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Control of Grid Interactive

Inverter Systems

Dr. M.Nanda Kumar


Professor
Dept. of Electrical Engg.
Govt. Engineering College, Thrissur
What is a Grid interactive inverter?

DC Source Inverter AC Grid

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 2
Why Grid interactive inverter is required ?
 60% of Energy consumption is from fossil fuel resulting an
emission of 6.5 billion tons of CO2 into atmosphere –
environment pollution, global warming
 Fossil fuel sources like coal, oil etc. are getting depleted
day by day
 Distributed generation with renewable sources (solar
cells, wind power etc.) may be a solution to these problems
 Since power content of these sources are varying and to
make voltage, frequency etc., acceptable to the present
transmission system Grid interactive inverters are
essential

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 3
Content

 Photovoltaic Power System


 Control Schemes of Grid Interactive Inverter Systems
(Literature survey)
 Objective
 Main Features of Proposed Grid Interactive Inverter
 Hysteresis controller
 Volt-sec analysis of buck and boost converters
 Analysis of minimally switched grid interactive inverter
 Derivation of circuit topologies and switching tables for
different power factors
 Simulation study and results
 Hardware implementation of the scheme
 Analysis of experimental results.
Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,
TCR 4
Photovoltaic (PV) Power system

 PV power system can be classified as


(i) Stand alone
(ii) Hybrid
(iii) Grid connected

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 5
Photovoltaic (PV) Power system (cont.)
-Stand alone
 Used in remote areas with no access to utility

Battery
AC load

Inverter
PV cell

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 6
Photovoltaic (PV) Power system (cont.)
-Hybrid

- more reliable

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 7
Photovoltaic (PV) Power system (cont.)
-Grid connected

• This can be small system such as residential rooftop


or large grid connected system
•Reliability and efficiency of the system can be enhanced
by connecting the sources to AC grid.

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 8
Grid interactive inverter –Requirement of real
and reactive power injection
If grid connected inverter injects active power only, the reactive power required
by the load should be supplied by the AC source leading to a poor power factor
at the source side

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 9
CONTROL SCHEMES OF GRID INTERACTIVE
INVERTER (Literature survey)
-Instantaneous p-q Theory (Akagi -1984)
(proposed by Barbosa P.G (1998), for real and reactive power injection)

1 1 3  v 

v  2  2 2
 a
2  
v   vb
  3 1 1 3   
     vc 
2 2 2 
1 1 3  i 

 
i 2  2 2
 a
2  
i   ib
  3 1 3   
p  v i  v i
1
     ic 
2 2 2 

1
q  v i  vi i*   v v   p* 
 *     
i   v v   q* 
 
 1 0 
ia*    *
 * 3  i 
(2 / 3)  
1
ib    2  
2  i* 
ic*   
 
 1 
3
Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,  2 2 
TCR 10
Instantaneous p-q Theory (cont.)

 1 1  1 1
 1    ia   1    va 
i  2 2 2   v  2 2 2  
i     ib v     vb
   
   3 0 3  3   i     3 0 3  3   v 
 2  c  c
2   2 2 

q  v i  vi = reference reactive power  q


*
Reactive power =
capacitor voltage is compared with the reference voltage Vref and given
to a PI controller. The PI controller output is the reference real power, p*
to be injected from the PV source to the grid

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 11
Instantaneous p-q Theory (cont.)
Reference currents to hysteresis controller, ia*, ib*, and ic* are generated
using current reference calculation block as given below
1
i*

  v v   p* 
    *
*
i


      q 
v v
 
 1 0 
ia*    *
 * 3  i 
(2 / 3)  
1
ib    2  
2  i*  ia* , ib* , ic* are given to hysteresis controller
ic*   
 
 1 
3 as reference signal
 2 2 

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 12
Schematic diagram of a 3-phase
hysteresis controller

di VL
  slope of inductor current
dt L
VL  Voltage across inductor

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 13
CONTROL SCHEMES OF GRID INTERACTIVE
INVERTER (cont.)
PWM Control Technique
(proposed by Huang S.J and F.S.Pai, (2001) for power flow control

through grid connecter inverter)

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 14
Grid interactive inverter -
proposed

DC Source Inverter AC Grid

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 15
Objective

Design & Implementation of the switching


algorithm of grid interactive inverter for bi-
directional real and reactive power control and
harmonic compensation with reduced switching
loss and constant switching frequency.

