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CHAPTER - IV

WORK OP MOTTS.

Pag®

Suttur Veerasbitahasana Mutt, Mysore ••• 130

Nodudamudi Mutt, Hassa ••• 173

Cbinmuladri Braban Mutt, Chitradurga ••• 191

Taralabalu Braban Mutt, Sirigera 20k

Teggin Mutt, Bellary ' ••• 225

Muruga Mutt, Dharemr 232

Moorsavlra Mutt, Hubli ••• 233

Gavisiddeswara Mutt, Raicbur ••• 249

Ooorduneswara Mutt, Nedususi ••• 265

Haganur Rudraksbl Mutt, Belgaum •*# 269

Sbanthaveera Mutt, Bableswar • •• 277

Bantbanal Mutt, Banthanal ••• 291

Cbltragl Samastbana Mutt, Illekal ••• 3°1

Hire Mutt Samastbana* Balki •« 310


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CHAPTBR - IV

MYSORE DISTRICT- STOTUR VEERASH XMAS ANA MUTTt-

BRIEP HISTORY QP THE DISTRICT t-

After the down fall of Vijayanagar empire, mention may

be made of the two notable principalities viz. Keladi and

Mysore. Keladi, during Vijayanagar period was the capital of

a powerful feudatry State whose Nayakas served the empire with

unswering devotion and loyalty. Keladinripavijaya by Linganna

and Shivatattuva Rathanakara a Sanskrit Encylopedia by Basava-

raja and several other inscriptions unfold the history of the

dynasty. Shlvappa Nayatea extended his bounderios into the

Mysore territory and brought his kingdom southward as far as

Hassan and Chlkkamagalur Disti’ict. Naturally, Shaivism had

its sway over this part of Karnataka.


*

The history of Mysore was further supported by the Raja

Wodeyar who slezed Srirangapatanam in l6l6. The period wit­

nessed a -great deal of Kannada literary activities. Thirumala-

raya, Chikkapadlaya, Thimma Kavi and' Honnamma are notable


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]'
among them. After the death of Chikkadevaraya Wodeyar In

1704, Royal, power in Mysore wae on the decline. However*

Chalukyas of Kalyan did contribute much for the development of

Shaivism in Karnataka during the 10th century.

BRIEF HISTORY OF THE MUTTi-

, Suttur is a village which is situated about 16 K.M east

of Nanjanagud, on the banks of Kaplni. The inscription No.l6

of Nanajanagud throws light onr the glories of Suttur mutt at


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the time of Rajendra Chola. suttur village was then known as

Shrothriyuru.(43*10) Inscription No .20 dated 1514 records

the name of Suttur and Mutt has been referred to as Suttur

Sirahasana Mutt (inscription No.20 Nanjanagud) 152at 277)

Eleventh century marked the ruling of Chola empire* towards the

South of Kaveri river. Suttur was under the sway of Chola

Mandala Gangaikonda Chola. ^bis place was called Xdinad which

means closeby place. Yet another inscription of 116$ A,b. of

Hoysala Narashima mentions* Sottiyr Was the bank of a river

(I52n# 205) As this inscription is damaged the name of the


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river is not found. Inscription No«30 of 1514 A.B. records


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that this village la on tho South of Kaplla river* Inscription

No»21 of 1530 A*D* again refers to this as "Holeya Sutturn*

Devannur village inscription of 1517 A.B. also refers to this

by the same name (l52a t 313} Number of inscriptional evidence

enlightens the sacred relationship between Eshan Eshwara Wodya

the second pontiff of this mutfc and Rajendra Cfcola-X* The

inscription dated 1032, reveals the respect and honour showed

between the King and Guru* This releoted in the grant he

ordered to be made to a temple founded in Ishanashiva fandita's

honour pmd name Suttur in Mysore District* It records a gift

of g five great musical instruments to the temple of Xswar&na

Wodeyar- undoubtedly hawed after his guru., Xshaaa Dandita-

at Srotriyor by the Mahajanas and merchants of the place

according to the sacrdd order of the king* ( 161s 1035) Thus

" «
it is evident that the Suttur Veerashitnasana mutt has got a

very old tradition and history of being Raja Guru*

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Educational propagation of this ancient seat of learning
1,

can be attributed to the great teacher Sri Sri Siddananjadoshi

Kendra Swamy as early as 11 TO A.D* Under his Stewardship,


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Janadasohabecame the part of the mutts work* It is stated in

the ShivarathreShivacharya that, Hals Mahadeawara oame to

Suttur to be the student of SiddamanjaDeshikendra Swaml and <

ttms learned the value of Kayaka from him* ^he fifth Pontiff

of this Mutt, His Holiness Kapini Najunda Heshikondra Swamijl

was instrumental in perpetuating the literary work. The great

literary contribution of this period was "Aamagi Bevaiabgala

Sangathya»tt

The paramount credit can be attributed to the eleventh

pontiff of this holy mutt to His Holiness Ganalingedevaru for


\ ‘
his literary contribution. The primary objective of thie mutt
) ' ‘

is to uplift the weaker section of the community. This can

be noted in the literary contributions of this mutt. With most

humbleness and deep sense, the pontiff of this matt expressed

their views#

Gtfs/j Ci ZCJC.A ^3jt,&«s-


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Hts Holiness Ganalinge Devaru with, ail humbleness prays

to God thus* "0 God! Grace me the opportunity to watch the

door 0f Dohara Kakaya, Madara Channiha, Am&ligara Chowdaiah,

they are all Great Shivasharanas let me be a watch g dog to

their house*R

All the above mentioned persons were of the weaker


/

section of the community* But they were all great devotees of

Shiva, giving utmost importance to Kayaka. Thus he appeals to

God and that he be able to serve them with all hisobleness*

Again Sri Swamijl expressed his stringent ideas for Sayaka*

He vehemently mk criticized the Jangama who lead his life without

enlightening the masses. Such life is no life* Kayaka is a

must for any Jangama* He further explains a Jangama and a

Viraktha* who does not bother to discharge his duties but just

lives for prasada and who goes from door to door is not a

Viraktha or Jangama at all* The ordient duty of Jangama or

Viraktha is to educate the masses* (jfjS!


I

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Thus emphasising importance of Kayaka and the respon­

sibility of Vlraktha and Jangama was well brought out and

defined in his vachanas. It dearly indicates the views of his

holiness in early years of 1530 A.D. was to awaken the weaker

sections and to make them understand the importance of life*

Manthra Maharshi Jagadguru S hivarat hre swara Mahaswami ji»


^ i

the twenty second pontiff of this holy mutt established a new


/

horizon in the history of this mutt by establishing hostels and

schools in the remote villages. Sri Swamiji believed that


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spreading of education by vaehanas and other activities will

not give scope to a common man to lead a complete lif© in the

midst of the elite and egalitarian society* In order to

create more confidence among the weaker sections of the

society, it is Very essential to impart literary and formal

education* Thus started schools* In order to educate them

it is very essential to fulfil their basic needs, hence started

a number of hostels to the poor and needy students of the

village* The year 1883 to 1$>47 marked the British rule in

India* It was a clear fact how difficult it was to get

ration* Yet Sri Swamiji did not scare or bother to face the

difficulty and provided them with all facilities*

His Holiness S*»i Shivarathre Bajendra Maha Swamiji is

the twenty third pontiff who shouldered She responsibilities

of the mutt at the age of 12 years* , fVom the date of his

incarnation to the mutt till this hour* he is sacrificing his

life for the upliftment of the underprivileged and common man

of the society* The glory of this mutt reached its zenith

under his Stewardship* Sri Swamiji is a staunch believer of


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« eradicating the ignorance among the masses* in order to put

this into action he established Jagadguru Sri Shivarathroawar*

Mahavidya Peeta in the year 1954. Sri Swamij± considered ail

human beings equal and it is the value which should be imparted

so as to live and behave like human beings, sympathy, compas­

sion, right thinking are some ot the human values which enrich

the culture and decrease the calamity* Thus without any caste

discrimination Sri Swamijl*s action to impart such values, is

highly appreciable*

in order to achieve the main objectives, of the mutt

started a number of* educational institutions, starting from

cretohes to medical college*(list of institutions are appended)

Apart from starting schools and colleges to promote mass edu­

cation, number of programmes were also organised to eradicate

social problems like beggary, untouchabilivy eto* Under the

spiritual guidance of present SwamiJi Sri Sri Shivarathre Rajett-

dra SwamiJl, the achievements are no doubt unsurpassing*

His Holiness Sri Rajendra Swamiji is instrumental in


J 1 %

mobilising the varied activities of this mutt* T^g current


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year statistics of* students and teachers reveals Swamiji’e

concern to rural problems# It is a matter of* fact that out ef

756 teaching staff 539 hail from rural areas. Out of 537

non-teaching staff kSB are from rural part. Estimating the

student population! out of 20,195. 1^538 are ©hared by rural

side., Among them 2359 are Scheduled Cast® and Scheduled Tribe

students.

Though Sri Swamiji is occupying a very respectable

position in Veerashiva religion, being Jagadguru of a Suttur

Peetha, he always reached out to humanity, irrespective of

caste and creed or deprived. His virtues, character always

glowed with divinity.

This brought about a social revolution in parts of the

country and widened the sphere of its spiritual influence

through social, literal and spiritual activities. It has now

further stepped into the field of medical institution.

Sri Swamiji, a great spiritual soul, who is benevolent

to the poor in particular and to humanity in general, has


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ovolved as Mahathma in the hearts of the people* This matt


i

which is an ancient seat of religion and an abode of learning

tirelessly catering to the needs of the impoverished and

ignorant. The long cherished vision of Swamiji came true by

the opening of a medical college and hospital» which further

extended the scope of the mutt to serve the destitutes and the

deprived section of the society in the smut century* All the

above mentioned achievements are the outcome of Sri Sri

Swamiji’s determination and toil to reach goals that are set fox

the prosperity of humanity. Speaking of Mahathmas Sri Arabindo


r

has said "The great Saints have performed miracles, the

greater saints have railed at them, the groateat have both

railed at them and performed them. ”

PROGRAMME PLANNED FOR THE PROPAGATION OF MASS EDUCATIONt -

Kayaka which is of utmost Important of Veerashlva philo­

sophy was introduced by Svaiaiji, as topmost priority by

establishing Khadi and Gramodyog, to educate the village


*■ *

people and also to make them understand the importance of


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econotnical progress of the country.. Apart from this, oil

crushing, paddy pounding, weaving, marketing unite were also

established in order to develop organisation and administration.

Veerashiva mutt always insisted for self supporting education

which is very near to the life of a common man.

CULT ORAL PhOPOGATICN s -

British rule in Idia, nearly for 5°0 years, emerged as a

curse to Indian society, as far as Indian culture is concerned.

As a such this mutt tried to revive the ancient culture by

es tablishing ICala Man tap and Music Academy whxch paved the way

for depicting the inherent talents of an individual. Many

dramas were enacted depicting the life of great saranas, sooial

dramas by which villagers were educated to remove caste dis­

crimination and rigidity. The dramas like AJa* Aiydaktei Moranya,

Madar Channanya , Adarsha Vivha to enlighten the honesty,

sincerity in Kayaka and how the Kayaka should be taken up for

public welfare.

publication DIVISION t
PUBLICATION DIVISION t -

This holy mutt has got is own publication division too*

This publication division has particularly taken up the work

of ancient treasure of literature which was written on the

palm leaves* "Prasada" a quarterly magazine is a great contri­

bution of this publication division*

Suttur tJathra Mohothsava and Jayanthi Celeberation ©f

Orgaainator of this mutt Is being celaberated every year*

Nearby village population, many dignitaries of Karnataka and

outside Karnataka vist this Jathra* Ceremoniously celeberated,

Jathra has a great significance, because it provides opportunity

for all class of people to participate* Unique opportunities

are being provided to weaker sections of the community to

enlighten their talents and to perform pooja.

Many dignitaries who have visited this matt to pay their

respects and honour to Sri Swamiji, highly admired and appre­

ciated tue humble servioes of the mutt for noble cause* ^baong

them mention may be made to his Excellency Jayaehamarejendra


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Wodeyar said " The ancient seat of* this holy mutt which is

contributing towards social, religious and literary activities,

is an ideal example to the country# Further, he expressed

that the Present Swamijl, his holiness Sri Rajendra Swamlji'e

Service, glimpses the memory of* Kama Yogi Siddarama#"

His varied activities and establishment of institutions in

and around the Karnataka is highly appreciable.


/ t

Dr# Rajendraprasad, then President of* India, had an

opportunity to visit this mutt# Speaking on the occasion

of Jayanthi he said "It is my immense pleasure to have a

darshan of* Sri Swaraiji who is sacrificing his heart and soul

for the enlightenment of the country, by spreading education

to the ignorant masses#" His valuable service is a great

asset to our country#

Dr.B.D# Jatti, then Hioe President of India, delivering

his Presidential speech, in the sixtiauh bxrth day celo bora, t ion

of Swamijl, expressed," Sri Swamijl's service to the public,

religious and cultural propogation is remerkable more than

anything else# His noble contribution of free boarding and


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lodging: to the student community is a clear indication of


' / 1
Swamiji's interest in the upliftmenfc of the village population*'

The above are some of the examples which rest assure the
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glorious tradition maintained by Swamiji for the progress of

the flinttx mass* Swamiji'a determined belief is that only

hard working people can build the nation; not the limited
i

egalatarian society* All his concentration is to enoourage

the rural mass* so that they gain more confidence and lead a

happy and comfortable life.

JAGADGORU simi shivamthreswara kala MMTAF *-


I

Yet another unique contribution of Sri Swauii jx is the

establishment of Kala Mantap which encourages the budding

artist of all cast;a and community* Special trainings are

being given to the talented people in Drama, Music, Dance and

other cultural activities. Every month these young artists

are encouraged to give public performance* Dramas aro enacted


{ '

during Jathra and Jayanthi Mohotsava period, to educate the


\

mass with regard to social and moral aspects of the life*


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Among thorn m mention may be made to "Maranave Mahanavami5

Dydakki Maraya* which actually impress the people towards

Kayaka and Kayaka for the welfare of the community*

Apart from this*, Anganaswadi and literary center are

some of the important contributions* Through this literary

centre in the rural part, adult literary programmes are con­

ducted* Sri Swamijl, a great symbol of saviour of the mass*

always rose to the occasion* rendering his meritorious servloe

to the people* Under the benevolent guidance of his holiness*

many educational institutions have been opened* to cater the

needs of the people*

Shri Swamijl's divinity reaches out to all those who seek

him* His abode is like a temple where all human beings are

treated with equal concern and love* For the ignorant* he is

like a light in darkness* For the learned* he is the beacon

light* who' leads them to higher and more profound knowledge*

igniting a thirst for enquiring a higher level of thought and

deed which would make one’s life more purposeful and dedicated

to the cause of making* ___________________________


'

?
tp
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<UR
SQl SlDDRGifiN&R H toW
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TIMKUR DISTRICT - SRI SlDDAGANGA. MUTT.


•\

Tumkur is the headquarter town of the District and the

District is also called by the same name. Popular tradition has

it that* Tumkur once formed a part of territory* whose oapital


!
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was Kridapura, now a small village known as Kaldala, three miles

to the South of Tumkur and that it was presented by one of its

rulers to a herald or Tom-tom beater, Tumkur is the small drum


, *

or tabret which is used for Tom*tooting* and the town might have

been called Tumke-ooru to indicate that it belonged to the

beater of Tumuke* But the original name of the place* according

to certain inscriptions of the tenth century* was Tumaegooru

which means the place of the Tumme or Tumbe* a common fragrant

herb (J*eucaa aspera) found abundantly in the area* It is said

that the present town was built by Karte Arasu, a member of the

Mysore Royal family, and because the area was clearly known as

Tumme or Tumbe* he seems to have continued the same name with the
/

addition of *ooru* for the town and called it Tumae-ooru or


'r,

Tumbe<*ooru which* in course of time* came to be pronounced as

Pumakaru (or Tumkur in its anglicised form) as it is known now.


<8 *1 ) '
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It is bounded on the North by the Anantapur District oF

Andhra Pradoshf on the East by the Koiar and Bangalore Districts*

on the South by the Maadya District and on the West by the

District oF Chitradurga* Chlkkaraagalur and Hassan*

BRIEF HISTORY OP SIDDAGANGA MUTTt -

Sri Siddaganga Mutt is located on the Bangalore Poona

National Highway and is, about sixty six Kilometres From Bangalore

State Capital* and hardly Five Kilometres From Tumkur* the

headquarters oF the District*

Historical records reveal that about six hundred years

ago a renowned Yathi Sri Gosala Siddeswara perFormed Penance and

Founded the Siddaganga mutt with the sole purpose OF universal

good* AFter sometime the Famous Vlraktha Sri Tontada Slddalinge-

swara* having toured throughout the length and breadth oF

Karnataka* bringing about spiritual reawakening arrived at Sri

Siddaganga Mutt* It is .at this place that Tontada Siddalinge»


,
\

ewara perFormed penance and today*, the place is called as


s ,

Sri Siddaganga mutt* *

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"It is said, one hundred and eight saints, the contem­

poraries of Gosala Siddeswara were performing penance and

founded the Sri Siddaganga mutt* Among those saints, legend

has it, that an aged one felt thirsty on a particular night


1

culminating In utter weakness. That fragile and weakened saint

remembered Sri Gosala Siddeswara and lo i Sri Gosala Siddeswara

appeared before him and opened a hole in the rocks with his own

hands and water - the suetainer of life, gushed from the rocks

effortlessly* Thus the aged saint*s life was restored* That

holy water, the result of Sri Gosala Siddeswara's undetterred

and unfailing penance, is Siddaganga incarnate, the realiser

of water, the suooor of everybody and at all times•*( 191* 1/.


i

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Sri tiddana Swamiji, the nineth pontiff of the Siddaganga

mutt was mainly instrumental in starting a Veda Patas&la ee

early as 1917 end a hostel with free boarding and lodging

facility and laid the foundation for the propogation of education


■i

for the rural masses*


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About five decades ago, Sri Uddana Shivayogi, converted


*
the hostel of Siddaganga mutt into a general hostel in order to

facilitate students belonging to various communities, irrespective

of their oaste or creed, to learn Sanskrit* The annual fair of

Siddalinga-Swamy coinciding with the holy Shivaratri festival

and running for ten consecutive days was initiated by Uddana

Shivayogi in 1909-‘10. Sri Uddana Shivayogi Swamlji, in addi­

tion to free mass feeding by starting a Sanskrit Patasala, way

back in 1917 gave a fillip to the assimilation and propogution

in general and revival of Sanskrit language learning in parti­

cular* In 1932* the Sanskrit Patasala was upgraded to the

level of Sanskrit college, which caters to the needs of all

Sanskrit lovers, without any caste discrimination* Presently

there are courses like Alankara, Vyakarana, Tarka and Shakti

Vlshistadvaita and examinations are conducted upto Vldwat level*


/

Sanskrit learning which was monopolised by selected few was

thrown open to people of all communities which is considered as

a great achievement*
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Sri t/ddana Shivayogi attained immortality on 11-1-19^1*

Sri Shivakumara Swaraiji was initiated with the holy order on

3-3-1930 itself* He served under late Oddana Shivayogi with

great sincerity and devotion* Be was instrumental in starting

a good number of schools and oolleges in, the rural areas to

educate the masses who were in the darkness of ignorance*

There are at present 3200 students hailing from various

castes and communities* Th^y reside in the hostel which is

maintained by the mutt* The holy mutt prevldes ample opportunity

to the poor people and also orphans, which symbolises national

and religious unity and stands out as a model to be m emulated;


?

