548. Swarup D and Dwivedi S K. (2002) In: Environmental Pollution and Eeffects of Lead and Ffluoride on Animal Health. Indian Council of Agricultural Resaerch, New Delhi Swarup D, Patra R C, Naresh R, Kumar P and Shekhar P. (2005) The Sci. Total Environ. 347: 106-110. Swarup D. (2002) Domestic Animal Impacts. In: Enclyclopedia of Pest Management. (David Pimentel, ed.). 201–03. Swarup D, Dey S, Patra R C, Dwivedi S K and Ali S L. (2001) Indian J. Anim. Sci., 71: 1111-1116. Unnikrishnan, V, Bhavadasan MK, Nath BS and Chand Ram. (2005) Indian J. Anim. Sci., 75: 592-598 Van Rensburg S W J and de-Vos W H. (1966) Onderstepoort J. Veter. Res., 33: 185-94. WHO. Guideline for drinking water quality: Recommendations. (1993) Vol. I, 2nd Edn. Geneva.

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Safety and wholesomeness of genetically modified crops for livestock, poultry and aquaculture: focus on insectprotected crops in India
G. F. Hartnell and B. G. Hammond Monsanto Company, St. Louis, MO (USA)

Safety and wholesomeness is the top priority in developing new crops through biotechnology. Each genetically modified (GM) crop has undergone rigorous testing and assessment based on the latest guidance from regulatory agencies and national and international scientific organizations. As a result, commercialized GM crops (herbicide tolerance and insect protection traits) have seen an unprecedented adoption by farmers globally over the past decade. In 2006, the global area of biotech crops has grown to 102 million hectares (252 million acres) of which 68%, 19%, and 13% were planted with herbicide tolerant, insect protected, or combination of these traits, respectively (James, 2006). From 1996-2006, this crop technology saw an unprecedented 60 fold increase, the fastest adoption of any crop technology in recent history (James, 2006). According to James (2006), 10.3 million farmers from 22 countries planted biotech crops in 2006. Of the 10.3 million, 90% or 9.3 million were small, resource-poor farmers from developing countries whose increased income from biotech crops contributed to their poverty alleviation. Of the 9.3 million small farmers, most of whom were Bt cotton farmers; 6.8 million were in China, 2.3 million in India, 100,000 in the Philippines, several thousand in South Africa, with the balance in the other seven developing countries which grew biotech crops in 2006. This initial modest contribution of biotech crops to the Millennium Development Goal of reducing poverty by 50% by 2015 is an important development, which has enormous potential in the second decade of commercialization from 2006 to 2015 (James, 2006). 132 132 132

For the first time, India grew more Bt cotton (3.8 million hectares) than China (3.5 million hectares) and moved up the world ranking by two places to number 5 in the world, overtaking both China and Paraguay (James, 2006). Insect-protection traits Insect-protected plants commercialized to date are generally enhanced to produce insect control proteins in planta like those made from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) (Fischhoff et al., 1987; Perlak, 1990). Bt is ubiquitous gram-positive soil bacterium that forms crystalline protein inclusions during sporulation (Höfte and Whiteley, 1989). The inclusion bodies consist of Cry proteins (Cry is an acronym for crystal) which are selectively active against certain lepidopteran, dipteran or coleopteran pests. Microbial Bt products containing Cry proteins were first commercialized in 1961 for use in agriculture and have been used for over 40 years (Baum et al., 1999) with an exemplary safety record (Betz et al., 2000). The first Bt microbial formulations were based on Bt kurstaki strain HD 1 which produces four Cry proteins (Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa) active against lepidopteran pests (Hammond et al., 2002). The cry1Ab and cry1Ac genes in the Bt HD1 strain are the prototypes for the genes currently expressed in maize and cotton. In planta production of these Cry proteins confers plant protection throughout the growing season. Bt cotton, which confers resistance to important insect pests of cotton, was first adopted in India as hybrids in 2002. India grew approximately

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50,000 hectares of officially approved Bt cotton hybrids for the first time in 2002, and doubled its Bt cotton area to approximately 100,000 hectares in 2003. The Bt cotton area increased again fourfold in 2004 to reach over half a million hectares. In 2005, the area planted to Bt cotton in India continued to climb reaching 1.3 million hectares, an increase of 160% over 2004. In 2006, the record increases in adoption in India continued with almost a tripling of area of Bt cotton from 1.3 million hectares to 3.8 million hectares. In 2006, this tripling in area was the highest year-on-year growth for any country in the world. Of the 6.3 million hectares of hybrid cotton in India in 2006, which represents 70% of all the cotton area in India, 60% or 3.8 million hectares was Bt cotton - a remarkably high proportion in a fairly short period of five years (James, 2006). Benefit of insect-protected traits Farmers sustain billions of dollars in crop loss or reduced yield due to pests that have the potential to be controlled by Cry proteins (Gianessi and Carpenter, 1999). Insect damage can predispose plants to fungal growth and mycotoxin contamination. Therefore protection of plants against pest damage from pests can reduce fungal and mycotoxin contamination. Munkvold et al. (1999) were the first to show that Fusarium ear rot and fumonisin contamination were dramatically reduced in an insect-protected Bt maize compared with non-Bt maize over several years of field trials. This has been substantiated by Dowd (2000) in the US and by Pietra and Piva (2000) and (Bakan et al., 2002) in the EU. In planta protection against insect pests can reduce the use of insecticides on the plant. Cotton plants are normally heavily sprayed with insecticides posing risks to the environment as well as to humans especially in developing countries. Following the commercial introduction of insect-protected Bt cotton, there has been a significant reduction in 133 133 133

the use of insecticides (Gianessi and Carpenter, 1999). The accumulative reduction in pesticides for the decade 1996 to 2005 was estimated at 224,300 MT of active ingredient, which is equivalent to a 15% reduction in the associated environmental impact of pesticide use on these crops, as measured by the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ) - a composite measure based on the various factors contributing to the net environmental impact of an individual active ingredient (James, 2006). The work of Bennett et al. (2004) confirmed that the principal gain from Bt cotton in India is the significant yield gains estimated at 45% in 2002, and 63% in 2001, for an average of 54% over the two years. Taking into account the decrease in application of insecticides for bollworm control, which translates into a saving, on average of 2.5 sprays, and the higher cost of Bt cotton seed, Brookes and Barfoot (2006) estimate that the net economic benefits for Bt cotton farmers in India were $139 per hectare in 2002, $324 per hectare in 2003, $171 per hectare in 2004, and $260 per hectare in 2005, for a four year average of approximately $225 per hectare. The benefits at the farmer level translated to a national gain of $339 million in 2005 and accumulatively $463 million for the period 2002 to 2005. Other studies report results in the same range, acknowledging that benefits will vary from year to year due to varying levels of bollworm infestations. The most recent study by Gandhi and Namboodiri (2006) reported a yield gain of 31%, a significant reduction in the number of pesticide sprays by 39%, and an 88% increase in profit or an increase of $250 per hectare for the 2004 cotton growing season. Safety assessment of cry insect-control proteins The safety assessment of insect-protected cotton (Hamilton et al., 2002) and maize (Sanders et al., 1998) have been published. The introduced protein is extensively characterized to understand

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how it functions and how similar it is to proteins already present in foods. Bt proteins have been in use for over 45 years with their mode of action well understood. The amino acid sequence of the introduced protein(s) has been compared to known toxins and allergens to assure the protein in neither a mammalian toxin nor an allergen or closely related to either. Proteins are a key component of food and feed and therefore digestibility is an important aspect of the safety evaluation. To confirm the safety of the protein, it is tested for toxicity by testing in animals at high levels (thousands to hundred of thousands times greater than the highest predicted consumption) to assure no adverse effects. As expected, given the nature and digestibility of proteins, no toxicities have been observed in these tests. The likelihood of the protein being an established allergen or becoming an allergen is also assessed in detail according to international standards. Once the safety of the protein as been assessed it is important to assess the agronomic and morphological or phenotypic parameters and compare them to those of the conventional counterpart to assure there are no relevant unintended effects caused by the transformation process or the introduced genes/trait. Very stringent criteria must be met for plants developed through biotechnology. Cockburn (2002) provides an example of the parameters needed when comparing maize. Next a comprehensive comparison of the composition (key nutrients, anti-nutrients, toxins, and other compounds naturally found in the plant) of the plant and grain. The GM plants, their near isogenic control and as well as commercial varieties are grown under a number of different environments and field conditions. Typically, 60-90 different compositional analytes are compared to determine if the GM crop values fall within the range of values obtained from the non-GM conventional varieties and published values for that crop (Hammond et al., 2002). In assessing the nutritional and compositional equivalence of Bollgard cotton to conventional cotton 134 134 134

varieties, over 2500 separate analyses were performed on 67 components of the cottonseed and oil including nutrients such as protein, fat, moisture, calories, minerals, amino acids, and antinutrients such as cyclopropenoid fatty acid, and gossypol (Hamilton et al., 2002). To confirm that new GM foods and feeds are safe as their conventional counterparts, subchronic (26- or 90-day) comparative toxicity studies are performed with the grain from the GM, near isogenic control and conventional varieties. A robust and internationally recognized testing approach is utilized. In addition, Monsanto conducts livestock, poultry and/or aquaculture wholesomeness studies with the GM crop or products derived from that crop. Nutritional/compositional equivalence is demonstrated when compared to the results obtained from the feeding of the near isogenic control and conventional non-GM varieties. These studies are used to detect any biologically significant unexpected effects relative to the conventional non-GM plant varieties. Mode of action Cry proteins are produced as protoxins that are proteolytically activated upon ingestion (Höfte and Whiteley, 1989). Cry proteins bind to specific receptors on the surface of midgut cells of susceptible insects and form ion-selective channels in the cell membrane (English and Slatin, 1992). The cells swell due to an influx of water which leads to cell lysis, the insect stops eating and dies (Knowles and Ellar, 1987). If receptor binding does not occur, the Cry protein will have no effect on that organism. Results of several studies have failed to find Cry-protein-specific receptors on gut cell membranes of various non-target mammalian species such as mice, rats, monkeys, and humans (Hofmann et al., 1988; Noteborn et al., 1993). This explains why the Cry insect-control proteins are acutely toxic to target insects at mg/kg body weight doses, but are non-

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toxic to mammals dosed acutely with greater than 1 x 106 mg/kg Cry proteins (McClintock et al., 1995; Sjoblad et al., 1992). As a condition of registration of insect protected crops in the US, the US EPA requires Cry insect-control proteins that will be introduced into the plants be administered acutely at very high dosages (generally in the thousands of mg/kg range) to laboratory rodents as part of an overall safety assessment. To date no biologically relevant adverse effects have been observed in rodents dosed with Cry proteins that have been bioengineered into plants that are commercialized. Based on the absence of mammalian toxicity for the Cry proteins tested to date, it is concluded that those Cry proteins pose not meaningful risk to human or animal health. The class of Cry1, Cry2 and Cry3 proteins are readily digested in vitro using simulated mammalian gastric fluids (EPA, 1995; Noteborn and Kuiper, 1994). All commercialized Bt products (Cry1Ac, Cry1Ab, Cry1F, Cry3A, Cry1Ab2, Cry3Bb1, Cry34Ab1, and Cry35Ab1) except for Cry 9C have been quickly inactivated in the digestibility studies. These proteins are typically 60-130 kDa in size and are degraded in simulated digestion models to polypeptides of less than 2 kDa (Hammond et al., 2002). Bioinformatic analyses are used to verify the absence of structural similarity of Cry proteins or their degradation products to known allergens, toxins or pharmacologically active proteins. Human and animal digestive systems are designed to effectively degrade dietary proteins to peptides and amino acids which are absorbed and used to synthesize new proteins to support growth, maintenance, reproduction and milk or egg production. (CAST, 2006). Thus, Cry proteins would not be expected to be absorbed intact from the gut. Also, based on the simulated mammalian gastric digestion assay, one would expect the Cry proteins to be rapidly digested. The results of studies with 135 135 135

lactating dairy cattle, growing cattle, broiler chickens and swine have not detected the presence of transgenic protein in products and tissues from farm animals fed currently available biotechnology-dea rived (CAST, 2006; Flachowsky et al., 2005 ). In addition, no unexpected adverse effects were reported in multigenerational studies comparing diets with non-GM and insect-protected (Bt) maize with quail and laying hens for 10 and 4 generations, b respectively,(Flachowsky et al., 2005 ; Halle et al., 2006). Compositional analysis Assessment of compositional analysis is done to determine if biologically meaningful differences occur between GM and non-GM crops (CAST, 2006). Analyses provide information on things such as antinutrient factors, macronutrients, micronutrients, naturally occurring toxins. The specific nutrients for each crop to consider have been identified by OECD (CAST, 2006). Insect-protected Bt corn and cotton crops have been shown to be comparable in composition to their non-Bt counterparts. No biologically meaningful differences in the composition of nutrients/ antinutrients in grain, seed, oil, silage or other crop byproducts have been observed between Bt-expressing crops and their non-Bt counterparts (Berberich et al., 1996; Sanders et al., 1998). Bt crops are therefore agronomically and phenotypically equivalent to their non-transgenic counterparts. Livestock, poultry and aquaculture studies Trait providers such as Monsanto are committed to sponsoring studies to affirm that palatability is unchanged and there are no relevant differences in performance, meat, milk or egg quality and composition. In addition, the fate of the transgenic DNA and protein were also investigated. Based on the fact the GM crops were previously deemed to be safe and compositionally equivalent to their non-

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GM counterpart, it was not unexpected for all of the animal feeding studies to confirm this by reporting no meaningful differences in animal performance or meat, milk or eggs products and no transgenic DNA or protein were detected in milk, meat or eggs. (Aumaitre et al., 2002; CAST, 2006; Clark a and Ipharraguerre, 2001; Flachowsky et al., 2005 ; Hartnell et al., 2001). To date, there have been over 100 feeding studies conducted with herbicidetolerant and insect-protected traits either singly or more that one trait stacked together. Studies involved, broiler chickens, laying hens, quail, lactating dairy cattle, lactating water buffalo, growing swine, growing cattle, beef cows, sheep, growing rabbits, goats, and fish This paper will focus on the studies conducted with Bt traits in cotton and maize, highlighting those studies conducted in India. Cottonseed The Cry proteins expressed in the commercialized Bt-cotton developed by Monsanto include Cry1Ac in Bollgard® and Cry1Ac plus Cry2Ab2 (both stacked) in Bollgard® II. The Cry 1 class of proteins has selective toxicity to certain category of insects, in this case bollworms, and requires certain specific conditions for their effective action. The protein has to be ingested by the target insects which happens when the caterpillars feed on the transgenic plant tissues. It requires an alkaline pH of 9.5 or above for effective processing and also specific receptors (on the brush-border membrane of midgut epithelium cells of target insect) for binding before it can kill the target insect. All these conditions are available in bollworms and therefore the caterpillars succumb when they feed on Bt-cotton plant. The protein cannot act in the human or animal intestine because their intestine is acidic, pH is about 1.5 and there are no receptors. Hence, Bt protein is safe to such non-target organisms. Ruminants: Singhal et al. (2006a) fed 2 kg of nonGM cottonseed or 2 kg of Bollgard cottonseed expressing the Cry1Ac protein to each of 10 136 136 136

lactating crossbred (Karan Swiss x Karan Fries) cows per day for four weeks. No differences in body weight (BW), average milk yield, milk composition (i.e., fat, protein, lactose, SCC, fatty acid composition), dry matter intake per 100 kg BW, and nutrient digestibility. No Bt protein was detected in milk or blood. Singh et al. (2002) fed nonGM cottonseed and Bollgard cottonseed to each of 10 lactating Murrah buffaloes for 35 days. No significant differences were reported in dry matter intake, body weight gain, total erythrocyte count, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, plasma glucose, serum total proteins, albumin, globulin, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein. Researchers concluded that Bollgard cottonseed was nutritionally similar to the nonGM cottonseed with no adverse effects on the health status when fed to buffaloes. Singhal et al. (2006b) fed two groups of 10 lactating crossbred cows either a concentrate containing 40% of a crushed nonGM cottonseed or Bollgard II cottonseed for four weeks. Bollgard II cotton expresses Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab2 proteins. No differences were reported in body weight, milk yield, dry matter intake, or milk composition. The 4%fatcorrected milk was higher for the Bt group but was attributed to chance occurrence. No Cry1Ac or Cry2Ab2 proteins were detected in the milk and plasma. Authors concluded that Bollgard II cottonseed was nutritionally equivalent to nonGM cottonseed when fed to lactating dairy cows. Castillo et al. (2004) fed 2.5 kg of cottonseed that were either nonGM or Bollgard or Bollgard II to lactating Argentinean Holstein cows per day for four weeks. Dry matter intake, milk yield, milk composition, body weight and body condition score did not differ among treatments. NonGM, Bollgard and Bollgard II cottonseed were fed to goats in India for 90 days (Monsanto unpublished data). Body weight, feed intake, blood chemistry, hematology, organ weights, and pathology and histopathology of organs were not different among treatment groups (http://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/ SC0605/S00039.htm; Accessed 18JUN2007).