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 16
Grid interactive inverter –proposed (cont.)
Grid
a
b
c

Lb Lc
La

Ia
DC source Inverter
Ib

Ic

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 17
Main Features of Proposed Grid
Interactive Inverter
In inverter mode of operation , injected current is
in phase to the grid voltage
 Power flows from DC source to AC grid

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 18
Main Features of Proposed Grid
Interactive Inverter (cont.)
In rectifier mode of operation , injected current is
180° out of phase with grid voltage
 Power flows from AC grid to DC source

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 19
Main Features of Proposed Grid
Interactive Inverter (cont.)

Switching frequency is constant

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 20
Main Features of Proposed Grid
Interactive Inverter (cont.)
Only two switches are controlled at high
frequency at any instant of time and hence
switching loss is reduced
Current can be injected at any power factor

Harmonic and reactive power compensation can


be implemented
Simple control circuitry using hysteresis current
control with good dynamic response

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 21
Schematic diagram of a 3-phase
hysteresis controller

di VL
  slope of inductor current
dt L
VL  Voltage across inductor

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 22
Hysteresis controller (cont.)

R1 R2

R1
hb  Vsat
R1  R2

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 23
Reference current, actual current and switching
pulses (ap & an) in hysteresis control scheme (cont.)

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 24
Schematic diagram of a 3-phase constant
frequency hysteresis controller

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 25
Switching pulses in constant frequency
hysteresis control scheme

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 26
Volt-sec balance
Buck converter

Buck converter circuit while


the switch is position 1
Buck converter (practical) vL = Vg – v(t) =Vg-V

V=dc component of v(t)

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 27
Volt-sec balance
Buck converter
(cont.)

Buck converter Buck converter circuit while the switch


is position 2
VL (t) = - v(t) =-V

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 28
Volt-sec balance
Buck converter
(cont.)

Inductor voltage Output voltage

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 29
Volt-sec balance
Buck converter
(cont.)
Change of inductor current can be calculated using following equations

diL (t )
vL (t )  L
dt
diL (t )
Vg  V  L
dt
diL (t ) Vg  V

dt L

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 30
Volt-sec balance
Buck converter
(cont.)

diL (t )
VL (t )  V  L
dt
diL (t ) V

dt L

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 31
Volt-sec balance
Buck converter
(cont.)
 In in any switching converters under steady state the net change in
inductor current over one switching period must be zero
T
diL (t ) 1 s
vL (t )  L iL (Ts )   vL (t )dt  iL (0)
dt L0
Ts
1
iL (Ts )  iL (0)   vL (t )dt
L0
In steady state initial and final values of inductor current are equal

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 32
Volt-sec balance
Buck converter
(cont.)
 Thus in steady state the integral of the inductor
voltage must be zero
Ts
1
L v
0
L (t )dt  0 unit = volt-sec or flux linkage

Above equation states that the total area, or volt-seconds, under vL(t)
waveform must be zero

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 33
Volt-sec balance
Buck converter
(cont.)

(Vg  V ) DTs  V  (1  D)Ts  0

V  DVg V  DVg

Thus buck converter is a


Step down converter

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 34
Volt-sec balance
Boost converter

Boost converter (ideal) Boost converter (practical)

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 35
Volt-sec balance
Boost converter
(cont.)

Boost converter circuit while Boost converter circuit while


the switch is position 1 the switch is position 2

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 36
Volt-sec balance
Boost converter
(cont.)

Inductor voltage in boost converter

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 37
Volt-sec balance
Boost converter
(cont.)
Appling volt-second applied to the inductor voltage
over one switching period

Vg  DTs  (Vg  V )(1  D)Ts  0


Vg
V 
1 D
V 1
Voltage Conversion ratio = 
Vg 1 D

Thus boost converter is a Step up converter

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 38
Analysis of minimally switched grid
interactive inverter

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 39
Analysis of minimally switched grid
interactive inverter (cont.)
Let a = 0, b = 0 and c = E (with respect to –ve DC bus)

Equivalent circuit

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 40
Analysis of minimally switched grid
interactive inverter (cont.)
I st loop equation: -VLa+VLc =E–Vc + Va ……………………(1)

2 nd loop equation: -VLb+VLc = E – Vc +Vb………………… (2)

