IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 12, No.
4, October 1997
IMPROVING POWER SYSTEM DYNAMICS BY SERIES-CONNECTED FACTS DEVICES
L. Angquist Member Non-Member Reactive Power Compensation Division ABB Power Systems S-72 1 64 Vasteris, Sweden
M. Ghandhari G. Anderson Non-Member Senior Member Dept. of Electric Power Engineering Royal Institute of Technology S-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden
Abstract This paper examines improvement of power system dynamics by use of unified power flow controller (UPFC), thyristor controlled phase shifting transformer (TCPST) and thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC). Models suitable for incorporation in dynamic simulation programs for studying angle stability are analysed. A. control strategy for damping of electromechanical power oscillations using an energy function method is derived. The achieved control laws are shown to be effective both for damping of large signal and small signal disturbances and are robust with respect to loading condition, fault location and network structure. Furthermore, the control inputs are easily attainable from the locally measurable variables. The effectiveness of the controls are demonstrated for model ]power systems. Keywords: FACTS, series-connected voltage source, UPFC, TCPST, TCSC, power swing, energ,y function, control strategy, local variables. 1. INTRODUCTIOIrJ
The power transfer capability of Ilong, inter-regional transmission lines is usually limited by both large and small signal stability. Such economic factors as the high cost of long lines and the revenue obtainable from the delivery of additional power give strong incentives to explore all economically and technically feasible means of raising the stability limit. The fast progress in the field of power electronics has already started to influence the power industry. In principle, thyristor-controlled series capacitor (TCSC) and thyristorcontrolled phase shifting transformer (TCPST) could provide fast control of the active power through a transmission line. The possibility of controlling the transmittable power also
PE-040-PWRD-0-01-1997 A paper recommended and approved by the IEEE Transmission and Distribution Committee of the IEEE Power Engineering Society for publication in the IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery. Manuscript submitted January 3, 1996; made available for printing January 8, 1997.
implies the potential application of these devices for damping of power system electromechanical oscillations. Both a series capacitor and a phase shifting transformer exert a voltage in series with the line. For a series capacitor, the inserted voltage lags the line current by 90 degrees. For a phase shifting transformer, the inserted voltage is in quadrature to the source voltage. By the development of thyristors with current extinguishing capability, all solid state implementation of power flow controllers could be realised. The unified power flow controller (UPFC) is a new device within the FACTS family which consists of series and shunt connected converters. The use of series-connected controllable components for power flow control in electric power systems is described in [ I ] and [ 2 ] . In 1966 Kimbark showed that the transient stability of an electric power system can be improved by a switched series capacitor . Later work has explored the benefits of the controllable series capacitor for improving small disturbance stability . Recent studies show that series reactive compensation is more efficient than shunt reactive compensation for damping of power swings [ 5 ] . A question of great importance is the selection of the input signals for the FACTS devices in order to damp power oscillations in an effective and robust manner. This paper develops a control strategy for the series-connected FACTS devices based on energy functions. To do this, a common structure model for series-connected devices is developed. The derived control strategy has a basic structure for the three components and it is based on the variables which can easily be obtained from locally measurable variables. The selected control strategy is shown to be very effective for increasing the stability limit of the studied power systems. This work is in the line with  and  which energy function approach are used for power swing damping. This work presents a novel model for series-connected FACTS devices for incorporation in the energy function. The outline of this paper is as follows: Section 2 describes the operating principles and modelling of series-connected FACTS devices UPFC, TCPST and TCSC. Section 3 develops a control strategy for the seriesconnected FACTS devices based on an energy function. Section 4 demonstrates the performance of the devices for damping of power oscillations for various fault scenarios through numerical examples.
0885-8977/97/$10.00 0 1997 IEEE
Authorized licensed use limited to: AJOU UNIVERSITY. Downloaded on October 6, 2009 at 15:49 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.
where X.. + n2Xshunt..