by one and all in the country* Students of this holy mutt are

Persuing useful education in its various institutions like*

Middle school, High school, Teacher training college, College of

educations* Sanskrit Patasala, First Grade College, Polytechnic

and Engineering College* Good number of these institutions are

situated in rural areas - a fact which speaks volumes about the

strain and effort putforth by this mutt for the upli'ftment of

rural folk who are generally backward people*


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His holiness Dr* Sbivakumara Swamigalu is the head of

the Siddaganga mutt* All the institutions are managed by him*

There is no committee for the management of any .institution of

the mutt. There is an administrative office headed by an

administrative officer and several other employees to assitt


r

the Swamiji, in the general administration* Apart from this

there are several Mari Devarugalu and Jangamas to assist Swamiji

in day to day work*

There are 63 institutions which include high schools*

colleges - Engineering college* Polytechnic» Sanskrit Patasala

etc* (list of institutions is enclosed in the appendix) The

educational activities of the Siddaganga monastry constitute an

important part of the service rendered by the mutt to the

society*

Sri Siddaganga high school was started on i<3th May* 19^*

There a was A lot. of rush for admission to the Government high

school* The Government school could not accommodate all the

students for want of accommodation. Hence th© leaders of ,

Tamkar town and President of Tumkur Municipality requested Sri


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Swamlji to open a high- school* Thus started the educational

activities of the mutt* The .school had only 169 students in

the beginning* Within two years the school was shifted to a

two storied stone building for which Government had contributed

Seventy five thousand Rupees* Subsequently, in the year 1956*

this mutt started free residential high, school which was a

boon to the rural students to fulfil their ambitions» ^hls

residential school catered to ths needs of the students of all

communities, irrespective of their status*

SRI sxddalingbswara sreb boarding *-

It is very essential to know about this free boarding

humane as it appears to be the pivot of all other Institutions

of the monastery* It is the parent institution which fosters

the various educational institution of the mutt* The free

boarding humane and Sanskrit Patasala, as alroady stated were

opened by Sri Oddana Shlvayogi in the year 1917 with 100 boys*

When the present Swamiji was Initiated and took charge* there
i ’
were 3200 students belonging to different communities from all

over the country, mostly from rural parts* Statement of students


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belonging to different communities is r . Sri Swamijl

is highly concerned about providing opportunities for thousands

of young people to learn and achieve their goals. But for

Swamiji's ceaseless efforts, these young people’s intelligence

and energy would have been in vain and this loss of young and

energetic minds would have been a curse to the nation. Un­

educated youth fails to come up to the expectation of a deve­

loping nation. Hence the necessity to educate them wherever

they are. Apart from this, good number of free boarding and

lodging facilities have been provided in different parts of

Karnataka, and Andhra. Almost all the hostels are located in

rural areas. These hostels accommodate nearly 150 to 200

students each. Virtually, it is a boon to the villagers who

can never imagine that their children would get such facilities

for their education « they wore the first generation in t-hoir

families to get good education with the blessings of Sri Swamiji*

The boarding expenses of this mutt alone is more than two lakhs

of rupees per month. Since a few years, this mutt Is getting

little help from the Government but it is very meagre, when

compared to the total expenditure met by the mutt* However,


financial assistance is obtained from the devotees of the mutt
>
and also the philonthrophtsts who rightly shoulder and share

the responsibility of developing these institutions* The

unique service rendered by Sri Swamiji for the spread of edu­

cation among rural people is highly commendable and is highly

appreciated by one and all. Those who have been provided with
, i

education , have turned out to be good citizens*


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SANSKRIT COLLEGE OP SIDDAGANGA MUTTt -

The teaching of Sanskrit and Veda was started about a

century ago at Siddaganga*! It was his holiness Adavi Swamiji


i
who started the teaching of* Sanskrit and Veda in Upper cave of

the Siddaganga hill* His Holiness was deeply engrossed in the


t i

task of spreading spiritual knowledge among the people* Dasoha


!I
was his breath. He had started feeding hundreds of devotees
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and visitors to Siddaganga!in the Upper Cave and decreed to his
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posterity to keep the oven!burning for all times* He laid the
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foundation for *Jnananadasoha' also by starting the teaching
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of Sanskrit and Veda at the holy centre* (191* 13) As a matter


f
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of fact Sanskrit learning was monopolised by few advanced

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oommunltle*. Rigidity was so strong that people of other

communities were never allowed to learn Sanskrit* It is at that

crucial period Sri Uddana Shivaycgi took a bold step and tried

to spread the knowledge of Sanskrit learning to the rural folk*

Irrespective of their caste and creed* At present 2500

stlatents belonging to different communities are learning

Sanskrit in this Patasala* which happens to be one of the

biggest of its kind in the country*

FREE BOARD IN Gt -

It Is compulsory that all the students who reside in the

free boarding are expected to learn Sanskrit* irrespective of

their caste* It is also made eompulsory that all the students

should attend the common prayer and meditation for which Sri

Swamiji himself attends along with the students* Just for 10

or 15 minutes Swamijl addresses the students and gives them

some valuable moral instructions* It Is a thrilling experience

to witness the prayer assembly as all the 3200 meditate* we can

experience the spell bound silence* This common prayer develops

among the students* a feeling of oneness* irrespective of caste*


—1

creed, social status which, in turn, naturally inculcates


s
integration among students* This uni quo type of atmosphere of

the mutt inspires and develops among the students, unity in

diversity- a rare opportunity#

Another important feature of this mutt is social work#

More emphasis is being given to dignity of labour* Every

student of tho holy mutt is expected to on gage himself in a

work according to their ago, like watering the plants, keeping

the place and environment clean and tidy, carrying building

materials to the construction sites, taking part in harvesting

©to* ©tc* His holiness himself actively participate in social

work and is a living example of Kayaka Philosophy. This

encourages the students to realise the value of dignity of

labour* To this mutt education means not only literary but

real learning for all shaping their destiny. Dasoha here in

this mutt doesn't mean only getting food* It carries more like
/

getting food, getting Jhana Dasoha and also physical labour

which ultimately makes an individual to be active and also

develops independent attitude to do any work of their choice*


-157«

DIFFERENT ACTIVITIES OP THE MUTTt-

1) Sri Thontadarava Vidyavardini Sabbat- This Sabha was

started early in the year 1937 which is managed by the students

with the aim and objective of* conducting essay competition,

debate and lectures in order to identify the inherent talents

of.jjbhe students* Such activities naturally help the rural


/

students to get rid of the stage-fear or any complex in then*


\

These activities are being conducted wider the leadership and

guidance of Sri Swamiji.

Z) Sri Siddalingeswara Dramatic Association!- This is

another Association with specifio aims to encourage the art

of acting and dramatics* The purpose of this association is

to enact the devotional plays in order to inouloate patriotism

and spiritual awareness and also to enrich moral values in

people* /

3) Sri Siddalingaawara Publications*- Main purpose of

having this publication division is to enlighten the people

in the field of sooial and spiritual education and to impart

religious education* More importance has been given to make


158

the people understand the teachings of Basaveswara and his

contemporaries? A book of collections entitled "Subtaashita

Kusaraanjali", a play by name Karmayogi Siddarana and collection

of poems called "Ptirusha Panohajayaja" were published in

Kannada language*

k) Siddaganga - a monthly iouraalt- The holy mutt apart from

the other publications in publishing a quarterly journal, which

was later made monthly journal* The main purpose of publishing

this journal is to educate the lay man or in other words to be


\

of use to rural people* The central idea of the journal is to

Impart the common man basic values of life like humanity and

equality* ^or the past seventeen years , this publication is

catering valuable Information to the people at large* About

1000 life members are there to its credit and the responsibility

of bring out this journal has been taken up by the old boys

association which reflects their interest and relationship

with the mutt*


-159-
/

5) Old Boya Asaociatioat- Tills Association is a real asset

to the mutt* The students who enjoy the benefits of this mutt

will never forget the blessings of Sri Swamiji. To have more

cordial relationship, this association has a number of acti­

vities* One such activity is the publication work* This

old boys association meets once a year for the purpose of a

general-body meeting* In thi3 General-body meeting they meet

under the Presidentship of Sri Swamlji* Thus the old boys

association and the holy mutt have a very cordial rapport*

6) Agriculture and Industrial Exhibition!- Almost all the

activities of the mutt are mainly concentrated for the bene­

fits of .village people* In order to educate the farmers and

also guide them in proper lines, every year, this holy mutt

oonduots a fair* Many representatives from Central as well ae

from State Government, who are directly connected and have

export knowledge about agriculture and Industry, participate

in the fair* . These experts educate the farmers and also the

persons who aro Interested in starting small industries*

I
-160-

7) Dispensary and Veterinary Hospitalt - This holy mutt not

only concentrates in imparting education but also pays attention

to the other needs of the villagers*


! 1 ‘ ' i , i
Host of* the people around

the villages are farmers* To take care of cattle* a veterinary

hospital is also there* There is a dispensary exclusively

meant for the students as well as to serve the nearby villagers*

This dispensary works round the dock, with expert doctors*

This noble service speaks of Swami ji’s kindness and concern


>

about the people as well as animal welfare* it reflects the


\

. sayings of Basavanna in his vaohana*

Education doesn’t mean just school education* it is some­

thing more than that* A number of Seminars* Conferences and

Discussions are being conducted, with an object of enlightening

the minds of the younger generations as well as the elderly

people* Their participation in these programmes have helped

them to grow and solve their problems by themselves* Thus they

are on the path of noble life patterns^


-i6i.

All Karnataka Education Conference was held during the

year 1963 under the guidance of hie holiness* This was very

well organised* In the year 1964 Sanskrit Parishat was also


!

held in this holy mutt* "The matt does extensive relief work

at the time of scarcity and famine* During the year 1946 - 50

the crops in Tiankur District failed* The mutt fed many people

at that time* (134a * 251) Every year November* December and

January are casual periods for the village people* These poor
i

families depend on this mutt for their food* Mutt offers them

Hagi«» Out of these people who get help 75# of them are Harijans

and the remaining mostly belonging to the other weaker sections


\ 1
of the community* One interesting feature of this holy mutt

is that it also acts as a court at times of disputes among the

villagers of the nearby areas* They have full faith that

Swamijl deals with the people of all the communities without

ahy discrimination and gives impartial judgment* Further, the

people prefer to settle their differences as early as possible

without the help of the law courts which invariably cause delay*

(134a t 273)
I

-162- ,

Regarding financial aspects of the mutt, even before

getting any financial assistance from the Government, this holy

mutt rendered a remarkable service to the community. Xt is

only after independence• rays of hopes were given by the Govern-

meat to give some assistance* However, it is not the major

concern of the mutt to depend on Government to fulfil the

necessities of the people* It is the contribution from the

philanthrophio and devotees which forms the major income by

which such yeoman services are being rendered to the society*

To sum up the contribution of Siddaganga mutt, mesthi

mostly schools were situated,in the villages, imparting edu­

cation on secular basis* Traditional learning of Sanskrit is

not neglected* It is made compulsory to all residential children*

Prayer is a must from lower classes to college students which

enriches the concentration and clarity of thought* The rest of

modern science and technology are also not neglected*

SRI SIDDAGANGA MOTT AS COURTt •

It is nothing strange to say that enimity, difference of


-163-

opinion t ambition and jealousy are some of the human weakness

that provocates the problem among the people# Sometimes

the matter is settled by compromise * but this does not hold

good for all situations# As such the matter may sometimes

lead to litigation where we need the;legal opinion, court etc#

His holiness'being considered as a person of power that gives

justice* people on their own are drawn and they are helped#

£s&pitos This type of judgment not only saves money but also

time# Ultimately his holiness*s influence in the matter

brings rapport between the two parties# To illustrate* an

example is given below#

Early in the year 1979 there was a litigation in the

High Court between Government and a landowner with regard to

the land acquisition* This case was filed in the lower court

and as the problem was not solved the case went upto high

court. This problem was regarding land acquisition for the

construction of roads and layouts# After hearing the

problem His holiness the Swamiji took the responsibility of

solving this problem without the help cf the court# He


-16k~
i

negotiated with, the land owner and Government and solved the

problem*(21s 305)

DISCOURSES* -

During the month of 'Shravana' discourses are being

conducted in the mutt* Nearby village people also attend these

discourses* Here also, a method is adopted for imparting moral

and spiritual education to the public* Thus it can be con­

cluded that the mutt acts as a center of learning devoting

attention at all aspects of life* Education means not only

d±K assimilation of knowledge but it should be education for

mind, soul and body* After studying all the activities of this

mutt we can conclude that, the mutt concentrates mainly on

underprivileged people, to impart education in all walks of

life* The statistical information also proves that more weaker

sections of students are benefited by this mutt*

Dr* Shri shivakumara Swami,ji not only attracted the

public by his noble ideology in spreading ©ducat ion^ ^J but all

awakened the leaders, educationists, philosophers* Sri Swamlji


-1 <55-

comended the honour and appreciation also from the contem­

porary’ Veerashiva Mutt which is contributing much, for the

cause of uplifting the underprivileged people* For his

yomen service for the spread of education Karnataka University

conferred Sonourary Doctorate to him* Speaking on the


t .
!

occasion, Chancellor,of the University Shri V,V. Girl said

HHis Holiness Sri Shivakumara Swamiji of Sri Siddaganga, on

whom we are conferring the honourary degree of Doctor of,


i i

literature# is a great idealist and humanitarian# who has

served in many ways# the noble, cause of education, first by


\

adding to his own tradition learning and culture a more

formal academic training in Sanskrit literature and philoso­

phy and then by his generous efforts to diffuse education at

all levels among the, people* In the Sanskrit college at


*

Siddaganga the home of Groat Saints, eight hundred students

receive training in all branches of Sanskrit learning*

At the same time, because education has long been the

preserve of the more affluent or privileged classes# His

Holiness has arranged for the maintenance under conditions

of religious discipline of as many as two thousand two


—166—

hundred youngmen of all communities and for inculcating in

them a love for simple living, with a sense of dignity of all

labour* Lover of literature that he is, and conoious of its

social role he has played host at Siddaganga to the Kannada

literary conference* Yet not all his classical scholarship

and cultural tastes have blinded his holiness to the more

pressing needs of the present times* Among the many inatitu-

tions he has sponsored is a college of Engineering, so that

slddaganga Mutt has become, in more than one way, not only

a source of rapidly expanding educational enterprise, but a

centre of inspiration for social and national service*H(21*358)

-It is not a surpis© that this holy mutt attracted the

intellectuals from all over the country and also from outside*

It is but natural, as responsible leaders shouldering the

welfare of the people? Ministers and Governors made an attempt

to visit vh© mutt to pay their respect and honour to Sri

Swamlji. On one such occasion, Sri Govinda Narayan, then

Governor of Karnataka and hi® wife visited the mutt, when

Sri Sri Swamiji hosted the Kannada Sahithya Sammelanam*


-167-

Addressing the gathering Sri Govinda Narayan said n Sri

Siddaganga eiwtt under the above and dynamic leadership of the

Swamlji has been doing such good work for the people all round

for such a long time* My wife and 1 were very keen to pay a

visit to this mutt* Our wish has been fulfilled today and

we are happy to have had Swamiji's darshan and soon the

various arrangements* The kitchen - boarding running since

1917* how feeds more than 4000 people every day, including

about 3500 students who receive education here with Sanskrit

and spiritual teachings as compulsory part of their learning*

What a wonderful system this isi Out of such a good system

of education good set of future citizens are produced. We

have high praise for this. We wish all success and prosperity

to those who are benefitting from all these activities unit

the benigh blessings of Lord Basaveswara*" As a part of the

activities every year under the Stewardship of Swamiji, the

conducts a Agricultural and Industrial Pair. It Is


L

already mentioned that education means for Veerashiva mutt,

not only to improve the literary but also to educate the


«»168-

village folks In all walks of life not only for their

welfare but also ffftbthe welfare of the country* Sri ve*rendra

Patil, Ex-Chief Minister of Karnataka, and at present in the

Central Ministry* visited the Agricultural and Industrial

Exhibition* He expressed his view that "the Agricultural and

Industrial Exhibition is growing bigger year by year* It is

but right that attention has been focussed specially on the

agricultural front which is the need of the hour* One is

pleased by the enthusiasm shown by the Organisers of the

Exhibition to make it attractive under the inspiring guidance

of the Swamiji* Surely the Exhibition will in the coming

years* attract many more stalls to educate the rural population

for the progress of the country*. There are very few mutts,

which are concerned with the up liftmeat of underprivileged

people* The 25 years of his restless service to the community

was celeberated* Sri Devaraj Urs* then Chief Minister of

Karnataka, speaking on this Silver Jubilee Celeberation said

*We are at the realm of building modern India* It is still

under discussion as to how this can be made a success and


what are the measures to be adapted for the success and also

to reach the goal* At this crucial juncture a great noble,

who la more concerned with the welfare of the community like

Sri Sri Swamijl should lead the path to us* The great sage

Basavanna* ■ who preached for the hiananltarlanism should

mobilise for which the Government is also trying its level

best* It is very essential to think at this stage for the

upllftment of the down*trodden* to eradicate poverty* to lead

happy life* to be the motive force to achieve the common goal*

Since Independence* many solagans sure prop©gated on these

lines* But due to various and voluminous reasons this is

lagging behind* It is our ordain duty to struggle for cause*

His Holiness Swamiji from the beginning is more concerned

aboutu&oiiu the welfare of the community* I have not come

across a parallel mutt like Siddaganga* in our State or outside*


/

- o
The great scarifice of Sri Swamlji for the community and

remarkable services rendered for the cause of education is a

land mark* Suoh a great noble sage should kindle the light

and lead the path* We need guidance from him* Sri Swamijl's

Valuable meditation and prayer is the outcome of innumerable


-170-

services to the society which can never be forgotten* This

is an auspicious oecassion for us to commemorate the twenty-

five years of Sri Swamiji's noble contribution to the community*

Let God shower his blessings bn Sri Swamiji» to celebrate

Golden Jubilee and his long cherished prayer and meditation to

x be a blessing to our country and people*0

SwamiJi&s vision of education is to enlighten the women

folk of the village* Unless the women* who have to shoulder

the responsibility of good rapport of the family and to train

the children to be for the future citizen of country and to

be educated* Hence* he encouraged to open a Veerashiva

Mahila samaja« Princess Sathyapremakuoaari * wife of Sri

Jayachamaraja Wodeyar* addressed the ladies on the oecassion of

Silver Jubilee Celeberation of the Veerashiva Mahila Samaja on

6-4-1964*, Speaking on the occasion she said nIt is my

Immense pleasure to meet His Holiness Sri Sri Shivakumara

Swami Ji* We have heared of the Sanctity of this mutt* Jnanana

Peseta Dev a* Annadeva, Dashoha of the mutt* The generosity*

milk of human kindness of Sri Swami4i and his blessings for


-171-

the welfare of the community Is the felt need of the Guru

Peetha* Such Guru will lead us to the path of Dharma* The

Great Sage who kindles the light to the htsnan soul is sure to

think of the welfare of the people at large* It is the

privilege and pleasure of the people of Tumkur to have such

a Great Guru*"

Sri Sri Swamijl's contribution to the community doesn't

limit itself to the’ field of education alone* As he is more

concerned to the down-trodden, his long cherlsed idea is to

construct hospital at Tumkur to cater to the needs of the

people of Tumkur and surrounding places* On the Commemoration

of Diamond Jubilee Celeberation day (2*1-4-1982) of Sanskrit

college* Sri Neelam Sanjeevi Reddy* laid the foundation stone

for 200 bed hospital at Tumkur*


NnPL>HflHt/D) MtoTV
’ ■ f.
173

HASSAN DISTRICT ^ NBDUiAMUDl MUTT.

Hassan» which la one of* the 19 Districts of Karnataka

* f . . *
State* is situated in the^South ,Western part of* the State* The
• '*> W ■*

District has had an eventful and rich history* in the past*


* & , k,,
*
it reached hight of* its glory during the rule of* the Hoyaalas

who had their capital at Dorasamudara, the modern Halebid in

Belur Taluk* The District* noted for its enchanting natural

scanery of Malnad (a mainly forested billy region because of


i *

heavy* reliable rainfall) is also a vertiable -treasure house of

the Hoysala Architecture and Sculpture* the best monuments of

which are at Belur and Halebid* Shravanabelagola* in Channaraya

Patna Taluk* which is studded with Jaina Monuments* is a

renowned centre of pilgrimage for the dains* ' -

GENERAL BOUNDARIES t- It is bounded on the North by Chikkamagalu?