 VLa   1 0 1   E  Vc  Va 
     


VLb 
 =  
 0 1 1 

 E  Vc  Vb


 VLc     

Solving for VLa, VLb and VLc

VLa = -E/3-Va, VLb = -E/3-Vb , VLc = 2E/3-Vc

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 41
VLa, VLb , VLc and Eqvt. Circuit for different
switching combinations
Modes a b c VLa VLb VLc Eqvt. circuit
1 0 0 0 -Va -Vb -Vb

2 0 0 E -E/3-Va -E/3-Vb 2E/3-Vc

3 0 E 0 -E/3-Va 2E/3-Vb -E/3-Vc

4 0 E E -2E/3-Va E/3-Vb E/3-Vc

5 E 0 0 2E/3-Va -E/3-Vb -E/3-Vc

6 E 0 E E/3-Va -2E/3-Vb E/3-Vc

7 E E 0 E/3-Va E/3-Vb -2E/3-Vc

8 E E E -Va -Vb -Vc


Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,
TCR 42
Voltage across inductors La (VLa) , Lb (VLb) and Lc
(VLc) during (0  60) grid voltage region when
node „a‟ is held at 0
E  1.634 VLL ,E =350V, Vgrid(rms)=120V

 volt-sec balance cannot be realized


 volt – sec
Electrical balance
& Electronics can be realized
Dept. GEC,
TCR 43
Voltage across inductors La (VLa) , Lb (VLb) and Lc
(VLc) during (0  60) grid voltage region when
node „b‟ is held at 0
E =350V, Vgrid(rms)=120V

 Volt – sec balance can be realized


Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,
TCR 44
Analysis of minimally switched grid
interactive inverter (cont.)
Grid Phase a Phase b Phase c Inference
voltage
region a=E a=0 b=E b=0 c=E c=0

(0°-60°) X X X X X b is the uncontrolled


phase & kept at 0
a & c are the
controlled phases
X  Inductor voltages are not (+ve and –ve) during the entire (0°-60°)
grid voltage region for different switching combinations (volt-sec balance
equation can not be realized by any switching combination)
 Inductor voltages are +ve and –ve during the entire (0°-60°) grid
voltage region for different switching combination (volt-sec balance
equation can be realized by choosing different switching combination)
Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,
TCR 45
Analysis of minimally switched grid interactive
inverter (cont.)
-Inference-
Grid voltage Controlled Uncontrolled
region phases phase
(0°-60°) Phases a & c Phase b and it
is kept at 0
(60°-120°) Phases b & c Phase a and is
kept at E
(120°-180°) Phases a & b Phase c and it is
kept at 0
(180°-240°) Phases a & c Phase b and it
is kept at E
(240°-300°) Phases b & c Phase a and it
is kept at 0
(300°-360°) Phases a & b Phase c and it is
kept at E
Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,
TCR 46
Selection of switch in the controlled
phases

 If the direction of injected current is +ve


top switch in that leg is controlled

 If the direction of injected current is -ve


bottom switch in that leg is controlled

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 47
Circuit topology for different power
factors

Dual buck topology for a p.f angle of 0 0

Inverter mode of operation


Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,
TCR 48
Buck and boost topology for a p.f. angle
of 600 (lag)

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 49
Dual boost topology for a p.f. angle of
1800 (lag)

Rectifier mode of operation


Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,
TCR 50
Switching table for different power
factor angles – 00

Voltage region Sap San Sbp Sbn Scp Scn

(00-600) C - - ON C -

(600-1200) ON - - C - C

(1200-1800) C - C - - ON

(1800-2400) - C ON - - C
(2400-3000) - ON C - C -

(3000-3600) - C - C ON -

CSwitch is controlled at high frequency, ONSwitch is kept ON


through out the voltage region sector
- Switch is OFF Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,
TCR 51
Switching table for a power factor angle
of 600(lag)
Voltage region Sap San Sbp Sbn Scp Scn

(00-600) - C - ON C -

(600-1200) ON - - C C -

(1200-1800) C - - C - ON

(1800-2400) C - ON - - C
(2400-3000) - ON C - - C

(3000-3600) - C C - ON -

C Switch is controlled at high frequency, ON  Switch is kept ON


through out the voltage region sector
- Switch is OFF Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,
TCR 52
Switching table for a power factor angle
of 1800(lag)

Voltage region Sap San Sbp Sbn Scp Scn

(00-600) - C - - - C

(600-1200) - - C - C -

(1200-1800) - C - C - -

(1800-2400) C - - - C -
(2400-3000) - - - C - C

(3000-3600) C - C - - -

CSwitch is controlled at high frequency


- Switch is OFF
Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,
TCR 53
Reactive power compensation
Equivalent circuits during (030) and
(3060) grid voltage region