2. ) It is seen that = which is expected. and 7.e. for situations where phasor based models are valid. The injection model for a TCSC with compensation degree Kc is given in Table 2 . 2 and X ...3: Injection model for series-shunt connected devices
The expressions for Ps. is a fictitious voltage behind the series reactance. If
~then 0 < r < r. 2: Phasor diagram of the equivalent circuit diagram The magnitude of we define r = ~
is controllable by UPFC and TCPST. The active power involved in the series injection is taken from the line through a shunt transformer. Fig. For TCPST: y = f 4 2 .
In this section. This model which is referred to as the injection model. 3:
. the equivalent circuit diagram in Fig. However. 1 shows a general equivalent diagram o f a series-shunt-connected device (like UPFC and TCPST).. represents a current source.2 Modelling of TCSC
For studies involving load flow and angular stability analysis.
I I. p= 4 2 in the phasor diagram of Fig. TCPST and TCSC to the energy function can conveniently be identified..Qsr. the contribution of UPFC... 2009 at 15:49 from IEEE Xplore. 1 % is the induced series voltage.. Furthermore. i. = I/ X . 1 is valid when 7..Q. while the reactive power injected in series with the line by the TCPST. Xshunt the reactance of shunt transformer and is n depends on the phase shifter angle [ 1 . for the purpose of developing a control strategy and having a similar approach with that of UPFG and TCPST. is valid for load flow and angle stability analysis. a general model is derived for series-shuntconnected FACTS devices (UPFC. TCPST for X ... This model is called injection model and the general configuration is shown in Fig. Restrictions apply.
It is shown in [l] and  that the equivalent circuit diagram of Fig. is the effective reactance seen from the line side of the series transformer. is considered to be as a part of the transmission line reactance. The model is helpful for understanding the impact of these components on power system. ~The angle y is~ ~ / ~ ~ . is the reactance of series transformer.
Fig. = Xseries.
Authorized licensed use limited to: AJOU UNIVERSITY. TCPST and TCSC). el~ing Series-Shunt-ConnectedDevices of
UPFC and TCPST inject a voltage in series with a line through a series transformer. Namely. 2 shows the phasor diagram of the equivalent circuit diagram. 1. UPFC generates or absorbs the needed reactive power locally by the switching operation of its converters.
(6q = e i .Q j ) :
are given in Table 1
Table 1: UPFC and TCPST injection loads (b. 1: Equivalenit circuit diagram of UPFC or TCPST In Fig. is taken from the line and is circulated through the shunt transformer. Fig. it is useful to have an injection model representation of the TCSC. is set to zero. For UPFC X . Table 2: TCSC injection loads
controllable by UPFC from 0 to 2 7c.. a TCSC can be modelled as a variable reactance. since UPFC and TCPST do not generate or absorb active power (when losses are ignored). P. 1 can be modelled as the dependent loads injected at nodes i and j.. X . Downloaded on October 6.1636
2 .. = X.
. 3 is examined. we have: PSJ = -rbs
" d v = Ccjn -(einjn)I o dt
(eii + y )
Equation (3) simplifies to:
= -rb.) > 0 1 d t 4
K .. sin (Oil + y ) must be kept equal to +_1 depending on the sign d of . the control action for !he series-connected devices must satisfy:
d if -cos(@.. .8 . is a measure of the system kinetic energy.. the control laws can be derived in the same way:
Control law for TCPST:
.. .2. and calculating the control variables such that the absolute value of the time derivative of energy function becomes maximum.2 Control Laws
3.4 Influence of Multiple FACTS devices
The mathematical approach for deriving the developed control strategies can be extended to multiple seriesconnected FACTS devices if the requirement of the energy function are satisfied... Suppose that there are totally m seriesconnected FACTS devices in a power system. First the model of the controllers are incorporated in an energy function. Restrictions apply. = Kcmax K .. namely: The active power injection by the controllable components must oppose the growth of the active power through the transmission line. 3. 2 4
. is a potential energy and E. .. This control structure is independent of the system loading. In this case the derivative of energy function is extended to:
The control laws for the series-connected FACTS devices are concluded by substituting Psj from Tables 1 and 2. each series-connected FACTS device will contribute to the decrease of the total energy without deteriorating the impact of the other controllers. Thus.