District* on the Bast by Tumkur and Mandya Districts, on the

South by Mysore and Coorg District and on the West by South

Kannara District*

HISTORY OP DISTRICTt- In the early period of the known history


-174-

ot this region of the State, parts of this Distrlet woro

included in the Kingdoms of the Kadambas and the Western

Ganges (from about the 4th century to the 11th century) *

The Kongalavas according to their inscriptions dating from

1020 to 1177, ruled oyer a small kingdom situated mainly in

the Arakalgud Taluk, between the Cauvery and the HaraavathA

rivers. The Changalvas also held sway over a part of the

District for a long period from the 10th Century* But the

District is more particularly Identified with the rest of

the Hoysala power. The dyanasty came into prominance in the

11th century and continued in power till about the middle of

the 14th century. The Hoysala Kingdom which had been vastly,

was very prosperous. The District next came under the

rule of the Vijayanagar Kings, who had eventually become

paramount over all the regions South of Krishna. They are

said to have taken a particular interest in the province of

Balam which is in the Centre of Manjrabad area which was the


i

former stronghold of the Hoysalas and people of all castes were

encouraged to settle there by granting them land on little

or no rent., The Weal their among the immigrants were made


-175-

Fatels and received large inaras* later* all the Western

portions of the Districts* along with the adjoining tracts

above and below the Ghats * were bestowed upon one Veera

Haoappa, a Court Musician. Again* after some years i.e* 1397

the entire Province of Balam* then yielding a revenue of three

Lakhs of Sagoda’s was handed over by the Vijayanagara Rulers


\

to Singappa Nayaka- one of their Generals and Son of an old

Paleyagar. The Balam Faleyagars had their capital at Aigur

and ruled for a few generations*

In 1633*' the Mysore Rajas gained possession of Chenoaraya

Patna from the Paleyagar of Holenaraaipur* But shortly after­

wards* Shivappa Nayak of Ikkeri occupied a part of Balam


* J

Province and held it for 37 years. However* under a treaty

oonouluded in 1694 between Mysore and Ikkeri six nada or

revenue circles of Majrabad were ceded to the old Chiefs and

the remaining of the Balam Province was divided between the

two contending parties* Prom then on the whole of Hassan

District* except Manjrabad formed a part of the Mysore terri­

tory. The Arasikere taluk appears to have suffered consider­

ably from the raids of the Maraths and at one time was even
-17<S»
banded over to them ae security, for the payment of tribute*

Krishnappa Nayaka was ruling Balam during Tippu Sultan's time*

As a result of Joining the oamp opposed to the Sultan 9 the

former fled to Coorg fearing the Sultan's displeasure* , But

Tippu indueed him the Government of Algur-Sime* forming the

South of Balam*' His son Venkatadrl Nayaka was in possession

of Aigur-Sime during the fail of Srirangapatna in 1799*

The history of Hassan District throws light on the fact

that this part of Karnataka was mostly ruled by the Kannada

lovers. They received great impetus for the development of

Kannada learning in this region* Most of the Rulers like

Hoysalas, Vijayanagar Kings* Rayas and Ikkeri Rulers* Very


*

much patronised the Scholars and Poets and encouraged Archi­

tecture* Needumamudi Mutt must have had some influence by


>v

these Rulers* The appreciation of the Rulers have encouraged

the mutt to, spread more and more education to the rural masses*

May be because of this, reason Needumamudi mutt might have been

established in the Golur Village* even though it had its

origin in Srlsaila of Andhra Pradesh. Brief History of the,


-177-

rauii also supports the view that imparting social education

among the poor wae one of the main activities of the mutt*

Most of the Svamiji'e of this mutt, with their scholarly out­

look , contributed much for the social and eulsural development

among the rural masses* Unlike other mutts this mutt has no

schools ox- colleges run by them.

BRIEF HISTORY OP THE MUTT ft -

It is believed that two thousand years ago there was a

Jagadguru Peeta at Srishailag which is mentioned in the

Scandapurana. ^his may be S uryashimas an a • Pandltha Aradaya a

Great Scholar and also Great Guru of Pallava Mahendraverama

was the head of that Suryashimasana. The credit of converting

many Kalni&ha to Veerashivism is attributed to Sri Panditharadya.

Third Pontiff of this mutt Sri Guru Sidhashivacharya was a

teacher to Chalukya Vijayadithya. Fourth lineage of this mutt

Sri Immadipacyditharadya composed many vaohanas. The fifth

lineage of this mutt was Sri Sri Verupaksha Deshikendra Shvia-

charya. He was a great acestic who travelled far and wide t©

apread culture and also impart the importance of Dasoha.


178

Sixth Pontiff* of* this mutt was Chandragunda Shlvaoharya

whose scholarly outlook and ideology in spreading social

education influenced the Jains with the result eight hundred

Jains Baa athi came under the^old Veerashivism* He was not

only a scholar but also performed many miraoles • The credit

of establishing mutt at Golur village was attributed to him.

Seventh lineage of Surya Simahasana mutt Sri Sri KaribosaVa

Desfiikendra Swamiji was a Great ascetic* There was a place

called Somalapura near Pengamala. Nearby there was a river.

Swamiji found this place suitable for meditation* Thus after

taking bath he performed his poo ja and sprinkled some water

on a dried mango tree* The tree sprouted and was full of

mango fruits. These mangoes were offered to the Shiva Poeja.

Thus this Surya Shimasana Peeta was named after this "Nidema-

mudiw. The next and eighth GurU of this mutt Sri Chandra-

basava Beva Odeyar was also great Guru to Proddadevaraya.

He defeated famous Royal Scholar Sri Bindiraabatha in his

argument.

The present Swamiji is the thirty sixth lineage of this


-179*

mutt* His Holiness Chenna Basavarja Boskikendra Shivacharya

Swamiji is also a Great Scholar* He has contributed much for

the literature* So far he has written and published more


v4,

than 210 books (l74» 59 & 60)

Veerashiva sthapakas are Paohacharyas. The Grant lias

which throw light upon their origin and history are "Swayam-

bhuva Shivagamamulu**. Some historical shasanas and Kaavyas

also speak of them.


’ i

Among the Panchacharyas whose ’Peethas are based at

Himalayas* Kedar and Kashi are Ekorama* Vishyaradhya Renuka

(or Revana Siddha) Marulsiddha and Panditaradhya*

Srisaila Panditaradhya Peetha which originated in

Andhra Pradesh at Srisaila is a very ancient one* The literary-

works related to Ihis Peetha are ’Panditaradhya Charitra’ by

Pullakavi and ’Virupaksha Hahathyam* by Edagmn Rudrakavi*

Tl^ original ’Talapatras* were discovered at'Nldumamudi

Srishaila Peetha* These ancient literary works especially


-180.

the * Panditaradhya Charltra * gives an authentic and interesting

account of the Panditaradhya and his successors like Jagadguru

Mahaswami of Ridumamudi*

Referring to the book ' Srishaila Panditaradhya Charitraam’

by Pullakavi and the forward (Munnudl) given by Bandaru Tammayya

and introduction written by Gu.Thi. Akkulayya Doekshitulu,

it is known that there are at least a few more literary works

by name Panditharadhya Charltra* (l02* 38) One of them was

written b as Duipada Kaavya by Pa4kuri|i Sonianathakavi » which

was later written in the form of ’Padyanavada* by Sreenadha

(which is not available) not printed) and there seems to have

been some contrary and confession about it* According to

Bandaru Tammayya» this particular Kaavya is written in relation

to the last of the Shaiva Panditatraya Mallikarjuna Pandits

who is a follower of Basaveswara* and not connected to

Panohaaoharya Panditaradhya*

The author of Srishaila 'Panditaradhya Charitramu* namely

Pullakavi belonged to a sect Aruvela Reogi Brahmin and was a


-181--

Bharadwaja Gotraja. lived during the 1800 A.D. in a


N

village Hoaur in Gorlki» Bidnur Taluk. He started his literary

work with Sree Viroopakeha Shiva Acharya Swami and his sucoes-

sors in seven parts. One of the interesting factor that comes


T

to light in this literary work is that Sreepathi Pandita was

defeated at Kashi by Sree Viroopakeha Shivacharya Swami and he

took Shiva Oeeksha and became his disciple.

In the jrear 1900 A.D. some of the TalapatraS (Writings

on palm-leaves) of the original seven parts of Panditaradhya

Charitra were found ruined. The then Swami jl of Sri Niduaamudi

Peotha ordered a poet by name Appapa to complete it.

Pullakavl ended his work with the Charitra of the then

?eethadipathi Sri Emmadl Kavi Basavaraja Swami <1775 to 1815)

Appappa Kavi filled in the ruined portions and in addition

added some more to the Seventh part (Aswasa) and also wrote an

eigth part (Asthamaaswasa) where in he described the lives and

greatness of three more Swamijl's of this Peetha.


*182*

This banditaradbya Charitra by Pullalcavi is based on an

ancient literary work ’Mathasthala' which contained tho history

of tho Panohamathae (or Pancha Ja gad guru Slmhasanas) This book

however» is not available now* In the 'Peethika' of this book

Pandltaradhya Charitra Sri Gu.Thi. Akkulayya Deskshitulu says

that though the Mathasthala might have been the souroe of Sree

Pullakavi's work the ancient historical ethihasas form the

earlier part* Shashanas and Patras were made use of for

writing the later part while writing at length and in detail

about Sriahalla and the mutts which flourished there* Sri

Akkulayya Deekshitulu presented a detailed historical acoount

of Srishaila mutt and says that Shalva Mutt did exist on Srishaila

a thousand years ago*

It is peoples say that some Veerashiva Mutts existed at

Srishaila and also that Panchapeethas of Veerashiva existed

there* There are different versions about this* Dr. Chilakashi

Narayana Hao, mentions about mutts by name Basavaf Saranga,

Golaki and Naraloka* Sooriyan Tirumutt* (102* 345) Another

person who wrote * Pethika’ for Gurura jakavi Sanskrits Mallikarjun*


-183-

Panditaradhya Charitra, by name As than a Vidwan N.R. Kavi

Basava Shastrl (Mysore). He mentioned that the mutt that

existed on Srishaila were Nanda, Ghanta, Moola, Teerfeha,

Saranga and other mutt. On what proof he derived them was

not mentioned (lt>2* 13)

Another source which speaks of the mutts that existed

on Srishaila is the appeal judgment of Madras High Court

1885 No.50. There is a mention of Vibhuthi Rudraksha

Vatasiddha, Athibathi and Quada Mutfes. It is observed that

none of these are in the name of Revanaf Marula, Ekorama,

Panditha or Viswaradhya Peethas. They are neither connected

with Veera Saddharma, Valragyh, Surya or Cyan a Simhasanae.

So it is derived that except the Paditharadhya mutt, none

others did belong to Acharyas• It is also said that Naraleka

Sooriyan Tirumutt and Moola Mutt are the other names of the

Paditaaradhya Mutt. The Peethadhipathi of this mutt left

Srishaila for Nidumamudi before the time of £alka Palakurki

Somanadha and hence he did not mention about them.(l02tl0 A 11 >

Some heads of mutts from Atmakur (Kurnool District) and


-184-

Anantapur belonging to Bhlkshayritti have stated that they


1 i

have a Mutt at Srlshaila, in some papers filed in Madras High

Court* In that they did not mention to which Mutt they

belonged to* From the same source it is stated that

Bhikshavirtti's were the ' Dharmakarthas' and also Arehakas at

the Mallikarjuna temple on Sriahaila* This is again seen on

a Shilasasana at Tatiparthi Rameshwara Temple (l62a» 271)

Another source which says that Pandltaradhya Psetha

does not include Sriahaila Bhlkshavirttis. ’Shivarathri

Mahathyamu* written by Sreenadha Kavi (l440)(l02M2)

Xt is stated that Mallikarjuna temple Itself w the Mutt of

these Bhikshavrittis who lived in the temple about 500 years

ago*

Srlshaila became a place of Croat importance during the


i

tim© of Kalyan Basaveshwara*

"Kaliyugadalli Parvatave Mootasthana"

*Basaveshwara*
-185-
t

Many Shivasaranas originated at Srishaila. During this

time Jangames practicing various occupations made Srishaila

their home and lived there* Their occupations were making

Vibhuthi*Ottathlbathi for pooja and to distribute them to the

public and collecting Rudrakshas* The living place of Jangamas

are called Mutts* Hence their living place were known by the

name mutt and not because they belonged to Acharya Pest has.

(102* 17) These Jangamas moved around and imparted education

to the rural mass and also established the important of Kayaka

among the rural masses*

Srishaila Panditaradhya Charitra states that the Moola

Mutt originated by Jagadguru Panditaradhya Shlvacharya at

Srishaila and from there spread to Guyalur and Nldummamudi*

These Mutts and their heads were patronised by ruling kings

of their times* More Mutts were established at Ranchi*

Madhura* Vijayanagaram (Hampi), Chidambaram* Rameshwaram*


* *■ 1

Gulur and Nidimianmdi* The ruling kings of those times built

mutts for them in their capitals and respected them* Among

these Nidummamudl Mutt gained importance* Gradually the name


. ■ 186«*

or Srishaila Swarai was replaced by Nidumamadi Swemi* Thie

change in mae took place nearly eight centuries ago (Helavana

Kanohus&sana speaks or this). Nidummamudi, Srishaila Jagad-

guru travelled all over the North India and gave Shivadeekeha

to many kings and people* He established Mutts at various

places* Pullakavi has mentioned only a few mutts which were

established at important places* Many other mutts which have

come into light during recent times are listed in the

appendix* (102* 17)

BHIKSHAVIKTTI MOTT*-
j

Pandltaradhya Charitra States that Sri Nidummamudi

Srishaila Peethadhipathi gave Shivadeekeha to Bhikahavirttis *

They claim to be the deoendents or Srishaila Panditaradhya*

They are Heads or some mutts and trace their origin to the

Moola Mutt or Srishaila Peotha* Presently the name Bhiksha-

virtti has disappeared and the title Jagadguru is adopted by

them* Their mutts are situated at Atraakur, Guntakal* Koona-

bevuf Kanohanaballi and Huhli* '


-187-
1 i

According to Voerashiva Bharma Bhikshavirttas bad two

Principles against them to be qualified as 'Shalva Mattadhl-

pathie' | on© being Grlhasthas and the other worship at a

temple, whose main object was to spread social and cultural

education.

The Bhikshavirthas published a book by name 'Vijaya*

in the year 19*19* in which the name of Srlshalla Jagadguru

was given as Vageesa Panditaradhya. But their predecessor's

name was however, given as 'Hagalooti Bhikshavirtha Shi\»acharya.

It was also published in the same issue of 'Vljaya' that the

Gulur Mutt was stated as their Shakha Mutt.


<

The 36th lineage of this mutt His holiness Sri Channa

Basava Deshikendra Swamlji acoelarated the mutts activities


/

by undertaking extensive tour and conducting discourses,

lectures to enlighten the mass. As a part of educating the

rural mass many books were also written and published by

Swamiji himself*
.188-

Ther© is no sohool and college run by this mutt except

highly appreciable litterary contribution. The present Swssniji,

the 36th lineage of* this mutt. His holiness Sri Sri Cfcannabasava

' Deshikendra Shivacharya Swamiji has written more than 212 books

so far which totally throw light on the work of great Shiva

sharanas and their contribution to the society for the uplift-

meat of down-trodden. As a part of the mutt*8 activities

pravachanas and discourses are being conducted under the

Stewardship of Sri Sri Swamiji*. Sri Sri Swamiji’s earnest

approach of writing books is to impart the simple philosophy

of Veorashivism among the masses. Thus importance are being

given to social education which is a part of education and

which helps an individual lead comfortable life in the mldist

of educationist• For his noble literary contribution and

social work Mysore University has conferred upon him a

Doootorate Degree in the year 1972. As the head of this mutt

were Royal Guru, it was quite possible for them to impart

education among the mases. Dasoha was one of the most import­

ant Kayaka of this mutt. Naturally the basic need of man is


• 189-

food and if* it is satisfied next they would think of other

activities. Thus this mutt tried to iapart social education

to the masses by satisfying the basic needs on first priority*


MV&VGyftfZRJt’tst&RA SzGt&G&tl

Q.RLR B&UJ
i BRUHPjfM rtoTT
-191-

CIIITRADURGA district - THE chinmplapri brahan mutt.

Chitradurga ia a name of the headquarters town and

district is also called by the same name* The district was

till recently called by its anglicised form "Chitradurgan

Chitradurga is supposed to have came from Sitala or Chitradurga

translated as spotted or picturque castle.( 13^»l)

• During %5th and 16th centuries A.B, the 'rijayanagar King

had bestowed on the Vassal Chiefsf bearing various titles,

sundry tracts in their kingdom. Such of these estate holders

or Palaeyagars as were in the Northern Fart of the kingdom were

controlled directly from the capital, while those in the South

were placed under a Viceroy whose seat of Government was at

Srirangapattana* After the fall of the empire, some of these

Chiefs became independent, though many of them continued to pay

allegiance to the representatives of the State Fenugunda. But

after the fall of the fourth dynasty of Vijayanagara, most of

these broke off and declared their independence*


- 192**
i “

The Chltradurga Palaeyangar family was of tho Bed* or

fioya casta and belonged to one of the hill tribes who subsisted
\

by hunting and tending cattle. The accounts of their origin

are somewhat confused* According to one traddition, it appears

that three Seda families emigrated from Jadikaldurga in the

neighbourhood of the Thlrupathi and settled at Nirutadi near

Brhamasagara about 1%75* They are said to hate belonged to the

Kenugetti family and Valmiki Gothra. (134* 53) The son and

grandson of one of these named Hire Hanumappa Nayaka and

Thitmaanna Nayaka respectively, afterwards settled at Mathl in

Davenegere Taluk* Thimmanna Nayak distinguished himself as the

hero of a most daring adventure* The history of the Muruga mutt

reveals that Thimmanna Nayaka received the blessings from then

Swamiji who belongs to Shunya Simhasana Peeta and flourished aa

a great ruler of Chltradurga* 'Phis must be the reason that

Nayakas of Chltradurga and Muruga Mutt had good rapport and >

relationship* In a way the history of this mutt speaks of very

Old historical tradition to encourage weaker seotion of the

community* later Madakari Nayaka continued his devotion to the

mutt*
- 193-
Chltradurga District has always been responsive to new

influences and upsurges in the revival movements launched for

political reforms* Their participation in the Swadeshi and

boycot movement was exemplary* Encouraged by Swamiji's bles­

sings many partlots struggled for India's freedom. Among them

mention may be made to Shri S. Nijalingappa, then Chief Minister

of Karnataka and M* Govlnda Reddy, eminent lawyer of the Dis­

trict*

The District is bounded by North Bellary District and on

the East by Ananthapur District of Andhra Pradesh, on the

South-East and South-Nest it is bordered by the Dlstriot of

Tumkur and Chikkaraagalur on the Nest and North-Nest, the

District of Shimoga and Dharwar form boundaries* In this histerlb

city Chinmuladrl Brahan Mutt and Sri Sri Taralabalu Mutt revived

from ruins and established the historic chapter by uplifting

and educating the weaker section of the mass*

97 \ .
The Brahan Mutt Is situated near Chitradurga town In
\

Karnataka State* it Is about 2.K.M. from the main road on the


‘ i
re*}. * -• /

t I '1 t < 1 1

ray to Bangalore-Poona High Road* There Is no epigraphic

Bvldenee regarding the mutt* There is an Indirect reference to

the Muruga Mutt in the Inscriptions of the Coorg King Voera

Rajendra Vadayar. As early as 1728 Chitradurga Mutt was

recognised as one of the Chief Monas try | then Swatniji of that

was Immadi Gurusiddaswamiji. The available records reveals

that after the upheaval of Kalyan the pontificlal seat was

not established in any specific place* The seat for sometime

at Haradanahalli and the head of the mutt was Cosala Channabasa-

weswara* From Cosala Slddeawara Swaml upto Inunadi Murugha Swami

the pontificlal seat had no permanent headquarters* The period

of Xmmadl Murga Rajendra Swamiji throws seme light on the

establishment of the mutt at Chitradurga* E.P. Rioe in his book

"History of Kanarese literature", mentions that from 1399 to

idlO Wodeyers of Mysore and from 1550 to 1763 Raja’s of Usanattur

were the rulers of Kaladi*. Rulers of Ikkeri were the staunch


followers of Veerashlvism* Thus it is believed that these rulers
established mutt on the hills of Chitradurga and later on

shifted to the present place* (21a * 64) Sri Sri Gurueidha

Deshlkendra Swamiji, 9th Pontiff of this mutt, was a renowned

Sanskrit Scholar* Bramanna Nayaka of Chitradurga built a

mutt for him. Early in 1710 to 1725 Ohasoha was a regular

feature of this mutt. The tenth pontiff of this mutt Hie

holiness Sri Swadeya Ghannabasava Swami continued the Dashoha

and also propogated Veerashiva philosophy to the students*

Sri Sri Slrahatti Siddalinga Deshlkendra Swamiji, 11th Pontiff,

travelled extensively in Karnataka to unite people and stressed

the Importance of unity* Sri Sri Murusaveera Gurupada

Deshlkendra Swamiji, the 13th Pontiff, dedicated his life to

remove the vengenee among the people, as the ruler of Chitra­

durga was not very favourable to the mutt* However, when

Haider All of Mysore with all his powerful army attacked

Chitradurga fort, the Chief Madakarl Nayaka, who was saved by

his blessings of the then Swamiji, continued his humble service

to the Swamlji and mutt* fourteenth Pontiff of this mutt

followed the foot prints of his predecessor* Moving from one

place to another he preached to the mass to be tolerant to one


-196-

another, sympathetic and kind and give away vengence and paved

the way for ultimate aim and goal for peaceful life* Sixteenth

pontifical seat can be attributed to His holiness Sri Vyakarana

Slddalinga Swamiji, who was a renowned scholar in Sanskrit,

Kannada, Prakrith. His depth in Grammer astonished the people.

