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GENERAL

RECOMMENDATIONS
FOR VIBRATORY EQUIPMENT

TRANSPORTABLE CRUSHING UNITS

MB-115

IMPORTANT
It is mandatory to follow the safety manual
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GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR
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May/03

CONTENTS

Page

IMPORTANT REMINDER ............................................................................................. 1

THE VIBRATING STRUCTURE ...................................................................................... 1

THE VIBRATORY MECHANISM .................................................................................... 3

AN IMPORTANT GENERAL RULE .................................................................................. 6

OPERATION .............................................................................................................. 6
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IMPORTANT REMINDER

The products supplied by Sandvik are always covered by guarantees against fabrication defects, in
accordance with specific clauses pertaining to each delivery.

Equipment assembled, erected or altered in the field, without technical supervision by Sandvik
personnel, and lacking a specific guarantee clause that covers the complete final assembly, is not
covered by the conditions of a guarantee.

The reason for this alert is to emphasize that the Manufacturer cannot assume the responsibility for
services carried out by third parties, without the orientation and accompaniment on the part of the
former party, and/or not agreed upon in advance and specifically documented.

Considering what has been exposed above, it is important that the user/owner of the equipment makes
a detailed plan for the installation work, with a rigid follow-up, in order to guarantee for himself an
excellent operation and the physical integrity of his equipment.

Particularly, when the job involves vibratory equipment, the attention should be doubled. That is
because many causes of breakdown are due to problems that may seem to be originally of no
importance, but which, if neglected, may have disastrous consequences.

The vibratory machines operate normally at frequencies above 750 cpm (12.5 Hz). This makes it
difficult, or even impossible to visualize the behavior of any component when the equipment is
operating.

Every abnormal occurrence must be recorded in detail. Periodic measurements shall be made,
principally when bearings are substituted, of the part diameters and the final clearances. The measured
values shall be registered in adequate records and regularly analyzed. The same procedure is valid for
the movement/amplitude graphs recorded at the four corners of the machine.

It is very important that the recommendations that make part of the instruction manual of each piece of
equipment should be obeyed.

All the precautions shall be taken, and some points, particularly, are worthy of being emphasized:

THE VIBRATING STRUCTURE

• The vibrating parts of the machines deserve and require a lot of attention.

• All parts that are in contact with the material being processed, are prone to wear and should be
provided with wear liners. Wear takes away part of the material of the structure, thus making it
fragile.

• The wear liners should be observed, and recuperated or substituted when they do not protect the
structural part anymore.
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• The best material for vibratory screen liners is rubber. It is light, has an excellent durability, and
resists impacts better than steel. Besides, it can be installed by gluing or local vulcanizing, a feature
that favors efficient repairs. The polyurethane, too, shows all these qualities, the cost, however, is
usually superior.

• All weldments added to the vibrating structure are zones of stress concentrations. From this follows
that these may originate cracks, because of the material fatigue always present where there is
vibratory motion. One should do the utmost to avoid such weldments.

• Isolated cracks are usually not a problem inherent to the machine, but the consequence of some
other trouble. One should try to locate the cause, and then fix it.

• All the connections between structural parts must be rigid. If bolts are used they shall, at least, be of
the ISO or DIN class 8.8 (SAE grade 5 or ASTM grade A325). All bolts and/or nuts shall be
adequately torqued according to their grade and secured by locknut or by chemical bonding. As an
alternative Huck-Bolt type rivets could be used.

• The contact faces of the joined parts should not present excess paint. It is even recommended that
these areas should not be painted at all. They should be clean and free of salient spots, surface
defects, and any substance that could reduce the friction between the parts to be joined.

• Any steel structure is elastic and flexible. When this is supported on elements that are elastic as
well (springs or rubber pads), it will gain several degrees of freedom of movement, with several
natural frequencies. The magnitudes of the latter depend on the stiffness of the structure. They may,
however, change over time because of part wear and/or loosening of the joints. Serious problems
will occur if and when the operational frequency will be very near to, coincident with, or a multiple
of any of the natural frequencies. This problem may be identified from movements that are
irregular and different in symmetric positions of the structure, taking the longitudinal centerline as
reference. In general the easiest solution is to change the operational frequency.

• One must be very careful when changing the rotational speed of vibratory machines. Speed
increases must be accompanied by a decrease of the amplitude, in order not to endanger the useful
life of the bearings or pass the limits of resistance of the components. It is always preferable reduce
the rotation instead of increasing it.

• The assembly of the structure must be carried out in an adequate place, observing strictly the
alignments, the levels and the plumb of the joined parts.

