THEORIES IN NURSING

MARTHA ROGER’S SCIENCE OF UNITARY HUMAN BEINGS

INTRODUCTION Dr Martha Rogers was born on 12th May 1914 at Texas. She completed her Diploma in Nursing, followed by Graduation in Public Health Nursing. She did MA from Teachers college, Columbia University, New York and Masters in Public Health Nursing and Doctorate in nursing from Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. She was awarded the Fellowship of American Academy of Nursing. She held prestigious positions as Professor, Division of Nursing, New York University, Consultant and Speaker. Her early nursing practice was in rural public health nursing and in visiting nurse supervision. She then established the Visiting Nurse service of Phoenix. She published 3 books and 200 articles and lectured in 46 states. She received honorary doctorates in Science and Letters and had received many awards and citations for her contributions in nursing. She was stimulating, challenging, controversial, idealistic, visionary, prophetic, philosophic, academic, outspoken, humorous, blunt and ethical. Her contributions towards leadership in nursing is remarkable. She is considered as one of the most original thinkers in nursing. She died on 13th March 1994

She published the following books:  Theoretical basis of nursing  Nursing science and art :a prospective  Nursing :science of unitary, irreducible, human beings update  Vision of space based nursing

Overview of the theory Martha Rogers considered the individual (unitary human being) as an energy field coexisting within the universe. The individual is in continuous interaction with the environment and is a unified whole, possessing personal integrity and manifesting characteristics that are more than the sum of the parts. The unitary human being is a “four dimensional energy field identified by pattern and manifesting characteristics that are specific to the whole and which cannot be predicted from the knowledge of parts”. The four dimensions used in this theory - energy fields, openness, pattern and organisation, and dimensionality are used to derive principles related to human development. BASIC ASSUMPTIONS OF ROGERIAN MODEL Five basic assumptions underlay Rogers' conceptual framework are: • • • • • Wholeness (Energy field), openness, unidirectionality , pattern and organization, and sentience and thought.

On the basis of these five assumptions on human being, Rogers identified four building blocks: the energy field, openness, pattern and pandimensionality. a) Energy field These are irreducible, indivisible, pan dimensional unitary human beings and environments that are identified by pattern and manifesting characteristics that have specific to the whole and cannot be predicted from knowledge of the parts. Human and environmental energy fields are integral with each other. Rogers defines the energy field as “the fundamental unit of the living and

and the environmental field The human being is considered a unified whole processing his own integrity and manifesting characteristics which is more than and different from the sum of its parts. This constant interchange of materials and energy between the individual and the environment characterises each of them as open systems. Eg. resulting in highly variable and constantly changing patterning. which are the human field or unitary human being.paranormal phenomena. defined as “the distinguishing characteristic of an energy field perceived as a single wave”. the individual’s life process is a dynamic course that is continuous. The human and environmental fields are irreducible. creative.nonliving”. The human field can conceptualised as one person. b) Openness This is a characteristic of and and environmental energy fields. For example. She identifies two distinct but not separate: • • energy fields of concern to Nurses. Each field is identified by pattern. Because of their wholeness. the unitary human is not described as bio-psychosocio-cultural or body-mind-spirit entity. there are no boundaries other than perceptual ones. She . defined as “a non-linear domain without spatial temporal attributes”. Therefore human and environment are not separated by boundaries. they cannot be broken down into component parts or subsystems. In an open universe. or group. That means the person and the environment are continuously exchanging matter and energy with each other. evolutionary and uncertain. Parts have no meaning in unitary science. energy fields are continuously and completely open. Patten manifestations and characteristics are specific to the whole. family or community. The fields are pandimensional.