Thus he was popularly known to the people as Vyakarana Sidda-

llnga Swamiji. His Scholarly outlook and profound knowledge

was much beneficer to the people in and around Karnataka. The

remarkable achievement in the propagation of education was the

great contribution of His holiness Sri Sri Jayadeva Swamiji

the twenty fourth pontiff of this mutt. Sri Swamiji, born in

a Jangaraa family, could not get adequate education owing to

poverty, struggled hard to educate himself. However, after

sometime, Sri Swamiji wenb to Kasi under an able teacher learned

Sanskrit and became great scholar. On his return he was forced

to accept the pontificial seat of Murga matt. Thus he became th<

24th pontiff in the year 1903* His personal hardship, worldly

experience and changing cix’cumstances and the need for grooming

the younger generation made him to plan and programme for


starting number of* educational institutions and hostels for the

poor and needy; Thus moving the monastries from the limited

traditional way to setting up of' educational institutions and


\

other fields to,benefit the large number of peoples.

' ! I 1

Sri Sri Swamiji realised the need and importance of edu-


v
cation. So the major portion of the income appropriated for the
i i j i

cause of spreading education by providing suitable facilities.

The liberal contribution of Sri Swamijl was limited to the

Instituion which was established by him. Mention may be mads

to the following institutions where he extended his liberal hand

to help the poor. "

1. Adikarnataka hostel ••• Rs* 1t000/-

2. District literary Chitradurga ... Rs• 5t000/-

3. Adi Karnataka School. Haveri • *• Rs. 3.000/-

4. Gramina Mahavidayalaya ... Rs » 6f600/-

5. Bhovl hostel» Chitradurga ... Rs • 101000/•»


6. Armjuman Islam fund ••• Rs• 1.500/—

7* Murugarajendra fihovi hostel ... Ra,25*000/-


for women- Chitradurga

The above donations are clear indication of his concern


-198-

to the weaker section of community. Much, importance were being

given to educate the girls who belongs to weaker section of the

community. Apart from-this his liberal donations were extended


/

to the hospital* pathology laboratory.

Mr* Mirja Zsmail* Ex-Oiwan of Mysore* paid his honour and

respeot in the following wordst

"The denominational charity was certainly not a matter to

be availed at* But oharity which knows no bounds of caste and

creed was of a higher kind* that the Swamijl has transcended

denominational charity was amply borned out by many institutions

he had endowed notably the pathalogical laboratory attached to

the medical college* Mysore* and the ward built adjust to the

District hospital at Chitradurga." (56a s , 14t)


5 l

“S

, l

Sri Sri Swamijl had ail compassion to H&rijans. He toiled

hard to uplift them and to give them moral support to come up

in their life on par with others* Mahatbma Gandhiji during his

camp at Haveri on 1-3-1934 visited Swamijl* He was very muoh

moved by the purity and philanthropic activities of Sri Swamijl*


-199-

H© appealed to Swamijl to bestow bis blessings for the progress

of the Harijans* Swamijl discussed with Gandhiji nearly for

twenty minutes about the problems of Harijan and also liberally

donated for Harijan funds*

There are 3*000 Shaka mutt or branch mutts all over India*

The property of the mutt am amounts to lakhs of rupees which

were liberally donated by the donors and devotees*,

The strong foundation laid down, by Sri Swamijl for the

cause of spreading it education ceremoniously continued and

improved by His holiness Sri Mallikarjuna Swamijl* the 26th

Pontiff of The sauct. Sri S*d. Swamiji established Vidyapeeta

in the year 1966* The aims and objectives of the ^idyapeetha

are as follows*

1) To establish both educational and religious institutions

such as schools* colleges and other similar educational insti­

tutions*

2) To sward scholarships to scholarly and deserving students

for studies in India and abroad*


(

-200-

3) To train and aduoato Vedas to become spiritual head.

k) To arrange series of lectures such as Seminars to preach

religious and moral principles*

5) To honour social and religious reformers and to encourage

their social upliftment activities and to encourage social

activities of the community*


' i

6) To provide research facilities and for publications of

: cultural religious and social activities*

7) To promote fine arts* industries* agriculture and other

activities which educate the mass*

To sun up, mutts varied activities are well planned to

impart mass education. Sri Swami.fi continues to render his

hnmblo service for the cause of social reform and educating the

mass*
i /

FINANCIAL RESOURCES t- Muruga mutt gets Ka^nike or donation


v
from all community people* On many occasion Swamiji received

gift from Royal family and other devotees and one such gift

may be referred to the gift given by Raja of Coorg* Ho has


-201-

givea three thousand acres of land to the mutt. Apart from

this Sri Svramiji gets large amount of grains, paddy etc by

periodical tours to villages. Swamiji on periodical tours

stays at temple or mutt, if the mutt is spacious to conduct

the public meetings. Usually everytime will be spent with

public meetings and discourses. While meeting the people it

is customary of Sri Swamiji to enquire about their problems

and welfare. This meeting is not limited or restricted to

Voerashiva community people alone. All caste and creed people

assembles to discuss with Swamijl. The stress of lectures

being given to social conduct rather than philosophical eluci-

dation on vhe toiients of V@orashi.va phi losophv. Celeberation

of Daaara festivals 'is a unique feature of this mutt. During

tuxs festival every day discourses from eminent scholars,

lectures from educationist are some of the special programme

to educate the mass.

Sri Swamiji*s tireless work, to educate the mass has

received high appreciation from dignitaries. Following are

some of i;he exerpts.


« 202*

The Vice Chancellor of* Andhra University on his visit

to mutt expressed *He Impressed me as a real Jagadguru, one

who made &o distinction in his benefactions between the different

castes and creeds and treated ail alike in a spirit of love and

charity*0 (l28i 88)

Mysore University Professor A,R. Wadia speaking on

occasions^ I, have congratulated the Veerashiva community on the

remarkable progress it has been able to achieve in education*

thanks mainly to tne very enlightened policy followed by the

revered heads of Veerashiva matte * and among those none occupies

a more honoured place than the Mahaswami of Chitradurga* 1 am

personally aware of the many students who he has helped with

general scholarships*
\ 1

Sri K* Chandi on his visit to the mutt expressed# 0 Buring

his regime, His hollisaess has succeeded in establishing several

schools and hostels and has given vast, sources for the uplifts

of the depressed classes?"

Thus Sri Swamiji stresses very much the need for proper
-203.

education* In case where there were no schools Swamiji

would encourage local people to contribute liberally for

school building and then request the Government for sanction

of schools to that'village* In case where there 3s no

building Svramiji would request the Shaka mutt or branch to

conduct the classes in the mutt itself*

Mutt as a centre of spreading education among masses is

very well established with good rapport among all community

people*
-204-

SRI TARAIABALU JAGADGURU EDUCATION SOCIETY. SBRGERlt

BRIEF HISTORY OF THE MUlTt-

The history of Taralabalu is traced back, to 1108 A.D.

onwards. Serigere prodominently occupies an important place in

Karnataka because it reflects the Vearashiva tenets which

struggled to kindle the light of education in the midst of

ignorance which enveloped the backward and the down-trodden

section of the society.

The Holy Sri Sri Maralu Sidha, who hails from a family

belonging to untouchable class, was the founder of this mutt.

Sri Maralu Sidha is a predecessor to Sri Basavonwara. Ho not

only preached equality in human beings but practised through

and through in his region. He adopted an orphan named Tarala-

balu balu Siddiah of Telugubalu in Hospet Taluk. Sri Maralu

Sidha fought against caste superiority, slaughtering of animals

and atrocities in the name of religion. A legend goes that du«

to his strong protest against ritualistic praeticies, he was

thrown into lime water* 3Ct is believed that has \ms unharmed
-205-

because of bis true devotion to God* Hence it is not exag­

geration to say that Sri Haralu Sldha was a symbol of sanctity ,|

human equality and religious integrity*

Sri Sri Haralu Sidha the great humanist, at the end of his

terrestrial life summoned his followers who in turn unanimously!

accepted his adopted child as their holy Guru's successor*

He was blessed as Taralabalu* which means 'Long live my son*


>

and also 'Long Live young generation* * Even today a full-

moon day is observed as "Taralabalu Hunnlme" On this day the

great ideals of Haralu Sidha are preached and propogated among

masses* Religious heads of all religion and learned people are

welcomed to take part in this Celeberation irrespective of

their caste and creed* All the people are enlightened about

the true humanism of their Great Guru Sri Sri Haralu Sidha*

Serigere was once a very insignificant village with a few

dwellings during 1900 A.D. When the whole village was ruined

there was only one street which remained intact which was

named as 'Serigere' a Kannada word which means rich street*


I

-206-

Sri Sri Janbappa Swamiji, who was 12th in the lineage of

Sri Taralabalu mutt brought new dimension to this village Seri-

gere which was in ruins* However* he did not contribute much

for the implementation and spread of education* Hence same

situation prevailed for some years till Sri Sri Guru Siddaraya

Swamiji, 18th in lineage of the mutt assumed the charge* He

faced a strong resistance from the public in the struggle of

upliftment of the down-trodden*

At this Juncture the Swamiji went through a turmoil but

retained and glorified the mutt by enlightening the common man

through mutt's activities* Construction of the present gate of

the mutt was a task* It is at this juncture that the mutt took

its Initial steps in the field of spreading education in villages*

At that time education was a dream for the village folk*

Sri Sri Gurushantha Deshikendra Swamiji* who was the 19th

Pontiff of this sacred muit* established a primary school at this

place thus commencing the educational contribution of the mutt

to the under-privileged classes. A small step foward* but a


- 207*

a great leap in the right direction* Realising the need for

an Upper Primary School, steps were taken to establish one

which was later handed over to the Government • As the popu­

lation of this village increased, their basic necessities also

increased* So a hospital and a veterinary hospital were also

established and handed over to the Government later on* But

for the untiring effort of the Swamiji the region would have
- Bf

remained the same old backward area* The transformation that

is seen today has its base in the action taken then by Simmijl*

/
Even prior to Independence and without any financial backing

this mutt takes the credit and honour of running educational

institutions specially in rural areas merely with the patronage

and support of devotees and philonthropist*

The year 19^0 marked the land mark in the history of

Taralabalu mutt* The Great revolutionary and social reformer

Sri Sri Shivakumar Shivacharaya Swamiji the 20th in the lineage

of the mutt took over the charge of the mutt* Since then the

mutt had to face lot of opposition and resistance from the

public because of his. liberal outlook and programmes undertaken


208-
-

to educate the masses. His life is a battle against cast©

rigidity* His holiness gave new dimension to mutt by renewing

the idealogy of Sri Sri Maralu Sid ha founder of fchis mutt.

His main objective was to educate the rural mass about the

Humanism and also to emphasis the idea that caste is not the

oreterion to develop good relationship, love and sympathy.

At this juncture there arose an occasion to test his preachings.

Sri Sri Swamlji had an occasion to visit one of his devotes at

Arsikere taluk. At that time the Harijans of Kodihalll near

Chitradurga planned to celeberate a grand procession of their

Harijanagur. Unfortunately there was a great resistance for

this. Immediately Swamlji took vlgrous action and sent all

honour and a representation from the mutt to conduct the pro­

cession. This act of Swamlji, that too, in the 19^1 prior to

Independence should be recorded in the history of Karnataka.

(35*32)

Yet another thrilling example to quote is the inaguration

of a Muslim Mazjid at Baranasagar by Sri Sri Swamlji and this

indicates the deep sense of his service to mankind and respect


-209-

for seoularista, (35*33)

TABALABALU AND ITS HOSTS OF INSTITUTIONS»-

As early as 19k6 Sri Sri Stiivakumara Shivacharaya Swamiji

established a high school at Serigere* This high school

gradually developed as a multipurpose high school, a higher

secondary school and now it is a full fledged junior college*

This high school has produced large number of eminent personali­

ties who are serving in India and Abroad as well in different

status* The dream visualised by His holiness was to dissemi­

nate widely the ideals of education and help every individual

to fcs shape his life for a newer social order* Eradication of

ignorance and castesim and universal fraternity were aimed at

and worked in that direction for achieving the same* During

the year 1962 Sri Taralabalu Jagadguru education society came

into existence to realise these ideals*

The education society started functioning in the field of

education in the rural parts with rural biaso The scheme of

expansion is continued till this date and the society is now


-210-

running 67 high schools, 10 Junior colleges, 5 degree colleges,

one college of education, one Polytechnic, one Engineering

college, 4 Nursery schools, one Primary school, one Higher

primary school, 3 Sanskrit, Pathasala, 2 Veda Pathasalas, 46

General Hostels, 7 children's homes, one Anganavadl training

centre, one Commerce Institute* Altogether there are 151

institutions providing educational opportunities to 20,403

students and extending free boarding and lodging facilities

to 6150 students of different communities and giving employ­

ment to 1324 people* For the purpose of this study 89 insti­

tutions were selected at random and analysed the1 percentage

of weaker section students studying in this 89 institution*

The study has revealed that higher percentage of students

belonging to weaker section is found in colleges as compared

to the sohool* Nearly 70*0$ percent of students studying in

the institution of higher learning of this mutt belong to

weaker sections of a community* This is not only true of

students it is equally true of the teaching staff as well*

44*44 .percent of the teaching staff in the colleges belong to


-211«»

the weaker section* $rom this it is evident that the edu­

cational institution established by the mutt have thrown open

their gates to the masses irrespective of caste* creed and

community. The major beneficiaries are the communities ,

belonging to weaker sections of the, society. The mutt has been

through its educational institution and programmes fighting

all the odds in the process of awakening and organising the

weaker sections of the society. The mutt has been* through

its educational institution and programmes fighting ail the

odds in the process of awakening and organising the weaker

sections of the society. The major goal of this mutt and for

that matter any other Veerashlva mutt has been the elimination

of ignorance deeply rooted in fabric of the culture specially

of the down-trodden. The educational institution established

nurtured and developed function in realisation of this goal.

This is a great contribution.

ADMINISTRATION*-
* t

Administration of these institution established by the

mutt also play an important role in fulfilling the objectives


-212- ^

and ideas
\
setforth by the mutt. The administration of the

entire society which runs this educational institution is

based on tenets of democracy and secularism* This administrative


i

pattern and the functioning have been effective because of the

inherient strength derived from the principles of democracy

and secularism* Every institution is governed by the local

advicery committee consisting of elected members* The Central

Office managed by the Executive Committee at the Headquarters

at Serigere has been the guiding force in the realisation of

that ideals that are kept by the mutt. The local advisory

bodies of all the institutions function as the representative

of central executive Committee and work in that direction of

fulfilling the cherrished ideals.

OTHER ACTIVITIES OF THE MUTT8


( (

The activities of the mutt are not restricted to the

education field, it has contributed into the realm of liter­

ature, especially Sharna Sahitya. The mutt has got a publi­

cation division too to its credit, which has published the

English version of the Vaohanas of Basavanna and has thus


21 >

caused the propogation of his principles to reach around the

world. It has its own publication division and has published

several literary works. Among' the Publications, the plays

namely Vishvabandhu Maralusidha, Mara nave Mahanavami, Sharana

Sathilinga Pathi, Shivakala f Written by Sri Sri Taralabalu

Jagadguru Shivakumara Shivacbarya Mahaswamiji deserve mention.

Annanabalaga, Akkanabalaga and Kalasangha are other organi­

sations rendering yeomen service*

Taralabalu publication division publishes a monthly

magazine. The purpose of this magazine is to enlighten the

philosophy of Basavanna and to help practise this philosophy

in daily life. This also preaches the ideals of Sri Sri Maralu

Sidha. Most of the articles published in vhis magazine throw

light on the removal of untouchabilifcy. One such incident is

mentioned here. There was a Vishva Hindu Parishath Samtaslan

at Shimoga on 7**^"1984. When he was invited to participate in

the deliberation, he declined to participate because of the

failure of the Organisers of the VxBhzta. Hindu Parshath to

table a resolution against the stand taken by one Andhra


Swwtniji supporting untouohabillty. Dr. Shivakumar Swamiji was

all hosipheres and condemitting the attitude of any individual

howsoever high who supported untouchability. This amply speaks

of* the committment of* the mutt in the upliftment of* the Kari-

jans, the down-trodden and all these who belong to weaker

section of* the community. It has been the mission of* this mutt

to provide freedom, equality to one and all. The man made

barriers of caste, creed and community have very little meaning

in the life of the mutt functioning*

Yet another important service rendered by this mutt is

imsercast© marriage* Any poor parent can easily approach Swamiji

for help. The mutt bears the cost of Mangalya, a pair of Dothi

to the ga groom, Sarry to bride. Apart from this grand Dasohas

are also arranged on this occasion. Among such inter-caste

marriages few examples are mentioned here. Dr. Shivamurthy

Shivacharya of Taralabalu bless the bride and groom. In some

cases even lingadarana has also boon don©. At Shimoga Sri Sri

Swamiji biassed and intia-ced a groom who belongs to Vokkaligaf

the bride is from V©erashiva community.