• There must not be any badly tightened or loose elements, because the vibration would cause them
to hit, deform and break themselves and any adjacent parts.

• When repairing the equipment, it is not recommended that one reuses heavily worn parts, or parts
already submitted to several repairs, together with new parts. This is because the former may cause
the loss of the latter and of the work spent on the repair job, in case there was a breakdown or defect
caused by the condition of the reused parts.
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• One should avoid the reuse of bolts and nuts. These items are relatively cheap when compared to
their responsibility and the losses they may cause in case they do not stand up, get loose or do not
permit the application of the correct torque.

• Every design or product is conceived and dimensioned to operate under determined conditions, and
planned for a specific objective and an adequate performance. It is not advisable to add or take
away any element, this being structural or not. The risk incurred is that some fundamental
characteristic may be altered.

• The support of the screen surfaces: To obtain a good performance of the screen, the principal
function of which is to vibrate the screening surface, it is necessary that the latter be provided with
perfect support. The screening surfaces must stay rigid enough in order to transmit, to the material
on them, all the vibration that comes from the structure of the screening machine. When making
repairs and overhauls, one must pay much attention to the details of support, fixation and
tensioning. Any condition that permits that the screening surface (made of any possible material)
might hit any object, will cause damage not only to the screening surface, but to the object hit as
well.

THE VIBRATORY MECHANISM

This is the heart of vibratory equipment.

• All the Sandvik vibratory equipment uses mechanical vibrating mechanisms, consisting of shafts,
roller bearings, and counterweights.

• The roller bearings used are special, with specific characteristics and details designed for vibratory
applications. In case of doubt, consult the Sandvik Technical Assistance about the correct and
complete specifications of the roller bearings, as well as about the preferred manufacturers.

• There are no reconditioned roller bearings! It is impossible to return to a damaged bearing the
necessary conditions for satisfactory operation.

• The lubricant, be it oil or grease, must be in accordance with the recommendation given by the
manufacturer of the equipment. Equally important, it must be absolutely clean. Any solid or liquid
impurity may damage or cause the complete loss of the bearing(s). It is fundamental that one
observes strict rule of cleanliness during all phases of handling and application of the lubricants.

• In the majority of cases of roller bearing breakdown, the causes are associated with the presence of
impurities in the lubricant.

• The periodic republication operations must also be carried out with utmost care in order to avid the
introduction of impurities. The sealing elements must always be in perfect conditions, and cleaned
when needed.

• All the vibrating mechanism components must always be very well fixed. This holds particularly
for the counterweights which, if getting loose may by hurled away. In that case they may cause
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serious damage, including personal injuries, besides the destruction caused by the imbalance to the
vibrator itself.
• The vibrating mechanisms may consist of one or several vibrators. When the mechanism consists of
more than one, it is a must that the vibrators that are symmetrically opposed, or those that make up
“married couples”, shall be absolutely equally composed and configured in respect to the
counterweights. Only under these conditions the vibrators on either side produce rigorously
identical dynamic forces.

• The equality of the counterweights at the extremes of the vibrating mechanisms, or on the vibrators
of which they consist, is a basic and absolute requirement. If this condition is not observed, it may
cause even the destruction of the equipment because of appearing cracks and breakage.

• Equality between counterweights is NOT synonymous to equality of weights. It means the


installation of a counterweight in perfect special opposition to another on the same shaft, and thus
the attainment of a perfect equilibrium or balance.

• When changing roller bearings or when carrying out any other job that implies the total or partial
dismounting of the vibrator, check AT LEAST TWICE that the final configuration of the
counterweights is identical in all positions.

• When there is a mechanical element that connects vibrators or counterweights such as shaft,
coupling, gears, chain or any other, make sure that there is a PERFECT alignment and/or leveling
in the final position between the extreme counterweights or between the counterweights of the
distinct vibrators. Otherwise there may be a risk that they might work out of phase or unequally
causing cracks and breakage.

• By perfect alignment and/or leveling is understood a condition where there is absolute parallelism
between the (vertical) line of action of the counterweight(s) on one side of the machine and that of
the counterweight(s) on the other side.

• If one does not attain a perfect alignment and/or leveling of the counterweights when mounting, try
again. If this attempt is not successful, doubt the correctness of the parts and substitute them. If this
operation is successful, scrap and destroy the suspect parts. If this is not the case, contact the
Sandvik Technical Assistance.

• The bolts that fix the vibrating mechanism to the machine are of paramount importance. They
transmit all the dynamic forces generated in the mechanism to the structure of the equipment. Treat
them therefore with utmost care. Always substitute them when there is the slightest doubt about
their integrity. Use only ISO or DIN class 10.9 (SAE grade 8 or ASTM grade A490), or better,
bolts. Apply the correct torque.