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Poultry: Elangovan et al. (2003) fed cottonseed meal from Bt (Cry1Ac protein) and nonBt cotton to broilers for 6 weeks. Cottonseed was incorporated into the diet at 10% of the diet. Rapidly growing chicks would be sensitive to any toxic effect. No differences in feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion or carcass characteristics were observed between the Bt and nonBt groups. In a second study, Mandal et al. (2004) fed cottonseed meal derived from nonBt and Bollgard II (Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab proteins) cotton for six weeks. Body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, nutrient utilization, blood constituents and carcass traits were not significantly different. Hamilton et al. (2004) reported no differences in body weight gain, feed intake or health in quail fed Bollgard II (10% of the diet as raw cottonseed meal) for 5 days followed by 3 days on the basal diet.. Fish: Hamilton et al. (2004) reported the results of a study where catfish were fed a diet containing 20% processed cottonseed meal from either nonBt or Bollgard II cotton for 8 weeks. There were no significant differences in survival, weight gain, feed conversion, or fillet composition between the treatment groups. Similar results were found in studies with fish fed Bollgard or Bollgard II cottonseed meal at the Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Mumbai, India (Monsanto unpublished). Allegations: Anti-biotechnology groups have alleged that Bt cotton is unsafe based on reports of sheep dying when grazing Bt cotton residues in India. This is in spite of the fact that there has not been one animal feeding study to date where genetically modified cotton was fed that has shown an unexpected adverse effect on the health of the animal (:// www.gene.ch/genet/2006/Jun/msg00007.html; Accessed 18JUN2007)). Therefore, based on the scientific studies conducted with the Bt proteins, there is no basis for the consumption of Bt proteins to be the causative agent in this allegation. Cry1Ac protein is rapidly digested to amino acids and thus no intact protein is absorbed into the bloodstream so 137 137 137

that the animal’s tissues and organs are never exposed to the protein. Numerous other possibilities such as high pesticide residues http://stinet.dtic.mil/oai/ oai?&verb=getRecord&metadata Prefix=html &identifier=AD0840311; accessed June 25,2007), high levels of nitrates (Bourke and Carrigan, 1992), high levels of gossypol (Morgan et al., 1988; Randel et al., 1992) or other toxicants in the cotton leaves needs to be investigated. These compounds are found in or on cotton residues independent of the cotton being nonGM or Bollgard.
Table 1. Livestock, poultry and aquaculture studies feeding Cry proteins expressed in maize. Bt Protein Reference Cry1Ab (Barrière et al., 2001; Donkin et al., 2003) Cry3Bb1 (Grant et al., 2003) Cry1F (Faust et al., 2003) Beef Cattle Cry1Ab (Böhme et al., 2001; Folmer et al., 2002) Cry3Bb1 (Vander Pol et al., 2005) Sheep Cry1Ab (Barrière et al., 2001) Poultry Cry1Ab (Aeschbacher et al., 2005; Rossi et al., 2005; Taylor et al., 2003a) Cry3Bb1 (Taylor et al., 2003b) Cry1F Cry1A.105, Cry2AB2 (Taylor et al. in press) Swine Cry1Ab (Piva et al., 2001; Reuter and Aulrich, 2003; Weber and Richert, 2001) Cry3Bb1 (Hyun et al., 2005) Cry1F (Stein et al., 2004) Marine Fish Cry1Ab (Sanden et al., 2005) Species Lactating dairy cows

Maize Numerous studies have been conducted with insect-protected maize with all concluding that the insect-protected maize is as nutritious and wholesome as its nonGM counterpart (Aumaitre et al., 2002; Clark and Ipharraguerre, 2001; Flachowsky a et al., 2005 ). As pointed out earlier, in some cases Bt maize is safer than nonGM due to the

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lower fumonisin content (Dowd, 2000; Munkvold et al., 1999; Pietra and Piva, 2000). Table 1 provides a listing of the species and Cry protein(s) fed. Measurements included feed intake, body weight, milk yield, milk composition, feed efficiency (Gain:Feed), carcass characteristics, and meat quality and composition. No unexpected adverse effects were observed in any of the species fed the Cry proteins confirming the safety of the Cry proteins that have been commercialized. Kan and Hartnell (2004) reported no differences in broiler performance when fed dehulled soybean meal that expressed the Cry1Ac protein. Conclusion Historically, Bt proteins have been demonstrated to be safe since the early 1960’s. Genetically modifying crops to express Bt proteins has provided protection against a certain class of insects resulting in a reduction in the application of chemical pesticides benefiting the environment as well as the farmer. Bt crops or their byproducts have been evaluated in feeding studies with lactating dairy cattle, lactating water buffalo, beef cattle, poultry, swine, sheep, and fish. All studies have concluded that Bt crops are as safe, nutritious, and wholesome as their nonBt counterparts. REFERENCES Aeschbacher, K., Messikommer, R., Meile, L. and Wenk, C. (2005) Poult. Sci., 84: 385-394. Aumaitre, A., Aulrich, K., Chesson, A., Flachowsky, G. and Piva., G. (2002) Livestock Prod. Sci. 74: 223-238. Bakan, B., Melcion, D., Richard-Molard, D. and Cahagnier, B. (2002) J Agric Food Chem 50: 728-731. Barrière, Y., Vérité, R., Brunschwig, P., Surault, F. and Emile., J. C. (2001) J. Dairy Sci. 84: 1863-1871. 138 138 138

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Morgan, S., Stair, E. L., Martin, T., Edwards, W. C. and Morgan, G. L. (1988) Am. J. Vet. Res., 49: 493-499. Munkvold, G. P., Hellmich, R. L. and Rice, L. G. (1999) The Am. Phytopathol. Soc. 83: 130138. Noteborn, H. P., and Kuiper, H. A. (1994) Safety assessment strategies for genetically modified plant products: A case study of Bacillus thuringiensis-toxin tomato. Biosafety of foods derived by modern biotechnology, BATS. Noteborn, H. P., Rienenmann-Ploum, J. M., Van den Berg, M. E., Alink, G. M., Zolla, L. and Kuiper, H. A. (1993) Food safety of transgenic tomatoes expressing the insecticidal crystal protein cry1ab from Bacillus thuringiensis and the marker enzyme aph(39)ii. . Med. Fac. Landbouww. Univ. Gent.: 58/54b. Perlak, F., Fuch, R, Dean, D, McPherson, S, Fischoff, D. (1990) Proc. Nat’l. Acad. Sci 88: 3324-3328. Pietra, A., and Piva, G. (2000) Occurrence and control of mycotoxins in maize grown in italy. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Feed Production Conference, Piacenza, Italy. p 226-236. Piva, G., Morlacchini, M., Pietra,A., Piva, A. and Casadei, G. (2001) J. Anim. Sci. 79: 106. Randel, R. D., Chase Jr., C. C., and Wyse, S. J. (1992) J. Anim. Sci., 70: 1628-1638. Reuter, T., and Aulrich, K., (2003) Eur. Food Res. Technol. 216: 185-192. Rossi, F., Morlacchini, M., Fusconi, G., Pietri, A., Mazza R., and Piva, G. (2005) Poul. Sci., 84: 1022-1030. Sanden, M., Berntssen, M. H. G., Krogdahl, A., Herme, G.-I. and McKellep, A.M. (2005) J Fish Diseases 28: 317-330. Sanders, P., Lee, T., Groth, M., Astwood, J. and Fuchs, R. (1998) Safety assessment of insect140 140 140

protected corn. Biotechnology and safety assessment: 241-256. Singh, J. D., Tiwari, D. P., Kumar, A. and Kumar, M. R. (2002) Effect of feeding transgenic conttonseed vis-a-vis non-transgenic cottonseed on haematobiochemical constituents in lactating murrah buffaloes. In: Xth International Congress, Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP), Ashok Hotel, New Delhi, India. p 257-258. Singhal, K. K., Kumar, S., Tyagi, A. K. and Rajput, Y. S. 2006a. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 76: 532537. Singhal, K. K., Tyagi, A. K., Rajput, Y. S., Singh, M., Perez, T. and Hartnell, G. F. (2006b). Effect of feeding cottonseed produced from Bollgard II® cotton on feed intake, milk production, and milk composition in lactating crossbred cows. XIIth Animal Science Congress 2006 Congress Proceedings Page 757 Abstract. Sjoblad, R. D., McClintock, J. T. and Engler, R. (1992) Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 15: 3-9. Stein, H. H., Sauber, T., Rice, D., Hinds, M., Peters, D., Dana, G. and Hunst, P. (2004) J. Anim. Sci. 82: 328-329. Taylor, M. L., Hartnell, G. F., Riordan, S. G. , Nemeth, M. A., Karunanandaa, K., George, B. and Astwood, J. D. (2003a) Poult. Sci., 82: 823-830. Taylor, M. L., Hyun, Y., Hartnell, G. F., Riordan, S. G., Nemeth, M. A., Karunanandaa, K., George, B. and Astwood, J. (2003b) Poult. Sci., 82: 1948-1956. Vander Pol, K. J., Erickson, G. E., Robbins, N. D., L. L., Berger, Wilson, C. B., Klopfenstein, T. J. , Stanisiewski, E. P. and Hartnell, G. F. (2005) J. Anim Sci. 83: 2826-2834. Weber, T. E., and Richert, B. T. (2001) J. Anim. Sci., 79: 67.

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Potential of GM plants, current status, feeding to animals and open questions
Gerhard Flachowsky Institute of Animal Nutrition, Federal Agricultural Research Centre (FAL) Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig, Germany

According to the FAO statistics human population will increase from current about 6.5 to 9 billion people (about 40 % more) on the earth in 2050 (Steinfeld et al., 2006), but the estimated need for meat (from 229 to 465) and milk (from 580 to 1043 mio t per year) will nearly double in this time. The reason for such a development is a higher demand of food of animal origin with increased income in many countries (Keyzer et al., 2005). The consumption of meat, fish, milk and eggs contributes to meet the human requirements in amino acids and many trace nutrients. Furthermore, foods of animal origin have a considerable enjoyment value and are considered as a parameter of living standard. The production of food of animal origin is consuming high amounts of resources and need much land for feed production. In addition to the traditional competition of land use between production of vegetarian food for human consumption and feed production for animal production, land area is increasingly being used for bio-energy/fuel production in response to the challenge of global warming, as areas for settlements and as natural protected areas. Possible strategies to overcome this situation include: Continued investments to increase plant yield and animal performances with traditional and innovative biotechnology. Improved efficiency of utilizing resources (land, water, fertilizer, fuel etc.). Lower consumption of animal protein by people with current over consumption 141 141 141

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Plant breeding and cultivation are the starting points for feed and food security during the next years. The perspectives mentioned above are real challenges for plant breeders all over the world. The most important objectives for plant breeders can be summarized as followed High yields with low external inputs (low input varieties) such as water, phosphorus, fuel, plant protection substances etc. Lower concentrations of toxic substances such as secondary substances, mycotoxins from toxin-developing fungi, toxins from anthropogenic activities or geogenic givens Lower concentrations of substances that influence the use or bioavailability of nutrient such as lignin, phytate, enzyme inhibitors, tannin etc. Higher concentrations of the feed value determining components such as nutrient precursors, nutrients, enzymes, prebiotics, essential oils etc. From the global view of feed and food security low input varieties have the highest priority. Undesirable substances cannot be removed from feedstuffs, or can only be removed with great effort (Flachowsky, 2006). From the perspective of animal nutritions, this goal is of major significance for the improvement of the percentage of value-determining components of feedstuffs under European conditions, because of the availability of various feed additives on the market. An increase of essential nutrients (e.g. amino acids, vitamins, trace elements etc.) could be very favourable in some other regions of the world.

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It is possible to fulfil the objectives mentioned above by conventional plant breeding. But in the future methods of biotechnology may be more flexible, more potent and faster. Presently we are in the starting phase of this technology. Therefore genetical engineering of plants seems to be a technology with a high potential to contribute to the solution of global problems. Of course the technique needs further improvements and more public acceptance as presently. The current stage of nutritional assessment of feeds from GMP and future challenges will be analysed in the paper. Current status The cultivation of GMP increased worldwide from 1.7 (1996) to 102 million ha. Currently, soybeans (60), corn (24), cotton (11) and canola (5 % of global GM area) are the most important GM-crops. They are modified mainly for agronomic traits. Such plants are characterized by so-called input traits (GMP of the first generation) without substantial changes in composition or nutritive value. GMP of the second generation (with output traits) should contain more special nutrients (e.g. amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, enzymes etc.) or less antinutritive substances (e.g. mycotoxins, inhibitors, allergens etc.). GMP can be used in a wide variety to feed animals such as: Vegetative and generative plants or parts of plants (e.g. green forage, seeds, roots, tubers etc.) Conserved products from GMP (e.g. silage, hay) By-products of agriculture and food production, obtained from the processing of GMP (e.g. straw, by products of milling, of the starch, oil, sugar and brewing industries). Many studies were published for nutritional and safety assessment of feeds from GMP. Feeds from GMP with input traits (1st generation) 142 142 142

Most of the area under GMP is cultivated with plants of the first generation. Numerous scientific associations and expert panels proposed guidelines for the nutritional and safety assessment of feeds from first generation (EFSA 2004; ILSI 2003). Based on the recommendations, nutritional studies with first generation GMP feeds have been undertaken worldwide. Since 1997, 16 studies were performed at the Institute of Animal Nutrition of the German Federal Agricultural Research Centre (FAL) in Braunschweig to determine the effect of first generation GMP feeds on the nutrition of dairy cows, growing bulls, growing and finishing pigs, laying hens, chickens for finishing, as well as with growing and laying characteristics of quails. This research was recently summarized by Flachowsky et al. (2007). The majority of feeds tested in the studies (e.g., Bt-maize, Patmaize, Pat sugar beet) were grown under similar conditions to their isogenic counterparts in the experimental fields at FAL. The composition of feeds was analysed, and animal studies were used to assess nutritional qualities, including parameters such as digestibility, feed intake, health and performance of target animal species, and effects on food quality
200 Body weight (g per animal) 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 100 90 Laying intensity (%) 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Overall means (Range of generations) Isogenic 180.1 (172.0 – 190.1) Transgenic 176.9 (171.9 – 181.7)

A

B

Isogenic 81.3 (75.9 – 87.8)

Transgenic 81.4 (77.1 – 88.4)

C

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Generations

Hatchability (% of inc. eggs)

Isogenic 77.4 (66.8 – 90.5)

Transgenic 76.7 (67.0 – 83.2)

Fig. 1 A) Body weight of female quails (age: 6 weeks), (B) laying intensity and (C) hatchability of quails fed with isogenic (¦) and transgenic (Bt, ?) corn in a 10 generations experiment (Flachowsky et al., 2005b)