They are: • • • Integrality Resonancy and Helicy a) Resonancy It specifies the “continuous change from lower to higher frequency wave patterns in human and environmental fields”. low and high-frequency patterning of the humanenvironmental mutual field process. The interchanges occur in pandimensionally and non-linear domain that is not bound by space or time. PRINCIPLES OF HOMEODYNAMICS On the basis of five basic assumptions. Each human field pattern is a unique and is integral with its own unique environmental field pattern. she grounded her principles of homeodynamics which describes the nature of change in the human-environmental field process.emphasises that the person and environment are energy fields. It is an abstraction that cannot be seen. c) Pattern The distinguishing characteristic of an energy field. and for building blocks. It presents the way change occurs. Patten is perceived as a single wave that gives identity to the field and reveals itself through its manifestations. d) Pandimensionality A non-linear domain without spatial temporal attributes. but they do not have energy fields. such as the aura surrounding them. what is seen or experienced are manifestations of field pattern. The change in the pattern of human beings and environment is propagated by . Patten manifestations reveal the relative diversity.

waves that move from longer waves of lower frequency to shorter waves of higher frequency. and increasingly diverse. and unpredictable. dynamic. The life process in human beings is a symphony of rhythemical vibrations oscillating at various frequencies. innovative. It deals with the nature and direction of change in human environmental field. an open system is never exactly the same at any two moments. The life process evolves through a constant series of change in a rhythmical manner. and are characterised by increasing diversity. The rhythms are not repeated and the changes incorporate the past and lead to new patterns. . Thus the principles of homeodynamics are a way of viewing human beings in their wholeness. c) Helicy Asserts that human and environmental field patterns are continuous. It is the identification of the human field and the environmental field by wave patterns and manifesting continuous change from longer waves of lower frequency to shorter waves of high-frequency b) Integrality This emphasises the “continuous mutual human field and environmental field process”. It states that the changes in life process are a result of the interaction between the two fields. Because of the constant interchange. This results in ever increasing diversity and complexness. This process and these patterns are unpredictable.

. sensation and emotion b) Environment It consists of totality of patterns existing external to the individual. c) Health She did not address specifically to health. d) Nursing Nursing is an art and signs that humanistic and humanitarian. health and nursing. The goal of nursing is to participate in the process of change so that people may benefit. Rogers' conceptual framework can be analyzed using these four topics. thought. . a) People She presents five assumptions about human beings in relation to nursing metaparadigm which includes : • • • • • the human being is a unified being with individuality he is in continuous exchange of energy with the environment the life process evolves irreversibly and unpredictably in Pandimensionality there is a pattern of life and the human being is capable of abstraction. indivisible. It is viewed in terms of choosing actions that lead to the fulfilment of a person's potential. It's an irreducible. the environment.PARADIGM OF ROGERS THEORY There are four main topics that are addressed by nursing theorists: people. pan dimensional energy field identified by pattern and integral with the human field. language. imagery.

decelerated/accelerated field rhythms. metaphors. 2. The nursing helps to create an environment where healing conditions are optimal and invites clients to heal themselves as they participate in various modalities used in deliberative . introspective insight. substance use. Nursing is a learned profession. indivisible human and environmental fields. thoughts. The Rogerian practice methodology encompasses two phases: 1. “study of unitary irreducible. recruiting themes.Nursing tries to direct the interaction of the person and the environment in order to maximize health potential. nursing is the “creative use of science of nursing for human betterment. space-time shifts. In the sense of art. imaginative and creative use of nursing knowledge for human betterment” IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE Nursing practice is directed towards promoting the health and well-being of all persons. Relevant pattern information includes sensations. interpersonal networks. visualisations. wherever they are. a science and an art. safety. and personal ways of living and relating. awareness. A basic science. nutrition. intuitive apprehensions. sleep / wake cycle. and issues that pervade one's life. Deliberative mutual patterning -the continuous process whereby the nurse with a client patterns the environmental field to promote harmony related to the health events. feelings. response to questionnaires. memory. Patten manifestations appraisal -the continuous process of identifying manifestations of the human and environmental fields that relates to current health events. work and play. people and their world”. imagination. images. and professional healthcare access and use. Experiences of patten manifestations are accompanied by perception and are expressed in such diverse forms as the verbal responses. exercise.