200

va v vc
b
100
Grid voltage

-100

-200
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
Phase angle in degrees

10
Ic Ia Ib

5
Injected current

-5

-10
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
Phase angle in degrees

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 54
Modes of operation of ac/dc converter for
various p.f angles (lag) during (00-600)
region of line cycle

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 55
Simulation study

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 56
Voltage sector identification

(00-600)
O/P of ZCD
in phase „a‟
(600-1200)

(1200-1800)
O/P of ZCD
in phase „b‟
(1800-2400)

O/P of ZCD
(2400-3000)
in phase „c‟

(3000-3600)

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 57
Voltage sector identification (cont.)

0o 60o 120o 180o 240o 300o 360o

O/P of ZCD
phase A

O/P of ZCD
phase C

O/P of ZCD
phase B

T1=A*C

T3=A*B

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 58
Grid voltage sectors

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 59
Current polarity identification

Ia(ref) xa

xa'
Ib(ref)
xb

xb'
Ic(ref)
xc

xc'

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 60
Switching pulses to switches
Sap &San

qap  ((T1  T3  T4  T6 ) xa )a p  T2 xa
qan  ((T1  T3  T4  T6 ) xa' )an  T5 xa'
ap & an are from hysteresis controller
Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,
TCR 61
Enabling signals for hysterisis current
control
Enabling signal to +ve current -ve current
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6
qap    
qan    
qbp    
qbn    
qcp    
qcn    
Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,
TCR 62
Switching pulses to switches
Sbp &Sbn

qbp  ((T2  T3  T5  T6 ) xb )bp  xb

qbn  ((T2  T3  T5  T6 ) xb' )bn  T1 xb'


bp & bn are from hysteresis controller
Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,
TCR 63
Switching pulses to switches
Scp &Scn

qcp  ((T1  T2  T4  T5 ) xc )c p  T6 xc
qcn  ((T1  T2  T4  T5 ) xc' )cn  T3 xc'

cp & cn are from hysteresis controller


Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,
TCR 64
Control Schematic for real and reactive
power control

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 65
Simulation Results

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 66
Grid voltage and injected current for a
power factor angle of 00 (inverter mode)

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 67
Grid voltage and injected current for a
power factor angle of 600 (lag)

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 68
Grid voltage and injected current for a
power factor angle of 1800 (rectifier mode)

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 69
Reactive compensation

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 70
Bi-directional power control -an example
Grid voltage  115V (phase)
Injected current 10A (phase)

P.F Angle Real power Reactive power


(lag) (injected) (injected)
0 3450 W 0W
60° 1725 W 2988 W
120 ° -1725 W 2988 W
180° -3450 W 0W
240° -1725 W -2988W
300° 1725 W -2988 W
Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,
TCR 71
Transient response subjected to reversing
of power at 0.035 Sec.

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 72
FFT plot of the injected current of phase „a‟ in
inverter mode of operation (a) in conventional
hysteresis control scheme and (b) in proposed
control scheme

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 73
Frequency components of the injected current
of phase „a‟ up to 23 rd harmonic
in the proposed scheme (THD=4.7%)

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 74
Injected current & grid voltage (with
harmonics – 10% THD)

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 75
Switching Loss

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 76
Switching signals to the switch Sap during conv.
hysteresis, dual buck, dual boost, and buck & boost
modes of operation

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 77
Switching device voltage, current and power
loss for one cycle in the conventional hysteresis
control scheme

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 78
Switching device voltage, current and power loss
for one cycle in the proposed switching scheme

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 79
Reduction in loss(%) in the proposed control scheme
compared to conventional hysteresis control scheme

Mode of operation Modified hysteresis Conventional hysteresis


control with constant control with constant
frequency frequency

Dual Buck 21.3 9.5


(Injected current in phase
to grid voltage)
Dual Boost 60.8 38.6
(Injected current 180º out
of phase with grid voltage)

Buck &Boost 38.2 17.5


(Injected current 60º lag
with grid voltage)

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 80
Switching losses for different circuit
topologies

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

0
Dual buck Dual boost Buck & boost

Conv. Hyst. Control with variable frequency


Conv. Hyst. Control with fixed frequency
Proposed scheme
Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,
TCR 81
Harmonic Compensation

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 82
Active Power Filter (APF)

 Based on topology APF can be classified as

(i) Shunt active power filter


(ii) Series active power filter
(iii) Hybrid active power filter

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 83
Shunt active power filter
• used to compensate, current harmonics
reactive power and load current unbalance
• static VAR generator in power system networks for
stabilizing and improving voltage profile

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 84
Series active power filter

•Eliminates voltage unbalance, sag. swell etc.