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derived from the animals. Reproduction was also considered in generation studies with quails (Fig. 1) and laying hens (4 generations). Both chemical analyses and the animal studies reveal no significant differences between GMP feeds and their isogenic counterparts (Table 1) and hence strongly support their substantial equivalence. Our results agree with more than 100 studies published in the literature and reviewed recently (Fachowsky et al., 2007). Mycotoxin contamination of some GMcrops is lower than non-GM which may be one exception to their substantial equivalence. For example, Bt maize is less severely attacked and weakened by the corn borer and might have a greater resistance to field infections, particularly Fusarium fungi, which produce mycotoxins. Evidence of reduced mycotoxin contaminated in GMcrops has been demonstrated in some but not all cases, as summarized by Fachowsky et al., (2005a). In long-term studies, numerous researchers, investigated the influence of levels of corn borer infestation of isogenic and Bt hybrids on mycotoxin contaminated. Most researchers concluded that a lower level of mycotoxin contamination was observed in the transgenic hybrids, despite the considerable geographical and temporal variation observed (Figure 2).
Table 1. Experiments comparing first generation GE feeds with isogenic counterparts (Flachowsky et al., 2005a) Animal Ruminants - Dairy cows - Beef cattle - Others Pigs Poultary - Laying hens - Broilers Number of experiments 23 14 10 21 3 28 Nutritional assessment No unintended effects in composition (except lower mucotoxins concentration in Bt plants) No significant differences digestibility and animal health as well as no unintended effects on performances of animals and composition of food of animal origin

120
Mycotoxins in %

isogenic Bt-corn

100 80 60 40 20 0

Deoxynivalenol

Zearalenone

Total Fumonisines

Fig. 2 Mycotoxins in isogenic (100 %) and Bt-corn (% of isogenic corn; data from some references, Flachowsky et al., 2005a)

Others (Fish, rabbits etc.) 8

Feeds from GMP with output traits (second generation) Second generation GMP are characterized by either: an increased content of desirable traits, such as Nutrient precursors (e.g., â-carotene) Nutrients (amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, minerals etc.) Substances which may improve nutrient digestibility (e.g., enzymes) Substances with surplus effects (e.g., prebiotics) Improvement of sensoric properties/palatability (e.g., essential oils, aromas) or a decreased content of undesirable substances such as: Inhibiting substances (e.g., lignin, phytate) Toxic substances (e.g., alkaloids, glucosinolates, mycotoxins). At present, detailed standardized test procedures are not available to analyze feeds from second generation GMP. Possible approaches for testing those feeds were recently reviewed by Flachowsky and Böhme (2005). Recommendations for nutritional and safety assessment of feeds from second generation GMP are being developed by EFSA (2007) and ILSI (2007). The following points should be considered when making a nutritional assessment of second generation GMP feeds. Feeds with intended beneficial physiological properties relating to amino acids, fatty 143 143 143

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acids, minerals, vitamins and other substances may contribute to higher feed intake of animals and/or improved conversion of feed/nutrients into food of animal origin. Furthermore, the excretion of nitrogen, phosphorus and other nutrients may be reduced. Consequently, depending on the claimed difference due of the genetic modification, the experimental must be designed to demonstrate these effects. Specific, targeted experimental designs are necessary to show the efficiency of the altered nutrient constituents. Genetic modifications may be associated with side effects (Cellini et al., 2004; Böhme et al., 2007) and the larger the modification, the greater the changes. As the basis for comparative approaches, special animal studies seem to be necessary to examine these questions. Therefore the nutritional and safety assessment of feeds from GMP of the second generation GMP is a significant challenge for animal nutritionists. Commercial isogenic counterparts (at least 3) should act as control to show, what in normal is animal studies (Mc Naughton et al., 2007). The fate of transgenic DNA and transgenic proteins The consumption of feeds from GMP resulted in the intake of transgenic DNA and proteins; therefore, studies were conducted on their fate during processing, within the gastrointestinal tract of animals, and the potential to which extent transgenes or their products may be incorporated into animal tissues (Flachowsky et al., 2005a). Studies in this field were excellently reviewed by Alexander et al. (2007) recently. Results on the fate of DNA can be summarized as followed: DNA is a permanent part of food/feed (daily intake: human: 0.1 – 1 g; pig: 0.5-4 g ; cow: 40-60 g). DNA is mostly degraded during conservation 144 144 144

(silage making) and industrial processing as well as in the digestive tract (pH, enzymes). Small fragments of DNA may pass through the mucosa and may be detected in some body tissues (especially leucocytes, liver, and spleen). Fragments of high-copy number genes from plants have been detected in animal tissues to a higher extent than from low-copy numbers. No data exists showing that tDNA is characterized by unique behaviour compared to native plant-DNA during feed treatment and in the animals.

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The fate of novel proteins in feed from GMP consumed by animals has also generated interest arising from consumers questions. Results from the studies can be summarized as follows (Alexander et al., 2007): In ruminant feed, proteins are mostly degraded in the rumen, and microbial protein and bypass proteins are degraded by enzymes in the smaller intestine, similar to non-ruminants. The chemical and physiological properties (including microbial and enzymatic degradation) of novel proteins have been intensively tested. Intact novel proteins have not been detected outside of the digestive tract in target animals (also not in animal tissues and products). There is no evidence that novel proteins are characterized by unusual chemical/physical properties distinct from native protein.

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Further research need There exist some open question despite of the high number of results showing a substantial and physiological equivalence of feeds from GMP of the first generation (Flachowsky et al., 2005a & 2007). Such questions deal with Unintended effects by phenotype selection or

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investigation of defined constituents (Cellini et al., 2004). In own studies (Böhme et al., 2007, Table 2) we observed side effects in GM-rapeseed (higher content of glucosinolates 20.4 vs 13.2 µmol/g) and GM-potatoes (more 904 vs 728 mg/kg DM alkaloids). Interpretation of feeding studies with certain unintended effects or disturbances in feeding studies (Table 3). Interpretation of results of feeding studies with statistical significance, but not biological relevance (Mc Naughton et al., 2007; Seralini et al., 2007).

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Consequences of experimental designs to include more commercial controls in order to assess the biological range in animal studies (Mc Naughton et al., 2007; ILSI 2007).

Table 2. Side effects in GM-rapeseed (rich in middle chained fatty acids) and inulin synthesizing potatoes (Böhme et al., 2007) Rapeseed Totalglucosinolates (µmol/g) AlkenylGSL (µmol/g) IndolylGSL (µmol/g)

13.2 20.4 9.6 16.3 3.6 4.1 Total a-Chaconine a-Solanine alkaloids (mg/kg DM) (mg/kg DM) (mg/kg DM) Isogenic 728 524 204 GM-potatoes 904 652 252

Isogenic GM-rapeseed Potatoes

Conclusions From the data presented above, the following conclusions can be drawn: Presently, over 500 mio. hectares of GMP have been cultivated worldwide. Most animal studies have been done using first generation GMP. No unintended effects in composition (except lower mycotoxins) or nutritional assessment of feeds from first generation GMP were registered in any of the more than 100 studies with food producing animals. Novel experimental designs are necessary for the nutritional and safety assessment of feeds from second generation GMP. Transgenic DNA and novel protein do not demonstrate unique properties during feed treatment or in animals. Feeds from GMP of the first generation, presently on the market, are much more investigated than traditional feeds.

Table 3. Comments to some animal studies which certain disturbances after feeding of GMP Authors Ewen and Pusztai (1999) Malatesta et al. (2002a,b) Study Lectin-potatoes to rats RR soybean to mice: comkparison with wild variety Result Influence of intestinal-trat, disturbance of reproduction Increased cell nucleus in liver and pancreas Comments Scientific study, no practical relevance Methodical weaknesses, comparison with wild variety, What is normal? Relevance of results? Physiological relevance, what is normal? Other results after repetition of study Values in physiological range; overestimation of data; what is normal? Statistical significance but biological not relevant. Critical analysis of the 90 days rat study, differences not directed, statistical significant, but biological not relevant

Scholtz et al. (2006) Mc Naughton et al. (2007)

Feeding of 50% Bt-corn in longterm study in qualils Maize event DAS-59122-7 in broilers

Differences in some enzymatic activities between both groups No differences, but liver of female rats was 3 g/kg bw. heavier (p<0.05) Some differences in liver and kidney parameters

Seralini et al. (2007)

New analysis of the rat feeding study by the notifier (Monsanto) with MON 863

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Case by case studies are necessary to answer open questions and to find out clarifications for unintended effects. In summary plant biotechnology may contribute in the solution of future problems of mankind. Nutritional and safety assessment of feeds from GMP of the second generation is a real challenge for animal nutritionists. REFERENCES Alexander, T.W. et al. (2007) Anim.Feed Sci. Technol., 133: 31-62 Böhme, H., Rudloff, E., Schöne, F., Schumann, W., Hüther, L., Flachowsky, G. (2007). Arch. Anim. Nutr., 61: 1-9 Cellini, F., Chesson, A., Coquhonn, I., Constable, A., Davies H.V., Engel, K.-H., Gatehouse, A.M.R., Kärenlampi, S., Kok, E.J., Legnay, J.J., Lehesranta S., Noteborn, H.P.J.M., Pedersen, J., Smith, M. (2004). Food Chem. Toxicol., 42: 1089-1123 EFSA (European Food Safety Autority) (2004) EFSA J., 99: 1-93 EFSA (2007) Safety and nutritional assessment of GM plant derived Foods/Feed. The role of animal feeding trials. Draft (in preparation) Flachowsky, G., and Böhme, H. (2005) J. Anim. Feed Sci., 14: Suppl. 1, 49-70 Flachowsky, G., Chesson, A., Aulrich, K. (2005a). Arch. Anim. Nutr., 59: 1-40

Flachowsky, G. (2006) Landbauforschung Völkenrode – FAL Agricultural Research, Special Issue, 294: 290 p. Flachowsky, G., Aulrich, K., Böhme, H., Halle, I. (2007). Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 133: 2-30 ILSI (2003) Best practices for the conduct of animal studies to evaluate crops genetically modified for input traits. International Life Sciences Institute, Washington, D.C. 62 p. http// www.ilsi.org/file/bestpracticescas.pdf. ILSI (2007) Best practices for the conduct of animal studies to evaluate crops genetically modified for output traits. Int. Life Sci. Inst., Washington D.C. (in press) Keyzer, M.A., Merbis, M.D. Pavel, L.F.P.W., and Van Wesenbeck, C.F.A. (2005) Ecological Economics 55: 187-202. Mc Naughton, I.L., Roberts, M., Rice, D., Smith, B., Hinds, M., Schmidt, J., Locke, M., Bryant, A., Rood, T., Layton, R., Lamb, I., Pelaney, B. (2007) Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 132: 227-239 Seralini, G.-E., Cellier, D., de Vendomris, J.S. (2007) Arch Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 1-7 Steinfeld, H., Gerber, P., Wassenaar, T., Castel, V., Rosales, M., de Haan, C. (2006) Livestock’s long shadow: Environmental issues and options. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rom.

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Efficacy of herbal feed additive for livestock
M. J. Saxena, K. Ravikant and Anup Kalra Ayurevet Ltd, New Delhi, India

We all know that customer is king! The demand of customer for good quality food with limited or no use of antibiotic, growth hormones & synthetic performance enhancers is a challenge to animal scientist & nutritionist in particular. For any healthy produce, the health of the animal is of prime importance. Feed being an important component of livestock profitability has also received due importance in recent years. Many years of research have helped to elucidate the basic principles of metabolism and nutrition. This has resulted in an extensive body of information relating to the nutritional requirement of Livestock. Major impediments of meeting these requirements at minimum cost relate to the inability of the animal to access all the potential nutrients in the diet and to absorb an ideal balance of nutrients from the digestive tract. Also, increasing cost of feed has led to the acceptance of even the substandard feed. In turn, infections of feed origin, diminished reproductive efficiency & compromised immune status have become quite common. In the present scenario, considering the high feed cost and low availability of high quality feed ingredients coupled with inevitable environmental changes (infectious and non-infectious), the only way left is to improve the health & immune status of livestock so as to help them adapt with changing conditions. It is here the concept of Greek physician Hippocrates, “Let thy food be thy medicine” has started gaining acceptability resulting in usage of herbals/Ayurveda formulations for improving farm profits. But, the key question is, people need

What is Ayurveda? Ayurveda Ayur-Life, Veda-Knowledge, in Sanskrit), the science of life is the oldest medical discipline. It is a holistic approach to remedies of maladies affecting humans and animals. Herbals are integral part of most of the medical therapies mentioned in Ayurveda. Natural substances of plant origin have been used and are being used throughout the world for human and animal health care. In many parts of the world herbalism serves the health care needs and forms a part of primary health care system. It is estimated that 80% of the world population living in developing countries still relies on plants for health. Ayurveda not only takes care of treatment of human & animals but also places great emphasis on prevention of illnesses and maintenance of health. Basic principles of Ayurveda Holistic approach: “To Restore Health by Harmony between Various Body Systems & the Environment.” Pro-host approach: To Strengthen the Body Defense System & Fight Infection.The sages of Ayurveda emphasized on the importance of health & preventing the disease. This was achieved by developing or strengthening the immune system to fight all possible infections for treatment of diseases. Historical milestones Ten thousand years ago, since the beginning of domestication of animals, stock raisers and handlers have cared for the health of their livestock. Probably, from the same time they have been experienc147 147 147

to understand its scientific relevance & clinical effectiveness.

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ing with their own veterinary theories and techniques. The oldest known veterinary texts originated from India, Egypt and China. Studies of Ancient Egyptian veterinary knowledge and skills show the presence of basic surgery and herbal veterinary medicines at that time. History of herbal veterinary medicine dates back to the era of Mahabharata (5000 B.C.), the record of which is available in the form of a treatise and manuscripts on ancient veterinary medicines. (Nakul Samhita, Asvaayurveda, Sarsangraha). Health and health index “Health” has been a major concern at all time for individual, family, community, society and one of the key service area for Government(s) everywhere in the world. Health – the word itself in all its expression and meaning is widely perceived as something beneficial or good (Healthier organization, Healthy appetite, healthy profits) but in medical context implies “absence of disease”. However in true sense and in relation to life is the perfect state of co-ordination & balance of living being (be it human or Animal) with environment, diet and self. Degree of this coordination determines the Health Index. The two extremes of this health index are perfect co-ordination (optimum health) and unbalanced mis-coordination (health disorders & diseases). Health and productivity in animals is directly related and usage of herbal for better health & productivity to achieve maximum economic gain is widely practiced in many part of the world. International scenario of Ayurveda People all over the world, since centuries, have utilized, locally available herb. Most of such indigenous knowledge has been handed over down through the ages by oral tradition & later through the recorder manuscript & treatise. The global herbal market is about US $62 billion which is growing around 10-15% annually as 148 148 148

against a growth rate of 3% for allopathic pharmaceuticals and is expected to reach US $5 trillion by the year 2050. Indian share of the world trade of herbal products is negligible (around Rs.450crore) as of now. China’s exports of traditional Chinese medicines/ herbs are to the tune of US $5 billion. The number of people using herbal products rose by 50% last year in the USA. In Japan, 147 herbal medicines are eligible by national health insurance scheme. Germany gives equal importance for phytopharmaceuticals having excellent quality standards. In Australia, annual expenditure on alternate medicine is around US $621 million. According to estimates the sale of Allium sativum (garlic) containing products in USA is to the tune of US $50million per year. Advancement and interest in Ayurveda The scientific & technological advancement in the field of diagnostics, material analysis, instrumentation & introduction of the latest biological screening models in the last four decades has revived the interest of modern scientist & health care practitioners in herbals. Additionally, the development of the resistance of pathogens & parasites against the deadly chemicals developed in last few decades coupled with ever growing concern of toxicity & damage to the environment has also helped in creating renewed interest in the science of herbals or Ayurveda. The herbs mentioned in the Ayurveda have been critically evaluated, their genus & species & active parts have been identified, and their chemical investigation for identification of active principles, confirmation of biological activities & safety data have been scientifically studied & established. Ayurvedic practitioners have been innovative and dynamic and the process of discovery of newer remedies is still on. The information on several herbs which have withstood the scientific evaluations in latest screening models testify the wisdom of our ancestors for having identified such plants from nature & collec-