215-

1) Marriage between Hire Mallur Eswaran and Holend Voiln

D.Sittar of Datuch* (2) Y. Manchappa(Veerashiva boy) and

S.Usha (Brahmin Girl) (3) Annappa (Harijan boy) and Manjula

(Veerashiva girl) (4) Sri Basavarju (Veerashiva boy) and girl

belonging to Madivala community*

Another achievement of the mutt can be attributed to the

widow remarriage* Sri Sri Taralabalu Brehan Mutt Swamijl

follows the foot steps of Basavanna in this regard*

To propogite this faith and philosophy Dr. Shivakumara

Shivaoharya Swamiji travelled abroad and impressed many and

they became devotees of this mutt. The outcome of his relation


\ (
with other counitries is the establishment of religious and

cultural centre is to propogate humanitarlnism and to bring

cultural and religious integration among East and Vest,,* The

establishment such a centre is a clear indication of the


v /
Swamiji's committment to the ideals of mankind* It may not be

out of place if the extract of a letter received from one of

his deciple at; Utrecht (Netherland) is mentioned below*


-21 6-

My Dear Swamijl,

I am again writing to you, this time mainly to report

on the progress of my work on Baaavanna’s Vachanas and to say

a few (hopefully modest) words about myself and my motivations*

1 have not jpret received a final answer from the

UNESCO, but expect to receive it sooh* A few days ago X wrote

to Mr* Milton Rose that at the UNESCO representative series

(Indian Section) in Paris* and X sent him some further trans­

lation of the Vachanas* If*, as X hope not- the UNESCO would

decline my offer* X would try all****...... or some other

publishing house with which X am in contact for X have all most

a "fanatical" belief that the Veerashiva Vachanas should be


\

made accessible to Western Readers both as Great Spiritual


v
message* That is why X would also insist that the book con­

tains not only the translations in a representative selection*

but also besides a legendary and a critically historical,,

blo-graphy of Basavanna- an expose of Veerashiva doctrines


\
> i

faith* ceremonies rites and social teachings'*


i. \ _ '
\ '

Veerashiyism seems to me to be the answer to my own


- 217*

personal quest and satisfy my innermost desires and spiritual

aspirations* Since I am an scholar and Indologist, naturally

1 approach the Veerashiva literature) I feel in an amazing

way genuinely attracted to Llngayet teachings and to you

personally* When X think of Kudala Sangama Deva X feel X

have found finally my Xsta devata. I read the poems of

Allaraaprabhu and X feel a peace and a satisfaction that X have

never before experienced. I regard all this very critically

and with. a scholars eye» but the only conclusion X can reach

is that it is indeed a fateful turning point in my life*

X would very much like to include in my academic programme

at Utrecht University lectures on Veerashivism X have studied

thus far most of the available literature on Veerashiva

doctorineSf, but of course many questions still remain to

linger in my mind*, X should probably wait with my lectures

on Veerashivism after my next visit of India when X shall

hopefully come to Serigere and profit from discussion with

you* Xn the meantime» 1 can only repeat my request expressed

in my last letter* have you any special personal message to me


-218—

any particular personal advice as to what X should read or do?

X want very much belong to the fold* X know well the Diksha

is possible only then 'available' when X am completely ready

and meet you in person* However* X beg you even now for

words of encouragement and advice and for your blessings as

Guru* {190-^73)

With warm regards*

Tours as ever*
Sd. Dr* Kamil V* Zvelesil

The Universal message of Basavanna* unfortunately* did

not spread to other countries during his times unlike Buddhism*

His Socio-religious movement of course attracted many like

minded people within the country* This faith outside the

country was not fulfilled* As such Sri Sri Taralabalu Jagad-

guru Dr* Shivamurthy Shivacharya has great plans to spread

Basova*s faith all around the world* The out come of his

efforts is establishment of a religious and cultural centre at

Bangalore* Laying the foundation stone for this Centre

Mr* Ashoknath Banerjee* the/ Governor of Karnataka* said that


-219-

*th® idealogy of* Basaveswara, the 12th Century reformer and

founder of Veerashivlsm was fiat laudable since it aims at

removing evils such as casteism from the Hindu society*"

Commending the role of Taralabalu Mutt in the field of

education which runs about 150 schools, colleges and hostels

Banerje remarked that no true religion or culture could

flourish unless the human mind nras developed*

Karnataka Governor Ashoknath Banerje further said that

Indian culture and religion had always been dynamic and not

static and that people must make all effort to keep it so by

not allowing the roots to degenerate* (l79d * 4)

Laying the foundation stone of the Taralabalu religious

and cultural Centre of the Serigere Taralabalu Jagadguru Mutt

said "Education was important and in developing the mind and

there could be no development of either religion or culture

without education*" (l79c* 5)


-220-

TARALABALU

This Taralabalu Humime Mohathsava is unique in its kind*

On this oeoasion this mutt depicts the faith of Sri Sri

Maralusidha the Originator of the Mutt* This Utsavas main

object is integration of all communities and also to impart

social education* Another important aspect of this Otaava is

to celeberate this in commomeration of the Great founder Sri

Maralu Sid ha who fought for the humanistic cause and eradi­

cation of caste system* The unique feature of this utsava is

that it is celeberated in different parts of the State each

year involving all people for the construction of great

mantapy so as to make them understand that it is the function

to be celeberated by themselves* The significance of the

celeberation of this function is to establish integrity among

all the community and also to impart higher values like

sympathy, tolerance* kindness and feeling of brotherhood etc*

Yet another interesting and presently existing feature of this

Utsava is that the celeberation each year is headed by people

belonging to different castes*, Humime functions stretch over


for 10 days during which cultural programmes are being con­

ducted as part of imparting social education through dramas

and plays. On these occasions religious heads belong to

different communities are invited along with great educationists

to deliver lectures on different faiths of religion and

aspects of life* Serigere Taralabalu Htujjflimerae is an example

of Communal unity and national integration.

taralabalu cultural academy:

Taralabalu Mutt owns a credit of establishing a cultural

academy. As discussed earlier Veerashlva Mutts adopted several

methods for the spread of education. This is one of main

activity of the mutt to impart moral education among the masses

by enacting dramas like Maranave Mahanavani, Sbarana Sathi and

Lingapathi which were written by his holliness Sri Swamiji

himself. Group Bhajans, Singing, dance and drama depicting

human values are the special features of the activities of this

academy*
222*
-

VACHANA MANTAPA

Vaohanas were mostly written in Kannada so as to reach

the common man with the view to enrich his knowledge of life*

The activities of this mantapa include the various examinations

like Vachana Parichaya , Vachanapraveen for which classes are

organised and conducted* Students will be samurai* awarded

certificates on completion of these courses* The meritorious

and the outstanding students will receive awards from Swamiji*

Under the Stewardship of Present Swamiji there are 11*000

students learning vaohanas in this Vachana Mantapa* The study

of Vachana* by the students help highten the moral and spiritual

values*

KAYAKAt

Veerashiva Mutt always believes in dignity of labour*

This mutt is not an exception to that • Sri Sri Swamiji along

with students involve themselves in Kayaka* Carrying bricks*

mud, etc for the construction of schools and hostels is one

example* Kayaka is a part of their education system*


•* 223**'

Veerashiva philosophy is opposed to the Varna system and is


/

encouraging the self* supporting system* Students are motivated

to work in hostels and schools* thus establishing the importance

of Kayaka which is a base for all democratic* socialistic*

secular way of life*


$

Moat of the Institutions are situated in the rural areas

and the mutt takes the responsibility of hostels too. Without

caste discrimination students are allowed to enjoy the hostel

facilities* The gates of the hostels are opened for all. As

early as in 19^0's Wamiji appointed a Harijan cook to the

hostel and also Harijan students were encouraged to servo food

to other students. This practice helped minimising the change

between the Upper and the lower Caste* Kayaka philosophy once

imbibed goes a long way to minimise the evil forces operating


t

in an individual* his community* The bridge between man and

man is given a death knell by Kayaka philosophy and its

practice. The mutt* has done and is doing an yeoman service

to the cause of humanity at large*;


-224-

This nmtt*s activities are not only confined to the

students concerned* Villagers are also provided with ample

opportunity to participate in the mutts activities*

Thanks to Sri Sri Swamiji, Savior of* the poor* sympathiser

of the down-trodden for his Vomen service to the completely

neglected village folk who would have not dreamt of education



in their lifetime*
BRLLARY DISTRICT - TEttGINA MOTT «** HARAPANAHALLI *

Bellary- District is situated on the Eastern side almost

in the centre of the Karnataka State* The District is bounded


/ f
£
on the North by Raichur District, on the West by Dharwar Dis­

trict and on the East by Ananthapur and K&rnool District of

Andhra Pradesh*
<f■

Historically speaking, this district formed part of the

territories of several well known dynasties such as the

Sathavahanas, Kadambas, Chalukyas of Badaml, Raahtrakutas,

Ganges and Chahukyas of Kalyah, Kalachuryas, Sevanas and Hoy-

salas* Then it came under the sway of Vijayanagar empire rulers*

Vijayanagar, the city of victory, was built on the bank of the

Tung&badra river at Hampi in Hospet Taluk* Having had a golden

period of prosperity the area again fell into political con­

fusion after the fall of Vijayanagar in 15&5 and was successfully

thrown in the hands of Muslim rulers of Deccan and the Marathas*


j

From time immemorial, there teas existed in India a popular


-226-

system of elementary education, which must have met the

demand for instruction in reading, writing and Arithmetic*

Perhaps it had its origin primarily in the needs of the

"Upper Classes", which made use of it in a large measurei

this education was imparted in almost every big village and

town of India* In the earlier periods the school was known

as Agganavara Mutta or Aigala Mutt a in the area (6* 530)

Kadambas ruled over Karnataka for the period of 200 years.

Kakutha Varma of this dynasty, who ruled over Karnataka from

435 to 460 A.D. was a follower of Shivism who built Shiva

temple and mutts* The earliest Kannada inscription available

belongs to this dynasty* Hence it can be inferred that 6th

century might have marked the learning of the Kannada langu­

age* Most of the rulers who ruled over this part of Karnataka

have patronised Shivism* Thus Veerashiva mutt as early as

that of Kadambas period contributed much for uplifting the

village mass and continues to work tirelessly till this date*

Thus Veerashiva mutt registered its glory of spreading edu­

cation among the masses in this part of Karnataka*


-227-
t

BRIEF HISTORY OP THE MUTTt-

The origin of this mutt is enveloped in a controversy*

However* it isr stated that this mutt is of very ancient

origin* It is stated in the history of education of this

district that there existed Aigala Mutt in the district

whioh concentrated on spreading education in and around this

place*

Harapanahalli is tbe Taluk Head Quarters of Bellary

District* This town belongs to the most backward area of

the Karnataka State* There was only one high school for

girls and a junior college in 1970* Social* economical and

educational progress was at a stand still or very low*

Scope for Industry* irrigation and agricultural aspects of

improvement was also almost meagre In this area*

There was a dearth of developmental programmes*

Illiteracy was rampant* ignorance was all prevailing* People


<1

never bothered about the importance of education. It was at

this precise moment that Sri Sha-Bra Chandramouliswara Swamiji»


-228-

the present Swamiji of the mutt took initiative to open


< i 4

educational institutions in this area* In the year 1969

mutt established T eggina Matha Arts and Educational Society"


i

to bring about enlightenment among the masses* To begin with,

in the year 1969 it started an Sanskrit Patasala which was a

threshold of this society* The year 1970 and 1972 marked

another mile stone in the society by starting a Teacher's

Training Institution and a Junior College* The Swamiji felt

that, in order to educate the mass it was very essential to

train teachers* hence in the year 1973 be started B*Ed. College

which catered to the needs of nearby village graduates, and

graduates from other distant** places.

People coming.from different parts of the country have

helped in bringing about socio-economic development in this

area* In addition to these, for the upliftment of the poor and


i

down-trodden and to look after the poor boys, in 1975 Sri

GurubasaVa Swami Sarvayaukka Vidyarth Nilaya was started at


!

Harapanahalli. Yet another mile stone in the history of this

mutt is in starting of O*Pharma and B*Pharma college at


-229-

Harapanahalli* The main objective of starting this college

was to eradicate the unemployment problem and to provide self

employment opportunities to the students after the training*

Need of the hour was not only education but something even

more than that* Compassion to humanity is more important*

Thus a homeopathic clinic was opened at Harapanahalll* This

clinic is dispensing free treatment to all the villagers*


' i,i ^ ' i
This mutt has opened an Industrial Training Institute in the
i t < / • , 1

year 1983* The remarkable achievement of this society to serve


i < i , 1

the rural mass is highly appreciable* This mutt has given

importance to the development of sooio-cultural and economic

upliftment of this village Harpanahalll*

The statistical information given by the Trust reveals


\

that majority of the Institutions got started in the eighties*

The earliest Of them was started in 1969* However* the per­

centage of contribution to the Backward Seotlon of the Community

is remarkable* Teachers* Education Institution* the percentage

works out 83.72 whloh includes Lingayats and other Backward

Communities* High Schools it is 4l*8d| College of education


“230**

it is 38*95* As the technical education was not within the

reaoh of Backward Class the percentage is 'NIL* Details and

percentage is enclosed in the Annexure*


34VRL-T MeyQftUSBVCM MoiT
-232-

DHARtfAR - MURUGHA MOTT

The Bahamani Sultans ruled over portions of present

forth Karnataka with Krishna and Tungabadra as their changing

boundary in the South, besides some districts in Andhra Pradesh

and Maharashtra. The tyrannical rule of Mahanmad-bln-Tugulak


1 t ' >

led to rebellions in his empire resulting in the formation of

independent kingdoms, later Marathas considered Karnataka as


\

their domain from which they could oollect Chauth. Thus mostly

this part of Karnataka was influenced by Marathi and Urudu.

However* when Kambali Sir Saheb beoams the Education Minister

in Bombay, Karnataka laid the foundation for establishing

Kannada education. The establishment of Karnataka college at

Dharwar was the long cherished vision of Sir Saheb. This became

true when he was the Education Minister under British dominion.


\

Sri Muruga Mutt is said to be the greatest religious*

social and cultural centre of North Karnataka. Hie holiness

Sri Myithyun jaya Swamlji of Shri Muruga Mutt was a great and

noble soul who hollowed his dedicated life for the poor students*
- 233*
As it was believed that Veerashiva's were also considered^ as

backward class, it was very difficult for them to leave the

village and continue their education. The Cherished memory of

the students who blossomed from this mutt is still green.

The immediate action of Shri Swamiji and his benign and mighty

help to the poor is unsurpassing. To spread education among

the masses and to improve their social and economical condition

was very dear to him (5*18) With this ideal Sri Swamiji

started a number of institutions all over Karnataka, among

them many institutions flourished and is continues in rendering

noblest work of educating the common man* Among the many 9uch

benefactions bestowed on the society by Swamiji, the very

nearest and dearest is Murugarajendra Prasad Nllaya* This

Prasad Nilaya, besides being a shelter to the students,

' completed more than seven decades of dedicated services.

Opening the doors of higher education to several poor and

deserving students, who had been denied education for centuries

Sri Swamiji very well realised the importance of modern

education and gave prime importance to that. But at the sa«s

time Sri Swamiji believed that education should be within the


-23**-

easy reach of the people, especially to the poor and under­

privileged* Thus keeping this in view he insisted for

spiritual, moral and mental development which ultimately leads

to the material and economical development of the country*

The sound and progressive work at Haveri Peetfaa institution

about six decades ago tells us the bard determined work of

Sri Swamiji. When Sri Swamiji embarked on his dream of

starting an educational institution he had absolutely nothing

in either cash or kind, but had faith in human generosity and

bad ability to inspire the people to strive for such work*

Sri Swamiji’s vision of training the mass was novel* In order

to infuse his idea in the people and its belter development,

Sri Swamiji conducted prayer, Bajan, Pooja every day and

arranged lectures on Veerashiva philosophy. This was unique

feature of this mutt* To get more impetus for establishing

Veerashiva philosophy of classless society *Shivanubhava

Samsthe* was established in the year 19^0* The activities ef

this Shivanubhava Mantapa spread out side Karnataka where they

K&n&imtnd conducted discourses, lectures from eminent scholars

and philosophers • Shlvanbhava conferences were held


-235-

periodlcally when scholars of j» repute were invited*

Akkanabalaga is yet another wing which works for the

emanicipation of women* Hannusbhavi is the target village

where he wanted to establish an educational institution*

Now it is developed like a mini-university oat ©ring to the

needs of far off village students also. Apart from this,

Sangeetha Patasala, Sanskrit Patasala are some of the important

institutions which were established to maintain and preserve

the ancient heritage and culture* Akkamahadevi girls high

school which was started exclusively for girls education in

the year 1963 and hostel for girls reflects Shri Swamiji’e

interest and concern for women*s education and their liber­

ation*

Bavengera and Muluguhd are two other places which owe a

good deal to the Swamiji* In fact these places were a training

ground for him to launch an multiphased programme for the

betterment of his fellow men* Davengera Veerashiva Vidya Vardaka

fund, the Mahatesh Vidya Varadaka fund at Mulugund, the numerous

melas and Veerashiva youth associations which he sponserd in


these and various places have created an awakening in the

Veerashiva community and have helped the people to lead a geod

and meaningful life*

The mutt has got a publication division too* It is

giving utmost importance to publish the collection of old

palm leaves* Padmapurana, Kereya Padmarasa are the important

publications of this mutt* Apart from this fifty other books

have been brought cut which throws light on various tenets of

Veerashiviem*

Shri Mrithyunijaya Swasnlji* a well known saint of

Bkarwar launched a series of welfare programmes for the all

round development of the community* Sri Swamiji’s noble

example la an inspiration and guide to the people in their

endeavours to serve mankind#

The study reveals that 30$ of the student population are

from weaker section of the community* But less importance is

being given to the teaching staff who belong to schedule caste


■i

and scheduled tribe* So this shows the inclination of this

mutt towards the objectives of achieving a marked improvement


i.
I

-237#
i t

In their own community on first priority basis and then


N /

catering to the other people. Some of the other mutts like

Taralabalu and Suttur Mutt, however, have made the upliftment


1 i ,

of the underprivileged as their first and foremost objective

without considering their caste or creed*

\
I

-238-

HUBLI - MOORUSAVIRA MUTT.

Hig zealous touring of* the villages and enthusiastic

expansion of educational facility took Allamprabhu into such

remote areas that a mutt was not only a convenience but an

absolute necessity for his activities. Therefore* the 12th

century unfolded itself with numerous mutts being established

in and around the area of his work. One such mutt that got

established was the Moorusavira mutt at Hufoli. It comes os no

surprise that this mutt is today rendering brilliant yeoman

service for mankind because it was inaugurated by no less a

person than the revered Veerashiva Apostle Allamprabhu himself*

This mutt has ever since been of immense service. Even the

earliest references to this mutt are made in the context of it

being an assylum to troubled Sharanas*. The breakout of a social

upsurge in Kalyan during the period of Eijjala led to a massive

massacre Band a blood revolution. Under such threatended

circumstances* about 3000 Sharanas took refugee in the

**Poovalli Mutt*' which is surmised to be one and the same as


-239-

Moorusavira. v

This very incident is referred to in a couple of other

sources as well* Shiras inscriptions, Dyanapura Cheruiakavl's

'Chlttragi Vijaya Mahantha Shivayogliiswar Purana* and Manikya.

Vaohakar Charithiram’ in Tamil all talk of a group of 3000

dangana and their contributions to the cause of education.

These accounts only consolidate our estimate of the mutt's

long tradition and deep involvement in human welfare*


It can be said that piety and public service were the

continued norms of the mutt. This is clear from the opinions

scholars hold regarding the activities of the mutt under the

guidance of Yogasidhl, Manthasidhi, Gurusidha Shivayogi.

This impressive penance earned him three thousand Virakhas and

the seat of Pontiff from Chenna Basavanna.

After such impressive initial accounts, the insoriptional

sources suddenly plunge us into darkness. It is only during

the noble and notable leadership of Channabasava Mahaswami in

the 15th and 16th century that we regain further threads of


-2&0-

the woven history.

By the efforts of Mahaswami to revive dormant doctrines

and slumbering services, the mutt was cleansed of Its darkness


i i

and cobwebs. In 1901 the torch bearer of this mutt came in the

form of Sri Sri Gangadara Raja Yogondra Swamiji. His intention


i
i

to turn the wheels of mutt at a faster speed frutified In

appointing Shri Veeraiah Swamiji as the Pontiff.

lie made a modest beginning in reviving old culture and old

< languages. In this strive a Sanskrit Pataahala was started.

Upholding the same tradition in a newer pace yet another

great man filled the seat of this spiritual centre of Karnataka.


, I ■ j i «

Prom the time His holliness Srlman Maharaja Shri Gan gad era

Sajagajendra Swamiji adorned and assumed office in 1938. We

have had unprecedented expansion and diversification of the

activities in the mutt.

