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A

PROJECT REPORT
ON
“ IMPACT OF JOB ENRICHMENT ON

EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION
IN
MAX HEALTHCARE Ltd”

In Partial fulfillment for the Award of the degree of


BACHELORS OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (BBA)
(2015 -18)

Submitted by
JONNALA SRI SOWMYA
(Regd No :15045 )

Under the esteemed guidance of


Mr. Rakesh Sharma

Department of Commerce and Management


Dr. Narayana College Of Commerce, Kukatpally
(Affiliated to Osmania University)
HYDERABAD
DECLARATION

I hereby declare that this Project Report titled “Impact of job


Enrichment on Employee Motivation in Max healthcare Ltd ” being
submitted is a bonafide work carried out by me for the award of degree
of Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA) from Dr.Narayana
College of commerce, Kukatpally affiliated to O.U. Hyderabad, Under
the guidance of Mr. Rakesh Sharma, FACULTY, Dr.Narayana College of
Commerce, for the Academic year 2015-18 and it is not submitted to
any other University or Institution for the award of any degree / diploma
certificate or published any time before.

JONNALA SRI SOWMYA


(Regd No :15045 )
CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the Project Report titled “Impact of job


Enrichment on Employee Motivation in Max healthcare Ltd ” being
submitted by Ms. JONNALA SRI SOWMYA in partial fulfilment
for the award of the degree of Bachelors of Business Administration
(BBA) from Dr.Narayana College of commerce, Kukatpally affiliated to
O.U. Hyderabad, is a record of bonafide work carried out by her under
my guidance and supervision, .This has not been submitted to any other
University or Institution for the award of any degree/diploma/certificate.

( Rakesh Sharma . A, MBA)


FACULTY
Dr.Narayana College of Commerce, Kukatpally
Hyderabad

(D r.John Moses,Mcom,Ph.D)
PRINCIPAL
Dr.Narayana College of Commerce,
Kukatpally
Hyderabad
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It is great pleasure to take the opportunity to acknowledge and express my


gratitude to all those who helped me throughout my project first of all I would like
to take this opportunity to thank our beloved Dr.S.L.Narayana, Chairman of Dr
Narayana College of Commerce affiliated to Osmania University for having
allotted project work as a part of BBA course.

I also Express my sincere thanks to Dr John Moses, Principal ,Dr Narayana


Degree College of Commerce, for giving me permission for taking up my project
work.

I also Convey my gratitude to Dr Anitha Raju, Vice-Principal ,Dr Narayana


Degree College of Commerce, for giving me permission for taking up my project
work.

I also thank Mr Rakesh Sharma ,Faculty of Department of Management , Dr


Narayana Degree College of Commerce , for giving me this opportunity to take up
the project work and helping me throughout the project .

Finally I would also like to thank all the staff members in the Department of
Management , Dr Narayana Degree College of Commerce ,for their support during
the project.

JONNALA SRI SOWMYA


INDEX
SNO CONTENTS

CHAPTER-1

Introduction

Need for the Study

Objectives of the study

Scope of the study

Methodology of the study

Limitations of the study

CHAPTER-2

Review of Literature & Theoretical Framework

CHAPTER-3 Industry Profile

CHAPTER-4 Company profile

CHAPTER-5 Data Analysis and interpretation

CHAPTER-6

Findings

Suggestions

Conclusion

Annexure

Bibliography
CHAPTER: I
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION

Someone has rightly said that practical experience is far better and closer to the real
world than more theoretical exposure. The practical experience helps the students to view the
real business world closely, which in turn widely influences their perceptions
and arguments their understanding of the real situation. Research work constitutes the
backbone of any management education programmed. A management student has to do
research work quiet frequently during his entire span.MBA is the stepping-stone to
management care in order to reach practical and concrete results. This project is on Impact
of Job Enrichment on Employee Motivation in Max Healthcare Institute Limited.

Job Enrichment refers vertical expansion of jobs. It increases the degree to which the
worker controls the planning, execution, and evaluation of work. An enriched job organizes
the tasks so as to allow the worker to do a complete activity, increases the
employee’s freedom and independence, increases job responsibility and provides
feedback. Employee’s job enrichment could be done in number of ways as job
rotation allows workers to do different varieties of tasks; combining tasks are done to
give more challenging work assignments; implementing participative management
allow employees to participate indecision making and strategic planning; providing
autonomy for work allows employees to work independently; providing feedback for their
work allows employees to understand how poor or well they are doing and by increasing
client relationships, we can increase direct relationship between employee
and his clients. Based on above understanding of job enrichment, we have identified factors
which by which job enrichment could be done .These factors are Job redesigning, autonomy,
feedback, work place challenge, customer interaction, participative management, flexible
working hours, use of technical skills and on the job training. It is argued that in order to
explain the effect of enrichment on performance, it is necessary to consider other factors
besides the psychological states produced by jobs which are seen to have certain
characteristics. The rationale behind job enrichment is to motivate employees. The traditional
practice of specialization, or division of labor, dividing work into many components, and
assigning each component to a separate worker results in employee boredom, and
consequently loss of efficiency, and low productivity.
The main objectives of the project is to understand
the JOB ENRICHMENT IMPACT ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION in detail by
interacting with the management, supervision and workers and to see how far the various
measures are implemented and bring out the drawbacks if any and recommended
measures for the betterment of the system. Secondly to critically evaluate the JOB
ENRICHMENT impact on employee motivation as well as on absenteeism and turnover.
At last study the most extensive changes those are critical for high motivation and
performance

Need of the Study

The current research project is based on JOB ENRICHMENT. The new changes both in
science and technology and business environment have brought a change in functional
approach of an industrial organization. The human resource executive plays a significant
role to set and achieve the objectives as the functional horizon is extended from legalistic
mundane approach to human relation. Employees are not perceived as human resource,
as some human resource experts have termed the human resource as ³knowledge capital´
of the organization. It is, therefore, imperative for human resource executive to adopt a
rationale approach to muster and accumulate the so-called knowledge capital. This places
an immense responsibility on HR executive, as there no direct scale to measure human
HR activities vis-à-vis the output.

Definition:

Job Enrichment is the addition to a job of tasks that increase the amount of employee
control or responsibility. It is a vertical expansion of the job as opposed to the horizontal
expansion of a job, which is called job enlargement. Most of us want interesting,
challenging jobs where we feel that we can make a real difference to other people’s lives.
As it is for us, so it is for the people who work with or for us. So why are so many jobs
so boring and monotonous? And what can you do to make the jobs you offer more
satisfying? (By reducing recruitment costs, increasing retention of experienced staff and
motivating them to perform at a high level; you can have a real impact on the bottom
line.)One of the key factors in good job design is job enrichment. This is the practice of
enhancing individual jobs to make the responsibilities more rewarding and inspiring for
the people who do them. With job
enrichment, you expand the task set that someone performs. You provide more
stimulating and interesting work that adds variety and challenge to an employee’s
daily routine. This increases the depth of the job and allows people to have more
control over their work. The central focus of job enrichment is giving people more
control over their work (lack of control is a key cause of stress, and therefore of
unhappiness.) Where possible, allow them to take on tasks that are typically done by
supervisors. This means that they have more influence over planning, executing, and
evaluating the jobs they do. In enriched jobs, people complete activities with increased
freedom, independence, and responsibility. They also receive plenty of feedback, so
that they can assess and correct their own performance. Here are some strategies we
can use to enrich jobs in our workplace:

 Rotate Jobs
Give people the opportunity to use a variety of skills, and perform different kinds of
work. The most common way to do this is through job rotation. Move our workers
through a variety of jobs that allow them to see different parts of the organization
learn different skills and acquire different experiences. This can be very motivating,
especially for people in jobs that are very repetitive or that focus on only one or two
skills.

 Combine Tasks
Combine work activities to provide a more challenging and complex work assignment.
This can significantly increase ‘task identity´ because people see a
job through from start to finish. This allows workers to use a wide variety of skills,
which can make the work seem more meaningful and important. For example, you can
convert an assembly line process, in which each person does one task, into a process
in which one person assembles a whole unit. We can apply this model wherever you
have people or groups that typically perform only one part of an overall process.
Consider expanding their roles to give them responsibility for the entire process, or for
a bigger part of that process.

 Identify Project-Focused Work Units

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Break our typical functional lines and form project-focused units. For example, rather
than having all of your marketing people in one department, with supervisors directing
who works on which project, you could split the department into specialized project
units specific storyboard creators, copywriters, and designers could all work together
for one client or one campaign. Allowing employees to build client relationships is an
excellent way to increase autonomy, task identity, and feedback.

 Create Autonomous Work Teams


This is job enrichment at the group level. Set a goal for a team, and make team
members free to determine work assignments, schedules, rest breaks, evaluation
parameters, and the like. You may even give them influence over choosing their own
team members. With this method, we’ll significantly cut back on supervisory
positions, and people will gain leadership and management skills.