• When mounting the vibrators on the equipment, clean first their contact surfaces and eliminate all
protruding points. This will ensure a perfect fit and the high friction coefficient indispensable for
transmitting the enormous forces created by the vibrators.

• The Sandvik Universal Vibrators present exclusive proprietary features relating to the mounting
and configuration of the counterweights. Consult the Instruction Manual of the equipment, and
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follow strictly the procedures given. Do not operate in any condition that is not specifically
recommended.
• The other types of vibrators also present specific characteristics and configurations related to the
counterweights. These must be accurately observed, too, in order not to incur in any incorrect
operational condition.

• The counterweights are the elements that generate the centrifugal forces that drive the vibratory
equipment. They must be treated with great care. It is recommended that the counterweights that
work on opposite sides of the same equipment, shall be balanced and/or calibrated one against its
opposite “twin”. This procedure ensures the dynamic equality between the two sides of the
machine.

• The bearing housing serves as a seat for the roller bearing(s). In 99% of the cases there is an
interference fit between them. After a considerable time of use, with several substitutions of roller
bearings, or in case of accidents, there may be a deterioration of the original seat diameter. This
condition requires recuperation or substitution.

• The major part of the designs has vibrator shafts with a sliding fit in the roller bearings. In the same
way as with the housings, the shaft bearing seats may lose their original dimensions. This condition
also requires recuperation or substitution.

• The same problem, that is, the loss of original dimensions may occur with the sealing elements
such as labyrinths, flanges, spacers, sealing ring seats, etc., because of natural wear or accidents,
wrong handling, defects, etc. Their recuperation or substitution is recommended.

• Always listen for strange noise. Loose parts hit something and rattle. When locating the source,
identify the cause and eliminate it.

• Abnormal noise coming from the vibrators point out the existence of serious problems, probably
related to the roller bearings. The substitution must be effected as fast as possible, otherwise there is
a risk that the cost of the substitution might skyrocket.

• In case of a seizure of the vibrator, usually caused by the seizure of the roller bearing (because of
wear, lack of lubrication, overheating, presence of impurities, inadequate fits, assembly errors,
deformation of the seat, etc.), there might be damage to several other parts (keys, counterweights,
couplings, flanges, universal joints, bolts, etc.). It is recommended that all components should be
critically checked. After the installation of the new or recuperated part, the alignments and/or
leveling of the opposite counterweights must be rigorously checked, together with possible
clearances.

• If one observes a considerable clearance when moving manually the counterweight(s) of one side of
the machine, the origin of this condition must be identified and eliminated.

• Bolts: All the bolts used in the vibrators, and especially those used in the connections that transmit
the rotary motion (such as pulleys, universal joints, couplings, flanges, etc.) must be locked by
some adequate process, for example: nylon inserts of type Nylock or Nylonpatch; chemical bonding
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type Loctite; mechanical locking with a wire passing through holes in the bolt head; and
combinations of these methods, etc.

• Usually the environment in which the vibratory machines are working is polluted by abrasive
particles present in the air. This circumstance accelerates the wear of the drive pulleys and V-belts.
There must be a periodic check of these elements, and a substitution when they show wear.

AN IMPORTANT GENERAL RULE:

Nothing can substitute plain common sense!

It is impossible to put on paper all the possible abnormal situations that may occur. The plant
operator(s) and the persons responsible for the equipment must constantly observe its behavior, as well
as promptly recognize situations that could be qualified as problems that require actions their and
elimination, too.

The causes of problems tend to be obscured as the time goes by. To identify precisely such problems, a
constant presence and rapid action are required.

In case there are any doubts, or when clarifications are necessary, please do not hesitate to contact the
Sandvik Technical Assistance.

OPERATION:

The Vibratory Equipment is normally used for two basic purposes: classification (screening) and
dosing (feeding). Each one of these has some specific operational characteristics, however, the
majority are common to both.

Before starting up any vibratory equipment, check that: it is adequately lubricated; that all components
are correctly installed, principally those related to work safety; that persons nearby are aware of the
start up; that there are no strange elements near or on top of the equipment; etc.

Never operate a vibratory equipment without the rotating part protections being in place.
Safety guards
Always make sure that all safety guards are fitted prior operation

When stopping the equipment for any kind of providence, block the possibility of an accidental start
up, and identify the locations from where a start might be affected. In these places there must be
signboards prohibiting start up. The use of sound alarms, which proceed the start of any or all of the
machines of the plant, is recommended.