Authorized licensed use limited to: AJOU UNIVERSITY.m . CONTROL STRATElGY
This section develops control strategies for damping of electromechanical oscillations for series-connected FACTS devices. Downloaded on October 6.) dt
A sufficient condition to make v negative is that each device fulfils the controls laws derived above.) I O l d t 9 d if -cos(8 . E..1637
3.O .) < 0
then: r = rmax and then:
y = -2
= rmax and
Control law for TCSC:
It is observed that v is dependent of the derivative of the voltage angles and magnitudes.( O b ) . For example for UPFC. 2 4 then: r = rmax and
y = +. simulations show d that the term Psj -(eii) has the dominant impact on the time dt derivative of energy and the influences OP the other terms are negligible.3 Influence of loading condition and network topology
Based on this control strategy. the total value of the energy function must decrease and therefore the FACTS devices must be controlled in such a way that: V I 0 . However.)<O dt
then: r=rmax and y = ..
c = P .
3.. Then the time derivative of the energy function is determined to yield the control laws. To damp the electromechanical oscillations. = Kcmi"
The difference between the voltage angles across the seriesconnected FACTS devices are used as input signals. network topology and fault types. Each device is located between the nodes i.
3. -(eq) I o d
The above control law has a clear physical meaning when Prj in Fig.1 Energy Function The use of energy function for power systems has been analysed in . The time derivative of energy function yields (The detailed calculations are given in Appendix 2):
For TCPST and TCSC.?
d (eij +y)-(Bi.rj + E . 2009 at 15:49 from IEEE Xplore. the input signal is measured at each sampling time (say 20 ms) and the controllers output are determined. j. The energy function has the following form: v = EKE + Ep.
.. is a constant such that at the postfault stable equilibrium point the energy function is zero. n
where E ..
To make V negative with maximum absolute value. This gives the following control law: dt
Control law for UPFC:
if d -(e. In this way. The impact of the series-connected FACTS devices are modelled in the energy function through injection models discussed in Section 2. such that n = 1..
= 160 MVA
= 160 MVA
-0 3. To improve the damping of power swings. The voltage angles at the two nodes Bus i and Bus j are taken as input variables.]
= 0. the ratings of shunt transformer and converter 1 will increase). Fig. Restrictions apply. 4: 500 kV test power system
8 1 0
No FACTS Device
I 6 [deg.1638
In this section.
.18((bmax 10") = =
-30. the developed control laws are applied for the model power systems. Fig. The difference between the two machine angles ( 6 ) with different disturbances using the proposed control strategy for the three devices are shown and compared with the case without FACTS devices. However. 6: Variation of 6 against time for the case ii It is to be noted that a UPFC can also be used for voltage regulation. 5 : Variation of 6 against time for the case i The series-connected FACTS devices are used in this system in order:
To equalise the loading between the two parallel system. The machines are modelled with field windings and the influence of exciters are included. The total power flow through the intertie is 2100MW (840 MW through the 200 km line and 1260 MW through the 300 km line). Downloaded on October 6.]
1 0 0 ~ l d e g . First. l TCSC' 75-
Authorized licensed use limited to: AJOU UNIVERSITY. a two machine system is considered and the effectiveness of the control strategy for UPFC. 4 is used to study the performance of the proposed control strategies for UPFCTCPST and TCSC.]
.o. TCPST and TCSC is studied. 6 shows the simulation results. Next. The fault is cleared after 80 ms with opening of the faulted line.
The data for the three devices are given in Table 3:
6 [deg.Sseries-trans = lg3MVA
I 6 [deg. (Clearly. 2009 at 15:49 from IEEE Xplore. The lengths of the lines are shown in the figure.
Case ii: A three phase faults occurs near Bus I and it is cleared after 80 ms (transient fault). Case i: A three phase fault occurs on point F. in this example this feature is not exploited in order to have a basis for comparison between the three components. Two systems are connected via an intertie.1 Two ~
a Systems ~
The power system shown in Fig. 5 shows the variation of the angle difference between the two machines. No damper windings are modelled.
Fig. the interaction of the controllers with each other is examined in a three machine system. in case of provision for voltage The simulation results show that the proposed control strategies can be used to effectively damp the power swings.
rmax O. = l7 MVA7
= 17 MVA. is variable from zero to 34%. Mvar = 148
-10 -30 '
T i m [SI k
Table 3: Data for FACTS devices Fig.