 Implement Participative Management


Allow team members to participate in decision making and get involved in strategic
planning. This is an excellent way to communicate to members of your team that their
input is important. It can work in any organization from a very small company, with an
owner/boss who’s used to dictating everything, to a large company with a huge
hierarchy. When people realize that what they say is valued and makes a difference,
they’ll likely be motivated.

 Redistribute Power and Authority


Redistribute control and grant more authority to workers for making job-related
decisions. As supervisors delegate more authority and responsibility, team members’
autonomy, accountability, and task identity will increase.

 Increase Employee-Directed Feedback


Make sure that people know how well, or poorly, they’re performing their jobs. The
more control you can give them for evaluating and monitoring their own performance,
the more enriched their jobs will be. Rather than have your quality control department
go around and point out mistakes, consider giving each team responsibility for their

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own quality control. Workers will receive immediate feedback, and they’ll learn to
solve problems, take initiative, and make decisions.

Job enrichment provides many opportunities for people’s development. You’ll give
them lots of opportunity for their task to participate in how their work gets done, and
they’ll most likely enjoy an increased sense of personal responsibility. Job enrichment
is connected to the concept of job enlargement. Job enrichment is the process of
"improving work processes and environments so they are more satisfying for
employees”. Many jobs are monotonous and unrewarding - particularly in the primary
and secondary production industries. Workers can feel dissatisfied in their position due
to a lack of a challenge, repetitive procedures, or an over-controlled authority
structure.

Job enrichment tries to eliminate these problems, and bring better performance to the
workplace. There are three key parts to the process of job enrichment:

1. Turn employees' effort into performance:

 Ensuring that objectives are well-defined and understood by everyone. The


overall corporate mission statement should be communicated to all.
Individual's goals should also be clear. Each employee should know exactly
how she fits into the overall process and be aware of how important her
contributions are to the organization and its customers.

 Providing adequate resources for each employee to perform well. This


includes support functions like information technology, communication
technology, and personnel training and development.

 Creating a supportive corporate culture. This includes peer support networks,


supportive management, and removing elements that foster mistrust and
politicking.

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 Free flow of information. Eliminate secrecy.

 Provide enough freedom to facilitate job excellence. Encourage and reward


employee initiative. Flextime or compressed hours could be offered.

 Provide adequate recognition, appreciation, and other motivators.

 Provide skill improvement opportunities. This could include paid education at


universities or on the job training.

 Provide job variety. This can be done by job sharing or job rotation
programme.

It may be necessary to re-engineer the job process. This could involve redesigning the
physical facility, redesign processes, change technologies, simplification of
procedures, elimination of repetitiveness, redesigning authority structures.

2. Link employee’s performance directly to reward:

 Clear definition of the reward is a must

 Explanation of the link between performance and reward is important

 Make sure the employee gets the right reward if performs well

 If reward is not given, explanation is needed

3. Make sure the employee wants the reward. How to find out?

 Ask them
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Use surveys (checklist, listing, questionnaire)Job enrichment is a type of job redesign

intended to reverse the effects of tasks that are repetitive requiring little autonomy.
Some of these effects are boredom, lack of flexibility, and employee dissatisfaction
(Leach & Wall, 2004). The underlying principle is to expand the scope of the job with
a greater variety of tasks, vertical in nature, that require self-sufficiency. Since the
goal is to give the individual exposure to tasks normally reserved for differently
focused or higher positions, merely adding more of the same responsibilities related to
an employee's current position are not considered job enrichment. The basis for job
enrichment practices is the work done by Frederick Herzberg in the 1950's and60's,
which was further refined in 1975 by Hackman and Oldham using what they called
the Job Characteristics Model. This model assumes that if five core job characteristics
are present, three psychological states critical to motivation are produced, resulting in
positive outcomes (Kotila, 2001). Figure 1 illustrates this model.

Figure 1

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Job enrichment can only be truly successful if planning includes support for all phases
of the initiative. Ohio State University Extension began a job enrichment program in
1992 and surveyed the participants five years later. The results, broken down into 3
sub-buckets of data beyond the main grouping of advantages/disadvantages as shown
in Table 1, indicate the University had not fully considered the planning and
administrative aspects of the program (Fourman and Jones, 1997). While the benefits
are seemingly obvious, programs fail not because of a lack of benefits, but rather due
to implementation problems. These problems can include a perception of too great a
cost, lack of long-term commitment of resources, and potential job classification
changes (Cunningham and Eberle, 1990).

In order for a job enrichment program to produce positive results, worker needs and
organizational needs must be analyzed and acted upon. According to Cunningham and
Ederle (1990), before an enrichment program is begun, the following questions should
be asked:
 Do employees need jobs that involve responsibility, variety, feedback,
challenge, accountability, significance, and opportunities to learn?

 What techniques can be implemented without changing the job classification


plan?

 What techniques would require changes in the job classification plan?

When asked about the successes of a Training Generalist job enrichment program
begun in 2002, Karen Keenan, Learning Manager with Bank of America, stated the
accomplishments were," greater than expected". The Training Generalist program has
resulted in three successful participants to date. According to Ms. Keenan, positive
results can be directly tied to a program that addressed the strategic goal of greater
resource flexibility without adding to staff, as well as to proper planning, guidance,
and feedback for the participants. Having a voluntary program contributed as well,
attracting a high caliber of individuals eager to expand their skills and be positioned
for advancement. To date, all three Training Generalists have experienced promotions
and additional recognition while affording Ms. Keenan's team financial

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results and workload flexibility it could not have otherwise achieved. A job
enrichment program can be a very effective intervention in some situations where a
Performance Technician is faced with a request for motivational training. Ralph
Brown (2004) summed it up very nicely:
Job enrichment doesn't work for everyone. Some people are very resistant to more
responsibility or to opportunities for personal growthy. Enriching jobs is a particularly
effective way to develop employees provided the jobs are truly enriched, not just more
work for them to do.
EVOLUTION OF MOTIVATION THEORIES

Mainstream theories about employee motivation have varied greatly over the past
century. Early conceptions, sometimes termed "traditional" management theory,
assumed that work was an intrinsically undesirable pursuit and that workers naturally
sought to do as little as possible. This translated into a sort of carrot-and-stick
managerial policy whereby companies tried to maximize motivation by providing
adequate compensation as an incentive but also by guarding against any sign of
wayward behavior through authoritarian control regimes. A backlash in the 1940s and
1950s against such policies, which did not always prove particularly successful,
emphasized building a conducive social environment in which workers felt valued and
respected. This model still maintained management's authority over all critical matters,
but attempted to make the workplace more palatable by humanizing it.
Current notions of employee motivation started to take root in the 1960s. Elaborating
on the importance of human factors, contemporary theories envision workers as large
and often untapped reserves of skills, ideas, and other potential benefits to an
organization. The motivation process, according to this view, involves tailoring the
work environment and incentive structure to harness as much of this potential as
possible. This approach emphasizes granting employees greater flexibility, power,
responsibility, and autonomy so that, to some extent, they may shape their own work
environments as they see fit, while remaining accountable for both favorable and
unfavorable outcomes of their actions.

THEORIES APPLIED

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Some attempts to bolster employee motivation still consider only extrinsic rewards.
Endless mixes of employee benefits such as health care and life insurance, profit
sharing, employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs), exercise facilities, subsidized meal
plans, child care availability, company cars, and more have been used by companies in
their efforts to maintain happy employees. Although some experts argue that many of
these efforts, if only directed at motivating employees, are just a waste of company
money, it is clear that for certain individuals in certain scenarios, monetary incentives can
stimulate better job performance²at least for a while. The debate, rather, has been over
whether such material factors have more than a superficial impact on motivation. Many
modern theorists propose that the motivation an employee feels toward his or her job has
less to do with material rewards such as those described above, than with the design of the
job itself. Studies as far back as 1924 show that simplified, repetitive jobs, for instance,
fostered boredom and the taking of frequent, unauthorized breaks by those who performed
them. In 1950 a series of attitude surveys found that highly segmented and simplified jobs
resulted in lower employee morale and output. Other consequences of low employee
motivation include absenteeism and high employee turnover, both very costly for
businesses."Job enlargement" initiatives began to crop up in major companies in the
1950s, with one champion of the cause being IBM founder Thomas Watson, Sr. On the
academic front, Turner and Lawrence proposed task attributes that characterize jobs that
motivate. Turner and Lawrence suggest that there are three basic characteristics of a
"motivating" job:

 It must allow a worker to feel personally responsible for a meaningful


portion of the work accomplished
An employee must feel ownership of and connection to the work he or she performs.
Even in team situations, a successful effort will foster an individual's awareness that
his or her contributions were important in accomplishing the group's tasks.

 It must provide outcomes which have intrinsic meaning to the individual.


Effective work that does not lead a worker to feel that his or her efforts matter will not
be maintained. The outcome of an employee's work must have value to him or hers
and to others in the organization.