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tive wisdom fro the traditional usage is continuing till date. Ayurveda in animal health care Since our ancient times, the science of Ayurveda had lot of relevance in animals too. This can be traced back to the times of Mahabharata. Nakul, the youngest of the Pandvas was known to be a qualified vet & was an expert in treating elephants, horses & other animals. Our ancient old text books or granths viz AshvaAyurveda, GarudPuran are testimony that Ayurveda has been documented & practiced on animals as for not only treating them but also to improve their productivity. In Animal Husbandry, the requirements for remedies have been constantly changing with changes in the methods of rearing animals to such an extent that the requirements of present day farm animal remedies are entirely different from those prevalent a couple of decades ago. Major developments in the field of animal breeding have led to the adoption of highly specialized breeds of animals that excel in different traits for which they have been handpicked. For example cross bred cow now produces more milk. The layer bird produces more than 300 eggs in a year. Pigs grow much faster & produce lean meat. Use on Ayurveda in livestock: Indian scenario Over these years use of Herbal specialties has helped the farmer in improving health & productivity of his livestock. The most important thing in Ayurveda is Garbage In, Garbage Out (GIGO) This means if you use the right raw material you will get the positive response. Of course, appropriate processing is equally important. Let us take look at some of the important areas which may be of concern to the vet & the animal owner. Stress in livestock Scientific studies validated by numerous clinical trials have shown that one of the major causes of all 149 149 149

ailments faced by farm animals today is stress caused by the intensive breeding and management practices is faced by nearly each and every animal being reared for commercial and recreational purposes. Fast and efficient production of high quality farm produce from low quality inputs is in itself a stressful proposition. Such stress is almost always accompanied with immunosuppression, and this predisposes these animals to other ailments infectious or otherwise which are detrimental to farm profits and sometimes even fatal. The production loss because of various stresses in animals may be estimated to the tune of around Rs. 2.0 crores approx. Adoption of Ayurvedic remedies for countering the causes and the effects of stress is therefore a promising application afforded by this ancient school of healing in the field of animal production. Some commonly available and extensively used herbs can be taken up here to highlight the research efforts put in by the scientific community and clinical benefits perceived in target animals. Mangifera indica (Amra ghansatva) has potent anti-oxidant and immunostimulatory activity. The alcoholic extracts of stem and bark of Mangifera indica Linn produced increase in humoral antibody (HA) titre. Aqueous extract provided significant and better protection against induced oxidative damage compared to other antioxidants like vitamin C and Vitamin E. Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) is one of the most highly esteemed plants in Ayurveda belonging to the class of plants called as “rasayana” or “rejuvenative”. It has potent Antistress, Immunomodulator and antioxidant activities. Pharmacological studies and biological evaluations of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) leaves extracts (aqueous and ethanol) have shown adaptogenic properties, which improve endurance and resistance when tested against a battery of stress-induced conditions indicating non-specific mode of actions. Further, Tulsi possesses potent immunostimulatory properties. The antistress and performance enhancement effect was reflected in a study conducted on broiler

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breeders. The herbs were found to improve hatchability, Reduce egg rejection and better vaccination response in parent flock even after stoppage of their supplementation. The positive effect was transferred to the progeny in the form of high maternal antibody titre, more day old chick wt. and less early chick mortality Reproductive efficiency Another major area which affects the farm profits is reproductive efficiency. It is a commonly observed complaint under field conditions that animal has retained placenta after parturition. In advent of above, the animal does not come in eostrus. Even if the animal comes in heat, it does not conceive. The estimated losses in India because of the improper reproductive efficiency may be to the tune of R.10 cr +/annum. In such cases, the most effective step advised is cleansing of uterus immediately after parturition. This followed by timely induction of heat & conception for next calving. In such cases herbs along with trace minerals have been found to play a significant role. The same has been documented scientifically & is an established fact now. Important Herbs for improving reproductive efficiency are roots and leaves of Plumbago zeylanica (Chitraka) are known to posses ecbolic, anti-inflammatory and anti oxidant actions. Aleo barbedensis (Kumari) possesses anti-inflammatory and antibacterial property. Aristolochia indica (Sunanda) possesses stimulant, abortificient & antiinflammatory properties. Gloriosa superba (Agnishikha) possesses stimulant, abortificient actions. Peganum harmala (Harmal) possesses analgesic, antimicrobial & stimulant action. These herbs when put together have in general found to be very useful in helping the animal for timely expulsion of the placenta. These herbs have been validated scientifically for their actions. Mastitis in animals Mastitis is one of the most important produc150 150 150

tion diseases causing deterioration in milk quality & quantity. The annual losses due to mastitis in India are to tune of 1000 cr Mastitic milk is unfit for human consumption & may pose severe health hazards. Owing to multiple etiologies & its association with udder Immunity it is difficult to eradicate mastitis. Therefore control of mastitis in milch animals is the first & foremost step for “Clean & quality milk production.” The key to control of Mastitis is to educate the farmer on various aspects of hygiene, udder health, nutrition & timely detection of mastitis with special focus on improving udder defense mechanism. Ayurvet though it’s Mastitis Management Cell (MMC) has been undertaking lot of education & extension work in the farmers interest. The recent Technical Symposium on dairy, “Mastitis & milk quality “was one step towards Mastitis control. Some important herbs which are known to have positive impact on udder Immunity & bringing the animal back into production are as under: Roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Yashti madhu) are useful in inflammatory affections & also have a good antioxidant action. Roots of stems Cedrus deodara (Devadaru) have potent antibacterial, antifungal, would healing properties. The major action of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) include Immuno-modulator, Antistress & adaptogenic amd that of Curcuma longa (Haldi or Haridra) are anti-inflammatory, Antifungal, Antibacterial & Antioxidant. Formulation containing above herbs have been scientifically validated for its benefit in terms Controlling mastitis & improvement in milk Quality & quantity Mycotoxins Like stress, in modern livestock operations, Mycotoxins has become a menace especially for the poultry industry despite all measures taken during harvesting, storage and processing of food grains. The problem of mycotoxicosis is grave in tropical countries including India due to conducive climate for growth.

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The menace of mycotoxins is worldwide which retard the carbohydrate, protein, lipid and vitamin metabolism along with reduced nucleic acid synthesis and mitochondrial respiration. The feeding of contaminated feed stuffs result in anorexia, growth depression, enteritis, salivation, nephritis, osteoarthritis, jaundice, damage of liver and reduction in milk production. Apart from this the breeding efficiency of the animal gets hampered affecting the farm profits Although traditional remedies and plant materials are in use for the hundreds of years to control the fungal infection in human and animal including contamination of feed stuff, the recent advances in the research has validated their usefulness in various stages of Mycotoxins control viz., fungal growth, toxin production, neutralization & detoxification in the body. Allium sativum, Solanum nigrum and Azadir-achta indica are few examples of such plants now have been validated for their anti Mycotoxins property. Allium sativum extract exhibited 100% inhibitory action on growth of the fungus and aflatoxin AFB1 production with the spores of Aspergillus parasiticus in rice culture and incubated at 30oc for 5 days. Azadirachta indica leaf extracts added to fungal growth media at 1,5,10,20 and 50%v/v concentration prior to inoculation essentially blocked (98%) aflatoxin biosynthesis at concentrations greater than 10%v/v. In another trial, the addition of Solanum nigrum to diets of Wistar Albino female rats which received daily intraperiotoneal injection of Aflatoxin B1 improved the quantity of some nutrients having a direct influence on drug-metabolizing enzyme and in turn the

activity of liver drug metabolizing enzymes which help in detoxification of aflatoxin B1. These above mentioned herbs have also shown the clinical benefits when used along with the feed contaminated with commonly found mycotoxins Aflatoxin B1 and Ochratoxin on day old broiler birds reared for 42 days. The ameliorative effects of these herbs along with commonly used mycotoxin binder HSCAS was evident by 10-15% higher body wt., better FCR reflecting efficient feed conversion along with higher humoral and cellular immune response in treated groups vis a vis contamination group. The above instances are but glimpses from the vast and virgin world of Ayurveda through the clear eye of modern science. Despite a plethora of information having been already garnered over a period of time, Ayurveda is still shrouded under the green blankets of the forests and the thick beard of the seers. For Ayurvedic remedies to be accepted in mainstream medicine and for the masses to refrain from indiscriminate use of contemporary system of therapy, this precious gift from Mother Nature must be given its due place among contemporary systems of therapy. The statement assumes a greater significance in light of the immense contribution made by allopathic medicine. Allopathic medicine can not be replaced by not only Ayurveda but any system of medicine. The need is therefore to chalk out a comprehensive, objective driven and well-monitored plan to explore further the intricacies of Ayurveda with the help of modern scientific tools to identify potential areas of efficient application. This information thus generated should be disseminated; their adoption encouraged facilitating a harmonious integration with conventional therapy.

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Silver Jubilee Year

Implications for minerals deficiency in ruminants and methods for its amelioration
C. S. Prasad, N. K. S. Gowda, D. T. Pal Animal Science Division, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi -110 011, India 2,3 National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Bangalore-560 030, India

The proper balance of protein, energy, vitamins, and minerals is needed to make a successful nutrition program. Cattle cannot perform to their genetic potential if their mineral needs are not met, even if they receive 100% of their protein and energy needs. Minerals are an integral part of the total nutrient management system as they are essential for growth and reproduction and are involved in a large number of digestive, physiological and biosynthetic processes within the body. The most obvious function is as components of body organs and tissues and to provide structural support. In addition they act as electrolytes, as constituents of body fluids and as catalysts in both enzyme and hormone systems. Therefore, they fulfill several important functions for the maintenance of animal, growth and reproduction as well as health status. The mineral elements that are of particular importance are categorized into major (calcium, phosphorous, potassium, sodium, chlorine, sulfur and magnesium) and trace elements (iron, iodine, copper, zinc, manganese, cobalt, selenium, fluoride and molybdenum). Based on identification of one or more metabolic function, at least 15 minerals are regarded as essential. They are required in small quantities as compared to other major nutrients like protein and energy and generally are considered to have less immediate impact on overall performance and economic efficiency but should never be overlooked as their deficiency can have a marked effect on productivity, particularly reproduction and health. There is an apparent increase in mineral deficiencies in tropical countries, and the reasons include 1. improved genetic selection of livestock for 152 152 152

better growth rates and higher production, 2. changes in traditional cropping practices with poor soil management, improved fertilization methods or improved plant breeding, 3. modification of traditional feeding programs to improve production and use of feed additives. In recent years number of mineral disorders in livestock which may be characterized as chronic or marginal have been reported. In tropical countries animals are mostly fed on crop residues, natural grasses, tree leaves and shrubs. In such diets the mineral content is generally low and their availability to the host is not known. Intensive cultivation of pastures, changes in agricultural practices and differences in agro-climatic conditions and infusion of superior germplasm for upgrading the production trait of cattle and the changes in techniques used for feed processing and manufacturing have greatly altered the mineral need of animals and the ways they have to be met. The plants derive the minerals from soil, and the animals from the plants / feed they consume and there is a direct interrelationship between soil, plant and animals, which may not be linear always. Several factors regulate the transfer of minerals from soils to plants and from plants to animals. Soil characteristics (pH, moisture), the type of plant (green fodder vs mature straws etc.), the physiological status of the animal (lactating, growing) and the accompanying feed, all of these collectively or individually contribute on the mineral uptake and utilization. Soil and its effect on mineral deficiency in animals The mineral content of soils depend not only on

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the parent material but on a complex of pedogenic factors like laterization, calcification and salinization. Translocation further occurs by processes of surface erosion, leaching, evaporation and redeposition of minerals on the surface. Of the total mineral concentration in soils, only a fraction is taken up by the plants. The "availability" of minerals in soils depends upon their effective concentration in soil solution. Several factors influence the uptake of minerals by crops and pastures from the soil. These include 1) soil acidity 2) soil moisture 3) soil temperature 4) plant variety 5) fertilization 6) organic matter and microbial activity of soil. For trace mineral absorption the pH has the most marked effect on the availability. Alkaline soils lead to an increased biological availability of some trace elements such as Se and Mo. With decreasing soil pH, Se is less available, but the uptake of some cationic metals like Cu is increased. Soil leaching, erosion and long term cropping lead to a depletion of trace minerals. Crop management and climatic conditions also influence the eventual trace mineral level in feeds. Fertilization and / or heavy rainfall can result in lush pasture growth and the dilution of some trace minerals. With increased soil pH, there was drastic decrease in Manganese (Mn) content. Water logging of a soil results in conversion of an aerobic to an anaerobic environment in the root zone area. The concentration of N in the plant tends to decrease and that of P increases with increasing moisture level, but no definite trends are seen for other minerals. The soil temperature and season can influence the uptake of minerals with respect to the growth of the pastures. At low temperatures, the mineral uptake is slower possibly because of depressed root extension and membrane permeability. With the advent of Green Revolution, deficiencies of micronutrients were observed widely in several Indian soils and crops. Zn deficiency was widely observed in rice, wheat, maize, groundnut, cotton and their residues in the intensively cultivated irrigated areas. Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, 153 153 153

Madhya Pradesh and Haryana as well as all IndoGangetic Alluvial plains showed extensive deficiency of Zn in soil. Though much less extensive, the deficiencies of Mn, Cu and Fe were also found in the soil of different agro-climatic zones of the country. Plant and its effect on mineral deficiency in animals Feeds / fodders are the main source of minerals for livestock. Grazing animals receive certain level of minerals from water and soil ingestion. Of the minerals present in soil only a fraction is taken up by plants depending on geophysical / chemical conditions as explained above. Plant mineral content is dependent on other factors like type of soil, plant species, stage of maturity, pasture management and agro-climatic conditions. Mineral concentrations and availability are mainly affected by four interdependent factors: the genus, species, or variety of crop type and mineral concentration of soil climatic or seasonal conditions stage of plant maturity Genus, species, or varietal effects: Plant varieties growing on the same soil under the same environmental conditions show marked differences in mineral uptake. Legumes are superior in mineral efficiency to the grasses particularly in terms of Ca and Mg uptake. In general, legumes are higher in calcium, copper, zinc, iron, and cobalt than grasses. In contrast, grasses tend to be higher in manganese and molybdenum than legumes when grown on the same soil. Most of the trace mineral concentration was higher in pasture legume species than other grasses. Research has shown that even variety within a species affects mineral composition. Straws and stovers are deficient in most of the minerals. They contain excess of silica, oxalate and tannins which may interfere in the utilization of other minerals / nutrients. Plant requirement of certain minerals (Mn, Zn, K) may exceed animal requirements and certain minerals may be required at higher levels in

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animals (Na, Cl, I, Co and Se). Mature plants are low in minerals as most of the minerals may get accumulated in seeds due to translocation. Mineral needs for Animal The mineral needs of the animals depend on the requirement and the availability of minerals. The mineral requirement is related to animal output and therefore providing minerals in the diet is particularly important for high producing animals. For calculating the mineral requirements, it is necessary to know the type of feed ingredients that are used in the ration along with the accompanying roughage source (grass / straws / stovers). The requirement of minerals for different classes of livestock is discussed subsequently. Several factors govern the uptake of minerals from soil to plants and plants to animals and existence of soil-plant-animal interrelationship for some trace elements has been reported. The status of micronutrients in soil, plant and animals would be a useful tool in understanding the severity of the deficiency for providing cost effective supplementation for improving production, reproduction, and profitability of livestock owners. The surveys conducted under All India Coordinated Research Project in different agro-climatic zones of the country suggest that nearly all forages are deficient in one or more minerals and that there is a widespread occurrence of the deficient levels of calcium, phosphorous, copper and zinc for ruminants grazing forages. In addition, trace mineral concentrations in forages vary much more than do protein and energy concentrations. This is further complicated by the fact that the availability of minerals may be affected by the distribution and form of minerals in the feedstuff, as well as interactions with other minerals or dietary components that inhibit absorption or utilization of a given mineral. The mineral deficiencies in ruminants fed forages often result from low availability rather than low concentration of a given mineral. 154 154 154