A basic condition for the operational “health” of the vibratory equipment, besides the integrity of its
components, is the equal distribution of weight in relation to its longitudinal centerline. Everything
that is installed originally, or that is being installed later to one of its sides, must have its exact
counterpart on the other side of the equipment, in the same position and of the same weight.
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The same is true for the vibrating mechanism components. There must be an absolute equality
between the counterweights on each side of the equipment. Equality here comprehends both quantity
and relative position.

The same considerations are also valid for the supporting springs.

All the components must always be perfectly fixed. Loose or not sufficiently tightened parts will beat
and get damaged as well as damage the part they hit. Loose bolts, too, get damaged beyond
recuperation. Their diameters will get smaller, and the corresponding bolt holes will get larger.

Screen surfaces of the type that is tensioned, must have the tightness of their tensioning elements
(usually bolts) checked daily. Such elements must be substituted at once if they show defects that
prevent the continuation of the tightening process.

Grizzly bars and plates, too, must have their fixation bolts checked daily for looseness. After the first
tighten-up to the correct torque, it is recommended to give a blow on the bolt head, and then apply the
torque again. This procedure helps in eliminating possible clearances, and in flattening possible
protruding points of contact, thus increasing the contact area between parts.

The positions and the components of the screen surface supports must be maintained in accordance
with the original design. The tensioned screen surfaces present an intentional convex shape caused by
the supporting elements. This shape must be preserved, otherwise the screening surface will beat
against the support, and destroy both.

The rubber profile installed between the screening surface and the steel support has a specified
thickness. In case of substitution, use a profile of the same thickness, or change all to a bigger size
(never to a smaller). Do not use a split rubber hose, the wall thickness is insufficient for this
application.

The tensioned screening surfaces must be stretched in such a way that they behave like a spring when
hit with a hammer (that is, the hammer hits and returns). The blows should be applied midway
between the supports. This degree of tension is necessary to enable the screen to transmit the vibratory
motion to the material being processed. Slack screening surfaces dampen the movement, do not
classify well, tend to get clogged, diminish the speed of the feed, increase the thickness of the material
layer, and lessen the screen efficiency.

“J” type hooks fixed to the screening surface and supported from the longitudinal support girders
(those provided with rubber profiles), must be avoided. The fitting of such hooks is a clear indication
that the screening surfaces have been slack. After having been installed, the “J” hooks prevent the
tensioning through the lateral tensioners, and thus perpetuate the slack condition. The only definitive
solution is the use of the lateral tensioning elements. If these are damaged, they must be recuperated.

The longitudinal support girders of the tensioned screening surface, have specific heights. If they get
worn down, they must be restored to the original dimensions. In this way they restore the correct
convexity of the screening surface.
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Worn screening surfaces lose the ability of correct classification, because of the enlargement of the
openings. They must be substituted.

Screening surfaces that present holes caused by wear, cannot be efficiently recuperated or repaired.
Localized remedies consume time, labor, and material, but do not devolve the original capacity of
effective classification. Only the substitution of the damaged element restores the original condition of
the equipment in terms of capacity and efficiency.

The element of the screening surface next to the entering feed always shows the highest level of wear,
and thus needs more frequent substitutions. In order to prolong the useful life of this element, the feed
flow should be concentrated on the feed box. In this way the impact of the feed material will not wear
unnecessarily the screening element.

Problems with the directing of the screen feed flow to the feed box must not be solved with the help of
addition of plates, deflectors, stone boxes, etc. Such adjustments must be made to the chute or duct that
feeds the screen.

If it is necessary to restrict the material that “jumps” out from the screen, do not add any parts to the
vibrating body of the machine. Install a “curtain” along the lateral that is fixed independently of the
screen. Pieces of discarded conveyor belt are very suitable for this purpose.

The feed flow to the screen must be well centered. The preponderance of feed material on one side,
causes uneven wear of the screening surface and shortens its useful life; it reduces the total capacity of
the screen as the whole width of this is not being used; it may cause cracks in the structure because it
will turn one side heavier than the other, and thus reduce the amplitude one-sidedly; it may reduce the
screen efficiency because of a local overload; etc.

The clogging of the screening surfaces is in most cases associated with the screening surface itself and
its fixation. If you are not able to solve the problem, after checking all inadequate conditions and
trying to fix them, consult the supplier of the screening surface and/or of the screen. It may be that the
type of screening surface is not the most suitable for your application.

The sieve analysis distribution of the material, the dominating particle form, the material density, the
moisture content, the screen capacity, the form and size of the screening surface openings, even the
material of the screening surface, are some of the factors that influence the classification process.
These parameters can be changed in order to adjust the performance.