Her conceptual model is abstract and is therefore generalisable and . and integrality represent the major integrating concepts of the nursing courses NURSING PROCESS Using the guidelines of principles of homeodynamics. the professional practice of nursing would seek to promote symphonic integration of human beings and their environment. Education for professional nursing occurs at the B Sc. M Sc. The principles of residency. and motion IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING EDUCATION Education for nursing practice requires a commitment to lifelong learning. and to direct and indirect patterning of human and environmental field for the realisation of maximum health. attitudes of hope. unconditional love. and upbeat moods. Individualised nursing care is necessary to achieve maximum health potential in a positive fashion. and the use of sound. relaxation. Nursing is then working with clients. to strengthen the coherence and integrity of the human field. meditation. humour. These goals would be reflected in the nursing process. The purpose of professional nursing educational programmes is to provide the knowledge and tools necessary for nursing practice. not to or for the client. CONCLUSION Rogers uses multiple concepts related to each other that are not easily understood. colour. and Doctoral levels in college and university settings.mutual patterning including non-invasive modalities such as therapeutic touch. helicy. imaginary. The liberal arts and sciences are a predominant component of curriculum.

The difficulty in understanding the principles. It is broader in scope and attempts to explain everything. It is usually considered a grand theory on a macro theory. A science of unitary human beings identifies nursing’s uniqueness and signifies the potential of nurses to fulfil their social responsibility in human services .powerful. the lack of operational definitions. and inadequate tools for measurement of the major limitations to the effective utilisation of this theory.

one affects the other. .a human energy and environmental energy are integrated. Lastly.a continuous change in energy fields from lower to higher frequency patterning which is best represented by our wake-sleep cycles.all energy patterns are continuous and unpredictable providing increasing diversity. Helicy. Second. Resonance. Integrality. First.________________________________________________________ Martha Rogers' theory has three principles of homeodynamic.

and extent Openness • The human field and the environmental field are constantly exchanging their energy • There are no boundaries or barrier that inhibit energy flow between fields Pattern • Pattern is defined as the distinguishing characteristic of an energy field perceived as a single waves • "pattern is an abstraction and it gives identity to the field" Pan dimensionality • Pan dimensionality is defined as "non linear domain without spatial or temporal attributes" • The parameters that human use in language to describe events is arbitrary.Concepts of Roger’s model Energy field • The energy field is the fundamental unit of both the living and nonliving • This energy field "provide a way to perceive people and environment as irreducible wholes" • The energy fields continuously varies in intensity. Unitary Human Being (person) . • The present is relative. there is no temporal ordering of lives. density.

• A unitary human being is an "irreducible.pan dimensional energy field identified by pattern and integral with the human field" • The field coexist and are integral. and the creative use of its knowledge is the art of its practice . Health and illness are the part of the same continuum. pan dimensional (four-dimensional) energy field identified by pattern and manifesting characteristics that are specific to the whole and which cannot be predicted from knowledge of the parts" and "a unified whole having its own distinctive characteristics which cannot be perceived by looking at . describing. indivisible. Manifestation emerge from this field and are perceived. The multiple events taking place along life's axis denote the extent to which man is achieving his maximum health potential and vary in their expressions from greatest health to those conditions which are incompatible with the maintaining life process Nursing The concept Nursing encompasses two dimensions • Independent science of nursing An organized body of knowledge which is specific to nursing is arrived at by scientific research and logical analysis • Art of nursing practice The creative use of science for the betterment of the human. they are the "characteristics and behavior emerging out of the mutual. or summarizing the parts" • The people has the capacity to participate knowingly and probabilistically in the process of change Environment • The environment is an "irreducible . Health Rogers defined health as an expression of the life process. simultaneous interaction of the human and environmental fields".