Mineral distribution in animal body The minerals are generally stored in bones, muscles and other soft tissues which are primary storage sites (Table 1). Most minerals are distributed more evenly in the body and exist in accordance with their function. Based on their tissue concentration the minerals have been classified as major and micro minerals.
Requirements

The mineral requirements can be expressed in amounts per day or per unit of the product or as percentage of the dietary dry matter intake. The
Table 1. Mineral distribution in animal body Element Calcium Phosphorus Magnesium Sodium Chlorine Pottasium Sulphur Iron Copper Zinc Molybdenum Cobalt Iodine Manganese In body Primary storage

Macrominerals, % 1.4 Bones and soft tissues 0.74 Bones and soft tissues 0.04 Bones, muscles 0.18 Extra cellular fluids 0.11 Intracellular / extracellur fluids 0.25 Skin, muscles and intra cellur fluids 0.15 Liver, muscles, skin Micronutrients, ppm 70 Haemoglobin 2 All tissues 30 Skin, hair, wool and other tissues Traces All tissues Traces Liver, bone, kidney Traces Thyroid Traces Liver, bone, pancreas, kidney

former is more accurate but the later is simpler and practical as long as there is no variation in the feed intake. Where the dry matter intake varies considerably (particularly when straws and stovers are fed), the expression in absolute amount may be more appropriate. Feeding low quality roughages results in increased faecal endogenous losses of Ca and P leading to increased requirements of these minerals. Presence of certain antinutritional factors like oxalates, silicates and phytates beyond a par-

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ticular level may affect the utilization of certain minerals like Ca, P, Zn, Mn and Fe. Also the need to supplement minerals may be more in animals with parasitic infestation. Mineral requirement are highly dependent on the level of productivity. Increased growth rates and milk production will greatly increase mineral requirements. Marginal mineral deficiencies, under low levels of production become more severe with increased levels of production. Dairy animals producing more than 10 litters of milk have a greater requirement of Ca & P as compared to low yielder as milk contains high concentration (0.11 - 0.13%) of these two elements. Similarly the requirement for zinc for spermatogenesis and testicular development in male sheep are higher than for growth. Manganese requirement is also lesser for growth than for fertility in sheep. Important difference in mineral utilization can occur due to breed variation and also the nutritional status of the animals. The variation in the efficiency of mineral absorption within breeds could be as high as 5 - 30 % for magnesium, 40 - 80 % for phosphorus and 2 - 10 % for copper. When the energy and protein supplies are adequate there is a higher requirement for minerals with better utilization with improved livestock performance. The micronutrient requirement can be influenced by metabolic or nutritional factors that result in other elements complexing specific microelements rendering them nutritionally unavailable to animals. Most of the nutrient requirements have not accounted for relatives' new information that describes the effect of nutrition on immune function, and many of the requirements have not been evaluated in terms of optimal reproduction. There is reason to suggest that optimal immune responsiveness and decrease resistance and cobalt deficiencies have been shown to alter various components of the immune system. Requirements for copper can vary from 4 to 15 mg/kg depending largely on the concentration of dietary molybdenum and sulfur. The recommended concentration of copper in cattle diets is 10 mg Cu/kg 155 155 155

diet. This amount provides adequate copper if the diet does not exceed 0.25 percent sulfur and 2 mg Mo/kg diet. Less than 10 mg Cu/kg diet may meet requirements of feedlot cattle as copper is more available in concentrate diets than in forage diets. Copper is believed to react with thiomolybdates in the rumen to form poorly absorbed insoluble complexes. Thiomolybdates can result in copper becoming tightly bound to plasma albumin and unavailable for biochemical functions. They also may directly inhibit certain copper-dependent enzymes. Sulfur reduces copper absorption, perhaps via formation of copper sulfide in the rumen. High concentrations of iron and zinc also reduce copper status, which may increase copper requirements. Sulfur in feedstuffs is largely a component of protein. Dietary sulfur requirements may be higher when diets high in rumen bypass protein are fed because of sulfur's limitation for optimal ruminal fermentation. Sulfur supplementation may be needed when urea or other nonprotein nitrogen sources replace natural preformed protein. Mature forages, forages grown in sulfur-deficient soils, corn silage and sorghum x sudangrass are low in sulfur. Sorghum forages seem inherently low in sulfur relative to other forages. Trace minerals in production and reproduction of ruminants The mechanism of mineral-reproduction interactions is not fully understood because of the complexity of neuro-hormonal dialogue. Some minerals act directly on the gonads, while others act through hypophyseal - pituitary - gonadal axis. Elements like Se once considered toxic, is known to improve both male and female fertility when supplemented in organic form as selenomethionine. During reproductive events reactive metabolites of oxygen are produced and are removed through antioxidant process by Se and vitamin E and provide a convenient environment for reproduction. Similarly other trace elements like Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr and I also act

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as co - factors or activate enzymes and helps in hormone synthesis and hence influence biochemical functions associated with reproduction. Because of their role in the endocrine system and in tissue integrity, minerals have a beneficial role to play in resumption of follicular growth and fertility in dairy cows and buffaloes. The potential for minerals to play a significant role in herd fertility is indisputable. The minerals that affect reproduction in ruminants are generally found within the trace element group, although deficiencies of calcium and phosphorous can also affect the fertility. Reproductive problems are frequently reported in association with trace mineral deficiencies, particularly copper, zinc, selenium and manganese. Zinc deficiency in ruminants has been postulated to weaken the skin and other stratified epithelia as well as reducing the basal metabolic rate following infectious challenge. Zinc is a co-factor for many proteins and enzymes involved in acute phase response to infection and inflammation. Because the mammary gland is a skin gland, it is likely that zinc will have a positive role in its protection. Skin integrity of the teat has been shown to be specially linked with mastitis prevention. Zinc activates several enzyme systems and is a component of many metalloenzymes. It plays a vital role in hormone secretion, especially related to growth, reproduction, immunocompetence and stress. Zinc is also involved in the generation of keratin and in skin nucleic acid and collagen synthesis as well as in the maintenance of normal vitamin A concentration in plasma and in ovarian function. Many animals therefore require supplemental zinc in the diet for normal body function because of either low levels in the dietary ingredients or the presence of antagonistic factors, which decrease the bioavailability of the element. Antagonism might be due to metals ion interactions such as iron or copper. Source of fibre has also been reported to decrease the availability of zinc. Manganese (Mn) is involved in the activities of several enzyme systems including hydrolases, kinases, decarboxylases and transferases as well as Fe-con156 156 156

taining enzymes which require Mn in their activity. It is therefore involved in carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism. It is also needed for bone growth and maintenance of connective and skeletal tissue. Mn also plays a role in reproduction and in immunological function. Mn deficiency results in abnormal skeletal growth, increased fat deposition, reproductive problems and reduced milk production. Selenium (Se) is a semi-metal that is very similar to sulfur in its chemical properties. It is an essential component of glutathione enzyme system, and a deficiency of selenium will leave the cell vulnerable to oxidation and increase the requirement of vitamin E. It has therefore been usual to supplement in the diets of all classes of animals, because of its antioxidant properties. Sulfur is a component of the amino acids methionine, cysteine and cystine; the B-vitamins, thiamin and biotin; as well as a number of the organic compounds. Sulfate, a component of sulfated mucopolysaccharides, also functions in certain detoxification reactions. All sulfur-containing compounds, with the exception of biotin and thiamin, can be synthesized from methionine. Ruminal microorganisms are capable of synthesizing all required organic sulfur-containing compounds from inorganic sulfur. Sulfur is also required by ruminal microorganisms for their growth and normal cellular metabolism. Cobalt is an essential trace element in ruminant diets for the production of vitamin B12, which has 4% cobalt in its chemical structure, by the rumen microbes to meet the vitamin B12 requirements of both the ruminal bacteria and the host animal. This means that a cobalt deficiency is really a vitamin B12 deficiency. The NRC recommends the dietary requirement of dairy cattle for Co as 0.11 mg/kg; however, ruminal synthesis of B12 increased nearly 20-fold in sheep when dietary Co was increased from 0.1 to 0.5 mg/kg. In the ruminant, the efficiency of production of vitamin B12 from Co is low, only about 3%; however, efficiency increases to about 13% when Co intake is low. So, the

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measurements of the amount of dietary cobalt converted to vitamin B12 in the rumen have ranged from 3 to 13 percent of intake. The relative production of cobalamin and the cobalamin analogs, which have no B12 activity is affected by the diet. In general, diets that are largely composed of roughages tend to promote greater production of cobalamin, and diets containing larger amounts of concentrates tend to reduce cobalamin production and to lower the ratio of cobalamin to the various analogues of vitamin B12. Mineral deficiency Mineral deficiencies occur more often when animals are confined within a given area and are closely dependent on soil profile and plant structure in that limited area. Deficiencies of minerals are more common in tropical countries where poor quality straws / stovers are the major roughages. Calcium deficiency can occur in soil in humid regions under conditions in which rainfall exceeds evapotranspiration and where bases have been depleted and soil acidity has developed. Calcium deficiency has been widely reported from many parts of the world and in India. However, the lower incidence of calcium than phosphorus disorders is attributable to three major factors (a) higher concentration of Ca than of P in the leaves and stems of most plant species; P is concentrated in seeds, (b) a wider distribution of P-deficient than Ca-deficient soils and (c) a lesser decline in the concentration of Ca than of P with advancing maturation of the plant. Further, inclusion of bran and oil cakes in ruminant diets at higher levels impairs the Ca :P ratio, thus affecting the mineral utilization Most naturally occurring mineral deficiencies in ruminants are associated with specific geographic regions. Tropical animal husbandry is mostly semi-intensive. The small holding livestock system is dependent mainly on grazing and crop residues as source of dry matter. Mineral imbalances are quite common in this system and there have been evidences of trace mineral deficiency/excess in differ157 157 157

ent regions of the country. Many recent studies have indicated the deficiency of Cu and Zn in most fodders available in different regions and the level of Fe and Mn in most feeds and fodders was quite high. There are incidences of low reproductive efficiency in livestock in most regions, which is often attributed to the deficiency of Cu, Zn, or Mn. The trace mineral deficiency in livestock in industrial areas due to more lead and cadmium also has been reported. The areas of high rainfall and hilly regions are likely to be deficient in iodine and selenium, which needs much investigation. Diagnosis and assessment of mineral deficiency The diagnosis and assessment and thus prevention of trace mineral deficiency need a thorough understanding of the factors like age of animal, season, clinical signs, soil profile, plant mineral content and feeding practices. Based on these preliminary information, further biological diagnostic tests can be followed for confirmation. In general mineral deficiency is diagnosed by observing the clinical symptoms. But mineral deficiency signs are often confusing as the observed symptoms can be associated with more than one mineral and can be combined with the effects of protein and/ or energy inadequacy, various types of parasitism, toxic plants, infectious diseases or with deficiency of other micronutrients. Except for characteristic signs like goiter in iodine deficiency or white muscle disease in selenium deficiency, most trace element deficiencies produce non-specific signs such as loss of appetite, retarded growth, unthriftiness or reproductive problems, and hence clinical / pathological examination of biological materials is required. Some mineral like Ca, Mg and P are stored in body tissues and their deficiency symptoms are exhibited only after a period of time. Calcium and phosphorous deficiency can be observed more quickly, particularly in high producing animals and fast growing calves. Critical values of certain minerals in soil, plant and animals are provided in Table 2, which will be of much use in ascertaining the mineral deficiency. Certain naturally

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occurring mineral deficiency / toxicity is directly related to soil characteristics as in case of fluoride, Se and Mo, but the level of mineral in soil does not necessarily indicate its availability to plants growing on the soil. Other limitation of plant mineral analysis is the biological availability and factors influencing the utilization like chelating agents, mineral antagonism etc. Analysis of mineral content in body tissues is a better indicator of the mineral adequacy because mineral deficiency result in subnormal concentration of the element and will usually be associated with clinical signs, however for certain minerals due to homeostatic mechanisms the levels may remain normal even during deficiency, but will respond positively to supplementation. Research is being conducted for using biochemical markers like specific enzymes / tissues to assess the mineral status more precisely. Commonly used indices of mineral element status in animals There are numerous measures of essential mineral element status, including growth rate, tissue

and physiological fluids concentrations, enzyme concentrations and activities, chemical balance and mobilizable stores. Blood and its specific nutrient concentrations provide a useful but frequently inadequate index. The first limiting biochemical system should provide the most valid index, but in many cases it is not known or not readily measured. Chemical balance and mobilizable stores provide valid measures but are difficult to determine. Two indices are infinitely more valuable than one and should be determined if possible. More research is needed to establish valid indicators of nutritional status for mineral elements. Indices used for mineral element adequacy are: Growth rate Blood and plasma concentrations Hair concentrations, Biopsy tissue concentration Enzyme concentrations and activities, Physiological functions Chemical balance Mobilizable stores

Table 2. Critical values of trace minerals (ppm) for assessment of status Element Fe Cu Zn Mn I Soil 2.5 0.3 1 5 Feed/fodder 50 8 30 40 0.1-0.2 Animal body Normal level (serum) 1-2 0.65-1.2 125-600 (liver, DM) 1-2 25-200 (liver DM) 6-70 ppb > 13 (liver DM) 0.1 - 0.4 total I 0.04 - 0.13 (Proteinbound) 20-100 ppb T 4 Deficient <1 <40 (liver-wet weight) < 0.2 - 0.6 < 33 - 125 (liver-wet weight) < 0.6-0.8 <25-40 (liver DM) < 5 ppb < 7 (liver, DM) < 0.05-0.10 I < 0.03-0.05 (protein bound) < 7-30 ppb T 4 < 0.5 ng/ml (rumen fluid) < 0.05 (liver) Vit B12 < 0.1-0.2 ppb < 0.2 -0.5 (liver, DM) < 0.06-0.2 (whole blood) < 0.03

Co

-

0.08-0.1

Mo Se

-

0.5 0.1

0.2-1.2 (whole blood), 1.2-2.5 (liver DM)

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Immune competence and Behaviour and appearance Subclinical mineral deficiencies are thought to be very widespread and are likely to be of more economic significance than are easily recognized cases. With inadequate mineral intakes, animals may have lower milk production, growth and reproductive efficiency without recognizable signs. So, it is utmost important to diagnose the mineral inadequate animals at marginal or sub optimum levels. The current study at National Institute and Animal Nutrition and Physiology (NIANP), Bangalore is proposed to investigate the response of several putitive indices of Cu and Zn status, including, ceruloplasmin, Cu/Zn-Super oxide dismutase, plasma concentrations, tissue and wool concentrations to Cu and Zn supplementation in sheep. Data emanating from the study indicated the potential of these indices as indicators of sub optimal Cu and Zn status in healthy sheep population. Amelioration of mineral deficiency Strategic approach for mineral supplementation: Performance of livestock in the tropics is mainly governed by the quality and quantity of nutrients provided in the diet. In most of the developed countries, the principal means by which cattle producers try to meet the requirement is through use of free - choice dietary minerals. This is neither practical nor cost effective in developing countries where the livestock are fed on crop residues and concentrate by products. Where compounded concentrate diets are not fed, it is necessary to rely on both indirect and direct methods of providing minerals. Indirect methods of Mineral supplementation Enrichment of soil with essential minerals through fertilization: Indirect provision of minerals to grazing livestock includes, mineral fertilization of pasture and altering soil pH, however this may not 159 159 159

be always feasible due to complex soil - plant animal interrelationship. In the indirect approach, soil treatment of deficient minerals would make these elements accumulate in plants. For instance soil treatment of cobalt and selenium will improve their concentration in plants without having any effect on plant yield. This effect may be neutralized in high alkaline or calcareous soils, as the uptake of cobalt by plants in such soils would be affected. Copper application makes it more available to plants in soils low in molybdenum content, but will not be effective when soils contain high molybdenum. High application of NPK fertilizers reduces the calcium, magnesium and sodium availability to plants. So the approach to enrich the soil through micronutrient supplementation may not be very cost effective and also may not yield the desired results due to the variation in soil profile in different zones. Trace element intakes that can be improved by fertilization include selenium, cobalt, copper, zinc, boron, and possibly nickel. Direct methods of mineral supplementation In India the livestock farmers provide some quantity of cakes, bran, rice polish and husk as concentrate supplement to productive animals. Unproductive animals are generally allowed to graze. Except in some parts of Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh green fodder is not fed to the animals. Some quantity of greens are offered during rainy season which are grown on the bunds in the field. The animals do not receive any mineral supplement and even salt is not being fed. The possible reasons would be the high cost involved and lack of awareness. The direct approach of supplementing micronutrients in the diet of cattle depending on the severity of deficiency may be a more practical method. The most efficient method of providing trace minerals is through mineral mixture mixed with concentrate feed ingredients. This assures an adequate intake of mineral elements by each animal. This procedure represents an ideal system for providing supple-