In the screen itself one may adjust the rotational speed, the vibratory amplitude, the direction of the
rotation (in the case of a circular motion), and the screen slope. Apart from the adjustment of the
amplitude (which consists of the rearrangement of the counterweights), the other options should be
considered only after the ones related to the screening surface have been entirely exhausted.

The lateral screening surface fixing elements function also as lateral wear liners. Thus they are prone
to wear, and they must be substituted always when one of their functions is not performing to
satisfaction anymore.
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All the structural parts that come into contact with the material being processed or even with the
washing water (when that is the case), must be provided with wear liners. Such liners must always be
recuperated or substituted when they do not act as protection anymore.

When the screen works with washing or with slurry, it is recommended to fit additional seals between
the lateral screening surface fixation element ends, in order to avoid the continuous flow of the liquid
phase (which contains fines from the processed material) over the longitudinal lateral frame elements
underneath, and to avoid, thus, the wear of these by abrasion. We suggest also the ramming of cotton
waste or rags into the space behind these lateral fixation elements. Other places that present similar
conditions should receive additions that eliminate the problem.

The vibratory machines must never beat against any obstacles during normal operation, as these local
load peaks might surpass the limits of resistance of the material and thus cause cracks.

In particular one must pay attention to and prevent any accumulation of material on the screen.

The vibratory feeders habitually clatter noisily during start up and stopping (when the vibrating system
has to pass through critical frequencies, thus increasing momentarily its amplitude) because of the
limited clearances available between machine and hoppers or feed chutes. This closeness is
unavoidable in order to eliminate spillover of material.

The vibratory feeders must not be completely emptied when in normal operation. The material layer
on the vibrating table has the additional function of protecting it against the impact when an overhead
silo, hopper or chute is discharging upon it.

The support springs must be maintained clean and free from accumulated material (usually stone dust)
between their coils in order to work properly and as intended.

The springs must only work in the vertical (plumb) direction. The flat surfaces of the spring supports
must be rigorously horizontal (level).

Broken springs must be replaced immediately. It is recommended practice to make the simultaneous
replacement of the two springs located symmetrically in relation to the central longitudinal axis of the
equipment.

The springs must never be allowed to yield to the point that the coils hit each other, neither during
normal operation, nor even during stopping. If the reason for this condition is excess load on the
equipment, it must be alleviated. If the cause is the loss of capacity of the springs, they must be
replaced.

The drive belts must be maintained sufficiently tensioned in order to transmit the motor torque. A
momentary slipping of the belts, at the time of starting up, is tolerated because of the high-torque
characteristic of the motors. An excessive belt tension does damage to the motor roller bearings and to
the driven pulleys.

The belts must be substituted when presenting excessive wear. The same is true for the pulleys.
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In general the electric motors are of the High Starting Torque type. This is necessary because of a
characteristic feature of the vibrators, that is, they require a high torque for the first half turn of the
shaft. Normally the screens demand little power once they have reached the steady state of operation.
The vibratory feeders, on the contrary, present a power demands that is close to the nominal capacity
of the motors.

The structure that supports the vibratory equipment should not and must not present a high level of
vibration. If needed, reinforcements must be added to the structure in order to eliminate or at least
reduce the vibration. Normally the truss members of the steel structures and the handrail structure need
additional reinforcements.

The lubrication, be it by oil or grease, must be carried out observing extremely rigorous criteria of
cleanliness. The point of lubrication on the machine and the device used for introducing the lubricant
must be thoroughly wiped clean.

All tools and utensils employed for lubrication must be washed with a solvent after use, stored in an
adequate way, and cleaned again just before next use.

The oil and grease recipients must be kept closed and protected against contamination by dust and
moisture.

Noise: The vibrating screens and feeders are very silent when idling without load. It is in this
condition that one should look and listen for, identify and remedy the problems caused by loose parts,
because the clatter from these is easily audible. There must be nothing loose in the machine.

Washing: The water injected on the screens normally has the basic purpose of removing and separating
the fines that have adhered to the coarse material, and forcing them to pass through the screening
surface. The flow volume of this water should always be adjusted to the minimum that still permits the
efficient execution of the washing job. The water jets are also abrasive, so the areas subjected to them
must be provided with wear liners.

Dust: Screens and feeders are pieces of equipment that favor the liberation of powder and dust
contained in the processed material. This inconvenience may be minimized by providing a dustproof
encapsulation for the machinery.

Caution! Always use safety helmet and protective goggles!

Wear safety helmet and eye protection!

Caution! Ear protection must be wornby all operators.