nonlinear evolution of energy fields as evidenced by non repeating rhythmicties • The principle of Helicy postulates an ordering of the humans evolutionary emergence Integrality • Integrality cover the mutual. • Changes occur by by the continuous repatterning of the human and environmental fields by resonance waves • The fields are one and integrated but unique to each other Rogerian theories . but continuous.Homeodynamic principles • The principles of homeodynamic postulates the way of perceiving unitary human beings • • The fundamental unit of the living system is an energy field Three principle of homeodynamic • • • Resonancy Helicy Integrality Resonance Resonance is an ordered arrangement of rhythm characterizing both human field and environmental field that undergoes continuous dynamic metamorphosis in the human environmental process Helicy • Helicy describes the unpredictable. continuous relationship of the human energy field and the environmental field.

psychological rhythm) • Theory deals with the manifestations of the whole unitary man as changes in human sleep wake patterns. déjàvu. indivisible human and environmental energy fields . clairvoyance.Rogerian theories-Grand theories • • • The theory of accelerating evolution The theory of paranormal phenomena The theory of rhythmicities Theory of paranormal phenomena • This theory focus on the explanations for precognition. and therapeutic touch • Clairvoyance is rational in a four dimensional human field in continuous mutual. and other rhythmic development Rogers concepts of nursing • • Nursing is a learned profession-it is a science and art Nursing is the study of unitary. Rogers explained that higher wave frequencies are associated with accelerating human development Theory of Rhythmicity • Focus on the human field rhythms (these rhythms are different from the biological . irreducible. perception of time passing. telepathy. indices of human field motion. there is no linear time nor any separation of human and the environmental fields The theory of accelerating evolution • Theory postulates that evolutionary change is speeding up and that the range of diversity of life process is widening. simultaneous interaction with a four dimensional world.

music. • Professional practice in nursing seeks to promote symphonic interaction between man and environment. as life continues to evolve from earth to space and beyond. to strengthen the coherence and integrity of the human field. and meditation focusing on health potential of the person. such as therapeutic touch. • Nursing practice should be emphasized on pain for management. to help people move toward better health • Nursing aims to assist people in achieving their maximum potential. humor. and to direct and redirect patterning of the human and environmental fields for realization of maximum health potential • Nursing intervention seeks to coordinate environmental field and human field rhythmicities. including future generation of space kind. supportive psychotherapy motivation . • Her view provides a different world view that encompasses a practice of nursing for the present time and for the imagined and for the yet to be imagined future • Rogers envisions a nursing practice of noninvasive modalities. guided imagery. participates in the process of change . rehabilitation.• The art of nursing involves the imaginative and creative use of nursing knowledge • The purpose of nurses is to promote health and well-being for all person and groups wherever they are using the art and science of nursing • • The health services should be community based Rogers challenges nurses to consider nursing needs of all people. use of color. light.

with the provision that both person and environment are taken into account . consequently to nurses • In the evolution it is properly subjected to reformulation and change as the knowledge grows. because it matters to human beings. but with special relevance for nurses. prevention of disease. research. and in the direct patient care practice Rules for nursing research guided by the Rogerian theory Rules for research • The Rogerian research require both basic and applied research • The phenomena to be studied are unitary human beings and their environmental interaction • Study participants may be any person or group. and rehabilitation encompasses the scope of nursing Roger’s contribution to nursing knowledge • Rogers was one of the first nurse scholars to explicitly identify the person (unitary man) as the central phenomena of nursing concern • Nursing abstract system is a matrix of concepts relevant to the life process in man • Rogers conceptual system provides a body of knowledge in nursing that will have relevance for all workers concerned with people. nursing education. nursing diagnosis.• Maintenance and promotion of health. intervention. the conceptual data will be more clearer and it will take new dimensions • The utilization of Rogerian model is used as a guide for theory development.