The achievements of this mutt have been a direct result

of the vision ahd wisdom of this Sri Sri Swamiji. Swamiji

. *
channelised his entire energy to lead the masses into true
241

faith* genuine education and unadulterated respect for human

beings•

His contributions in the field of education are immense

in his position as the founder President of Moorusavira mutt

Vidya Vardaka Sangha, he opened up several schools and colleges*

The mutt has also helped several institutions with patronage

and finance* Two high schools for boys, a Primary school,

three Arts and Science Colleges and a Sanskrit Patasala are

mere samples of his contribution*

What needs special aoclode is the undiminished equality

he awarded to women* The mutt has opened a Mahila Vidya Peeta

to cater the growing needs of women's education*

\ 1
The all ronnd assistance that is being extended for the

students is remarkable. This mutt has adopted Itself to modern

demands as well as fundamental necessities* Thus while a

hostel and a library are established to meet the basic needs of

the under privileged students, there is also a scheme of

assistance extended for brilliant students to continue their

fe4
-242-
' I

education in foreign countries* ' c

The spirit of revival of Art and Culture is also as

important to the mutt as its struggle for education. They have

patronised literary personages like upcoming Poets, Scholars

and Playwriters. In fact the mutt has a special publication

department which publishes a monthly periodical called 'Praneh

Jyoti’. From 1903, when the department was established, the

media is effectively used to rejenuvate Veerashiva Philosophy

and moral education*


i

Not stopping here, ftiarma Pracharaka Research Institute

has been started with two fold objectives - (i) To assist

research scholars and (ii) To bring out relevant accounts of

Veerashivisra* They already have 80 research work and 14

published books to their credit*

Assistance to an under-privileged community must be more

wide based than administering education. Swamiji has boon very

emphatic toward the numerous problems faced by the backward

masses. Hence several projects have been taken to attack their


-243-

problems of poverty, Illness and other related social maladies*

This "Mushti fund" plan to collect a handful of donations

in kind - like grains, vegetables etc - and feed the poor

hostel students is one such enterprise*

The starting of a Ginning and Pressing factory at Hubli

in 1912 is a concrete step towards reducing the incident of

unemployment* Also the returns from this factory is also

©
gainfully utilised to run Yidya Vardaka Sanga, an institution

for educational propogation.

His holllness has opened two Ayurvedic dispensaries namely

Jagadguru Gurusiddeswara Ayurvedic dispensary and Managal

Kumareswara Ayurvedic dispensary to aid the ailing people on

on© hand and encourage indegenous knowledge of medicines on

the other* Gurusiddeswara Co-operative hospital at Ghataprabha

is first of its kind in India to serve people with medical

facilities*

One more way by which Swamiji has contributed is by


-zkk-

constructing a Kalyana Mantapa. The social compulsion and

financial burden of the parents while conducting a marriage

have been recognised as a social malady that demanded Immedi­

ate attention. The mutt’s contribution in this respect is

imperishable•

The most magniflcient work undertaken by Sri Swsmijl is

xn the international sphere. He was very deeply .concerned in

decreasing the recent strain that has developed in the inter­

national scene. His ambition was to break through barriers of

culture) religion, language and political bounderies and live

in a ^ spirit of inter-dapendence and mutual co-operation.

Vserashivism Is founded on the broadest principles of

social ©quality, human dignity, diversion of labour, universal

sympathy and reverance for life. These principles can be

applied with equal effectiveness even across geographical and

political frontiers. Sri Swamiji hence believed that a

classless society can emerge even in the global level*


-245*

When one analyses the fundamental tenets of all religion

we find that the absolute truth in all of them is the same*

Hence promoting harmony and unity amongst the people of the

world is not such an impossibility. It is only we, the imper­

fect human beings who make religion a trouble shooter*

If only we oould unite all the people of the world,

economic prosperity will ensue and aggression will be replaced

with agriculture and industry. At this juncture the usefulness

of Kayaka must be explicitly explained* Every man should earn

his living in tshe sweat of his brow and also in a spirit of

dedication ro the whole society*

This principle of VeerashivisEi collaborates the view that

we must learn to live as brothers or perish together as fools*

Sri Swamiji oarried his convictions and his religious beliefs

through charming discourses ©nd lucid lectures.

His committment toward world peace was so deep that he was

soon able to preach Veerashivism as a means ro achieve world

Peace in various parts of the world* This involvement in the


- 246'

world peace congress at Delhi in 1968 was the first of a

series of international platform where Veerashivism was exposed

to gain an universal complexion*

His Impregnable and indepth analysis of universal brother­

hood and Kayaka attracted several foreign organisations to

invite him over to join in their attempts to promote far

reaching faternxty. Some of countries where he was heard were

Belgium, doited Kingdom, Stance, Germany, Si/it norland and

other countries of Europe. Swamiji himself convened a world

peace conference at Hubli and opened up an arena where the

West mingled with Veerashiva Philosophy and all forces pledged

to work towards a unified world community.

Not, less than 15 books were published in several languages

to impress on the people about the' necessity and the nicety of

a peaceful world*

By ail these measures Sri Swamiji took education for above

class rooms and even beyond tho concept of it creating respon­

sible citizens of any one nation. He made education and


-24?-

religion as one blended brew which, refreshes all religions*

nourishes aCl progressive modernisims and cures all the ills of

dogmatic conservatism. What in fact he was aiming was that

education should be imparted and Kayaka be practiced vo make

ourselves members of a community which includes all religion*

race* language* culture and political systems*


miCHOR.
wama^^^K^nBmmmmsmem>B^mtsM3smMam^msmsaKBSXBsmamaaesmmammm^x^mmmsaoa»

(*flv<Sn)PES^ftfl rnaTT

/
249

SRI GAVISIDDBSWARA MUTT. KOPPALA -RAICHUR.

The District of Raichur has a holy past. It has an eventful

land rich history beginning from the days of the Mauryan King

{Aaoka* A number of inscriptions! rook edicts and other reoordst

templesi forts and battle fields bear ample testimony to this

fact. Lying between two important rivers, the Krishna and the
*
V
Tungabadra, this^potentially rich tract has been a bone of

contention between kingdoms. In the recent part, it was a part

of the Princely State of Hyderbad and since the 1st November,

195^, it is the constituent district of the Mysore State.

The District derives its name from its headquarters town

Raichur (Rayachooru in Kannada) as do^ most of the other dis­

tricts in the State. Though many of the villages round about

still call the place by the earlier form# which- is -Raichooru.

However, in modern times it has come to be generally written

and pronounced in Kannada as Rayachooru. As Dr. P.B. Desai

has pointed out, the Raichur fortress was one of the fortresses

conqurred by the Hoysala King Vishnuvardhana. This is evident


250'
-

from at least three of the Hoysala inscriptions, in Kannada* ,

In the earliest of these inscriptions, which was found at

Hulikere in Belur Taluk of Hassan District (numbered Belur 193

in Bpigraphia Carnatica Vol.V Part I, 1902) and which belongs

to the year tl6l A.D and to the reign of Hoysala Narasimha

mention is made of the perddore (the Krishna river) as the

Northern boundary of VisLmuvarehana1s kingdom and of Rachavoor

as one of the places conqured by Vishtmvardhana while still a

youth (96* 108)

The second of these inscriptions, which was discovered

at Eatua in Nagamangala taluk of the present Mandya district;

(numbered Nagamangala 70 in Bpigraphica Carnatica Vol.XV Part-

11, 1898) and which is dated I1?'8 A.D. when Hoysala Vira.

Ballala llnd was ruling, refers to permmana (i.o Pertama * na)

Kaihavooru as one of the numerous forts which Visfanuvaradhuna xa

captured with a frown* This lithic record indicate that the

place was known at the time as Permma's Rabhavooru, this Pormma

being probably a local Chieftain. The third of these inscri­

ption, which is from Heerhalli in Belur taluk of Hassan District


-251*

(numbered Belur 137) in Epdgr&phia Garnatlca Vol.V . Pars-1,

1902) and which is dated 1183 A.D. and is also of the reign or

Hoysala Vira-Ballala Und enumerates Rachanoor as one of the

places which Vishnuvardhana captured by the might of his arm*

Prom the context of enumeration of places in these inscri­

ptions and other accounts of exploits of Vishnuvardhana» it

becomes clear that the place refers to above as Rachavooru or

R&chancoru is Raichur of the present days* ’Racha* being

derived from (Raja i.e Ring and oor meaning a place or town,

Rachavooru (Racha+oor) or Rachanoor (Racha+na+oor) means in


£t

Kannada ’King place’ snowing that it was already an important:


r*
town in the Kannada country. By 129^ A.D* Permmana Rachavoor

or Rachanoor had been shortened into Rachoor or Sachaoru as is

clear from a K&kabiya inscription of that year found on the

fort wall of Raichur itself* That this form of the name for

the place continued during the Vljayanagara times, at least upto

15^1 A*B is known by two Kannada inscriptions of that year found

at Alampur (now in Mahbboonagar District of Andhra Pradesh)

which says that king Krishadevaraya captured Rachoor by his


• 252*

expedition in the North. Thus, it is obvious that this

historical Rachooru or Rachoora underwent a further right

change in recent tines with the addition of 'Ya* between *Ra'

and 'cha' (to becone the present Rayachooru) (Ra+ya+cha+ooru)

The *y&’ here might be the second letter of the word 'Raya*

meaning again king. In Hindi and Urdu, the equivalent of

'Raya' massing again kings being *Rai’, it seems to have

become the practice to spell the name as Ralchur in Urdu

later bring that usage into vogue in English as well.

It is narrated that a Chieftain, on witnessing a strange

spectacle of a rabbit turning on a dog that persued and

tearing it to pieces at this sport that that the scene of

this heroic and unusual action was a fit place for building a

fort and accordingly constructed a formidable fort and name

the place as 'Naiohur' which in Kannada connotes the idea of tho


\

dog being torn to pieces. The present name Ralchur is said to

have been derived from that 'Naiohur* But this kind of story

is repeated in respect of many forts, it is also said that

'Rai* meaning stone in Telugu with 'ooru' (Town), gave rise


/

-25>

to Rajooru that is, a town of stones (because of rocks in the

vicinity) which became Rajachooru or Raichooru. These and such

other stories can be said to be only ccnjuctures, in view of

the clear historical evidence about the name already explained*

It appears that Raichoor had been once renamed Ferozenagar by

a Bhamani Saltan, but the appellation did not stick on to it

and it continued to be oalled by the old name*

GENERAL BQUNDERIES t

The district is bounded on the North by the District of

Gulbarga, on the West by the District of Bitjapur and Dharwar,

on the East by the district of Mahabbonagar of Andhra Pradesh

and on the South by the Districts of Kurnool also of Andhra

Pradesh and Bellary* The two rivers, the Krishna and the

^ungabadra, form the entire Northern and Southern bounderiee

of the District*

Koppal is situated 200 K.M from Raichur which a Taluk

Read Quarters* Though it is Taluk Head Quarters most of the

basic failities are lacking.behind The area is also not

improved much* Though it is a Backward area, with the blessings


-254-

of bis holiness Sri Swamlji* this barren lan$ has the opportunity

o£| opening a school* This school is catering to the needs of*

many poor students giving rays of* hope f*or theirv upliftraent*

BRIEF HISTORY OP THE MOTT *


; <

This old mutt speaks the history of* thousand years old*
1 i

Previously* this place was called as 'Haha Kopananagar' We can

find the name of* this place in the Halmadi Shasana 450 A.D.

The founder of* this mutt His Holiness Rudramuniswara Swamlji


' ‘ I

came from Kashi Jangammavadi* settled near Veerabadreswara

temple* People of nearby villages came to know the fame of the

great sage and rushed to him for darahan. Once* a Shiva Devotee

(Sharana) by name Sharana Hampaiah came from Mask! for business*

but he was forced to stay at this place* It was his practice

that without pooja he never used to take anything* Casually he

asked the local people whether there is any Sharana so that he

can stay with them* People of that village directed him to

Sri Veerabadreswara Swamlji, who was at that time in great

meditation* Maski Sharana Hampaiah aaw this place and he

immediately decided to construct a mutt for Sri Swamiji's pooj*


- 255-
and meditation. Th.ua, constructed the. mutt on the outskirts of

this Koppal village, where we oan see the serene atmosphere*

This holy mutt is situated on the top of the hill rock. Since

then this mutt is a hosting number of Scholars and helping poor

people and devotees.

Sixth lineage of this mutt Sri Siddeswara Swamiji is known

for performing miracles whioh helped the devotees. One such


i

incident is, once Nizam of Hyderabad Miralum Bahadur was

rasuffering from leporsy. This could not be cured by any

doctor, he was advised by a devotee to visit the mutt and have

the dare ban of Sri Swamiji and get his blessings which may

bring the relief. On the advice of his well trisher with all

royal honour he visited the mutt, but to his surprise the front

door of the mutt was closed even before his arrival. Nizam

did not get irritated because he was all along thought this

may be the wish of Sri Swamiji to test his devotion. Nizam

smeared the dust which is left outside the mutt to his entire

body and went back., I^ke this, he visited the mutt continuously

\ J, ‘

for six days and by that time he wae completely cured of his
: »256- V

disease* Seventh day again he came with the determination that

he must take the darshan of* Sri Swamijl. To his surprise the

door was opened and he was received cordially by his Holiness

Swamiji* And as a token of* his devotion he donated near by

village by name Baganala. Swamijl refused to take that from

Nizam* but Nizam requested all devotees of that mutt to convince

Swamijl* to receive this, token* Devotees compelled Swamijl to

take this for the purpose of Dasoha for which Swamiji agreed*

Like this the history of this mutt speaks about, the devotion

of all communities and how they, were relieved of their dlffi-


i

culties•
/•

EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES OF THIS MOTTt

Though this mutt speaks of very old history, educational

activities of this mutt starts from 1908 , when Mari Shanthaveera

Swamiji* 16th lineage of this mutt became the Swamiji* To,

start with* Sanskrit Patashalas were opened in the mutt premises*

This was thrown open to all community students under the aus~

pecious guidance of Sri Swamiji. In the year 1952 the mutt

started a High School with 23 students* Later on in the year


-257-
1962, an educational trust was established to promote educational

activities exclusively in this rural area* But for his effort,

Koppal village would not have dreamt of* schools« This Gavi

Siddeswara education trust at present is running one college at

Koppala, one Primary School at Kokunur, One AngaJftavadi centre

at Yelburga Taluk, free boarding hostels at Hlremannapur,

Kishti Taluk, Arunakal Hunt! near Sindgi, Huvenahadagai are

meant for poor students, enabling them to learn and get


t t

enlightened. Each hostel accommodated about 150 to 200 students

of different communities* However, according to statics given

by the authorities, it can be inferred that 65# of the students

belong to the underprivileged classes of society. This is a

boon for the down-trodden and much neglected*

OTHER ACTIVITIES OP THE MUTTs

Under the auspecious of this mutt, every year, in the

month of January, Gavisiddeswara Jathra takes place* During

this Jathra many soholars, philosophers, religious heads are

invited to deliver lectures on moral and spiritual values*,

As part of Jathra Mahothsava,, dramas are enacted to educate


' t !
-258-

the village people. Most of the dramas throw light on the great

Sharanae who sacrificed their lives for the cause of the welfare

of the people. A devotee of this mutt by name Maruthesha Mandre

has written good number of dramas on Sharanas specially on the

mircales done by Gurusiddeswara of the Gavlsiddeswara mutt.

In this drama special emphasis is being given to impress the

people, as to how Gurusiddeswara was kind to ail community

people. Sri Gurusiddeswara Swamiji was not only kind to the

people but also kind to animals. One such incident is quoted

in this drama. Once^ a farmer was ploughing his field with a

pair of limp ox.. Gurusiddeswara who was passing through that

field saw this and called the farmer and asked him not to use

the limp oxen for ploughing. Unfortunately, the farmer was very

poor and was not in a position to buy another pair. Immediately,

Gurusiddeswara sent two oxen to his house and asked him to send

back that siok oxen to his mutt. Like this, many more incidents

are quoted in this drama to educate the people how sympathetic

one must be, even to the animals. Many more dramas are written

which throw light on the work done by Sharanas to enlighten the

mass*
-259-

Another important activity of this mutt is to honour

ansi felicitate the old students of this mutt and also the

teachers who get State Awards and other kinds of awards,

during this Jathra Mahothsava. On one such occasion Sri

Siddaiah Purnik, an old student of this mutt was invited by the

old students of the mutt for felicitation on 21-1-1984*

Speaking on the occasion Sri Siddaiah Puranik said * Sri Mari-

shantha Swamiji, the Saviour of the poor, is a great personality

whojm we cannot forget*


' %
X am a compassion child of this mutt

and am very much indebted to Swami ji for giving me an oppor­

tunity to have a darshan of my own people. Sri Swamiji is an

incarnation of God. I am immensely happy to come over here*

My feelings are that of a bride» who was sent to in-laws house

and returns to every ones love and affection of the parents


i

house* My feelings are one and the same* What great blessings

Swamiji has showered on me on this occasion* Swamiji's wish

is not to build great mansion§ but his great ambition is to

> kindle the light and to remove the ignorance of the poor

people* He firmly believes that unless ignorance is removed*

the nation will not be thrive* His long cherished struggle is


-2*5 o«*

to spread Janana Dasoha along with Anna Dasoha. Both are very

essential for the development of a country. Again he quoted*

tfork has hundred ways, but soulcj' has only one way, like wise

work has thousand eyes but eould has only one eye that la love

Sri Swamlji's love to the poor and needy is to much,

that all his concentration and efforts are directed towards

the upliftalent of these people. Again Srt Slddaiah Purnik

concluded his speaoh quoting his own composition*

3 *

Leaving alone knowing you, X know not myself and

fstarred time, if I had known my ownself, wouldn't I have

known you. One who knows not himself* what else would he

know, Swanthara Veera Slddeswara.