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 It must provide the employee feedback about his or her accomplishments
.A constructive, believable critique of the work performed is crucial to a worker's
continuance or improvement of that which has already been performed. In 1971
Hackman and Lawler tested these ideas. Using a telephone company as a test site, they
surveyed 200 employees to determine relationships between employee attitudes and
behavior and the characteristics of the employee's job. The study also assessed
whether an employee's reaction to his or her work was dependent upon particular
kinds of satisfactions valued by the employee. Positive correlations were found to
exist between the quality of an employee's job, with quality jobs meeting the three
criteria above, and positive employee attitudes and behavior. Further, "doing well" at a
job was interpreted by the employee as having put in a high quality performance,
rather than a high quantity performance. Employees felt positively when they had
accomplished something they felt was meaningful, and strove to do so if given an
encouraging opportunity.

MOTIVATION TOOLS

The methods of motivating employees today are as numerous and different as the
companies operating in the global business environment. What is the nature of the
company and its industry? Is it small or big? What kind of culture is fostered? Is it
conservative or innovative? What is important to the employees? What steps have
been taken to find out? The best employee motivation efforts focus on what employees
deem to be important. It may be that employees within the same department of the
same organization will have different motivators. Many organizations today find that
flexibility in job design and reward has resulted in employees' increased longevity
with the company, increased productivity, and better morale. Although this "cafeteria-
plan" approach to the work-reward continuum presents variety, some strategies are
prevalent across all organizations that strive to improve employee motivation.

EMPOWERMENT
Giving employees more responsibility and decision-making authority increases their
control over the tasks for which they are held responsible and better equips them to

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carry out those tasks. Trapped feelings arising from being held accountable for
something one does not have the resources to carry out are diminished. Energy is
diverted from self-preservation to improved task accomplishment. Empowerment
brings the job enlargement of the 1950s and the job enrichment that began in the
1960s to a higher level by giving the employees some of the power to expand their
own jobs and create new, personally identified challenges.

CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION

At many companies, employees with creative ideas do not express them to


management for fear of jeopardizing their jobs.
Company approval and toeing the company line have become so ingrained in some
working environments that both the employee and the organization suffer. When the
power to create in the organization is pushed down from the upper echelon to line
personnel, employees are empowered and those who know a job, product, or
service best are given the opportunity to use their ideas to improve it. The power to
create motivates employees and benefits the organization in having a more flexible
workforce, using more wisely the experience of its employees and increasing the
exchange of ideas and information among employees and departments. These
improvements also create an openness to change that can give a company the ability to
respond quickly to market changes and sustain a first mover advantage in the
marketplace. Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Co., better known as 3M, has
fostered companywide creativity for decades. Its relentless support of new ideas has
paid off in profitability and loyal employees who are so motivated that they have the
most nimble and successful new product development system in the industry. MCI
(now part of MCI World Com), too, encourages employees to develop new ideas and
take chances with them. A top manager there stated, "We don't shoot people who make
mistakes around here, we shoot people who don't take risks."

LEARNING

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If employees are given the tools and the opportunities to accomplish more, most will
take on the challenge. Companies can motivate employees to achieve more by
committing to perpetual enhancement of employee skills. Accreditation and licensing
programs for employees are an increasingly popular and effective way to bring about
growth in employee knowledge and motivation. Often, these programs improve
employees' attitudes toward the client and the company, while bolstering self-
confidence. Supporting this assertion, an analysis of factors which influence
motivation to learn found that it is directly related to the extent to which
training participants believe that such participation will affect their job or career
utility. In other words, if the body of knowledge gained can be applied to the work to
be accomplished, then the acquisition of that knowledge will be a worthwhile event
for the employee and employer.

QUALITY OF LIFE

The number of hours worked each week by American workers is on the rise again and
many families have two adults working those increased hours. Under these
circumstances, many workers are left wondering how to meet the demands of their
lives beyond the workplace. Often, this concern occurs while at work and may reduce
an employee's productivity and morale.
Companies that have instituted flexible employee arrangements have gained motivated
employees whose productivity has increased. Programs incorporating flextime,
condensed work weeks, or job sharing, for example, have been successful in focusing
overwhelmed employees toward the work to be done and away from the demands of
their private lives.

MONETARY INCENTIVE

For all the championing of alternative motivators, money still occupies a rightful place
in the mix of motivators. The sharing of a company's profits gives incentive to
employees to produce a quality product, perform a quality service, or improve the
quality of a process within the company. What benefits the company directly benefits
the employee. Monetary and other rewards are being given to employees for

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generating cost savings or process-improving ideas, to boost productivity and reduce
absenteeism. Money is effective when it is directly tied to an employee's ideas or
accomplishments. Nevertheless, if not coupled with other, non monetary motivators,
its motivating effects are short-lived. Further, monetary incentives can prove
counterproductive if not made available to all members of the organization.

OTHER INCENTIVES

Study after study has found that the most effective motivators of workers are non
monetary. Monetary systems are insufficient, in part because expectations often
exceed results and because disparity between salaried individuals may divide rather
than unite employees. Proven nonmonetary motivators foster team spirit and include
recognition, responsibility, and advancement.

Managers, who recognize the "small wins" of employees, promote participatory


environments, and treat employees with fairness and respect will find their employees
to be more highly motivated. One company's managers brainstormed to come up with
30 powerful rewards that cost little or nothing to implement. The most effective
rewards, such as letters of commendation and time off from work, enhanced personal
fulfillment and self-respect. Over the longer term, sincere praise and personal gestures
are far more effective and more economical than awards of money alone. In the end, a
program that combines monetary reward systems and satisfies intrinsic, self-
actualizing needs may be the most potent employee motivator.

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CHAPTER-2
1.1 Review of Literature

Honold (1997), suggests that an empowered organization is one where managers


supervise more people than in a traditional hierarchy and delegate more decisions to
their subordinates (Malone, 1997). Managers act like coaches and help employees
solve problems. Employees, he concludes, have increased responsibility. Superiors
empowering subordinates by delegating responsibilities to them leads to subordinates
who are more satisfied with their leaders and consider them to be fair and in turn to
perform up to the superior’s expectations (Keller and Dansereau, In practice, the
definition of delegation appears to be of critical importance. It can be discerned by the
language used by the researcher. The words subordinate´ and ³superior´ in the
language suggests giving additional tasks to employees. This is not perceived as
empowering by employees (Menon 1995). Providing for the development of self-
worth by negotiating for latitude in decision making and changing aspects of the
employee’s job leads to increased levels of perceived self-control and hence
empowerment.

Johnson (2008), studied that absenteeism due to stress increased slightly in South
African companies in 2008 compared with the previous year. So far 3.4% of all sick
leaves taken until the end of June this year were due to stress, depression and anxiety,
according to Cams, a company which looks at corporate absenteeism. This was line
with indications that the country was experiencing an economic downturn. In 2007
this figure was 3.1% and 3.9% in 2006. The research was done with the help of
statistics from 100,000 employees in 60 companies, using data from doctor-issued
sick certificates. "
Companies should therefore continue to ask themselves what they could do to make
their staff happy and productive."

Mills (1973), predicts that Industrial sociologists and psychologists have often paid
little more than scant attention to the actual work of the people they have been
studying. The literature is full of brief comments about the work situation which lack
both data and an analytical framework. This deficiency is surprising. Work content has
been shown to have a significant impact on behavior, morale, and productivity in the
workplace. The purpose of job design research is to seek to understand this
relationship more clearly and then to use research-based insights to create jobs which
are more satisfying to perform, and more efficient in performance. As such this body
of knowledge should be a subject of particular relevance for personnel specialists
since job content considerations should affect recruitment, training, placement and
effort-reward policies. However, although job content has very wide repercussions for
the personnel area, job design is frequently left by default to the technical and
engineering specialists, who seek to make their work system function effectively in
production rather than human terms.
Mogelofet.al (2005), discusses context-driven job satisfaction tradeoffs associated with
careers in élite versus non-élite organizations and the role organizations may play in
facilitating or impeding workers¶ participation in valued activities. It emphasizes the
importance of participation in valued activities as a key driver of job satisfaction. The
original purpose of this study was not to focus on job satisfaction, but rather to
conduct an exploratory investigation of how symphony orchestra players cope with
the frustrations and disappointments of orchestra life. Symphony orchestra players
report surprisingly low levels of job satisfaction given the perception held by many
that life and work in symphony orchestras is glamorous and rewarding.

Orpen(2007), examined that


 Employees in the enriched condition perceived their jobs as more enriched
than before;

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 Enrichment caused significant increases in employee job satisfaction, job
involvement, and internal motivation;

 Enrichment led to significant decreases in absenteeism and turnover; but (4)


enrichment had little impact on performance, whether assessed by superiors' ratings or
by actual output. These findings, which are described in terms of the Hackman-
Oldham theory of job design, are regarded as suggestive evidence that enrichment can
cause substantial improvements in employee attitudes, but that these benefits may not
lead to greater productivity. It is argued that in order to explain the effect of
enrichment on performance, it is necessary to consider other factors besides the
psychological states produced by jobs which are seen to have certain characteristics.