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mental minerals but it cannot be used with grazing cattle, which receive little concentrates and depend on forages or where concentrates are not fed. Use of mineral supplements in the form of mineral mixture or mineral licks and premixes are most commonly used methods. Supplementation can also be achieved through feeding compound feeds, oral drenching or dosing or by administering slow releasing mineral boluses which are retained in the gut and in the form of injectable preparations. Heavy pellets of the mineral or soluble glass which has the specific mineral impregnated into it are lodged in reticulo - rumen are useful in steady supply of specific minerals continuously for long periods. This approach is useful during peak period of milk production to overcome certain metabolic disorders like milk fever and grass tetany. Supplementation of area-specific mineral salts Feeding of 'free - choice' mineral supplements could be the easiest way of supplementing minerals. Alternatively providing area - specific mineral salts based on the deficiency of minerals in soil, plant and animals in different agro-climatic zones are most appropriate and cost effective method of mineral supplementation. The former approach could sometimes lead to deleterious effect, as some of the minerals may be available in excess than requirements/needs affecting utilization of other minerals. For example, excess of calcium disturbing the Ca P ratio, excess of selenium affecting sulphur utilization, excess of molybdenium and sulphur reducing copper absorption and excess of iron disturbing copper metabolism. More practical method is of supplementing only the deficient minerals through area specific mineral salts by assessing the mineral status in soil, feeds and fodders and in animals in different agro-climatic zones. This approach has been found to improve the reproductive efficiency in crossbred cattle under field conditions and this technology has been successfully implemented at Cooperative milk union feed manufacturing plants. In order to achieve this there is a need to have a 160 160 160

comprehensive data on the micronutrients status of different agro-climatic zones of the country. Supplementation through locally available mineral rich natural feed resources One of the other cost effective method of mineral supplementation is to provide feed and plant sources rich in the specific micronutrient, which are commonly being fed / grown in that particular region. For example cakes, brans & rice polish are rich sources of phosphorus. Similarly top feeds / tree leaves and legumes are good sources of calcium, copper and zinc. Some of the unconventional feed resources are also rich in certain minerals. In general legume fodders, cultivated green fodders and tree leaves are good sources of Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu, Co and Mn and oil cakes and bran are good sources of P, Zn, Cu and Mn. The details are presented in Table 3. Supplementation of more bioavailable form of mineral salts (chelated minerals) Efficient production and reproduction in domestic animals require that the essential nutrients in a diet be provided in appropriate amounts and in forms that are most biologically useful. Of late there is a growing interest in the use of organic or chelated minerals due to the better bioavailability, improved reproductive performance, immune response, decrease in the incidences of mastitis and carcass quality. Organic forms of Zn and Cu as Zn-methionine or Cu-lysine bypass the rumen and are available at intestine, thus protecting the essential amino acids from degradation and make them available for absorption in the gut. Zn-methionine supplementation in cattle has improved disease resistance and prevented foot rot and hoof problems. Copper in chelated form would have an advantage over an inorganic form when Mo level is high, as it may escape the complexing. A mixture of Zn, Mn, Cu, Co, Se in organic forms may stimulate feed intake and growth during stress period. The asso-

Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India Table 3. Categorization of common tropical feeds based on mineral content Mineral Ca P Mg Fe Mineral content % 1.5-2.0% 2-3 % 0.3-0.5% 1000-5000 ppm Good sources Legumes, tree leaves Wheat / rice bran, rice polish, oil cakes Green fodders, legumes Legume fodders, cultivated green fodders, mixed local grasses, oil seed cakes, tree leaves, meat meal and top feeds. Legume fodders, cultivated green fodders, tree leaves, castor cake, groundnut haulms. Legume fodders, oil seed cakes, bran, meat meal. Mineral content % 0.5-0.7% 0.3-0.5% 0.1-0.3% 500-1000 ppm

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Moderate sources Cultivated grasses Green fodders, local grasses Local grasses Cereal green fodders, oil cakes and brans, tree leaves and dry fodders. Local grasses, oil cakes, cereal by products, top feeds. Cultivated green fodders, cereal green fodder, top feeds, unconventional feeds like tapioca meal, coffee husk, rubber seed cake, tree leaves like glyrecidia, neem, jack, banana. Green fodders, leafy vegetation.

Cu

30-70 ppm

15-30 ppm

Zn

150-300 ppm

50-150 ppm

Mn I Co Mo

100-250 ppm 0.1-0.7 ppm 0.2-0.6 ppm 0.5-1.5 ppm

Wheat bran, rice bran, paddy and ragi straw, Lucerne fodder. Marine products, oil seed cakes, iodized salt, yeast. Legume fodders, animal proteins, fermented products. Legumes, green grasses.

40-100 ppm -

ciation of Se was known only to glutathione peroxidase . But recently it has been known that Se is a part of at least 25 selenoproteins and Se research and its practical applications are fast developing and are very promising. The use of Se- enriched yeast appears to become a reality in dairy cattle nutrition replacing the traditional inorganic Se. The organic form of these minerals also has an antioxidant property, thereby improving the feed efficiency and immunity of animals. These chelated minerals can be of much use in areas of severe deficiency of trace minerals like tropical feeding systems, but the cost benefit ratio need to be established. Mineral biofortification of plants: One sustainable agricultural approach to reducing the mineral deficiencies in livestock animals is to enrich major staple food crops (rice, wheat, maize) with minerals through plant breeding strate161 161 161

gies. Biofortification of plants with minerals may be a promising and cost-effective intervention. The idea is to breed food crops for higher micronutrient content, which can be done through crossbreeding or genetic engineering. It is time to move forward with a strong program to develop nutrient-rich crop varieties, demonstrate their impact on human and animal nutrition. So, finding the appropriate answers on future mineral research requires the coordinated efforts of soil scientists, plant scientists and animal nutritionists. Conclusions Minerals play a significant role in production and reproduction either singly or in combination. Overcoming the deficiency or imbalance of minerals improves the productive efficiency of livestock to great extent. Hence minerals are to be

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considered in tropical feeding system not in isolation but as a part of total nutrient management system. The emphasis should be on ways of mineral supplementation cost-effectively based on prevailing livestock farming system and available resources. Bioavailability of minerals should be given emphasis while supplementing and better bioavailable inorganic salts or organic / chelated form of trace minerals are to be used for enhancing the efficiency of utilization. While suggesting the mineral requirement for livestock, the level of dry matter intake, physiological status and mineral content of feed / fodder are to be considered. Though trace elements have not received much attention in formulating diets, their long term practical impact on production, reproduction and immunity should not be ignored. Future areas of research Mineral mapping of areas of maximum risk based on their content in soil, plant and livestock and overcoming the mineral imbalance through strategic measures using local resources and location specific mineral mixtures. Better understanding the impact of trace elements on reproductive events and enhancement of fertility.

Measures for enhancing the bioavailability of minerals and suggesting requirement based on bioavailability and use of organic / chelated minerals. Suggesting mineral requirement for different physiological functions like growth, lactation, immunity and reproduction. Detailed studies on newer trace elements for establishing their essentiality. Long term measure of genetic improvement of both plant and animals for enhancing mineral availability and utilization. Antioxidant potential of minerals and their chelates. Biofortification of plants for micronutrients and their impact on animal production. Further Reading : 1. Lyons, M.P., Papazyan, T.T. and Surai, P.F. (2007) Asian - Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20: 1135. 2. Spears, J.W. (2003) J. Nutr. 133 (suppl) : 1506-1509. 3. Kincaid, R.L. 1999. Proc. Am. Soc. Anim. Sci. 1-8.

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Strategic supplementation of minerals to livestock: An Indian perspective
Tapan K. Ghosh and Sudipto Haldar Department of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary & Animal Sciences West Bengal University of Animal & Fishery Sciences, Kolkata-700037, India

Nutritional inadequacies occur in almost all parts of the world especially in livestock reared under unorganized farming system. Grazing ruminants are the most likely species to suffer from a condition of such under nutrition due to insufficient supply of nutrients through the forage they graze upon. In the tropics under-nutrition is cited to be one of the major constraints towards efficient animal production and inadequate mineral nutrition is perhaps a more limiting factor in this regard compared to the deficiency of energy and protein. Grazing livestock usually does not receive mineral supplementation, except for common salt, and must depend largely on forages to supply their mineral requirements. However, only rarely, can forages completely satisfy all mineral requirements for livestock. Therefore, mineral supplementation, when dictated by local conditions, can be a low cost input to the improvement of livestock production. However, mineral supplementation beyond the need of the animals may yield only diminishing returns and hence, to elicit the maximum benefit out of the supplementation a specific strategy must be chalked out prior to the start of the mineral supplementation. In this paper an attempt has been made to discuss about these strategies which include the knowledge about the natural sources of mineral elements, the soil-plant and soil-plant-animal interrelationship and the need for mineral supplementation under different feeding and management regime. Natural sources of minerals Farm animals derive a high proportion of their mineral nutrients from the feeds and forage they 163 163 163

consume. Hence, factors determining the mineral content of the plants are also the factors which basically determine the mineral intake of livestock. The mineral concentration of forage crops depends on four basic factors: i) the variety of the crop ii) the soil type on which the plants grow iii) seasonal condition and climate during the plant growth iv) stage of maturity of the forage crops Besides, some human factors like soil treatment and application of fertilizers, plant breeding and selection of high yielding cultivars may significantly amend the mineral composition of the resultant crops from the varieties they supplant (Underwood and Suttle, 1999). Mineral concentrations in plants generally reflect the adequacy with which the soil can supply absorbable minerals to their roots. However, plantavailability is a factor that determines the accumulation of the soil mineral into the plant species and the primary reason for the existence of areas deficient in some minerals like phosphorus (P), sodium (Na), cobalt (Co) and selenium (Se), is that the soils of the areas are inherently low in plant-available supplies of these minerals (Underwood and Suttle, 1999). Factors affecting concentrations of minerals in soil and forage crops. Physicochemical factors: Mineral uptake by plants and hence their mineral composition are greatly in-

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fluenced by soil pH. For example, molybdenum (Mo) uptake by plants increases as soil pH rises and, therefore, Mo induced copper (Cu) deficiency in grazing livestock is likely to occur in areas having alkaline soil pH. Liming, used commonly to improve the quality of soil, therefore, may induce Cu deficiency in grazing livestock by increasing pasture Mo concentration. Water logging on the other hand, greatly increases Co, Mo and manganese (Mn) contents of pasture plants (Adams and Honeysett, 1964). Thus, soil conditions greatly influence the value of the forage plants as sources of minerals for grazing livestock. Human factors: Application of fertilizers to amend the quality of soil greatly influences the quality of soil as a supplier of minerals to the forage crops. Most soil in the tropics supply insufficient P for maximum crop or pasture growth, and yields can be increased by applying P fertilizers (Jones, 1990). Super-phosphate applications to pastures, over and above those required for maximum plant growth responses, can result in herbage of improved palatability and digestibility but expected responses may not always materialize (Winks, 1990). Heavy applications of potassium (K) fertilizers can raise herbage yields and K contents, while at the same time depressing herbage magnesium (Mg) and Na. Similarly, application of nitrogenous fertilizers has versatile effects on soil mineral contents. Nitrogen (N) fertilizers in general increases the risk of mineral deficiencies occurring in grazing livestock especially in areas where the availability of the minerals is towards a lower side (Hopkins et al., 1994). The widely held view towards the relationship between the applications of N fertilizers and the mineral contents of plants is that the use of such fertilizers increases yield of forage and thus by exporting the minerals increases the risk of their deficiency at subsequent times. Ambience and plant factors: External factors, notably climate and season, which can be modified by irrigation and management practices, have profound effect on soil mineral profile (Underwood and 164 164 164

Suttle, 1999). Forage concentration of Cu is positively proportional and that of Se is inversely proportional to rainfall. The P and K contents of crop and forage decline markedly with advancing maturity and season affects the concentration of P more in legumes than in grasses (Coates et al., 1990). The concentration of Mg, zinc (Zn), Cu, Mn Co, Mo and iron (Fe) fall as the plants mature. Decrease in mineral concentrations with advancing age are usually reflections of increases in proportion of stem to leaf and old to new leaves, stems and old leaves having lower mineral concentrations that young leaves (Minson, 1990). The availability of minerals to animals The evaluation of feeds and feed supplements as sources of minerals depends not only on the total mineral content or concentration but also on how much can be absorbed from the gut and used by the animals' cells and tissues. This in turn, depends on: i) the age and species of the animals ii) the intake of the mineral relative to the need iii) the chemical form in which the mineral is ingested iv) the amounts and proportions of other dietary components with which it interacts metabolically v) environmental factors like the accessibility and intensity of sunlight (Ammerman et al., 1995) Accurate measurement of the availability of a particular mineral element is not possible to determine in livestock without involving the radio-isotope study (for detail review see Underwood and Suttle, 1999). The net flow of utilizable mineral to the grazing animal, in particular, is likely to vary widely from season to season and from year to year. Where mineral nutrients in herbage are marginal in respect of animal requirements, changes in concentrations, brought about by atmospheric, climatic or seasonal

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influence and by plant maturity and seed shedding, can obviously be significant factors in the incidence of severity of deficiency states in livestock wholly or largely dependent on those plants. Hence, it is important to appreciate the cyclical nature of mineral nutrition before breaking the problem down into smaller compartments, and there is a need to frequently reassess the adequacy of mineral supplies experienced by the animals, especially the grazing ones. Detection of mineral imbalance in animals The detection of a mineral imbalance is usually based on clinical, pathological and biochemical examinations of the animal tissues and body fluids. Soil mineral analyses may also have some diagnostic values. Analysis of the mineral contents of the plant materials and the concentrate is yet another tool to be explored. However, the information obtained from any one of these sources alone is rarely conclusive and the ultimate criterion of any mineral inadequacy, imbalance or excess is the improvement in growth, health, fertility or productivity that occurs in response to appropriate changes in the intake or utilization of the mineral(s) in question (Phillippo, 1983). Significance of soil mineral: Soils that are abnormal in a given mineral tend to produce plants that are abnormal in that mineral. On a broad geographical basis, areas where some mineral imbalances are likely to occur can be predicted by mapping techniques. However, prediction of a mineral imbalance from the data obtained by soil analyses is far from simple for the following reasons: i) the yield of the plant as well its mineral contents is affected by soil mineral status ii) different species and strains of plants can vary greatly in mineral composition even when growing on the same soil iii) climatic and seasonal conditions, as well as the stage of growth, affect the mineral composition of plants 165 165 165

iv) chemical form of the mineral, soil pH and other physicochemical properties of soil may affect the uptake of mineral from soil The concentration of mineral in soil is thus an uncertain guide to its concentration in the crop. Pasture and feed mineral concentrations: An initial assessment of the actual or likely occurrence of a dietary mineral inadequacy or excess can be made by comparing the mineral composition of the diet with appropriate standards. However, the detection and diagnosis of mineral disorders of dietary origin based entirely on mineral analysis of the feed can be misleading due to the following reasons: i) In foraging situations, the diet sample collected may not represent the material actually eaten by the animal because of selective grazing and soil contamination in the field especially where there is a mixture of pasture and browse materials (Fordyce et al., 1996). ii) Estimates of mineral intake take no account of differences in absorption or utilization by the animal. For example, a particular dietary level of total P may be adequate for poultry if it is an inorganic or non phytin form but inadequate when it is present as phytate P. The adequacy of a particular dietary concentration of calcium (Ca) varies with the vitamin D status of the animal. Similarly, certain concentrations of Cu can be inadequate when Mo and sulphur (S) intakes are high but adequate or even excessive when dietary Mo and S are low. Nevertheless, measurement of the total concentration of a mineral in the pasture or ration cannot always detect or predict inadequacy or toxicity of that mineral in the animal. Clinical and pathological changes in the animal: All mineral deficiencies and excesses are manifested by clinical and pathological disturbances. However, differential diagnosis is important. Mild deficiency or excess is especially difficult to identify because their effects are indistinguishable from those result-