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 85
Hybrid active power filter

Used for compensation of high power systems


Power rating of active power filter can be reduced significantly

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 86
Instantaneous p-q theory for extracting
harmonic currents
1 1 3  v 

v  2  2 2
 a
2  
v   vb
  3 1 1 3   
     vc 
2 2 2 


p  harmonic real power

q = harmonic reactive power

1 1 3  i 

i  2  2 2
 a
2  
ia* , ib* , ic* are given to hysteresis controller i   ib
  3 1 1 3   
     ic 
as reference signal 2 2 2 

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 87
3-Phase diode bridge rectifier

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 88
3-PHASE LOAD CURRENT FOR A 3-PHASE
DIODE BRIDGE WITH RESISTOR

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 89
Control Schematic for harmonic
compensation

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 90
3-phase harmonic current component
extractor

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 91
3-PHASE HARMONIC CURRENTS

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 92
switching algorithm during (0º-60º) of line cycle

Current polarity Controlled Status of Circuit topology


switches uncontrolled
switch
Ia = +ve, Ib = -ve, Ic = +ve Sap & Scp Sbn = ON Dual Buck

Ia = +ve, Ib = +ve, Ic= -ve Sap & Scn Sbn = OFF Buck & Boost

Sap & Scn Sbn = ON Buck & Boost


Ia = +ve, Ib = -ve, Ic = -ve

San & Scp Sbn = OFF Buck & Boost


Ia = -ve, Ib = +ve, Ic = +ve

San & Scp Sbn = ON Buck & Boost


Ia = -ve,Ib = -ve, Ic = +ve

San & Scn Sbn = OFF Dual Boost


Ia = -ve, Ib = +ve, Ic = -ve

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 93
Grid voltage, reference harmonic current and
switching pulses in case of harmonic compensation
for a non-linear load of 3- phase diode bridge with
resistive load

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 94
Harmonic compensation considering a non-linear
load of 3-phase diode bridge with resistive load
(45)

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 95
FFT plot of the source current (after compensation)
in the frequency range of 0250kHz

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 96
Amplitude spectrum of the source current after
compensation (THD=4.8%)

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 97
Harmonic compensation considering a non-linear
load of 3-phase diode bridge with R-L load
(45 and 30mH )

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 98
Harmonic compensation considering a non-linear
load of 3-phase diode bridge with R-C load
(45 and 1000F )

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 99
Hardware Circuits & Results

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 100
Block diagram representation for practical
set up of the control scheme

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 101
Block diagram of control circuit board

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 102
Schematic diagram of grid voltage sector
identifier

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 103
Schematic diagram of reference current
polarity identifier

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 104
3-phase reference current generator block
diagram

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 105
3-Phase reference current generation

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 106
Triangular signal generator

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 107
Current sensor with signal conditioning
circuit

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 108
Hysteresis controller

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 109
Dead band generator

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 110
Dead band generator (cont.)

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 111
3-phase harmonic current component extractor
(cont.)

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 112
Grid voltage & injected current of phase-a for
a pf. angle of 0° - Inverter mode of operation

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 113
Switching pulses qap, qan,qbp, qbn in inverter mode of
operation, observed in 4 channel CRO

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 114
Grid voltage & injected current of phase-a for a
p.f angle of 60

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 115
Grid voltage & injected current of phase-a for a
p.f angle of 90- Reactive compensation

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 116
Grid voltage & injected current of phase-a for a p.f
angle of 180-Rectifier mode of operation

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 117
Switching pulses qap, qan,qbp, qbn in rectifier
mode of operation, observed in 4 channel CRO

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 118
Source current(after compensation), injected
harmonic current and non-linear load current for
a load of 3-phase bridge circuit with resistive
load

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 119
Switching loss of inverter for different circuit topologies (W)
DC bus voltage = 155V, Grid voltage =80V, Injected
current=5A (r.m.s), Switching frequency =10kHz
Power injected = 700W

Circuit Proposed Conv.hyst.control Conv.hyst.control


Topology scheme with constant with out constant
switching switching frequency
frequency
Dual 26.0 32.2 37.0
boost