-2$1«

Thus, be concluded bis speach, saying that it is a very

difficult task to understand tbe great sage like Swamiji. Te

him we are all his children. He added that so far he has

received so many honours and awards but nothing is parallel to

this* My heart is filled with deep joy to see my Guru and my

old friends*

Sri Panchakshari Hiremath of Karnataka University had the

privilege of meeting all his old friends and also to receive the

blessings of Sri Swamiji when he was invited for the felicitation

function by the old students of the mutt*


i

Expressing his feelings on this occasion he said Sri Sri

Swamiji is a great asectic* Somehow, I did not relish the


j

honour and felicitation given to me because I am a devoted

servant of this mutt*

Veerupaksha Mendol another old student of this mutt speak*


\

ing on this ocoassion said that the duties and responsibilities

of the mutt is to show compassion and sympathy to destitutes*

To educate the ignorant mass is another responsibility of the


I

-262-

mutt*, The service rendered by Sri Marisbantha Swamiji fulfill*

all these aspects. It reminds us of the services rendered by

Kodiya mutt to the needy people* Be continues to follow the

foot prints of the Kodiya mutt* Continuous services rendered

by this mutt in the field of education» literature* helping

the blind and handicapped is commendable• Sri Swamiji helped

the handicapped children by teaching some Kayaka which in turn

helps them to lead a happy and comfortable life* We are all

indebted to Sri Sri Swamiji for all his noble service*


/

•3

Though this mutt has not published any books on the work

done by this,mutt, some exerpts from the speeches of eminent

persons* old students* devotees views, give us the idea that


/■

how this mutt is of immense help to the community* Pravachana

is yet another activity of this matt to propogats the moral

and ethical values among the Ignorant masses* Again Kayaka

is a must to get any benefit in the hostel and also in the mutt*
i

According to Sasavanna without Kayaka any individual is not

eligible to enjoy the benefit of the soolety* Hence much

attention is being given,to this*


-2

To sum up, this mutt has been a centre of light for

one and all and specially for weaker sect lone of the society*

Enlightening the. neglected and the down trodden has all along

been the grace of the Swamiji's of this mutt* The mutt, not

only provides for formal educational opportunities, but also

provides for informal education and non-formal education to

the people all around* Helping the masses to cope up with

life and face life to lead a good life, life worth living has

been the motto and towards that end, the mutts activities are
\

chalked out, organised ceaselessly*


-265-

BELGAIM DISTRICT - DURDUNDBStfARA MOT - NEDUSOSSl

This great historic matt situated at Hedusossl which is

about 50 K.M from Belgaum, the District Head Quarters* This

mutt had registered its importance by spreading knowledge


r

devotition, sacrifice etc* for the cause of the ignorant mass*

The history and origin of this mutt is traced back to the year

1687* The present Swamiji His Holiness Sri Ni jalingeewara

Swamijl is the fifth Pontiff of this holy mutt* Since the

inception of this mutt till this date its contribution for


*

thrivida Dasoha, is remarkable*

The fourth Pontiff of this holy mutt Sri Shivalingeswara

Mahaswamiji was said to be the great scholar, who had established

many schools in the villages* The devotees of this mutt had

great desire to celeberate Silver Jubilee Celaboration of hie

holiness* Huge amounts of money and gifts were donated by the

^iUag»r8 on this occasion which in turn were donated to the

Nedusossl Kannada Primary school and Sankeswara Higher Primary

School* During famine and war time there was acute problem for
-2€6-

villagers even to fulfil their basio needs like food f

Nedusossi Mutt even under trying circumstances never stopped

the Dasoha to the devotees and to the hostel students* His

holiness Shivalingeswara Swamiji's succession to the mutt

registered a mile stone in the history of the mutt. His

educational contribution to the rural mass was exemplary*

His scholarly out-look all along thrived for the upllftment

of the ignorant mass* With this objectives Sri Hutt establish^

an educational trust called "Durdundeswara Vldya Samvardaka

Sangha*" Swamiji became the President of the Trust* Under

this trust were established five higher primary schools* two

Kindergarden sections* Science* Arts and Commerce Colleges*

Xn order to establish this educational institution Sri Swamiji

himself moved door to door in the villages to collect donations*

Before going to the work of this mutt it is Very essential

to understand the place where this educational institution was

started and Swamiji*s involvement and striving for the uplift-

ment of the underprivileged* "Sankeswar* in the first quarter

of this century was a small village on the Northern border of


- 267-
Karnataka* Education had no important place in the oivio

life hero* It was and is a contre for trade* However* in

remote past it must have been a spiritual and religious gui­

dance centra for the area around it* Hut there was no sign

of educational renaissance* By the blessings of S^i Swamiji

few enlightned people began to think on the lines of uplifting

this ignorant mass* The dream materialised by the establish-

ment of Durudundeswara Vidya Samvardaka Sangha which brought

about the soeio-cultural change among the masses of this area*

The year 19^2 was a crucial period to India when it

started the Quit India Movement* The first world war caused

scarcity of almost every essential commodity in the country

and the people wero put to great hardship* Because Of scarcity

of good and famine lakhs of people died* At this oruoial

period also Durdundoswara mutt never lagged behind in serving

the poor and needy* "Anna Dasohn" was a daily routine to them*

The Prasada Hilaya established by haCfc his holiness

Sri Swamiji catered to the needs of many poor students* There

ar© two FTasnda Nilaya one at Nidusossi another at Sankeswar*


*■26$-

Good amber of students who enjoyed the benefit of* this

parsada nilaya and schools are placed in a high positions in

society like Teachers, Doctors, Engineers, lawyers in India

as well as outside the country.

The present Swamiji is said to be the nineth Pontiff of

this nmtt who' continues to strive for the upliftment of the

underprivileged section of the society* His holiness Sri

Swamiji of Sri Durdudenswara Siddaeamasthana mutt is of the


/ , i

opinion that only Sayaka will help any individual or a village

to eome out of the clutches of poverty and thus help oome out

of ignorance* Mere getting degree will not help any individual

to mould one's life* As such it la the practice of the mutt

to insist that all the students must involve themselves in

Kayaka according to their interest and develop fin them a

stigna free, secular and democratic personality*


-269*

BELQAtM DISTRICT - NAGANUR RUDRAKSHI MOTT

It Is now popularly accepted that 'small is beautiful*

lu case of Naganur village we could say that 'Small is powerful*

This small village of Naganur situated in the Bylahongala Taluk

of Belgaum District carries with it a historic heritage of

bravery* Their resistance to foreign invassion is a heroic

legend* for over a period of two hundred and fifty years

(15^5 ** 1824) the twelve various rulers succeeded in keeping

the foreigners at bay and trumphantly kept their national flag

flying amide serious threats. They took to defending the

country like a fish to water* The spontanity arose probably

because their love for land was due to good reasons* They were

an agriculturalist group where tilling and farming where the

main stay of life*

' It was a natural sequence and a logical outcome that

people hare were keenly interested and deeply involved in the

freedom struggle* With a trustworthy leadership* their force

was inyincable for the cause of independence. This leadership


-270-

was as t on± 3 hingly provided by the mutt itself. Mutt

considered not only philosophy but politics also as important

to our lives* While philosophy deals with life as a means

to an ideal death, politics deals with death as a' means to

an ideal life for the nation. They are actually the reverse

of th© same coin. Thus patrotlsm was also promoted Pari

Passu spiritualism not only as a circumstantial expediency

but also as legitimate necessity.

The role of Swatnijl in tho freedom movement allows us

to compare him to the king maker Vidyaranaya. While later

built a Vijayanagar empire through guiding Hakkaand Bakka,

the former built a free India by guiding his villagers.

The villagers were very religious minded and under it able

guidance were willing to be involved in any activity under­

taken towards a good cause. We can even go a step further

and conclude that they had tremendous blind faith in their

spiritual leaders. This probably accounts for the five

pattacharmurthi Mutt and two Yiraktha Mutt that are found in

Naganur.
-271-

This place proved to be very attractive to several

Swamijis including men like Sri Allamprabfaa and Sri Siddarama*

Sri Madiwala Swaniji came all the way from Bijapur and stayed

in the outskirts of Naganur. There , he performed pooja and

penance every day* During: such holy moments a cobra would

come and extend its fangs and spread its hood - a stance of

attack for this king of snakes* But mysterically everyday

this would happen and the cobra would leave the place hurting
t

no one and causing no damage of any kind* This led people to

believe that Swamiji was a great saint*

The awed and amazed villagers rushed to pledge their

devotion to this great saint and very soon established a mutt

for the Swaoijji at Naganur. This mutt has a tradition whereby*

on the last day of Shravana ^asaa, Swamlji is crowned with a

Rudraksha crown, the cherished treasure of the mutt. Hence the

mutt derived its name as Naganur Rudrakshi mutt*

Through the days of Shri Sidharama Swamiji (jbdi Pontiff)

Shri Guru Siddha Swamiji and Shri Guru Linga Swamiji* 4th & 5th

Pontiffs* the mutt did not stop with performing poojas and
• 272*?

penances* The true service for human beings especially to

those of the weaker sections was enabling men to rely on

their own strengths and lead a worthy life as a good member

of the sooiety* To this end all that was considered essential

and indispensable undertaken by the mutt*

Shri Shwabasava Swamlji took over as the seventh

pontiff of this mutt and gave a fillip to the hitherto

programmes of social welfare and mass education* Shri Swamlji

was of the belief that pooja was only a limited means to

attain moksha* The need of the hour demanded not a spectator

but an instigator* To educate and increase literacy in this

backward area Sri Swamlji decided tc set up a school* The

constraint of finance was surmounted by a collection of dm

fund moving from door to door* The residential school at

Belgaum got installed due to Sri Swamlji personal persistence

and painstaking effort* This small village of Nag&nur even

got a free hostel functioning there*

From these roots sprang a big tree which covered several

institutions that facilitated easy access to education* The


273-
residential school grew into a Junior College with a strength

of* 1200 students* The usefulness of this college is further

enhanced by the .fact that 80# of Its students are from remote

villages*

The hostel has also been housed in a more comfortable and

spacious building of their own* A library and a publishing

and printing unit which has been set up by the mutt support

their mission of educating the masses*

The commendable philosophy of Veerashivism which grants

equal status to women also has made it possible for women to

participate and contribute their mite In the process of sooial

transformation* The Attgapta Wadi has been set up to educate

women and train them for sooial work*


v

The importance Of Kayaka as a means to earn only bread and

also as a method of serving the community has been the basic

tenet of Veerashiva mutts* Thus the establishment of small

scale Industries and cottage industries in the villages by this

mutt has not only promoted Kayaka but also restored the much
-27**-

needad confidence in the minds of the villagers*

Sri Prabhu Swarnl ji who came as the 8th Pontiff of the mutt

consolidated and continued the good work in the villages* He

encouraged the students to get educated said extended all

facilities for the intelligent ones to further their studies

not only- in India but also abroad* .

Like all other mutts * this mutt also has contributed much

towards creating a conducive atmosphere in which the rural

folks are able to find an expression for their living and for
\

their continuance as members of this society* The celeberatien

in the month of Shravana is utilised as an opportunity for

cultural refinement and educational enlightenment.

' •' ' ,


It is Very heart rendering to learn that Swaml ji in his

old age inspires the public about Kayaka through bis own

physical involvement in all activities*

What has been demonstrated is that the autag magnanimous

and benevolent purpose of educating the backward classes both

academically and socially need not be banded down from above but
275

can be generated as an Internal force even in tbe most

backward villages of India*


\

KLIrtPUk
ZUhNTHAVEZRA MATT

&ABALeSMJAJ?/i.

BantuA a/ al HATT
K

CHlTTARAGi/ SAHSTUANA MAT'P


-277-

BIJAPUR DISTRICT - SHANTHAVEERA MUM?. BABALBSWAR.

Bijapur a part of the’ Gulbarga’ a Provinoe of the Bahamani

Kingdom, wae founded bp Alla-ud-din Hass an Gangs Bahamani In

1347* A now Province called tho Bljapur Province was oraatvd


t

in th# Bahamani Kingdom about the year 1478 and it was assigned

to Khwaja Mohamud Gavan when he was executed in 1481. Yusuf

Adil Khan was put incharge of the Province when the Bahamani

dynasty lost its strength in the last decades of the 13th oen-

tury, the Kingdom was broken up and Yusup Adil Khan op Bi japur

was one of the Provinoial Governors who .declared their inde­

pendence* Bljapur, thus became a separate Kingdom under Adil


n
» *
v *
* *
4

Shahi rulers in 1489,., During their reign, there were about

sixteen administrative divisions called sirears under the direet

control of Bljapur. The metropolitan division called Aval

Sirear, Bljapur, consisted of 30 Parganas• In 1686 Bljapur

capitulated to Aurangzeb and was under the Mughale upto 1723

when it became a part of Nizam’s dominions* In 1760 it was

Ceded by the Nizam to Balaji Peshwa who placed it under a

Governor working under him. It remained under the p«shwa’ • till


278-

1818, exoept for a brief period of nine years from 1778 to

1787, when the Southern portion came under the Supremacy of

Haider Ali and Tippu.

After the fail of the Peshwas in 1818, the areas comprising

the present Bijapur District fell to the British under the

proclamation of the 11th February, 1818. In 1842 there was

another large addition as a oonsequence of an exchange of

territory with the Baja of Satara and another Taluk with head­

quarters at Hanugahi (fiegevadl) was formed in that year* On the

death of the $hief of Kagvadi,, 14 villages of the Chimalgi


\
i

Pargana were Included in Mangoli or Bogevadi Taluk. When the


<

Baja of Satara died without heirs, Bijapur was taken over by the

British and incorporated with Satara Cdlectorate in 1848 later

in 1862 it wae transferred to Sholapur.

The history of Bijapur reveals that,for many years, Bijapur

was under the subjugation Of Muslim influence. However, some

of the examples given the opinion that though it was under the

Muslim rule, the rulers of Adil Shah dynasty from 1489 to 1686
-27?~

supported Persian education and Islamic learning* Bljapur


s

District as an ancient seat of learning had sons support from


< ' t

the rulers and organised eduoational institutions* To illust­

rate* Galgali on the banks of the Krishna river is believed te


i

have been called Galava Kshetra where Sage Galva imparted

tuition in a Gurukula. Sagalkote is said to havo belonged te

a Musician in the Court of Havana.(l6l* 399) Salotgi six miles

South-east of Xndi was a seat of learning in the old days,

where a college imparted training to students in Arts and

Sciences* So also Kudalasangama* Aihole and Bad ami wkoro

seats of education, where there were reputed teachers*


i j

Tuition was imparted in epics, romances, graramer and poetry*

Thus it is inferred that Sanskrit must have influenced to a


i

great extent* However, by the study of two great Veorashiva

mutts It, appears that Kannada learning was also there as the

history of mutt reveals that spread of education was a part of

tnuet*s activities in those days# With brief history of tbie

district, it is essential to know the educational activities of

tho two Veerashiva mutt which is said to be the very old seat of
-280-

l earning. Babaleswar mutt still continues to spread education


\

to rural masses by running few schools and colleges* Banthanal

mutt, on the other hand had no schools or colleges, has hslpsd


> j

good number of institution in and around the Bijapur Distrlot.

Babaleswar is a village 15 miles South-west of Bi japur.

The temple of Siddeswara in the middle of the village was built


r

In 1780 A.D, The temple has a front hall with a sculptured


I
spire on the shrine lintel is a figure of Virabadra. Outside

the village there is a temple of Ambali Mant&ppa built like a


. 1

Mosque and with no images. The place is noted for a Voerashiva


' r *

monastery known as Shanthaveera Hutt. It has a high school and

a primary health unit. (161* 89)

BRIEF HISTORY OP THE MUTTt

Babaleswar* the righteous place was well known centre for

imparting education since 8th century. Salootgi, a famous

educational centre* is historically known for its distinctive

feature* as a school for imparting higher education. This place

was renamed as Bakshina Thakehashila. There were five hundred


281#

teachers who were getting higher education in this centre for


! i

which Shivayogi Shivaoharya was the Principal* Xt was this

great teacher* who gave life» for the first time * to the
' , , t \ 1

synthesis of absolute shntsthala* This holy place in eleventh

century gave impetus to the revolutionary leader Sri Basavanna

and Devaradasinmaya. Jagadguru Revanna Siddaohary* who lived

from middle of 11th century to the end* established an univer­

sity at Xngaleswara and also Cfaanganigala Mant&p* later on lead

the path to establish Anubhava Mantap by Shrl Basavanna* The

great social reformer Basavanna hails from Bijapur District.

This sacred district is surrounded by Xngaleswara* Bagewadi and

Kudala Sangama Kshethra* This great social reformer received


f ' . j

his early education b and blessings from Sathavedamuni* T#t

another sacred place of this district is Theradela where

Allamapraba resided and Devara Hipparagi the birth place of


* ^
Mad ivala Madldeva* Since times immemorial* this district

produced many scholars* social reformers and great Shaiiket**

gurus* Many great Saints like Guru X/ingaswamy* Chittragi

Mahanthaswamy Thaltkote* Kaskath Swamiji, Mabalingapura


-282#

Mahalingeswara Swami ji9 Han gal Sri Kusnaraswamy» Banthanal

Sri Shivayogi, hailed from thi3 district. The'Great Vachana-

peetha Maha Fa.Gu. Halakatti is a great associate of this

district. Hence undoubtedly wo can say that this place is a

centre of spiritual and educational awakening* carried with

imparting education to the masses.

Babbaleswara (is a name which refers to four hundred

years ago) was actually a forest full of thorny babbal plant*

and in the midst of this .long ago* Shri Marillngappa found a

Linga. ?hia was brought to the notice of general public and ae

the Linga was found in the midst of thorhy plant* this place was

called as Babbaleswar.

Bijapur District not only has the credit of produsing

eminent and great scholars* saints and social reformers but

also reputed for their valour and strength of remote corner

villages. N©ar Badami there was a village called Handikeswar*

Sri Nandikeswara Gowda a rich Veoraskivist and great devotee

of Banashankaramma built a temple near Ms village for Bcrna-

shankaramma. This temple, flourished within a short span of


^ -283-

time. So also the Inoom© of the temple. Because of this,

the priests of the temple became very arrogant• Once Nandi-

keswara Gowda's family visited the temple but were ill-treatedi

by the priest. This was not tolerated by them. The two sons

of Gowda ousted the priest. This was appealed to Adil Shah,

the then ruler of Bijapur. The two brothers (sons of Gowda)

had strong faith in Kayaka, which should reach the common

people for noble cause. Fearing the arrest they went in dis­

guise, but unfortunately, this turned out to be a futile attempt.

Adil Shah without any enquiry, ordered death sentence to these

young brothers. However, as Adil Shah was in distressed con­

dition because of enemies from Belgaum, these young brothers

requested Adil Shah to send them to attack Belgaum Fort and

die for a noble cause, rather an inglorious death in the prison.

Adil Shah agreed and sent them to fight against his enemy.

Truly, it proved a blessing in disguise. These young brothers

won the fight and conqurred the Belgaum Fort. This gave great

pleasure to Adil Shah, who immediately presented two hundred

acres of land as reward to them near Babbaleswar* Later on,

these young,brothers were called Pat11 brothers, who served the


1

-284-

people to the maximum* Till this date .this Patil family at

Babaleswar is know for their charity and help they have been

rendering to the people*

In this sacred place# Babaleswar temple is situated* In

front of this temple# there is a hall which is the centre of

cultural activities# common meetings and other activities of the

village people* Attached to this temple# there is a Heremutt

which is a boon to the poor and needy# Irrespective of caste

and creed. The contribution of this mutt is the strength#

which protects the cultural heritage of the society* The

present Babaleswar consists of population of 10,000 people

and majority of the families depending on agriculture*

His holiness Mahadevaswamiji is the 11th Pontiff of this

mutt, muoh work has been done by his holiness Sri Gurupada-

swamijl# to uplift the weaker section* Many incidents

occurred during his period* For instance, once rain failed in

the village* As most of the farmers depended on the rain for

cultivation# they were very much disheartened due to failure

1
-285*
\ >

of the rains* Once devotee of this mutt just uttered 'unless


\

we are blessed with Gods grace we may not get rain*' ■ Immediately

another farmer by name &idha» who was smoking a beedi, said

"It is foolishness to think of GodJ1 If existence of God is

there the situation would not be so worst*" By that time

Swamiji who happened to hear this conversation, asked Basappa

to bring Sidha to the mutt* Whole day, without taking a sip


i

of water, the Swamiji started his meditation* Next day morning

he asked Sidha to look outside* To Sidha*s surprise, it was

raining heavily* Immediately* Sidha begged appology, for his


‘ I . ! i ' , , t ,

arrogance and ignerahee* But Swamiji very generously, said that

it was the duty of the Guru PeStha to take care and look-after
111 ’, ; , ** > e
the welfare of community at all times* Thus you enlightened me

by your expression*
/
1 ' ^ < 1 » 4 , n n ,

, . To quote another interesting incident how much Sri Swamijl

was concerned about the problem and difficulty of the people,

he thought it would be better to grow food grains instead of

commercial crops one, year* The subsequent year rain failed and

crops also died and the people beeame very panicky. Immediately
-286-

Svamlji distributed ail th© food grains stored at the mutt

with forethought • like this Sri Shanthaveeraswami j±* whether

the problem was great or small in the most wise manner* he used

to present his decision to satisfy each and every one*

Dasoha is one of the persistent programme* of the

Veerashlva mutt* UQder any circumstances» this valuable


K

service should not stop* Once the village had to face acute

famine due to failure Of rain* Swamlji sent word to all

elderly persons andr devotees of the mutt and said that mutt

was meant for the people and not for his sake* So whatever

grains and things available in the mutt* should be distributed

to the poor people* .The next day wide announcements were made
I

for the purpose* Vithin no time the nearby villagers rushed


'j

to the mutt* Swanti41 after completing his pooja* as usual*

asked the elderly persons of ths village to distribute food to

the poor people* This work was, over by evening* Swamlji wae
,i i ' ' ' 1

very pleased* But within a year* whatever the wealth and

grains distributed* were regained* All these incidents reveal

how these Vserashiva mutts were concerned to fulfil the basic


’ > 1^,1 ~ *
-287-

needs of the poor people*

EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES OP THE MPTTl-

His holiness Sri Sri Shanthaveeraswamiji was the 10th


i i ' 1

lineage of the mutt, who started Sanskrit Pathasala in the year

1^07* To start with, there were 32 students* Among them,

mention may be made to Koppal Sri Gael mutt Swatnijif Bangalore


1 ^ 1 ’

Sarpabushatta Mutt Swamijlf Sollarpur Kareta Mutt SwamiJif

Anudurga Sangameswara Swamijii 1


Banthanal Sangama Basavaji,
1

, ) < I 1 ' < ,

were some of the important students of this Sanskrit Patasala*

Shri ShanthaveeraswamiJl never dost preached to the people*

He. always took the initiative to do any Kayaka. . Thus he made

his devotees also know the importance of Kayaka. Sri Swami ji

strongly believed that mere scholarly knowledge will not make

an individual perfect* So more importance was given for

practical work* Mere preaching makes a man unfit to live in

the society* -Action and speech should be synohorniaed. Only

then any individual'can achieve absolute perfection,


t

u ,
1
988<*i
m••

Sri Swamiji gave enromous encouragement to education* He

donated 18 acres of land to start a high school at B&bbaleswsr

in the year 1961 • Once he was asked to aceompany the leaders

of the villagei to collect donation for the school* Sri Swamijl

immediately said Mutt's property meant for the public cause*


• i.