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ing from semi-starvation or underfeeding, protein deficiency or intestinal parasitism. Numerically and economically, mild abnormalities exceed severe abnormalities in importance (Arthur, 1992). A dietary deficiency of a mineral is sooner or later reflected in subnormal concentrations of the mineral in certain of the animals' tissues and fluids, and a dietary excess of a mineral is similarly reflected in above-normal concentrations. Moreover, both deficiencies and toxicities are usually accompanied by significant tissue or fluid changes in the concentrations of particular enzymes, metabolites or organic compounds with which the mineral in question is functionally associated. Many of these changes can be detected before the onset of clinically obvious signs of deficiency or excess in the animal (Underwood and Suttle, 1999). Soil-plant-interrelationship Macro-minerals: The soil-plant-animal interrelationship with regards to mineral concentrations has a profound influence on the mineral status of grazing livestock. The understanding of the soil-plant-animal interrelationship is necessary because grazing livestock hardly receive any mineral supplement except for common salt, and must depend largely on forages to meet their mineral requirements though forages rarely meet this requirement owing to moderate to severe deficiency of mineral elements existing in soil, especially in tropical climatic conditions (Valdes

et al., 1988). It has been stated earlier that soil pH is one of the key factors governing the concentration of minerals in soil. A strongly acid condition usually causes a decline in solubility of soil macro-minerals while a strongly alkaline pH affects absorption of anions like Mn. The maximum rate of mineral absorption occurs at a pH ranging from 5 to 7. Hence, soil pH measurement is important while studying the soil-plant-animal inter relationship before chalking out the strategy for mineral supplementation. Comprehensive studies in this regard are lacking in Indian conditions. Nevertheless, studies conducted abroad on similar soil and climatic conditions revealed (Table 1) that P is perhaps the most limiting macro-mineral in soil. Aluminum (Al) induced aggravation of soil P deficiency occurs when soil pH falls below 5.5 (Prabowo et al., 1990). Based on the criterion of adequacy Ca in soil may be described as adequate, Mg as moderately adequate and K as variable and dependent on climatic factors with higher incidence of deficiency being recorded in the rainy season compared to the dry season (Morillo et al., 1989). A further fact with regards to the importance of soil aluminum concentration comes into light from the data presented in Table 1. Acidic conditions of soil may lower the pH of soil below 5.5 and increases the extractable Al concentration in soil. An increased soil Al may reduce the available P content in soil and reduce P uptake by plants grown on such soils. The Venezu-

Table 1. Macro-mineral concentration (ppm) in tropical agro-climatic conditions in relation to soil pH Element pH Aluminum Calcium Potassium Magnesium Phosphorus
1

Critical value

Indonesia1 5.8-6.0 1215-1247

Venezuela2 4.03-4.8 181-336 86-100 40-45.9 189-199 4.98-9.34

United States3 Kerala4 4.8-5.5 93-575 2.5-17.3 2.3-108 13.2-193 252-960

India Karnataka5 5.93-7.04 30-350 10-90 9.92-55.97 5.2-7.2 (6.5) 30-90 (61.8) 6-60 (29.7) 48.4-120.5 (78.1)

<71 <62 <30 <17

652-1065 156-178 329-364 13-18

Prabowo et al., 1990; 2Morillo et al., 1989; 3Pastrana et al., 1991; 4ICAR Net Work Project on Micronutrients in Animal Nutrition and Production (1999); 5Gowda et al., 2002

166 166 166

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elan data is an ideal example of the effects of soil pH on soil Al and P concentration.

Fig. 2 (b) Concentration (mg/dl) of calcium and phosphorus in serum samples of grazing cattle in Karnataka (source: Gawda et al., 2002) Fig. 1 Factors influencing the flow of an element from soil to the grazing animal. (Underwood and Suttle, 1999)

Extensive studies to determine the soil-plantanimal interrelationship with regards to different trace elements particularly Cu, Mn, Fe and Zn have been undertaken in India especially under the aegis of the Net Work Project on Micro-Nutrients in Animal Nutrition and Production of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research. The findings of this project have well depicted the micro-nutrient status of Indian soil, plants and that of the animals reared on those soil and plants.
0 .8 0 .6 0 .4 0 .2 0 Ca C r itic a l v a lu e S tr a w P G r r e n fo d d e r

but not in the green forage. Paddy straw constitutes the bulk of the ration and hence the P deficiency observed in paddy straw was perhaps reflected in the serum concentration as well. It is noteworthy that the compounded feed mixtures hardly exhibited any deficiency with regards to the concerned macro-elements. However, wide variation in Ca:P ratio was observed in the bran which perhaps aggravated the P deficiency in the animals. This was in contrary to the distribution of Mn which, despite being marginal 10 ELEMENT IN SOIL in 8 the green and dry roughages, did not exhibit a de‘Availability’ depends on: ficient concentration in the serum of the cattle grazing Geochemistry, pH drainage 6 Stocking rate, rainfall over such pasture [Figure 2 (c)PLANT (d)]. The defi4 ELEMENT IN & 2 Availability ciency of one or more capacity Selective grazingand micro number Appetite of major 2 Absorptive elements notwithstanding, critical deficiency symp0 ELEMENT IN ANIMAL Ca P Soiltoms were not apparent in the animal population. ingestion Availability’ However, everyapossibilityDremainsofthat sub clinical Initial e C r i t i c l v a l ureserves r y zStage development on e Rate of production Environment deficiency conditions, especially with regards to reA SUFFICIENT SUPPLY? productive and immune systems would remain to affect the performance level of these animals. Minerals : The need for strategic supplementation Mineral supplementation is needed to correct deficiencies in animal diets. Supplementation of minerals is considered to be the least cost way for augmenting productivity especially in grazing ruminants. Organized farming systems make use of compound feeds which contain mineral supplements and hence, do seldom suffer from mineral inadequacy. Samples of compound feeds collected from different states 167 167 167

Fig. 2 (a) Concentration (% dry matter) of calcium and phosphorus in composite straw (paddy and bajra) and green fodder in Karnataka (source: Gawda et al., 2002)

Figures 2 (a) & 2 (b) depicts the status of Ca and P in the composite straw and green roughage as well as that of the serum in the cattle grazing over such pasture. P deficiency was ubiquitous in straw

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Fig. 2 (c) Concentration (ppm) of trace elements in composite straw (paddy and bajra) and green fodder in Karnataka (source: Gawda et al., 2002)

and analyzed in various laboratories in India would support this statement (Table 2). This is also the reason for not experiencing mineral deficiency disorders in most of the poultry and swine operations. Nevertheless, the discussion in the previous sec-

Table 2. Concentration of some major (%) and trace elements (ppm) in compound livestock feed in India State Critical level Assam1 Gujarat2 Himachal Pradesh Karnataka3 Kerala4 Rajasthan5 West Bengal6 Ca <0.3 0.76 0.66 0.93 0.98 0.98 0.76 1.4 P <0.25 1.34 1.00 1.51 0.92 1.11 0.9 Ca:P 2:1 0.93 0.65 1.06 0.68 1.7 Mg <0.2 0.47 0.67 0.68 0.58 0.64 Cu <8.0 5.6 20.5 13.9 12.6 16.3 25.9 5.4 Zn <30.0 22.6 79.2 51.6 39.4 49.3 106.1 25.9 Fe <50.0 93 1032 508 828 829 431 Mn <40.0 38.6 146.1 105.9 87.1

Source: 1 Buragohain et al., 2006; 2 Garg et al., 2003; 3 Gowda et al., 2002; 4 ICAR Net Work Project on Micronutrients in Animal Nutrition and Production, Trissur Center, Kerala (1999); 5 Garg et al., 2005; 6 ICAR Net Work Project on Micronutrients in Animal Nutrition and Production, Kolkata Center, West Bengal (2004)

168 168 168

p pg/ m l m

Fig. 2 (d) Concentration (µg/ml) of trace elements in serum samples of grazing cattle in Karnataka (source: Gawda et al., 2002)

tions indicate that the grazing ruminants are most prone to deficiency of one or more mineral elements since the forage they graze on hardly supply an adequate amount of minerals the animals require for different productive and reproductive purposes. The situation gets confounded and rather aggravated because of the supplementation strategy adopted by the animal owners and interestingly the situation is almost similar across the country. The economic criterion of the farmers in India is one of the major factors driving their animals towards a mineral deficient or sufficient feeding regimen. Studies conducted in various states in India revealed that farmers do adopt almost a uniform feeding regime of their animals cutting across the state boundaries. The landless and the marginal farmers keep their animals on grazing and supplement straw (paddy, wheat, bajra or maize depending on the availability and locality) as the basal roughage. This practice is common even a farmer belongs to a better economic niche. Nevertheless, feeding home made concentrate mixture is the prac2 .5 0 7 tice followed only by a small fraction of the farm6 2 .0 0 ers. It is noteworthy that feeding cultivated green 50 1 .5 fodder is seldom practiced in most of the states. 40 1 .0 30 This is obvious because land has become limited 0 .5 0 2 for fodder cultivation. However, in some states like 0 .0 0 1 Rajasthan and Gujarat green fodder availability is 0 Cu M n Fe limited becauseu of extreme climatic condition and C M n frequent drought.tTreevleaves constitutes an alterC r i ic a l a lu e Seru m C ritic a v a lu e S ra w G reen f native lsource of tgreen fodder. o d d e r B r a n

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Table 3. Major (%) and trace (ppm) element concentration in dry and green roughages in India Ca Critical level <0.3 P 0.25 Ca:P 2:1 Mg <0.2 Cu 8.0 Zn <30 Fe <50 Mn <40 43.6 168.2 16.5 272.8 22.3 23.9 91.2 109.9 60.8 92.3 38.0 35.66 71.8 78.9 69.6

Assam 122.3 Kerala 866.4 Himachal Pradesh Rajasthan 356.4 Haryana 176.0 West Bengal Coastal soil 0.12 0.06 2.0 7.4 29.0 226.4 Laterite soil 0.15 0.04 3.8 10.6 32.3 262.5 Alluvial soil 0.13 0.06 2.2 8.3 41.1 224.4 Calculated mean 0.25 0.06 2.43 0.28 9.7 29.7 319.2 Mineral content of green roughage (include pasture grass and non leguminous cultivated fodder) Assam 0.6 0.06 24.3 24.3 330.8 Kerala 0.3 0.2 1.4 0.22 10.2 48.6 627.2 Himachal Pradesh 0.53 0.19 2.8 0.19 10.8 30.4 365 Rajasthan 0.87 0.22 4.0 0.62 11.5 30.4 422 Haryana 1.56 0.19 8.2 28.5 24.1 342 West Bengal Coastal soil 0.42 0.17 2.5 53.01 42.63 403.53 Laterite soil 0.49 0.21 2.3 6.2 22.7 323.1 Alluvial soil 0.42 0.26 1.6 4.9 24.9 297.8 Calculated mean 0.65 0.18 2.85 0.27 18.7 31.0 388.9
120

Mineral content of straw (include paddy, maize and bajra straw) 0.63 0.44 7.2 21.4 0.26 0.09 2.9 0.21 10.0 55.0 0.09 0.03 3.0 1.9 15.8 0.28 0.09 3.1 0.21 6.0 28.6 0.31 0.12 2.6 26.0 14.5

C ritic a l le v e l Z one 1

The data presented in Table 3 is a clear revelation of macro and micro mineral status of the dry and green roughages in Indian condition. The data are almost a national representation and are collected across the country from different agro climatic and soil conditions. Interestingly, the data is not too widely dispersed and the coefficient of variation (not shown) is found to be insignificant. The table brings into fore the following facts: There exists almost moderate to severe deficiency of Ca and P in dry roughage Moderate deficiency with regards to P is there in green roughage Trace elements are adequate in dry and green roughage though Cu is just marginal in the dry roughages in most of the samples in the surveyed areas Fe concentration is much above the minimum critical level and its supplementation seems to be unnecessary 169 169 169

Z ne To assess how the mineral status oof 2feeds and 80 fodder affect the mineral balance in grazing rumi60 nants Das et al. (2003) conducted a survey in two 40 different agro-climatic regions of West Bengal and 20 the 0findings are summarized in Figure 3. PPM

100

Zn

Cu

Mn

Fig. 3 Liver concentrations of trace elements in cattle grazing over red laterite (Zone 1) and new alluvial (Zone 2) soil of West Bengal (Das et al., 2003)

Liver biopsy study in the said agro-climatic regions indicated that the grazing cattle were deficient in Cu and had just a marginal status with regards to Mn. Apart from a severe deficiency of Ca

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and P in dry roughage, the green fodder were limiting in Cu and Zn which was reflected in the liver concentrations of the concerned trace elements. It is noteworthy that blood levels of the said elements did not reveal any such deficiency perhaps because of the homeostatic mechanism that operates for all the nutrients in animal systems. Need for the region specific mineral supplementation It has already been emphasized repeatedly that it is the ruminants that depend predominantly on forages do require mineral supplementation as they seldom receive adequate supplies of particular minerals because of moderate to sever deficiencies of one or more mineral elements in dry and green roughages. The problem is not so drastic in the organized farm sector or in the poultry and swine operations (McDowell, 1985) and hence, our discussion will focus on the need of the grazing ruminants (Table 4). Prior to opt for the supplementation a few points need to be assessed and assured. The distribution of the mineral elements in the soil and local feed resources The existence of the practice of mineral supplementation in the area concerned The average productivity of animals in the said area Calculation of the mineral requirement of the animals Formulation of the mineral mixture containing all the elements needed by the animals Finally, fortification of the diet with the said mineral mixture The dietary mineral level that will just promote optimal response is the minimum requirement. The optimal allowances permit animals to achieve their full genetic potential for optimal performance. Beyond the optimal zone, mineral concentrations range 170 170 170

from levels still safe, but uneconomical, to concentrations that cause toxicity and death. It is important to note that there is no single exact requirement for a mineral element and neither is there a single safe or maximum level at which a mineral can be tolerated without adverse effect.
Table 4. A good free choice mineral supplements: an Indian picture 1. Contains a minimum of 6-8% total P. In areas where forages are consistently lower than 0.2 % P, mineral supplements in the 8-10 % P range are preferred. Has a Ca:P ratio not substantially over 2:1 Provides a significant proportion (i.e. about 50%) of the trace element requirements for Co, Cu, I, Mn, Zn and Se if required. Fe is not needed in most circumstances. Is sufficiently palatable to allow close to adequate consumption in relation to requirements. Has an acceptable particle size that will allow adequate mixing without smaller size particles settling out. Is formulated for the area involved, the level of animal productivity, and the environment in which it will be fed and is as economical as possible.

2. 3.

4. 5.

6.

