MU 0002 MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT Set I 1. Discuss the characteristics of Management.
Management is a distinct activity having the following salient features or characteristics: i)Goal- Oriented:Management is a purposeful activity. It coordinates the efforts of workers to achieve the goals of the organization. The s uccess of management is measured by the extent to which the organizational goals are achieved. It is imperative that the organizational goals must be well-defin ed and properly understood by the managers at various levels. ii)Economic Resource:Management is one of the factors of production together with land, labour and capital. It is the most critical input in the success of any organized group acti vity. It is the force which assemble s and integrates other resources, namely, labour, capital and materials. These f actors do not by themselves ensure production, they require the catalyst of mana gement to produce goods and services required by the society. Thus management is an essential ingredient of an organization. iii)Distinct Process: Management is a distinct process consisting of such functions as planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. These functions are so interwoven that it is not possible to lay down exactly th e sequence of various functions or their relative significance. In essence, the process of management involves decision-making and putting of decisions into practice. iv)Integrative Force:The essence of management is integration of human and other resources to achieve the desired objectives. All these resour ces are made available to those who manage. Managers apply knowledge, experience and management principles for getting the results from the workers by the use o goals with t f non-human resources. Managers also seek to harmonize the individualsâ he organizational goals for the smooth working of the organization. v) Intangible Force:Management has been called an unseen force. Its presence is evidenced by the result of its efforts- orderliness, info rmed employees, buoyant spirit and adequate work output. Thus, feeling of manage ment is result-oriented. One may not see with the naked eyes the functioning of management but its results are apparently known. People often remark of the effectiveness ( or ineffectiveness) of management on the basis of the end results, although they canâ t observe it during operation. vi)Results through others:The managers cannot do everything themselves. They must have the necessary ability and skills to get work accompli shed through the efforts of others. They must motivate the subordinates for the accomplishment of the tasks assigned to them. vii)A Science and Art:Management has an organized body of knowledge consisting of well-defined concepts, principles and techniques which h ave wide applications. So it is treated as a science. The application of these concepts, principles and techniques requires specialized knowledge and skills on the part of the manager. Since the skills acquired by a manager are his personal possession, management is viewed as an art. viii)System of authority:Management as a team of managers represents a system of authority, a hierarchy of command and control. Managers a t different levels possess varying degrees of authority. Generally, as we move d own in the managerial hierarchy, the degree of authority gets gradually reduced. Authority enables the managers to perform their functions effectively. ix)Multi-disciplinary subject:management has grown as a field of study (i.e. discipline) taking the help of so many other disciplines such as Engineering, Anthropology, sociology and Psychology. Much of the management lite rature is the result of association of these disciplines. For instance, producti
vity orientation drew its inspiration from Industrial Engineering and human rela tions orientation from psychology. Similarly sociology and operations Research h ave also contributed to the development of management science. x) Universal Application:management is universal in character. The principles and techniques of management are equally applicable in the field of business, education, military, government and hospital. Henri Fayol suggested that principles of management would apply more or less in every situation. The principles are working guidelines which are flexible and capable of adaptation t o every organization where the efforts of human beings are to be co- ordinated. 2. Explain the difference between Management Development and Organizational Deve lopment: â Management development is all those activities and programmes when recogni zed and controlled, have substantial influence in changing the capacity of the i ndividual to perform his assignment better and in so doing are likely to increas e his potential for future management assignmentâ Organization developments differs from management development. While the latter aims at developing the managers individually for the accomplishment or better pe rformance in organizational setting, the former goes one step further and purpor ts to change the entire organizational climate where the managers work. Miner ha s drawn difference between two processes. According to him, there are four attri butes of effective managers in large organization. These are; (i) a positive att itude towards authority (ii) Competitiveness (iii) assertive ness and (ic) a sen se of responsibility. He feels that management development reinforces the above four qualities and helps managers cultivate and develop the swill to manage, whe reas OD efforts within organizations may cause confusion and chaos for incoming human resources if the organization is underplayed and the humanistic dimension alone is emphasized. If OD efforts train people towards anti-authority value, more attention to peergroups, less individual competitiveness, and greater display of feelings and emo tions, then would the results be functional for managing organization activity i n a competitive world? Thus, according to him, OD tries to fit the organization to the men, MD tries to fit the men to the organization, with their existing objectives and structure. However, he appear s to be biased against OD and the real distinction between OD and MD lies in bet ween these two extremes. Burke and Schmidt have made this difference more clear which is presented in the following table. Factors Management Development Organization Development Objectives Increasing ma nagerâ s contributions to goal accomplishments. Changing the nature of the organizati on. Focus Train and equip employees and managers to perform better in existing o rganization Focus on design, not on the managers; focus on achieving improvement in design. Approach Time Educative and training Short- range. Problem-solving approach. Lon g-range strategy for organizational innovation and renewal. Specialist No special requirement Trained specialists required. 3. Explain the Three state model of change Process. Stage 1: Unfreezing: Creating motivation and readiness to change throug h a.Disconfirmation or lack of confirmation b. Creation of guilt or anxiety c. P rovision of psychological safety Stage 2: Changing through Cognitive Restructuri ng: Helping the client to see things, judge things, feel things, and react to th ings differently based on a new point of view obtained through a. Identifying with a new role model, mentor, etc. b. Scanning the environment for new relevant information Stage 3: Refreezing:Helping the client to integrate the new point of view intoa. The total personality and self-concept. b. Significant relationships. In stage1 , Unfreezing, disconfirmation creates pain and discomfort, which causes guilt an d anxiety, which motivate the person to change. But unless the person feels comf ortable with dropping the old behaviours and acquiring new ones, change will not
occur. That is, the person must develop a sense of psychological safety in orde r to replace the old behaviours with new behaviours. In stage 2, moving, the person undergoes cognitive restructuring. The person acq uires information and evidence showing that the change is desirable and possible . This motivating evidence is gained by, for example, identifying with ex-smoker s and learning about the health risks of smoking. The primary task in stage 3, refreezing, is to integrate the new behaviours into the personâ s personality, and attitudes. That is, stabilizing the the changes requi res testing to see if they fit-fit with the individual, and fit with the individ ualâ s social surroundings. The phrase significant relationships refer to important people in the personâ s social environment-do these significant ot hers approve of the changes?