Peteret.al (2004), said Job enrichment is a type of job redesign intended to reverse the
effects of tasks that are repetitive requiring little autonomy. Some of these effects are
boredom, lack of flexibility, and employee dissatisfaction (Leach & Wall, 2004). The
underlying principle is to expand the scope of the job with a greater variety of tasks,
vertical in nature, that require self-sufficiency. Since the goal is to give the individual
exposure to tasks normally reserved for differently focused or higher positions, merely
adding more of the same responsibilities related to an employee's current position is
not considered job enrichment.

Pettman (1979), examines that ³quality of working life´ (QWL) has grown steadily over
a period in which the industrialized nations have increasingly come to question the
role and status of human beings in the modern technological environment. In recent
years concern with the nature of work, its impact upon people, and their attitudes
towards it, seem to have sharpened. Investigation of, and experimentation with, the
qualitative aspects of working life its ability to confer self-fulfillment directly, for
example, as opposed to being a means of acquiring goods has gained momentum
under the influence of a unique set of economic, social, political and technological
factors. The outpouring of books, reports and articles from a wide variety of sources
has, not surprisingly, grown apace.

25
Roberts (2006), study that absence is a major issue for many UK organizations, yet less
than half monitor the cost of absence to their business (CIPD, July 2007). On average the
cost of absence is £659 per employee per year and in addition to this the indirect
cost of absenteeism on the organization is significant, affecting productivity levels and
knowledge management and putting customer service, morale and corporate
reputations at risk. Managing absence is about starting with the little things.

Ullah (1991), Considers that implementing total quality management is more a matter
of changing people than changing technologies. Shows how psychology can be used
to facilitate the process. Examines attitudes and behavior, values and motivation.
Discusses work redesign and goal setting as methods of motivating staff to achieve
desired standards of work behavior. Finally, considers the importance of psychological
measurement to test customer attitudes.
Concludes that there are other areas of organizational psychology
which have

implications for implementing a programmed of total quality, and that the human side
of TQM is at least as important as the technical side.

OUTCOMES
The effect of job enrichment on employee responses was investigated in a field
experiment conducted in a federal agency among clerical employees, who were
randomly assigned to either an enriched or unenriched condition. In the enriched
condition, a systematic attempt was made to increase the extent to which the jobs of
the employees possessed each of the dimensions of skill variety, task identity, task
significance, autonomy, and feedback. In the unenriched condition, the employees
performed their original duties and tasks. After a 6-month experimental period, the
effect of enrichment was examined.
The results showed that:
 Employees in the enriched condition perceived their jobs as more enriched
than before;
 Enrichment caused significant increases in employee job satisfaction, job
involvement, and internal motivation;
 Enrichment led to significant decreases in absenteeism and turnover; but
 Enrichment had little impact on performance, whether assessed by superiors'
ratings or by actual output.

27
These findings, which are described in terms of the Hackman-Oldham theory of job
design, are regarded as suggestive evidence that enrichment can cause substantial
improvements in employee attitudes, but that these benefits may not lead to greater
productivity. It is argued that in order to explain the effect of enrichment on
performance, it is necessary to consider other factors besides the psychological states
produced by jobs which are seen to have certain characteristics
CHAPTER III
Introduction

Healthcare has become one of India’s largest sectors - both in terms of revenue and
employment. Healthcare comprises hospitals, medical devices, clinical trials, outsourcing,
telemedicine, medical tourism, health insurance and medical equipment. The Indian
healthcare sector is growing at a brisk pace due to its strengthening coverage, services and
increasing expenditure by public as well private players.
Indian healthcare delivery system is categorised into two major components - public and
private. The Government, i.e. public healthcare system comprises limited secondary and
tertiary care institutions in key cities and focuses on providing basic healthcare facilities in
the form of primary healthcare centres (PHCs) in rural areas. The private sector provides
majority of secondary, tertiary and quaternary care institutions with a major concentration in
metros, tier I and tier II cities.
India's competitive advantage lies in its large pool of well-trained medical professionals.
India is also cost competitive compared to its peers in Asia and Western countries. The cost of
surgery in India is about one-tenth of that in the US or Western Europe.

Market Size

Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu India has predicted that with increased digital adoption, the Indian
healthcare market, which is worth around US$ 100 billion, will likely grow at a CAGR of 23
per cent to US$ 280 billion by 2020. The healthcare market can increase three fold to US$
372 billion by 2022.
India is experiencing 22-25 per cent growth in medical tourism and the industry is expected
to double its size from present (April 2017) US$ 3 billion to US$ 6 billion by 2018. Medical
tourist arrivals in India increased more than 50 per cent to 200,000 in 2016 from 130,000 in
2015.
The Healthcare Information Technology (IT) market is valued at US$ 1 billion currently
(April 2016) and is expected to grow 1.5 times by 2020. #
Over 80 per cent of the antiretroviral drugs used globally to combat AIDS (Acquired Immuno
Deficiency Syndrome) are supplied by Indian pharmaceutical firms^.
There is a significant scope for enhancing healthcare services considering that healthcare
spending as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is rising. Rural India, which
accounts for over 70 per cent of the population, is set to emerge as a potential demand source.
A total of 3,598 hospitals and 25,723 dispensaries across the country offer AYUSH
(Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy) treatment, thus ensuring
availability of alternative medicine and treatment to the people. In 2017, the Government of
India has provided grant-in-aid for setting up of AYUSH educational institutions in States and
Union Territories.

Investment

The hospital and diagnostic centres attracted Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) worth US$
4.83 billion between April 2000 and September 2017, according to data released by the
Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP). Some of the recent investments in the
Indian healthcare industry are as follows:
 India and Cuba have signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to increase
cooperation in the areas of health and medicine, according to Ministry of Health and
Family Welfare, Government of India.
 Singapore's Temasek will acquire a 16 per cent stake worth Rs 1,000 crore (US$
156.16 million) in Bengaluru based private healthcare network Manipal Hospitals,
which runs a hospital chain of around 5,000 beds.

Government Initiatives

Some of the major initiatives taken by the Government of India to promote Indian healthcare
industry are as follows:
 India's first ever 'Air Dispensary', which is based in a helicopter, will be launched in
the Northeast and the Ministry of Development of Northeast Region (DONER) has
already contributed Rs 25 crore (US$ 3.82 million) for its funding.
 The Intensified Mission Indradhanush (IMI) has been launched by the Government of
India with the aim of improving coverage of immunisation in the country and reach
every child under two years of age and all the pregnant women who have not been
part of the routine immunisation programme.
 Ministry of Health and Family Welfare is planning to spend more funds, over and
above the current sanction of Rs 955 crore (US$ 148.22 million), to tackle lifestyle
diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension, obesity and diabetes in
India.
 The Union Cabinet approved setting up of National Nutrition Mission (NNM) with a
three year budget of Rs 9,046.17 crore (US$ 1.40 billion) to monitor, supervise, fix
targets and guide the nutrition related interventions across the Ministries.
 The Government of India aims to increase the total health expenditure to 2.5 per cent
of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by 2025 from the current 1.15 per cent.
 Mr J P Nadda, Union Minister of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India,
launched initiatives such as LaQshya, for Labour Room Quality Improvement, a
mobile application for safe delivery, and operational guidelines for obstetric high
dependency units (HDUs) and intensive care units (ICUs).

Road Ahead

India is a land full of opportunities for players in the medical devices industry. India’s
healthcare industry is one of the fastest growing sectors and in the coming 10 years it is
expected to reach $275 billion. The country has also become one of the leading destinations
for high-end diagnostic services with tremendous capital investment for advanced diagnostic
facilities, thus catering to a greater proportion of population. Besides, Indian medical service
consumers have become more conscious towards their healthcare upkeep.
Indian healthcare sector is much diversified and is full of opportunities in every segment
which includes providers, payers and medical technology. With the increase in the
competition, businesses are looking to explore for the latest dynamics and trends which will
have positive impact on their business.
India's competitive advantage also lies in the increased success rate of Indian companies in
getting Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) approvals. India also offers vast
opportunities in R&D as well as medical tourism. To sum up, there are vast opportunities for
investment in healthcare infrastructure in both urban and rural India.
India Pharma & India Medical Device 2018': Affordable and
Quality Healthcare

India’s biggest Global Conference on Pharma Industry and Medical Devices to begin in
Bengaluru on 15th February With the theme, ‘Driving NextGen Pharmaceuticals’, the
event would be a positive step towards the development of Future Drugs: Shri
Ananthkumar Shri Ananthkumar to hold Roundtable of Pharma and Medical Devices
CEOs to discuss Government policy and Challenges facing the Industry World Health
Organization to hold workshop on ‘Regulatory System Strengthening and
Prequalification’