Table 4: Data for the controllable s. in this example only the capacitive reactance is used).. For this example.
Fig. 9a: Variation of S.
Fig.. does not degrade the impact of the TCSCl on the damping of power swings. is the reactance of the TCSC capacitor and Kboost shows the degree of the voltage boost across the capacitor (In general. The total power flow through the intertie is 2000 MW. 9b: Variation of
612 [deg. and
2oo/ 6 12 [deg. the following values are selected:
. Experiment on Large Systems
The proposed control laws has been successfully tested in a 300 bus. 9a. the virtual reactance of a TCSC can be both inductive and capacitive.TCSC2 is controlled and TCSCl acts as afixed capacitor.. the system exhibits power oscillations. 8: 500 kV test power system Following both large and small disturbances. = 0 )... A three phase fault occurs on the bus connected to TCSC1. d. The TCSCs reactances are modelled as: Fig.
Authorized licensed use limited to: AJOU UNIVERSITY. 60 machine of Nordel system. 9d: Variation of 6.eries capacitors
Fig.. X. . and 6. Multi-Machine System
The power system in Fig 8 is used to study the influence of multi-FACTS devices on damping of power swings using the proposed control strategy. 9d show the simulation results.]
SM2 and SM3) are shown. 9c.]
Time [s] 2
against time with TCSC2
S. Downloaded on October 6. and S..1639
4. In each scheme.
against time with TCSCI
where Xis the virtual reactance of the TCSC. and a. Both T c s c s act asfixed capacitors ( Ikbo. namely:
“the controllers do not affect each other adversely”. [deg. 9c: Variation of 6. The machines are modelled in detail and the influence of exciters are included. c.L
Time [s] 2
Ib 6.. Restrictions apply.. Fig. 2009 at 15:49 from IEEE Xplore. Two sub-systems are connected via an intertie. (angle difference between SM1 and SM2) and S.. Both TCSCl and TCSC2 are controlled.3.
The response of the system a three phase: fault is studied with the following schemes: a. against time withfixed capacitors
[deg.. two TCSCs are assumed to be located on the system.
.. The fault is cleared after 100 ms.. however. TCSCl is controlled and TCSC2 acts us a fixed capacitor. TCSCl has a better damping effect than TCSC2 because it is located on the main intertie and has a larger size. 9b. against time with both TCSCl and TCSC2 The simulation results show the effectiveness of the control strategy. This example shows an outstanding feature of the proposed control strategy.
Fig. the variation of 6. (angle difference between
4. b. The data for the synchronous machines are given in Appendix 1. It is interesting to note that the introduction of the TCSC2 into the system.2. To stabilise the power swings..
PAS. et al. The pelformance of such a controller is robust with respect to network structure. Lars Lindquist from ABB Power Systems for his help in simulating the controllable components. Gronquist. in electrical engineering from Arya-Mehr (sharif) University in Tehran. 113-121. “Use of UPFC For Optimal Power Flow Control”. Stockholm.” . July 1993. In 1980 he joined ASEA:s HVDC-division and in 1986 he was appointed professor in Electric Power Systems at the Royal Institute of Technology. 1966. He received his M. Restrictions apply. in power systems from University of Manchester. 2009 at 15:49 from IEEE Xplore.  E.D. Sweden. 1994.  M. Galanos. [81 M. et al.D.”
I 0. 3. Mehrdad Ghandhari: He is a graduate student at the Royal Institute of Technology. Sweden. paper No. Noroozian and G. No.Sc. from Royal Institute of Technology. He joined ASEA in Vasteris. Stockholm. M.