Adopted from: McDowell (1985)

Free Choice mineral supplement: Free-choice mineral supplements are generally considered only for livestock that do not have access to concentrates, as minerals for those receiving concentrates are generally provided as part of the concentrate mixture. As a low-cost insurance complete mineral supplements should be available to grazing livestock free choice (McDowell 1985). A "good" free choice mineral supplement should have the following characteristic features: Fortification of diet with mineral supplements: The main consideration for animals receiving minerals as part of their concentrate diet is whether each animal consumes an adequate amount of the concentrate mixture to provide the correct calculated intake of each mineral. Assuming the correct level of biologically available mineral is prepared in a mineral premix, the important question remains,

Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India Table 5. Relative bioavailability of some major and trace elements Element Calcium Source Ca carbonate Bone meal Ca chloride Calcite Di calcium phosphate Bone meal Di calcium phosphate Rock phosphate Defluorinated phosphate Zinc sulfate Zinc chloride Zinc carbonate Zinc methionine Manganese carbonate Manganese oxide Manganese methionine Reference compound Ca carbonate Ca carbonate Ca carbonate Ca carbonate Di calcium phosphate Di calcium phosphate Di calcium phosphate Zinc oxide Zinc oxide Zinc oxide Zinc oxide Mn sulfate Mn sulfate Mn sulfate

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Relative bioavailability % 40-57 63-138 71-132 49 56-126 30 33-85 17-54 29-85 100 42 58 103-133 20-46 25-39 102-157

Phosphorus

Zinc

Manganese

Source: Ammerman et al. (1995)

whether the correct amount was added and properly mixed in the concentrate mixture. The proper concentration in the final concentrate mixture should periodically be confirmed by analysis of the more critical mineral elements. It is virtually impossible to measure the actual dry matter intake of livestock on pasture though the requirements are based on dry matter intake. Actual dry matter consumption often becomes a great factor to be judged for calculating the actual amount of an element to be supplemented in the diet. It is generally assumed that the dry matter intake ranges between 7-10 kg for adult grazing cattle and a 2% body weight is considered a rough estimate of forage dry matter intake by cattle. Biological availability of an element, which implies the availability of that element to some organism for use, is yet another factor that governs supplementation strategy. Organic minerals: A new age supplementation strategy: The key to the effectiveness of a mineral supplement is not necessarily its biological availability, but its biological activity. Traditionally, inorganic salts such as oxides, sulfates and carbonates have been added to the diet to provide the desired amount 171 171 171

to meet the requirements of the animals. These are broken down to varying extents during digestion to 'free' ions' and are then absorbed. However, they may also complex to other dietary molecules and become difficult to absorb or, if completely complexed, totally unavailable to the animal. Thus, the availability of the element may vary substantially. Because of these uncertainties, the levels provided in the diet are often higher than the minimum amount required for the optimum performance, often resulting in over-supply and unnecessary wastage with obvious environmental impact. In this regard the organically complexed mineral elements have discernible edge over their inorganic counterparts. The chelated or the proteinate forms of the minerals may utilize the peptide or amino acid uptake pathways of absorption in the small intestine and hence, can avoid the mineral-mineral interaction for the same absorptive pathway. Thus, the organically complexed minerals are not only more bio-available but also more bio-active. Economic aspects of chelated and proteinate forms of trace elements: Economic response is the key concern. Chelated minerals cost 10 to 15 times more per milligram of mineral compared to inorganic sources. Commercial chelated mineral pro-

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grams cost range from 4 cents to 18 cents per cow per day (depending on the combination and level of chelated minerals selected). Two approaches are listed below: 1. Supplement one-third of selected trace minerals as chelated mineral (400 g of zinc as organic zinc) and two-thirds as inorganic mineral (800 g of zinc as zinc sulfate for example). Feed recommended levels (Table 5) as inorganic minerals (1200 g as zinc as zinc sulfate) plus an additional 25 percent as chelated zinc (300 g of zinc as organic zinc for example).

Table 6. Trace elements in an adequate supplement Element Estimated Minerals in mixture (%) for maximum each percent of the requirement requirementa ppm 25 50 100 0.1 10 0.8 25 50 50 0.2 0.0005 0.05 0.004 0.125 0.25 0.25 0.001 0.001 0.10 0.008 0.25 0.50 0.50 0.002 0.002 0.20 0.016 0.5 1.0 1.0 0.004

2.

Cobalt Copper Iodine Manganese Zinc Iron Selenium
a

This assumes for cattle an average consumption of 50g/ d of mineral mixture and 10 kg/day of total dry matter.

It has been observed that instead of total replacement of inorganic minerals with organically complexed mineral elements, it will always be a more prudent approach to opt for a partial replacement of the conventional inorganic forms of supplemental minerals with the respective organic forms. This will save the economy of the farmers and will promote the productivity at the same time. Concentration of an element in the mineral mixture: The concentration of each element in a mineral mixture is yet another factor which needs to be considered. After evaluating the bioavailability of the mineral mixture, the daily intake of mineral mixture and that of total dry matter, the concentration of each element can be used to calculate the amount of each element that will be furnished per animal, expressed as a percentage or parts per million of total DM intake. This can be compared to the total requirement of that element to determine whether a significant amount is being furnished. It is difficult to determine what constitutes a significant portion of the requirement for each mineral that should be supplied by the mineral mixture, but it is generally believed the figure should be 25-50% for the trace elements. In zones known to have a trace element deficiency, 100% of the requirements for these elements should be provided. 172 172 172

The above table illustrates the estimated trace element requirements and percentages of each element required in a cattle mineral mixture to meet 25, 50 or 100 % of the requirement, based on an estimated daily consumption of 50 g. With less consumption, the mineral supplement should contain a higher percentage of each mineral, and a lower intake of dry matter would reduce the percentage of minerals required in the mixture. Supplementation strategy Supplementation strategy for mineral elements will depend on the status of the animal and the economic condition of the farmers. The latter factor is important since it is the economy that ultimately governs the overall husbandry practice of livestock and hence their feeding regimen. Nevertheless, mineral supplementation for livestock is considered to be the least cost insurance for a better productivity and hence, can be recommended for the farmers belonging to economically lower social strata. Animals that do not receive concentrates are less likely to receive an adequate mineral supply and free choice mineral mixtures described above would be the ideal for such animals. However, free choice minerals are not palatable enough to ensure sufficient consumption and are, therefore, consumed irregularly. Since consumption of the free choice minerals are highly variable intake may not be ad-

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equate to meet the mineral deficiency in the forages. While formulating the supplementation strategy some factors need to be remembered: Plant maturity: As plants mature, mineral contents decline and hence the need for mineral supplementation increases when a dry or drought condition prevails for a while in a year. Energy-protein supplements: Protein and energy supplements that also provide minerals decrease both the need and desire for free choice minerals. Individual requirements: The level of productivity and the physiological condition like gestation and lactation of an animal influence the mineral need. Supplementation strategy for grazing ruminants receiving no concentrate: Animals that primarily depend on pasture have different supplementation needs than those receiving concentrates. Free choice mineral mixture or a mineral lick is the preferred option to supplement these animals. A urea-molasses-mineral block would be an effective strategy to supplement a protein substitute and the mineral simultaneously especially when the quality of the forage is poor. P is generally limiting and hence a free choice mineral mixture containing adequate Ca, P, common salt and selected trace elements is needed to be supplied. Fe is always an excess in most of the agro-climatic zones of India and need not to be supplemented. Areas having deficient Se require its supplementation while those (like the northern plains encompassing Punjab, Haryana, upper Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan) showing toxic levels of Se need sulfur in the mineral premix as the antagonist of Se. Supplementation strategy for grazing ruminants receiving concentrate: The best means of providing minerals to ruminants receiving concentrates would be to combine the minerals with the concentrate diet, including Ca, P, and a trace 173 173 173

mineralized salt (NaCl plus Co, Cu, I, Mn, Se and Zn depending on local need). Fe may be included if condition deserves for. The less dietary forage intake, the higher level of Ca and P is required. S may be added to the premix if non-protein nitrogen is added to the concentrate. The balance of individual minerals is important in this regard to ensure proper absorption and utilization of the minerals. In organized farming sector as well, the most common method to deliver trace minerals to dairy cattle has been trace mineralized salt. Feed tags must be carefully reviewed to determine the level (mg per day) that is being offered and if the mineral form is biologically available. Customized trace mineral premixtures are becoming more common because they can be formulated to balance mineral profiles and meet mineral needs depending on the farm condition. Forage testing is recommended for Zn, Cu and Mn and if conditions desire then Fe as well on an annual basis to establish herd micromineral profiles, evaluate feed changes, and avoid/ correct mineral imbalances. Mineral supplementation - A practical approach It is essential to exploit the enormous scope of mineral supplementation for augmenting the productive performance of grazing ruminants. Supplementation of minerals not only bolsters the overall metabolic responses of the animals but at the same time increases the overall availability of organic nutrients by augmenting the latter's bioavailability. However, comprehensive strategy should be there to address the local need first which can later be broad based by describing the requirements on the basis of the agro-climatic zones or soil type. As an initiation to this approach a study was conducted in the red and laterite agro climatic zone of West Bengal to ascertain the actual status of mineral supplementation in the red and laterite soil of West Bengal (Kundu 2004). The survey revealed that the feeding regimen, which may be categorized as follows, depends largely on the economic criteria of the farmers (Table 7).

Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India Table 7. Feeding regimen of cattle vis-à-vis the economic criterion of the farmers (n = 510 farmers) in the red and laterite agro-climatic zones of West Bengal Land holding (acre) Landless 1-2 6-7 Feeding regime of animals Only grazing Grazing + paddy straw Grazing + limited amount of a single unit concentrate Grazing + paddy straw + single unit concentrate (mustard oil cake) Grazing + compounded feed) + paddy straw + mineral mixture Percentage

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1.8 18.8

40.2

3-4

18.0

8-10

1.2

It appears from the above table that the farmers, except those belonging to Category V, followed the traditional feeding system based on grazing and paddy straw for their cattle. These animals hardly received any supplemental mineral and, hence, were

prone to mineral deficiency which could be revealed from the data presented in Table 8. The study revealed that the animals suffered from severe deficiency of Ca and Zn while the intake of P was just marginal. Intake of Cu was adequate and that of Fe and Mn was well above the respective requirement levels. A closer scrutiny of the mineral concentration of the locally available feeds and fodder fed to the animals would help further to explain these observations. The study revealed that the existing feeding regimen could fulfill the requirements for maintenance of the animals only and not for any additional productive purpose. A digestibility trial under field captivity was conducted in which 12 animals were fed with a control diet simulating the feeding regimen followed by the category IV farmers (Table 7) and a similar number of animals were fed with the same diet but were supplemented with 75 mg elemental Cu, 202.5 mg elemental Zn, 150 mg elemental Mn, 10.6 g Ca and 8.2 g P. The trace elements were supplemented as sulfated salts while Ca and P were supplemented as

Table 8. Intake of dry matter (kg), macro (%) and micro (ppm) elements in cows grazing on the red and laterite soil (n = 274) Body weight Dry matter Ca 0.43-0.60 0.28 0.29 0.31 0.35 0.29 Cu Fe Maximum estimated requirement 0.31-0.40 8.0 50.0 0.36 11.3 492 0.35 11.7 496 0.39 12.3 531 0.35 11.5 486 0.36 11.7 501 P Zn 40.0 22.8 23.8 25.3 23.5 23.9 Mn 40.0 205.5 212.4 224.1 207.3 212.4

<120 121-140 141-160 160-180 Mean

3.47 3.55 3.47 3.64 3.53

Table 9. Macro (%) and micro (ppm) mineral status of feed stuffs in the red and laterite agro-climatic zone of West Bengal† Feed/fodder Ca P Mg Cu Fe Zn Paddy straw 0.27 (57.1) 0.08 (100) 0.17 (71.4) 7.94 (64.3) 188.9 17.3 (92.9) Pasture grass 0.37 (39) 0.58 0.32 (15) 18.3 904 31.7 (39) Rice husk 0.17 (86) 0.57 0.301 8.68 (92.9) 550 23.6 (92.9) Mustard cake 0.53 1.00 0.51 15.4 285 37.8 Tree leaves 0.72 0.44 (16.6) 0.44 19.9 (16.6) 314 9.45 (66.6) † The figures in parenthesis indicate the percentage of samples showing concentrations below the minimum level (minimum sample size n = 30) Mn 136 312 223 113 162 critical

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di-calcium phosphate. The cows were fed in stalls with rice husk, mustard oil cake, paddy straw and freshly cut pasture grass for a period of 6 months. Before formulating the supplementation strategy the bioavailability of the mineral elements from the feed sources were not considered. The mixture was top dressed on the concentrate mixture every day. The digestibility coefficient of dry matter, organic matter and crude protein increased significantly (P<0.05) due to the supplementation of the mineral combination. Intake of digestible crude protein increased by 140 g/animal/day and that of TDN increased by 420 g/animal/day in the cows receiving the supplemental mineral mixture. Interestingly, intake of dry matter and other nutrients per se did not vary due to mineral supplementation which suggests that a strategic supplementation regimen of minerals could effectively enhance the bio-availability of the organic nutrients without appreciably increasing the nutrient intake. This in turn, may lead to an increased feed utilization efficiency and ensure a positive energy balance. It may be noted that Fe was not supplemented in the diet owing to its high concentration in the feeds and the fodder. Mn was supplemented to counter a possible antagonism in the gut that may take place due to the higher Fe ingestion and Cu was supplemented just as a sort of a "top up" strategy.

tation strategy was the improvement in the reproductive performance of the animals (Table 9) which is suggestive of the beneficial impact the mineral supplementation do impart on the reproductive performance of the anestrous dairy cows and heifers. All the animals selected for the above study were suffering from anestrous with no apparent abnormality in the reproductive system from the anatomical and pathological point of view. Under nutrition causes failure or cessation of estrus cycle and may delay sexual maturity in heifers. The present study reveals that a judicious supplementation of mineral elements may improve the physiological and reproductive performance of the indigenous cattle population very much prone to nutritional deficiency due to feeding regimens highly skewed towards grazing and paddy straw with little supplementation of concentrates and practically no mineral elements added in the diet.
Table 10. Reproductive performance of cows and heifers maintained under semi intensive management system in the red and laterite agro-climatic zone of West Bengal supplemented with specific major and trace elements* Variable Cow Heifer

0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

n 55 51 Age, yr. 7.5 4.4*** BodyDry matter kg Organic matter weight, 137.2 Crude protein120.4 Calf per cow -' supplement +' supplement (#) 2.4 Animals showing 40 (72.7) 34 (66.7) estrus (#) Days to estrus 87.3 91.6 Animals 37 (67.3) 25 (49) conceived (#) Service per 1.56 1.49 conception (#) *The values represent the cumulative observation of a period spanning over 6 months. All the animals had been suffering from a condition of anestrous of nonspecific etiology. The reproductive system did not show any anatomical or pathological abnormality. Figures in parenthesis indicate the percentage of total number of animals with estrus or pregnancy.

Fig. 4 Digestibility coefficients of nutrients in cows receiving specific major and trace element supplementation

The most intriguing aspect of the supplemen175 175 175

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mentation on nutritional and reproductive performance of dairy cattle in the red and laterite agro-climatic zones of West Bengal. Ph.D. Thesisi submitted to the West Bengal University of Animal & Fishery Sciences, Kolkata, India. McDowell, L.R. (1985) Minerals in animal and human nutrition (Tony J Cunha ed.). Academic Press, New York. Minson D.J. (1990) Forages in ruminant nutrition. Academic Press, San Diego, California, pp. 208-229. Morillo D., McDowell L.R., Chicco C.F., Perdomo J.T., Conrad J.H. and Martin F.G. (1989) Nutr. Reports International, 39: 1247-1262. Pastrana R., McDowell L.R., Conrad J.H. and Wilkinson N.S. (1991) Small Rumin. Res., 5: 9-21. Philippo M. (1983) The role of dose response trials in predicting trace element disorders. In: Trace Elements in Animal Production in Veterinary Practice. (Suttle N.F., Gunn R.G., Allen W.M., Linklater K.A. and Wiener G. eds.). British Society of Animal Production Special Publication No. 7, Edinburgh, pp. 5160. Prabowo A., McDowell L.R., Wilkinson N.S., Wilcox C.J. and Conrad J.A. (1990) Buffalo J., 1: 17-32. Underwood E.J. and Suttle N.F. (1999) The Mineral Nutrition of Livestock (3rd edition). CABI Publishing, London. Valdes J.L., McDowell L.R. and Koger M. (1988) J. Prod. Agric., 1: 351-355. Winks L. (1990) Trop. Grasslands, 24: 140-158.

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