New Delhi: The Department of Pharmaceuticals (DoP), Ministry of Chemicals and


Fertilizers, along with Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry (FICCI), is
organizing ‘India Pharma & India Medical Device 2018’, with the theme - ‘Affordable and
Quality Healthcare’, the 3rd International exhibition and conference on Pharmaceutical &
Medical Device sector from 15th-17th February, 2018 in Bengaluru.
Union Minister for Chemicals & Fertilizers, Shri Ananthkumar will inaugurate the three-day
event and address the distinguished gathering in the presence of dignitaries such as Union
Minister for Health and Family Welfare, Shri J.P. Nadda, Chief Minister of Karnataka, Shri
Siddaramaiah and Shri Mansukh L. Mandaviya, Minister of State for Chemicals & Fertilizers
and Road Transport & Highways, Shipping, Government of India.
Shri Ananthkumar said that “With the theme, ‘Driving NextGen Pharmaceuticals’, the event
would be a positive step towards the development of Future Drugs i.e. Biologics and will
catalyze the overall growth of the Pharmaceuticals Sector in India”. The Minister added that
the 3rd edition of the event will be beneficial for all stakeholders and in the coming years the
event would grow to be the largest exhibition in Asia in the Pharmaceutical Sector.
India Pharma & India Medical Device 2018 will see a roundtable of pharma and medical
devices CEOs with Shri Ananthkumar, to discuss Government policy and challenges facing
the Industry. The event will bring key stakeholders of the pharma and medical devices sectors
under one roof, with hundreds of delegates including 50 Hosted Delegates from other
Nations. Over 300 companies and 50 startups will showcase their products at the grand
exhibition. The event will also see more than 90 eminent industry leaders speak at various
sessions lined over three days.
More than 20 international drug and device regulators will participate in a meet with Indian
regulators. Ministerial delegations from CIS and BIMSTEC countries will also attend the
event. A key highlight of India Pharma & India Medical Device 2018 is a workshop by World
Health Organization on ‘Regulatory System Strengthening and Prequalification’. A
conference will also be organized by NASSCOM on ‘Digital Transformation through
Innovation in Pharmaceutical, Medical Devices and Healthcare Industries’. India Pharma &
India Medical Device Awards will be announced to honor excellence and innovation in the
field of pharmaceuticals and medical devices. For three days, the event will host Technical
sessions build around themes like Discovering Innovative Medicines in India; Making India a
Part of Global Supply Chain in Medical Devices; Opportunities, Challenges and Regulatory
Requirements in the Development of Biologics; Opportunities & Challenges for Stem cells &
Regenerative Medicine; Emerging Global Trends in Self Care and Relevance of OTC
Regulatory Framework for Indian Public Healthcare System; a Sub-sectoral Approach to
Make in India; and Moving towards API Self Sufficiency.
The Social Media links for the events are as follows:
India Pharma 2018: HASHTAG: #INDIAPHARMA
Website: www.indiapharmaexpo.in (for LIVE WEBCAST of Sessions open for Media)
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/indiapharma2018
Twitter: https://twitter.com/indiapharma2018
Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/indiapharma2018/
India Medical Device 2018: HASHTAG: #INDIAMEDICALDEVICE
Website: www.indiamediexpo.in (for LIVE WEBCAST of Sessions open for Media)
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/indiamedicaldevice/
Twitter: https://twitter.com/Indiamedical18
CHAPTER IV
COMPANY PROFILE

Max Healthcare Institute Limited began with a vision to deliver International Class
healthcare services in India. It was founded in 1985. The first Max healthcare centre
was opened as Max Medcentre in Panchsheel Park, New Delhi with OPD facilities
and day care surgeries in 2000.
Max Hospital, Noida was opened in 2002 with services including non-invasive

cardiology, orthopedics, ENT, ophthalmology, nephrology etc. Max Heart and


Vascular Institute were established in 2004 with advanced cardiac life support and air
evacuation service in Saket.
Max Hospital in Patparganj was founded in 2005. In the same year, Max Eye and
Dental Care centre was opened at Panchsheel Park, New Delhi. Max Super Specialty
Hospital in Saket was founded in 2006 and Max Hospital, Gurgaon was opened in
2007.
In July 2014 the company formed a joint venture with LIFE Healthcare Group, the
second largest private hospital operator in South Africa, with the two groups each
holding a 46.4% equity stake in the new venture to be known as Max India.
The Max India Group is a multi-business corporate, driven by the spirit of enterprise
and focused on people and service oriented businesses. The Company’s vision is to be
one of India’s most admired corporate for service excellence – in what they do, how
they do it and the positive impact they have on society and their stakeholders.

They 'Protect Life' through their Life Insurance subsidiary. Max Life Insurance, a
Joint Venture between Max India and Mitsui Sumitomo, Japan;
They 'Care for Life' through their Healthcare company, Max Healthcare, a
subsidiary of Max India Limited;
They 'Enhance Life' through their Health Insurance company, Max Bupa Health
Insurance, a Joint Venture between Max India and Bupa Finance Plc, UK;

31
Max India recently entered the Senior Living business with Antara Senior Living, a
fully owned subsidiary of Max India. From its past, Max India continues its interest
in the manufacture of Speciality Products for the packaging industry through its
subsidiary, Max Speciality Films.

Max India Group’s FY14 consolidated operating revenue was Rs. 91,390 million, a
growth of 12% above the same period last year. The Group is on a high growth path,
with a customer base of over 7 million, over 310 offices across 216 locations in the
country and people strength of 70,000 persons, as on March 31, 2014

VISION AND MISSION

The purpose of all human activity is to make life better. MHIL aspires to be one of
India’s most admired corporate for service excellence – in what they do, how they do
it. Through innovations, they constantly endeavor to bring better services and
environment that bring greater value to the society.
Core Purpose
"Improve Life Through Innovative Science"
Vision
 They are a role model enterprise, respected globally for excellence in quality and
innovation.
 They enhance stakeholder value while adhering to the code of responsible care and
ethical values.
 They are an employer of choice and preferred business partner
worldwide. Corporate Values
MHIL believes in honoring its commitment. Integrity and transparency are an integral
part of their relationship with customers, employees and society.
Respect for Life: The Company believes that life in all its forms must be respected.
They respect and value their people.
Their employees are their value creators whose efforts, creativity and bond they
cherish.

32
Their customers reward them for their value creation and their stakeholders, who are
committed to them in their endeavor to improve life. They also recognize and respect
their environment and take every effort to preserve it.

VALUE STATEMENT

 Integrity - They are open, ethical, transparent & uncompressing in their work.
 Decisiveness - Set a goal, analyzes the facts and work on alternatives and
conclude them in fixed time frame.
 Team Spirit - They encourage group interaction and working together. United
and collective drive achieves the desired goal.
 Commitment - They keep all promises made within and outside the company.
 Caring - They are concerned for their environment, society and employees
and work for their betterment.
 Excellence - They are a role model and benchmark company for our products,
services and business processes.
 Innovation - They nurture creativity and encourage application of knowledge
and ideas in all facets of our business.
 Customer Orientation - Customer is uppermost in their mind. They work to
exceed the customer’s expectations.

MISSION

 Establish niche service businesses in Life Insurance, Healthcare and Health Insurance.
.

33
QUALITY AND ENVIORNMENT

At MHIL quality is the keyword in every activity and a constant endeavor to achieve
standards of the highest levels has been an ongoing commitment from the time of its
inception as well as recognition and acknowledgement of this devotion. This
achievement has been set as a benchmark to go forward in excellence.
Max Hospital prides itself in having comprehensive and integrated healthcare service.
Their main differentiator is quality conscious and patient centric approach, which is
complimented by a network of highly respected and leading specialists. The hospital
also lays extensive emphasis on medical training and education. Max Healthcare
offers its patients with added advantage of a culture of safety as the staff is outcomes
oriented with evidence based medicine. All these provide 'value' to their customers.
The major issues addressed are:
Recognizing that healthcare errors impact one in every 10 patients around the world,
the World Health Organization calls patient safety an endemic concern.

 It is with this background that Max Healthcare gives the highest priority to the safety
and quality of care for each of its patients.

 Patient Centered Care is at the core of everything they do. The organization has
successfully implemented "Medical Excellence Model" with the help of their clinical
teams. The pillars of this model include clinical governance, credentialing and clinical
privileging of physicians and nurses, use of standardized, evidenced based protocols,
patient and staff safety, infection control, a culture of audit and continuous
professional development.

 They have established a culture of safety. Every year they launch Max Healthcare
Patient Safety Goals based on the in-depth analysis of reported adverse events and
International norms.

 All staff members participate in identifying, reporting any adverse events, or near
misses during care. The teams then take up projects to learn and strengthen safe
practices. Root cause analysis, audits, six sigma projects, drive improvements.

34
 Each hospital has enthusiastic leaders who work relentlessly to identify opportunities
for improvement in all aspects of patient safety.

 This culture of teamwork, accountability and transparency has kept our adverse events
on the lowest side.

FACILITIES

 Aesthetic & Reconstructive Surgery


Their state-of-the-art facilities, advanced technology and world class surgeons will
make your dream take the shape of reality, in a natural and safe way.

 Audiology & Speech Therapy


The Department of Audiology & Speech Therapy provides comprehensive speech as
well as detailed language diagnostic evaluations.