and Doctoral program • The major concepts are – principle of Resonancy. Masters. other places where people lives • Importance of use of media in education Rules for nursing administration guided by Rogerian theory Purpose of nursing services Nursing services is the center of any health care system and its purpose health promotion . schools. clinics.learning strategies • Emphasis should be on developing self awareness as an aspect of the clients environmental energy field and the dynamic role of nurse pattern manifestation on the client • Emphasis on laboratory study. hospitals. technical nursing • The focus is the transmission of the body of knowledge • • Teaching and practicing therapeutic touch Conducting regular in-service education Nursing programs • Baccalaureate. industry.the lab setting include homes.Rules for nursing education guided by Rogerian theory Focus of the curriculum • Nursing education can be for professional nursing . Helicy. Integrality • The faculty in the nursing education must be prepared at doctoral level Teaching.

should be visionary and willing to embrace innovative and creative change Leaders should be able to identify the patterning to ensure the integrated behaviors for client and employees Management strategies and administrative policies Administrative policies foster an open and supportive administrative climate that enhances staff members self esteem .Characteristics of nursing personnel The administrators should hold higher degrees in nursing and licensed.at risk for developing dissonance/illness Rules for nursing practice guided by Rogerian theory Areas of Rogerian model application • SETTINGS • All spheres of life . and freedom of choice and provide opportunity for staff development and continuing education to achieve the ultimate goal of the clients well-being Rules for independent practitioner guided by Rogerian model • • • Nursing is an independent science Nurse assumes the role of potentiater of care She proposes the independent role in various setting like school. space • Independent practitioner is an advanced practice registered nurse who focus on well-being or mutual patterning of individual. family. industry. actualization. community across the life span . community.

• • • • • • School Industry Family Community Space SPECIALITIES • • • • • • • • Pediatrics Psychiatry Oncology Burns Geriatrics Neurology Cardiology Rehabilitative medicine • SPECIALIZED AREAS OF PRACTICE           Neonatal ICU Pediatric ICU Post operative unit Pre operative unit Palliative care unit Rehabilitation center Burns unit Adult ICU’s Old age homes Neuropsychiatric units .

 AREA WHERE ROGERIAN MODEL IS NOT APPLICABLE  Operation theaters Purpose of nursing practice • To promote well-being for all persons. wherever they are • To assist both the client and nurse to increase their awareness of their own rhythm Setting for practice • From community to hospital to outer space Legitimate participants • People of all ages both as individual human energy fields and group energy fields .

HANDOUT ON NURSING PROCESS USING ROGERIAN MODEL Nursing process.Health patterning practice method • • • Assessment Voluntary mutual patterning Evaluation For the nurse • • • Pattern appraisal Mutual patterning of human and environmental fields Evaluation For the patient • • • Self reflection Patterning activities Personal appraisal Nursing process Assessment • • • • • • Areas of assessment Simultaneous states of the individual and the environment Total pattern of events at any given point in space – time Rhythms of life process Supplementary data Categorical disease entities .

rhythms. rhythms. dissonance • Environmental fields pattern of communication.• • Subsystem pathology Pattern appraisal It is a comprehensive assessment of: • Human field patterns of communication. harmony Intuitive reflection of self Validation of the appraisal • • Validate with self Validate with the client Mutual patterning of human and environmental field • • • • o • • • • Sharing knowledge Offering choices Empowering the client Fostering patterning Evaluation Repeat pattern appraisal Identify dissonance and harmony Validate appraisal with the client Self reflection for the client • Pattern appraisal include appraisal of multiple lifestyle rhythms such as: • • • • • • • Nutrition Work/leisure activities Exercise Sleep / wake cycles Relationships Discomfort or pain Fear /hopes Patterning activities for the client . dissonance. exchange.

currentnursing.Martha Roger’s science of unitary human beings. Meditation  Imagery  Journaling BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.com/theory/ unitary human beings/htm .

2.societyofrogerianscholars.sagepub.com 5.www.nursing. www. healthsci.html 3.htl . Martha Roger’s and the science of unitary human beings.com/cgi/content/abstract 4. nsq.universitip. a nursing theory link page.com/ Martha Roger’s science of unitary human beings/160234709. The science of unitary human beings: a current perspective.edueichilberger. welcome to the society of Rogerian scholers.clyton.

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