Dual 35.6 40.4 61.2


buck
Buck & 30.4 35.8 41.2
boost
Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,
TCR 120
CONTROL CIRCUIT SET UP

LINK
CURRENT SENSING INDUCTOR
BOARD

3-PHASE DIODE
BRIDGE
OUTMUX RECTIFIER

VOLTAGE SECTOR &


CURRENT POLARITY HARMONIC
IDENTIFIER EXTRACTOR

3-PHASE HYSTERESIS
CONTROLLER

3-PHASE REFERENCE
CURRENT GENERATOR

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 121
Current sensing board

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 122
Experimental set up

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 123
DC SourceDC generator driven by 3-phase
induction motor

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 124
Grid voltage & injected current of a phase
for inverter mode of operation

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 125
Grid voltage & injected current of a
phase for rectifier mode of operation

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 126
Grid voltage & injected current of a
phase for a power factor angle of 60°

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 127
Application – example
At present the battery life checking in locomotive has been done by
disconnecting battery  discharging fully again charging  observing
the discharging rate
Using the proposed technique, the charging and discharging of battery
can be performed without disconnecting  by interacting with AC grid

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 128
Application –example (cont.)

Photo voltaic source supplies the local DC load


Excess amount of energy can be pumped into AC grid
Shortage of energy on DC side can be met from AC grid

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 129
Conclusion

 A simple hysteresis control with constant switching frequency to control the bi-
directional power flow between DC source and AC grid.

 Switching algorithm for bi-directional power control, reactive and harmonic


compensation

 Switching losses are reduced because only two switches are controlled at any instant
of time time.

 Current injected into grid is in phase to the grid voltage in inverter mode and 180 out
of phase with grid voltage in rectifier mode of operation

 Design and implementation of control circuitry

 Implementation of bi-directional real and reactive power control & harmonic


compensation

 Experimental verification of the control scheme


Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,
TCR 130
References
[1] M.Rastogi, N.Mohan, A.A.Edris,”Filtering of harmonic currents and
damping of resonance in power systems with a hybrid-active filter”, Proceedings of
the IEEE APEC‟95, pp.984-989

[2] M Rastogi, N.Mohan, A.A.Edris, ”Hybrid active filtering of harmonic


currents in power systems”, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol.10, No.4, oct.1995

[3] J.T.Boys, A.W.Green, “Current-forced single-phase reversible rectifier” IEE


Proceedings, Vol.136, No.5, pp.205-211, Sep.1989.

[4] Z.Lai, K.M.Smedley, “A family of continuous-conduction mode power-


factor-correction controllers based on the general pulse width modulator”, IEEE
Trans. on Power Electronics, Vol.13, N0.3, pp.501-510, May 1998

[5] S.Singer, “Applications of „loss-free resistors „ in power processing


circuits”, PESC‟89 Record, Vol.2, pp.843-846

Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,


TCR 131
References(Contd.)
[6] D.Shmilovitz, D.Czarkowski, Z.Zaber, “A Novel Rectifier/Inverter with Adjustable Power
Factor”, PESC‟99, Vol.1, pp.337-34

[7] A.W.Green, J.T Boys, “ Hysteresis Current-forced three phase voltage sourced reversible
rectifiers”, IEE proceedings Vol.136, May 1998, pp.113-120

[8] P.G. Borbosa, L.G.B.Rolim, E.H.Wantanabe, R.Hanitsch, “ Control Strategy for grid-connected
DC-AC Converters with load power factor correction”, IEE Proc. Gen., Trans., Distri. ,
Vol.145, No.5, Sept 1998, pp 487-491

[9] M.Azizur Rahman; Ali M. Osheiba; Azza E.Lashine,” Analysis of current Controllers for
Voltage-Source Inverter”, IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, Vol.44, No.4, Aug 1997,
pp477-485.

[10] K.M.Smedley; Chengming Qiao, “Three phase Grid Connected Inverter Interface for
Alternative Energy Sources with Unified Constant- frequency Integration Control”, Industry
Applications Conference, 2001, Vol.4, pp2675-2682

[11] K.M.Smedley; Chengming Qiao, “General 3-phase PFC Controller for Rectifiers with parallel
connected Dual Boost Topology”, IEEE Trans. on Power Electronics, Vol.17, No.6, Nov.2002,
pp 925-934
Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,
TCR 132
Electrical & Electronics Dept. GEC,
TCR 133