 Cardiac Sciences
From diagnosis to treatment to recovery, Max Healthcare offers comprehensive
cardiac care through its dedicated team of Cardiologists and Cardiovascular surgeons.

 Dental Care
Max Dental Center endeavors to give a relaxing and comfortable environment that
will put you at ease during your dental visits.

 Dermatology
Department of Dermatology offers a holistic treatment involving a wide range of
services pertaining to medical, pediatric, surgical and cosmetic dermatology.

 Ear Nose Throat


Max Healthcare provides complete medical treatment and diagnostic facilities for ear,
nose, and throat (ENT) related diseases and disorders.

35
 Endocrinology & Diabetes
The Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity provides expertise in the full
spectrum of endocrine disorders, including pituitary, thyroid, adrenal diseases,
diabetes and obesity.

 Eye Care
Get the most advanced eye care from the world's best eye surgeons at Max Healthcare
which is conceptualized to deliver unparalleled standards of medical & service
excellence.

 Gastroenterology & Endoscopy


Institute of Gastro provides exemplary care for critically ill patients and conducts
cutting edge research related to life-threatening acute medical problems and educates
tomorrow’s leaders in the field of critical care medicine.

 General Surgery
The Department of General Surgery aims at providing treatment for a whole range of
complications. The Department has proficient doctors and surgeons who are devoted
to exclusive and comprehensive patient care.

 Internal Medicine
The professional team at Max Department of Internal Medicine consists of
internationally renowned experts. The department prides itself in its state-of-the-art
diagnostic services and comprehensive treatment.

 IVF
One of the most advanced centers in the country for infertility evaluation, IVF
treatment and assisted reproduction

 Mental Health and Behavioural Sciences


Department of Mental Health & Behavioral Sciences aims at combining medical
expertise and technology to provide comprehensive treatment to the patients.

36
 MAMBS (Minimal Access, Metabolic & Bariatric Surgery}
Surgeries involving very small incisions ensuring faster recovery, lesser post-operative
pain and minimal post-surgical complications.

 Nephrology
Nephrology & Dialysis Services Department integrates advanced equipment and
medical expertise to provide care and treatments pertaining to general nephrology,
dialysis and kidney transplants.

 Neurosciences
Complete care for disorders or diseases of the brain, spine and nerves.
Nutrition & Dietetics
From diet planning to nutritional assessment, Max Healthcare provides highest level
of nutritional care and education to patients.

 Obstetrics & Gynaecology


Cures for women’s' problems at each of their life stages from their teens to becoming
mothers to getting old gracefully.

 Oncology(Cancer Care)
Medical, Surgical and Radiation – all forms of cancer treatment backed by superior
cancer treatment technology, medical expertise and holistic care, to fight the battle
against cancer.

 Orthopaedics and Joint Replacement


A state-of-the-art health care facility designed to provide the highest levels of
professional expertise and patient care.

 Paediatrics
The institute is a unique, one of its kind, one stop health care facility set up for the
needs of babies, children as well as teenagers.

37
 Physiotherapy & Rehabilitation
Max Healthcare delivers professional expertise to treat people with different types of
problems, ranging from sports injuries and low back pain to serious neurological
injuries.

 Podiatry
Podiatry Department believes in providing specialized and individualized care as well
as treatment to the patients.

 Pulmonology
Department of Pulmonology is dedicated towards providing excellent medical services
for conditions like Asthma, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Emphysema,
Pulmonary Edema etc.

 Urology
The department of Urology at Max Healthcare offers comprehensive diagnostic and
treatment services for adult and pediatric urological conditions.

HOSPITALS

 Max Super Speciality Hospital, Saket


 Max Super Speciality Hospital (A unit of Devki Devi Foundation), Saket
 Max Super Speciality Hospital, Patparganj
 Max Hospital, Pitampura
 Max Hospital, Noida
 Max Multispeciality Centre, Panchsheel Park
 Max Hospital, Gurgaon

 Max Super Speciality Hospital, Mohali, Punjab

 Max Super Speciality Hospital, Dehradun, Uttarakhand

38
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

At Max Healthcare In statute Limited, R&D is the key to survival and growth, given
that a fast paced global environment results in ever changing customer needs and new
services with innovative technologies drain away competitiveness. To that end they
have a central R&D facility, the Deepak Research & Development Centre (DRDC) at
Pune that has been approved by the Government of India., Dept. of Science &
Technology. DRDC has a sophisticated analytical laboratory and facilities for testing
new technologies and new products.A team of over 30 persons, including PhDs and
Chemical Engineers are supported by a technical services group of Chemists /
Chemical Engineers at the manufacturing divisions. The Centre works closely with
reputed universities and research institutes of India like the University Institute of
Chemical Technology – Mumbai, National Chemical Laboratory - Pune and the Indian
Institute of Chemical Technology – Hyderabad. Approved by the Government of
India., Dept. of Science & Technology, the centre is primarily engaged in research and
process development for new products as well as optimization of the manufacturing
processes for existing products. The pilot plant of the company ensures solutions for
extremely demanding customers.

.1 Objectives of the Study

 To understand the JOB ENRICHMENT IMPACT ON EMPLOYEE


MOTIVATION in detail by interacting with the management, Regional sales
manager and field sales manager and to see how far the various measures are
implemented and bring out the drawbacks if any and recommended measures
for the betterment of the system.

 To critically evaluate the JOB ENRICHMENT impact on employee motivation


as well as on absenteeism and turnover.

 To study the most extensive changes those are critical for high motivation and
performance.

 To measure the performance which effected by the job enrichment.


3.2 Research Methodology

Job Enrichment refers vertical expansion of jobs. It increases the degree to which
RSM and FSO controls the planning, execution, and evaluation of work. An enriched
job organizes the tasks so as to allow the FSO to do a complete activity, increases the
employee’s freedom and independence, increases job responsibility and provides
feedback. Employee’s job enrichment could be done in number of ways as follows.

 By job rotation, allows FSO to do different varieties of tasks.

 By combining tasks, work activities are combined to give more challenging


work assignments.

 By implementing participative management, this allows employees to


participate indecision making and strategic planning.

41
 By providing autonomy for work , this allows employees to work
independently

 By providing feedback for their work, this allows employees to understand


how poor or well they are doing.

 By increasing client relationships, this increases direct relationship between


employee and his clients.

The research methodology adopted in this research consists of the following steps:
Procedure followed:
Based on above understanding of job enrichment, I have identified factors which by
which job enrichment could be done .These factors are as follows.

 Job redesigning

 Autonomy

 Feedback

 Work place challenge

 Customer interaction

 Participative management

 Flexible working hours

 Use of technical skills

 On the job training

42
A questionnaire was prepared to see the effect of all of the above factors of employee
motivation, absenteeism and turnover which in turn effects employee satisfaction.

Independent variables for the study:

Job Enrichment (Job redesigning, Autonomy, Feedback, work place challenge,


customer interaction, participative management, flexible working hours, use of
technical skills, on the job training)

Dependent variables for the study:

Motivation, Absenteeism , Turnover, Job Satisfaction.

3.3 Design of Research

Our research design is concentrated with the specification of method and procedures
used for conducting study. The research design of our study is both explanatory as
well as descriptive .Our research is exploratory in initial stages to provide background
to the study. Here we explore general subjects to study.

 Study of available literature


 Survey of experienced individuals
 Analysis of insight stimulating examples

Gradually as we proceed we shift to a descriptive research design as we concrete data


from primary sources as well. We choose to make the study descriptive as it is too
made regarding JOB ENRICHMENT IMPACT ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION of
the company.

43
3.4 Sample Size

Where the frame and population are identical, statistical theory yields exact
recommendations on sample size. However, where it is not straightforward to define a
frame representative of the population, it is more important to understand the cause
system of which the populations are outcomes and to ensure that all sources of
variation are embraced in the frame. Large number of observations is of no value if
major sources of variation are neglected in the study. In other words, it is taking a
sample group that matches the survey category and is easy to survey.

The sample size of a statistical sample is the number of observations that constitute it.
It is typically denoted n, a positive integer (natural number). Typically, different
sample sizes lead to different precision of measurement. This can be seen in such
statistical rules as the law of large numbers and the central limit theorem. Population
consists of 3000 employees. Our sample element comprises ASM and FSO. Name and
proper identification of the employees was taken from the attendance register of the
company.

Initial characteristics of the sample size


I have segregated the employees as executive level and non- executive level; on the
basis of which I managed to prepare questionnaires for 100 employees (50 at
executive level and 50 at non -executive level).
Out of these, I got the response from 50 employees and from these, 40 responses were
useful and survey was conducted on these responses.

Sample size taken for study: 40


Age Group: 22-35 years and 40-55 years
Work Experience: 1-5 years and 6-10 years

44
3.5 Sampling technique

Sampling is that part of statistical practice concerned with the selection of individual
observations intended to yield some knowledge about a population of concern,
especially for the purposes of statistical inference. Each observation measures one or
more properties (weight, location, etc.) of an observable entity enumerated to
distinguish objects or individuals. Survey weights often need to be applied to the data
to adjust for the sample design. Results from probability theory and statistical theory
are employed to guide practice.