. and Ph. Noroozian. “Power Flow Control by Use of Controllable Series Components”. “Improvement of System Stability by Switched Series Capacitors. Downloaded on October 6.  J. PhD thesis. “Energy Function Analysis For Power System Stability”. He is a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences and the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
Authorized licensed use limited to: AJOU UNIVERSITY.(V/Vo).20
I 0. 1. IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery. pp. ” IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems.  G. 180-188.06
Mojtaba Noroozian: (M’92) He received his B. degree from the University of Lund. 1994. Since 1987 he has been with ABB Power Systems AB. Andersson. 95 WM 185-9 PWRS. 2046-2054. Using the proposed control strategies. IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery. PAS-85(2). pp. Feb. No. Feb. 1981.08
Loadmodel: P=P. “Damping of Power System Oscillations by Controllable Components”. “Exploring Benefits of Controllable Components in Power Systems”. He is now with ABB Power Systems AB. Royal Institute of Technology. Pai. degree in electrical engineering from Lund Institute of Technology. fault location and system loading.  A.SC. Sweden. Kluwer Academic Publishers.08 I-
I 0. Andersson. His interest is power system dynamics. Noroozian. Olwegird. TRITA-EES-9402. In Proceedings of Stockholm Power Tech. Lennart Angquist:. et al.
I x. The models have been incorporated in an energy function and the control laws for damping of electromechanical oscillations are concluded. 4. Kimbark.A. He has been with ASEA (ABB) since 1984. Noroozian and 6.
 M. Aug.Sc.
The authors wish to thank Mr. Vol.Sc. Sweden. Reactive Power Compensation Division. GSran Andersson: (M’86-SM’9 1) He received his M. pp. TCPST and TCSC) to damp power swings. pp. Vol8. “Improvement of Transmission Capacity by Thyristor Control Reactive Power”. IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems. al. “Power Oscillation Damping Control Strategies For FACTS Devices Using Locally Measurable Quantities”.1640
This paper has developed a general injection model for series-connected FACTS devices.  M. Institute of Technology (UMIST) and Ph. 8. June 1995. 1993. Reactive Power Compensation Division. et.
0. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems.W. Presented at IEEE 1995 Winter meeting. The total effect on damping ofpower swings is larger than the impact of the individual devices.03
I 0. pp.D. Oct.20
. “Advanced Static Compensator For Flexible AC Transmission”.  M. working with motor drives and power electronics for industrial and traction applications. 12-18.20
I 0. 3933-3939.100(8). No. the seriesconnected FACTS devices can be used in several locations. vol 9. The conclusions of this paper can be summarised as follows: The proposed control strategy based upon locally measurable variables can be used for series-connected FACTS devices (UPFC. F. Q = Q .
. .is the susceptance between Bus m and Bus n .=%..The expression in the third row is the total reactive powers going out from all load buses and is equal to zero. SI SJ J
The energy function is selected as:
x b d n V m E nsinZnzn8.I .o. The non-generator buses are numbered from ng 1 lo ng -1. sin zinznzin
... transient susceptance of the n th machine..(&ii. +
M.. V )= v.-"'v.. := U . is
The system equations are written in the centre-of-inertia frame with the following definitions:
m=l+n. Restrictions apply.. ..1641
The following definitions are valid in this study: nRis the number of generators buses.. . g ..The second bracket consists the expression for the total active powers going out from all load buses and is equal to zero. V )+ v. The energy function for the power system is:
.(W) is the kinetic energy of the: system:
The expressions of
can be recognised as follows:
and VpE( V ) is the potential energy: $. . ( W)+ v p .
The time derivative of energy function becomes:
2vmvm . ( $. we have:
. . n=nR+l.
with M = C M n .. ...
U). .A V .
n=n.o. nbis the number of non-generator buses.vmvn c013om.
m=l+ng n=l+n.(W> + VP.mcol ( n = l. 0.is the inertia constant of machine n.= U " . V )+ v.nb . .2. Downloaded on October 6.vmvn cos0. a. and bo.
Q ---"v.o. . the angle and angular velocity of machine n. The generator buses are numbered from 1 to ng.. -P. the time derivative of energy function for series-connected FACTS devices is:
=6. Thus the time derivative of the energy function simplifies to:
L Q ...
I Q . V )= V.
-6. 2009 at 15:49 from IEEE Xplore. ..
6..p .The expression in the first bracket is the power swing balance and is equal to zero . it
Authorized licensed use limited to: AJOU UNIVERSITY. J y
Assume that a series-connected FACTS device is connected between node i and j in a power system..&
Consequently.-p.-"'y SI I