The sampling process comprises several stages:

 Defining the population of concern


The population concerned for my study was the employees at executive level and
non-executive level.

 Specifying a sampling frame, a set of items or events possible to measure


As there were 3000 employees in the organization, so it was not possible to study the
responses of all the employees, so I took 100 employees to study their responses.

 Specifying a sampling method for selecting items or events from the frame I
have used stratified sampling method in the following ways-

Partition of the population into groups (strata)

Obtaining a simple random sample from each group (stratum)

Collecting data on each sampling unit that was randomly
sampled from each group (stratum)

 Determining the sample size


The sample size was determined according to the appropriate responses given by the
employees.

 Implementing the sampling plan


The sample plan was implemented by providing them the questionnaires.

45
 Sampling and data collecting
The data was collected by reviewing the questionnaires which were filled by the
employees of the organization.

 Reviewing the sampling process.

3.6 Sources of Data

My purpose is to provide information that will assist you in interpreting Statistics


data. The information (also known as metadata) is provided to ensure an
understanding of the basic concepts that define the data including variables and
classifications; the underlying statistical methods and surveys; and key aspects of the
data quality. Direct access to questionnaires is also provided.

PRIMARY DATA
I have used primary source of data that is structured questionnaire has been used. As
our research problem is to study job enrichment impact on employee motivation. This
research data is collected from the primary source only. Our method of collecting the
data is from the questionnaire that will be filled by the respondent from the sample, it
will be structured questionnaire. The project report much attention was paid on the
subjective study because the topic deals with psycho-socio behavior of the employees.

46
3.7 Test Applied

ANOVA: Two-Factor without Replication

In statistics, analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a collection of statistical models, and


their associated procedures, in which the observed variance is partitioned into
components due to different explanatory variables. The initial techniques of the
analysis of variance were developed by the statistician and geneticist, R.A.Fisher in
the 1920s and 1930s, and is sometimes known as Fisher’s ANOVA or Fisher's analysis of
variance, due to the use of Fisher's F-distribution as part of the test of statistical
significance. R.A FISHER, Analysis of variance is the separation of the variance
ascribe to one group of causes from the variance ascribe to other group. Two-way
ANOVAs (also known as a factorial ANOVAs,with two factors) when you have one
measurement variable and two nominal variables. The nominal variables (often called
"factors" or "main effects") are found in all possible combinations.

A two-way ANOVAs may be done with replication (more than one observation for
each combination of the nominal variables) or without replication (only one
observation for each combination of the nominal variables).

Assumptions

Two-way ANOVAs, like all ANOVAs, assumes that the observations within each cell
are normally distributed and have equal variances

Two-way ANOVAs without replication

Null hypotheses:

When there is only a single observation for each combination of the nominal variables,
there are only two null hypotheses: that the means of observations grouped

47
by one factor are the same, and that the means of observations grouped by the other
factor are the same. It is impossible to test the null hypothesis of no interaction.
Testing the two null hypotheses about the main effects requires assuming that there is
no interaction.

How the test works:

The mean square is calculated for each of the two main effects, and a total mean
square is also calculated by considering all of the observations as a single group. The
remainder mean square (also called the discrepancies or error mean square) is found
by subtracting the two main effect mean squares from the total mean square. The F-
statistic for a main effect is the main effect mean square divided by the remainder
mean square.

Repeated measures:

One experimental design that is analyzed by a two-way anova is repeated measures,


where an observation has been made on the same individual more than once. This
usually involves measurements taken at different time points. For example, you might
measure running speed before, one week into, and three weeks into a program of
exercise. Because individuals would start with different running speeds, it is better to
analyze using a two-way anova, with "individual" as one of the factors, rather than
lumping everyone together and analyzing with a one-way anova. Sometimes the
repeated measures are repeated at different places rather than different times, such as
the hip abduction angle measured on the right and left hip of individuals. Repeated
measures experiments are often done without replication, although they could be done
with replication.

In a repeated measures design, one of main effects is usually uninteresting and the test
of its null hypothesis may not be reported. If the goal is to determine whether a
particular exercise program affects running speed, there would be little point in testing
whether individuals differed from each other in their average running speed; only the
change in running speed over time would be of interest.

48
Randomized blocks:
Another experimental design that is analyzed by a two-way anova is randomized
blocks. This often occurs in agriculture, where you may want to test different
treatments on small plots within larger blocks of land. Because the larger blocks may
differ in some way that may affect the measurement variable, the data are analyzed
with a two-way anova, with the block as one of the nominal variables. Each treatment
is applied to one or more plot within the larger block, and the positions of the
treatments are assigned at random. This is most commonly done without replication
(one plot per block), but it can be done with replication as well.

49
CHAPTER-5
ANALYSIS
AND
INTERPRETATION

50
1) Impact of Job redesign on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover

MOTIVATION ABSENTEEISM TURNOVER

INCREASE 25 2 6
DECREASE 2 8 14
NO
EFFECT 3 20 10

GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION

30

25

20
INCREASE
15
DECREASE
NO EFFECT
10

0
MOTIVATION ABSENTEEISM TURNOVER

Interpretation:
The table value at 5% level of significance is 6.944276 and calculated value is
7.69231, since calculated value is greater than the tabulated value, hence null
hypotheses is rejected. There is impact of Job redesign on Motivation, Absenteeism
and Turnover.

52
2) Impact of Job Autonomy on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover

MOTIVATION ABSENTEEISM TURNOVER

INCREASE 24 2 8
DECREASE 4 14 12
NO
EFFECT 2 14 10

GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION

30

25

20
INCREASE
15
DECREASE
NO EFFECT
10

0
MOTIVATION ABSENTEEISM TURNOVER

Interpretation:
The table value at 5% level of significance is 6.944276 and calculated value is
8.59231, since calculated value is greater than the tabulated value, hence null
hypotheses is rejected. There is impact of Job autonomy on Motivation, Absenteeism
and Turnover. It is also interpreted that level of motivation was increased on 80.00%
employees while on 13.33% level of motivation was decreased and 6.66% were not
affected.
3) Impact of Feedback on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover

MOTIVATION ABSENTEEISM TURNOVER

INCREASE 16 6 5
DECREASE 4 9 13
NO
EFFECT 10 15 12

GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION

30

25

20
INCREASE
15
DECREASE
NO EFFECT
10

0
MOTIVATION ABSENTEEISM TURNOVER

Interpretation:
The table value at 5% level of significance is 6.944276 and calculated value is
0.387435, since calculated value is less than the tabulated value, hence a null
hypothesis is accepted. There is no impact of feedback on Motivation, Absenteeism
and Turnover.
4) Impact of Work Challenges on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover

MOTIVATION ABSENTEEISM TURNOVER


INCREASE 21 8 6
DECREASE 5 8 16
NO
EFFECT 4 14 8

GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION

30

25

20
INCREASE
15
DECREASE
NO EFFECT
10

0
MOTIVATION ABSENTEEISM TURNOVER

Interpretation:
The table value at 5% level of significance is 6.944276 and calculated value is
7.112903, since calculated value is more than the tabulated value, hence a null
hypothesis is rejected. There is impact of work challenges on Motivation, Absenteeism
and Turnover.

58
5) Impact of customer interaction on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover

MOTIVATION ABSENTEEISM TURNOVER


INCREASE 3 4 2

DECREASE 9 7 8

NO
EFFECT 18 19 20

GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION

30

25

20
INCREASE
15
DECREASE
NO EFFECT
10

0
MOTIVATION ABSENTEEISM TURNOVER

Interpretation:
The table value at 5% level of significance is 6.944276 and calculated value is 1.4,
since calculated value is less than the tabulated value, hence a null hypothesis is
accepted. There is no impact of Customer interaction on Motivation, Absenteeism and
Turnover.
6) Impact of Participative Decision on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover

MOTIVATION ABSENTEEISM TURNOVER

INCREASE 24 2 5
DECREASE 4 10 16

NO
EFFECT 2 18 9

GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION

30

25

20
INCREASE
15
DECREASE
NO EFFECT
10

0
MOTIVATION ABSENTEEISM TURNOVER

Interpretation: The table value at 5% level of significance is 6.944276 and


calculated value is
9.002747, since calculated value is more than the tabulated value, hence a null
hypothesis is rejected. There is impact of Participative Decision on Motivation,
Absenteeism and Turnover.

62
7) Impact of Flexible Working Hours on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover

MOTIVATION ABSENTEEISM TURNOVER

INCREASE 8 3 2
DECREASE 15 11 18
NO
EFFECT 7 16 10

GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION

30

25

20
INCREASE
15
DECREASE
NO EFFECT
10

0
MOTIVATION ABSENTEEISM TURNOVER

Interpretation:
The table value at 5% level of significance is 6.944276 and calculated value is
7.503311,since calculated value is more than the tabulated value, hence a null
hypothesis is rejected. There is impact of Flexible Working Hours on Motivation,
Absenteeism and Turnover.

64
8) Impact of Technical skills on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover

MOTIVATION ABSENTEEISM TURNOVER

INCREASE 24 2 9
DECREASE 2 10 10
NO
EFFECT 4 18 11

GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION

30

25

20
INCREASE
15
DECREASE
NO EFFECT
10

0
MOTIVATION ABSENTEEISM TURNOVER

Interpretation:
The table value at 5% level of significance is 6.944276 and calculated value is
9.166102, since calculated value is more than the tabulated value, hence a null
hypothesis is rejected. There is significant difference in impact of Technical
skills on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover.
9) Impact of on the Job training on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover

MOTIVATION ABSENTEEISM TURNOVER


INCREASE 27 6 11
DECREASE 0 7 10
NO
EFFECT 3 17 9

66
GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION

30

25

20
INCREASE
15
DECREASE

NO EFFECT
10

0
MOTIVATION ABSENTEEISM TURNOVER

Interpretation:
The table value at 5% level of significance is 6.944276 and calculated value is
9.622449, since calculated value is more than the tabulated value, hence a null
hypothesis is rejected. There is impact the Job training on Motivation,
Absenteeism and Turnover.
CHAPTER VI
FINDINGS & SUGGESTIONS

 After doing the survey it is found that 63.89% of the employees believe that
Job Enrichment increases their motivation and 15.48% decrease their
motivation.

 20.4% of the employees believe that job enrichment does not affect their
motivation.

 Job Enrichment does not affect absenteeism for 56.3% of the employees and
32.96% of the employee’s feels that absenteeism will decrease with job
enrichment.4.

 2.96% of the employees feel that job enrichment will decrease the turnover
and 36%of employees feel that job enrichment will have no effect on turnover.

 It is also interpreted that level of motivation was increased through Job


redesigning on 70%employees while on 6.70% level of motivation was
decreased and 23.30% were not affected.

 It is found that there is significant difference on impact of Job autonomy on


Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover. It is also interpreted that level of
motivation was increased on66.67% employees while on 13.33% level of
motivation was decreased and 20.00% were not affected.

 It is found that absenteeism was increased on 20.00% employees while on


30.0% level of motivation was decreased and 50.00% were not affected
through feedback.

 It is also interpreted that level of motivation was increased on


80.00%employees while on6.7% level of motivation was decreased and
13.33%were not affected through technical skills.

69
 It is found that level of motivation was increased on 90.00% employees while
on 0% level of motivation was decreased and 10%were not affected through on
the job training.

 It is also interpreted that level of motivation was increased on


50.00%employees while on23.33% level of motivation was decreased and
26.67%were not affected through flexible work hours.

70
4.3 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

Although the sincere efforts have been done to collect authentic and relevant
information, the study may have the following limitation:

 Hard enough to fetch information:


It was not an easy task to get information from middle level management. The
respondents were not always open and forthcoming with their views, even
agitates and not disclosing.

 Limited scope:
Scope of study is limited and because of limited time and money. So, results of
study may not generalize for India as a whole.

 Results may be inaccurate:


The study is based on the assumption that responses are true and factual
although at times that may not be the case.

 Existence of biases:
The chances of biased responses cannot be eliminated though all necessary
steps were taken to avoid the same.

 Small sample size:


The sample size taken is small and may not be sufficient to predict the results
with 100 % accuracy and findings may not be generalized.

71
CONCLUSION

From the above study we can deduce that the job enrichment helps in increasing
motivation and reducing turnover but does not help much to reduce absenteeism. All
these effects combined together help in increasing job satisfaction of an employee.
Employers often use in their speeches the cliché that ³Employees are our most
important asset without doing much to improve working conditions and the
motivation of employees to do their best for the organization. In today’s fast changing
environment employees are faced with increasing demands from various sources. Also
with the rising level of education employees aren’t any more satisfied with repetitive,
not meaningful, tasks. Job enrichment offers a good way to increase the variety of
work and to motivate employees to truly commit themselves for the benefit of the
whole organization. In increasingly competitive environment, management finds that
the best way to achieve corporate goals is to work together with the persons who are
close to the actual work.
Companies that implement programs that enhance employees’ knowledge, abilities,
and experience and allow them to apply these new skills in their work will be
profitable in the future.

73
BIBLIOGRAPHY

BOOKS

 Raymond A. Noe, John R. Hollenbeck, Hardcover; Publisher: Irwin/McGraw-


Hill Human Resource Management: Gaining A Competitive Advantage with
PowerWeb; Page no. 420-500
 Gary Dessler; Publisher: Prentice Hall; Human Resource Management (9th
Edition) Hardcover; Page no. 100-120
 George W. Bohlander, Scott A. Snell; Publisher: South-Western College
Managing Human Resources; Page no. 520-570
 Wendell L. French; Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Company; Human Resources
Management; Page no. 50-75
 Richard M. Hodgetts; Publisher: South-Western College Kathryn W. Hegar;
Modern Human Relations at Work; Page no. 120-150

WEBSITES
 Introduction of max healthcare institute limited (2015, June 8) Retrieved from
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Max_Healthcare
 Impact of Job Enrichment on employees (2015, June 20) Retrieved from
https://www.scribd.com/doc/57813064/Impact-on-job-enrichment-and-
employee-motivation
 Books of human resource management (2015, June 20) Retrieved from
https://www.goodreads.com/shelf/show/strategic- management
 Facilities available in max hospitals (2015, June 25) Retrieved from
http://wikimapia.org/9836617/Max-Healthcare-Institute-Limited-Max-House;
 Advantages and disadvantages of job enrichment (2015, June 30) Retrieved
from http://study.com/academy/lesson/job-enrichment-definition-advantages-
disadvantages-examples.html
 Motivational Theories (2015, July 7) Retrieved from
http://yourbusiness.azcentral.com/motivational-theories-human-resources-
managers-16742.html

74
 What motivate employees in the organization(2015, July 15) Retrieved from
http://www.academia.edu/5899515/Motivational_Theories_-
_Human_Resource_Management
 Theories from different authors related to employee motivation(2015, June 25)
Retrieved from http://www.yourcoach.be/en/employee- motivation-theories/
 Definition of employee motivation (2015, June 30) Rehttps://enrieved from
wikipedia.org/wzki/Employee_motivation
 http://www.omicsonline.com/open-access/2224-8358/2224-
8358-1-181.pdf?aid=19418c

75
ANNEXURE

QUESTIONNAIRE

Dear Respondents

As a MBA student of Amity University, Noida. I am conducting a survey to know the


Motivation, Turnover, and Absenteeism level of the employees in job enrichment. I
request you to please spare some time to answer the following queries. I assure you
that this information will be used only for academic purpose and will be kept highly
confidential.

1. Years of Experience:

a. 0 Years ( ) b. 1-2 Years ( ) c. 2-5 Years ( )


d. 5-8 Years ( ) e. Above ( )

2. If your job is redesigned in terms of task variety i.e. if more tasks are added to
your current job, how it will affect the followings for you

Will increase will decrease will have no effect


Motivation
Absenteeism
Turnover

3. If you are allowed to do your job the way you want, i.e. there is no interference by
your immediate bosses. (Autonomy) how it will affect the followings for you

Will increase will decrease will have no effect


Motivation
Absenteeism
Turnover

4. If your job work is evaluated everyday and respective feedback is given to you,
which will enhance your learning in an organization, how it effect the followings

Will increase will decrease will have no effect


Motivation
Absenteeism
Turnover

76
5. If your job is made to have challenges every day, how it will affect the
followings for you
Will increase will decrease will have no effect
Motivation
Absenteeism
Turnover

6. If your job includes interacting with customers, how it will affect the followings
Will increase will decrease will have no effect
Motivation
Absenteeism
Turnover

7. If company starts implementing decisions proposed by you, how it will affect the
followings
Will increase will decrease will have no effect
Motivation
Absenteeism
Turnover

8. If you are allowed flexible working hours, how it will affect the followings
Will increase will decrease will have no effect
Motivation
Absenteeism
Turnover

9. If you are allowed to use your technical skills in job more frequently, how it will
affect the following
Will increase will decrease will have no effect
Motivation
Absenteeism
Turnover

10. If you are current company provides you training after every six months how
it will affect the followings?
Will increase will decrease will have no effect
Motivation
Absenteeism
Turnover

77
11. If your current company provide large target according to your performance it
will affect the followings
Will increase will decrease will have no effect
Motivation
Absenteeism
Turnover

12. If your senior always give pressure to accomplish the target of the month then
it will affect the followings
Will increase will decrease will have no effect
Motivation
Absenteeism
Turnover

13. If your company provide target for foreign tour and you are in under pressure then
it will affect the followings
Will increase will decrease will have no effect
Motivation
Absenteeism
Turnover

14. Company gives you quarterly incentive if you will complete the target on
particular product then it will affect the followings

Will increase will decrease will have no effect


Motivation
Absenteeism
Turnover