Moreover, imparting education to the villagers is also one of

the services of the mutt* Therefore* mutt lands oan be utilised


«

for running schools* At present there is a high school, junior

college and primary sohool attached to this mutt. These schools

and oolleges eater to the needs of surrounding villagers* Since

the inception of this school, 1700 students have completed their

high school education* out of which 1100 belonged to weaker

sections, which works out to 6k*70$. Likewise out of 700 students

in the junior college 339 belong to underprivileged classes •

This works out to 55*57$ Hut the percentage of employment,

opportunity to weaker section works out to be very low*

Apart from this, Sri Swamiji financially helped to start

Vijaya College at Bijapur, Polytechnic, Primary Sohool at Sara-

Vada, Sayyapur and Halagami,


289*

Babbakesvara Swamiji established a health unit which was •

later handed over to the Government. Public library* another

important part or educating: the people* is also established by

the mutt* Sri SwamiJi*a firm belief was that Newspaper is the

best media to eduoatb the people. So he extended financial

assistance to Navakaraataka* Bdaya Vishvavani quarterly daily

and half yearly magazines and Newspapers*

Sri Swami4i*s sacrifice to the cause of needy is two

fold. One* his financial sacrifice to fulfil the needs of

community like schools* colleges* health centres* library etc

Another* face of his sacrifice mas that his human kindness mads

him place himself at the services of the society. To illustrate

this# the villagers contributed one lakh and forty five thousand

Rupee® on his 92nd birth day caleberation. Swamiji used,

part of this ±m amount to construct a ShiVanubhava M&ntap*

infront of the mutt. Remaining amount was deposited in the

bank* as per instructions of the Swami41. Out of the acruing

interest* appropriate amount will be spent for ttudonta' wel­

fare and drought relief for the villagers. Thus* it shows very
-290-

well* Sri Swamiji's concern for the poor students and villagers.
f

To conclude, it is appropriate to quote an incident which

shows the total dedication ot the Swamiji to man kind as a

whole. On one occasion, a Harijan devotee visited Swamiji to


" i

pay his respects. Swamiji, who was then garlanded, sp&ntanaously

blessed the Harijan by garlanding with the same garland. This

shocked the people around him. With all his composure SwainiJi

said 'If* you think that touch ot a Harijan makes mo impure

you need not touch me hereafter'. This clearly shows the broad

mindedness.which the Swamlji, not only preached but also

practiced to the letter.


> BANTHANAb MOTT,

Historically Bijapur District has produced many seers*

sages* Shivasaranas and scholars* Banthanal is a placs situated

about 55 K.M. from the district headquarters* Origin of

Banthanal mutt is traced back to about 250 years* The credit

of (Bant banal mutt) establishing at Banthaaal is attributed to

His holiness Vrishabalinga Shlvaycgi Swamiji. Kis holiness

Sangama Basava Shivayogi, who is said to be the fourth pontiff

of this mutt | took charge of this mutt in the year 1916*

The period from 1916 to 1972* is of.great significance in

the history of Banthanal Mutt* The year 1916 can be called as

the crucial period for India as a whole* Mrs* Annie Bobant

started Home Buie league at Madras* lokamanya Tilak founded

one in Bombay and declared that'Swarajya* is our birth right*

The two Home Buie leagues carried out intense propaganda ail

through the country* demanding self-government* This movement

reached its climax in 1917* Bljapur also had its impact* as it

is situated in North Karnataka* At this Juncture Banthanal


-29Z*

Swamlji played a vital role in arousing national awareness

(Desha Bhakti) and love for mother-land, in the hearts ot the

ignorant masses of the Village communities*

Sbri Swantiji meditated near the Bheemeshwara hill to

attain enlightenment which was ultimately utilised for the

service of the poor and needy* He believed that life was for

helping the people in distress and the down-trodden section of

the society* in short, his motto was 'live and serve the

people in need'*

for educating the rural mass, for achieving Independence

of our nation, pravaohana and discourses were conducted by

many scholars* Banthanal,mutt's doors were always open to the

people belonging to any caste or creed* Anyone, who came to

seek shelter or help were reoeiyed with hospitality, kindness

and concern by Swamiji* Vaohanapatha Maha Fa.Gu* Halakatti,

who visited this mutt said *Mutt is meant to open the eyes of

the Ignorant, make them understand the nation, put them in

the track of work, for the nation* *


-293-

Sri Sri. Swami ji was much impressed and inspired by

Sri Haradekar Manjappa, who, toiled ceaselessly to bring about

national unity. H« was also called as Karnataka Gandhi.*

Soring the period from 1919 to 1935# which is said to be the

third phase of Indian National movement, Indians were very much

frustrated and agitated, because the Britishers failed to fulfil

their promise made during the first world war* Swarajist party

appeared on the scene# headed by Motilal Nehru and Chttaranjan

Das* At this stage# the great leader Haradekar Manjappa was in

search of an ideal person, who could awaken the rural masses,

inspire their hearts with a longing for Swaraj and motivate

their energy and direct them to strengthen the movement. He

wanted an able person to induce national awareness and a sense

of duty towards motherland into the hearts and souls of the

villagers, who were totally ignorant and dumb. By then, Swami ji


y
was already engaged in the task of educating the rural people#

having the same ideals in his mind.

For year 1923 proved to be remarkable and also auspeelous

year for our nation, because Swami ji and Haradekar Hanjappa met
-294-

each other and exchanged their views* The outcome of this

union of two Swaraj oriented social thinkers , was the develop­

ment of an inspired i educated and well guided mass of rural

people marching towards the goal of achieving independence of

India* which was then in the dutches of the British*

Hardekar Manjappa rightly pointed out that mutts and

Swamljis play an instrumental role in the welfare of the people

in particular and the whole nation at large* He said that

mutts should take the lead and bring about religious reforms

and educational reforms in the community. Truth, honesty,

non-violence are the treasures of the mutt, which should be

inculcated in the people and they should reach out to the

common man* He requested the Swamiji to awaken and inspire the

dormant strength of the rural masses and guide them in the

right path*

Awakening national awareness, love for mother-land and

inspiring the ignorant people were the prime needs of the

nation during this period* This task was successfully taken up

by Haradekar Manjappa and Sbri Swami ji,. Both theme great


-295-

personalities spent their time and energy tirelessly to spread

their message to the people in and around Bijapur district*


i

Every village woke up to the profound voice of these two social

leaders and responded to their call for the struggle for inde­

pendence* They gave the impetus needed to gather their strength

for the struggle against the subjugation of the foreign power*

Thus Ignorance was eradicated from the minds of the rural

masses* which later on constituted a stronghold in the struggle

for independence*'

Alamathi was a centre to promote the work of the freedom

movement* It was in this place that Haradekar Hanjappa lived

in an ashram* This ashram was situated on the bank of river

Krishna which was a sacred place* This serene place was the
\

venue for imparting national awareness among the people* Sri

Bant banal Shivayogi putforth all his efforts to establish this

institution* Thus be became the backbone of this institution*


\

Xn order to execute his plans and carry-out the work* it became

very essential to own a press* "Basavalinga Press" was esta­

blished to fulfil this felt need* Alamatti became the education­

al and social centre which brought about national unity and


•29<S»

Integrity among the people* Many people who belonged and

worked for this mutt were freedom fighters. Among them mention

may be made to Am ball Channabasappa. Kewjalagi Hanumantharaya »

Shivalingappa Konndi, Baja Kanadube, Sugandhi Murigeppanna, who

fought for the freedom till their last breath.

Sri Sri Swami41*e firm determination was to remote

ignorance from the minds of people and enlighten them with

awareness about themselves and their duty towards motherland.

His ideals were further strengthened by Sri Halakatti Basava

Shivayogi of Bijapur district and Fakeerappa. At the age of

25, Swamiji thought about an educational reform to enlighten

the ignorant minds of the rural population. The fame and work

done by the Alamatti education centre spread far and wide.

The establishment of Siddeswar Education Trust in B1 japur

District was like a milestone of that period because it was

instrumental in adding the strength of the rural masses to the

freedom movement of the nation. This noble task was shouldered

by Sri 7a.Cu. Halakatti with' the help of Sri Swamiji in the

year 1910 onwards


-297-

The year 1932 reflects and clearly depicts the determination

of Sri Swamiji and his efforts to a waken the ignorant. He was

the pivot from which the strength of the rural population drew

their inspiration and guidence through a series of pravachanas

and lectures. He made people understand higher ideals through

simple stress* was of the opinion that ignorance could be

driven away from the society by establishing schools. He

collected donations from rich people and helped to establish

schools at Bachyana. The funds he thus collected« were given

to various educational institutions. To name some* the insti­

tutions at Xndl, Masuthiy Hulavada, Kolara, Teraglala, Ban&hatti,

Hungund and BajeVadi reoaived financial assistance from Sri

Swamiji. He visited thorn door to door and convinced them the

good cause for which funds are to be collected in the form of

money and lands. Hg helped to establish school ip the remote

corners of this district, which was totally lost in the darkness

of ignorance. The credit of kindling the lamp of awakening and

learning goes to Sri Swamxji. The awareness made the rural

population, realise the slave like condition of their lives and

they rebelled against the alien power which supressed them. In


- 298-

the year 19^7 the victorious days was celoberated with all

grandeur and jubiliation*

From such devoted and sincere work of Sri Swamiji it can

be inferred that Veerashiva Mutts, not only extended the

literary education to the rural masses, but also unfolded a new

awareness regarding all round knowledge, thus giving a new

dimension to the meaning and function of education, which

broadened the basic outlook of the people and made them realise

that each individual is a part of the whole country and their

united spirit and strength constitutes the basic foundation,

on which the progress of a nation rests* Inducing such aware­

ness in each and everyone was the n©w dimension he added to

education which can be termed as a revolutionary reform in the

field of education*

Thus it is undoubtedly, Sri Swamiji of this district, who

is aptly called as Vijaya Sri Sri Banthanal Shivayogi* iill

date his name is mentioned wxtfc great respect and devotion in

many households* Hundreds of educational centres are the gift*

of the Sri Swamiji to the people* Lakhs of poor students are


- 299-

indebted to Sri Swamlji for their successful careers and


)

achievements, because their stepping stones were laid by hard

work of Sri Swamijl* He is considered as nation* s pride and

good fortune of the district*

Swamiji*s great contribution is the awakening of the

rural masses- young and old alike* He had a firm belief that
\

the masses should be educated irrespective of caste, creed,

community, sex etc* He was a visionary and a social thinker*

Apart from establishing some educational institutions, ho

relentlessly worked for the building up of educational insti­

tutions in Bijapur District* His is a great name in the

development B.L.D«E* institutions* As a President, he saw to

it that the institutions do not suffer from the economical

aspects* He could live a life of a great supporter of all

educational institutions in Btjapur District* 'these insti­

tutions spread far and wide* have helped the District to see a

new horizon in all fields of new academic aspirations* Mutts

in Bijapor District have almost all Veeraahiva mutts in other

dlstriets ventured and succeeded in minimising the agony and


-300-

misery of the down trodden through education* The educational

Inst it ut Iona established by these mutts have always seen to it

that the stratification in the social order is minimised* He

always wished a classless society based on equality, justice and

freedom* This, they wanted to achieve by educating every

individual* The secular outlook of these mutts has resulted

into the upcoming of the down**trodden and the neglected*

Thousands of boys and girls belonging to the weaker section

could enter the portals of educational institutions of their

choice and come out successful* This is a great contribution

r
of these mutts*
30*

BIJAPUR - GHIYYARAGI 3AMASTHANA MUTT - ILLEKAL

The Chittarage Mutt ooauples a pivotal position in the

upliftment of the weaken classes of people in Bijapur. The

distinctive feature of concentrating on the social angle of

education has not only made the mutt popular but has also

rendered it as the conscience keeper of the society*

This very ancient seat of learning came into eacistenoe

during the 12th century - a period which witnessed a rapid

mushrooming of mutts in several parts of Karnataka* Allamprabu

along with his 3000 Jangamas moved around these parts in an

attempt to propogate the Veerashiva philosophy* In this laudable

venture he soon caputured the interest and devotion of several

people in these neglected and rejected parts of the State* On

the request of the native people themselves* Chittaragi at

Xllekal was endowed with a mutt* This mutt since inception has

continued the original and initial doctrines of Veerashiva philo­

sophy* To cultivate and contribute in perfecting a classless

society was one of the ambition of this mutt*


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A more interesting trend that has emerged as a specially

ity of this mutt is their predominant emphasis on social

education rather than on academic and formal education. 9rom

all the available records it has been found that the mutt has

grown through a successive and successful service of nineteen

pontiffs. Bach one of the Swamiji’s in mutt have added their

force in a mighty fight against the social evils.

While we trace the recent history of the mutt we find the

seeds of the social education being clearly sowed even from

the beginning of the 19th century.


r

During the period of 1809 and 18?5 Sri Guru Mahantha

Swamiji took up crudgels against the social ills and found

the Veerashiva philosophy ae a popular and effeotive way of

eradicating illiteracy and reducing the rampant social a Vila

that always co-exists with backwardness • This commendable

services merit tad royal recognition and religious reverence.

This then renowned scholar in aanskrit was presented with

silver coins by Sringeri Swamiji -an honour so rare to come by.


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Even to this date those coins are preserved in the memory of

the rich tradition that was opened by this Sri Swamijl*

Royal patronage also came by in the form of donations from

the Nizam of Hyderabad* A palace named Hahantha Hanzil was

allotted specifically for the educational propogation of this

mutt* Several place like Suahki, Sindanur and SIngasur were

also donated to assist the mutt in its toil for social and

educational improvement of the area*

Even Vi jaya Hahantha Swamiji (1879 - 1911) contributed

unphatomably in areas of social education* During his period

social work was recognised as an important and integral function

of the Veeraehiva mutts* All Matathlpathls were required to be

specially trained in social work* This only goes to prove the

shift of emphasis in favour of social work*

in 1904 the Aklla Baratha Veeraehiva Mahasabha decided to

open a religious institution to give training with special

reference to social work* This work was entrusted to Vijaya

Mahantha Swamiji* Even today Shivayogi Nandir* at Han gal stands ,

>
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as a testimony to the good work accomplished by the Swamlji*

The mutt tread on the time tested path of Basavanna and

worked endlessly, pontiff after pontiff, to remove and demolish

the various problems of the down-trodden and to reinstate and

regain the social status of the multitude of masses*

The present Sri Swamiji, the 19th pontiff of the mutt, has

taken on from where his predecessors had left* He has busied

himself in imparting ethical values as well as formal education

within the frame work of Veerashiva philosophy. This mutt

followed the philosophy of Sharanas with infallible rigidity*


L
Sathya Sudha^ Kayaka was the avowed philosophy of mutt* In

1980 "Sharana Sidantha Vidya Peeta was established through which

several ideologies of the mutt could be converted and trans*


t

formed as educational and social programmes*

The mutt has greatly succeeded in the realm of formal

education* An impressive number of schools, colleges and

educational institutions are running on their ideological lines

and producing impressive results. Starting from a primary


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''jl

school at Hangal to a Mahantha Arts and Science College

all Institutions mix formal education with ethical values*

Schools for girls at the primary and middle grades! a

hostel for needy students and Yijaya Hahathesa ^idya Varadaka

Sangha are some of the milestones of this mutt in its journey

toward more education*

A more valuable and an extremely penetrative contribution

of this mutt has been its unique social programme of 'Mahantha

Joligi'. A stern attack on the wide spread practices of bad

habits and vices was undertaken with great vigour by Sri Swamiji.

The weaker sections of the society are further erroded a of

their moral and financial foundations through an unwise and

corrupt way of living* These habits like drinking, smoking

and gambling effect them financially as well as physically.

No amount of education or administration of philosophies will

make any infringment in these abased people* untill they are

relieved and freed from the clutches of these vices*


-306;.

Due to this programme of Sri Swamiji the devotees are

able to get better of themselves and abandon the lewd habits*

By this they are able to discharge their duties at a more

efficient level* A marked improvement is evidenced in their

family life and in their levels of personal confidence. Another

outcome of giving up these bad habits is a substantial progress

mads in their children's edueation and their own health condi-


\

tions*

Due to these various tangible and several Intangible

benefits that accrue out of breaking away the shackles of these

bogging habits* Mahanthe Joligi is a very clever and cleanising

scheme of the Sri Swamiji*

The operation of this scheme is very symfci symbolic and very

effective* Under this project Swamiji goes from door to door

and opens his bag* The people drop into it the various addictive

materials ranging from country liquoxt* scotch to cigarettes and

card packs* The devastlng habit has struck more in the weaker

section and a majority of them are married with a dependent

f family*
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Tk# survey reveals that 60 to 65 percent of them belong

to the weaker sections who are mainly illiterates and poor.

A rough# caste wise distribution is charted out as follows* -

Korawas *•* 20$

Khurubha 1 , ' 15$

Madiga 13$
***

“Ihe age group fails anywhere between 15 and 55 with &

annual income ranging from 1,000/- to 9,000/- (90* 72)

Along with Mahantha Jolige programme* Swataiji also conducts

extensive and powerful lectures to put them back in the right


«

path. This programme has been effectively put into practice with

amazing results in places like lllekal* Hanugandh, Havergi*

Marola, Mailaballi, Dannur, Yeiminetit, Adavihala, Kamodathl,

Iddalgi, Bisanala Koppa, Belag©la, Medenapura and such rural


i

areas. This extensive coverage of an unique programme was

commenced in the year 1979 to commemorate Sri Swamiji’s 68th

birthday. How 16 villages are under this programme.


•308 *

This mutt and Sri Swamiji are standing illustrations

of* how education need not be boxed in irrelevant academic

eurriculums along but can be made more meaningful with respect

to the needs of a particular group within the environment of

their social and moral living. By taking all pervasive

approach to education, this mutt has done unimaginable contri­

bution in transforming morally drained and financially

impoverished group into responsible citizens*


esskf,.
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B1DAR DISTRICT - HIREHUTT SAMASTHANA* BALAKI

Bidar with it# pictureque history is situated at the

Northern most part of Karnataka* She enjoyed a very glorious


\

past during the ancient and medeival period* Bidar formed the
5,
nuclus around which culture and prosperity of the state grow*
r
Xt is in this distinguished area that the Veerashiva movement

was conceived and strengthened by Great people like Basaveshvara»

Allamaprabhu and others*


i*

. fill the reorganisation of Indian States was effected*

Bidar was part of Hyderabad State* At present it is a small

district and anointegral part of Karnataka* This district, has


i -
a unique feature of being juxtaposed with and henoe influenced

by three different states* To the east of this district lies

Nlzamabad and Hedak of Andhra Pradesh, in the north and west

it is neighboured by Usmanabad of Maharashtra* while in the


l

south she is bounded by Gulburga district of Karnataka*


311-

HISTORY OP THE DISTRICT l-

The epoch making emergenco of the Chalukyas led to a

cultural upheaval and a political unification in Karnataka

as a whole* They being an indugenous dynasty, Kannada culture

was completely protected and oarefully nourished under them*

Bidar thus became the soil from where Kannada sprouted and

spread all around*

The Rashtrakutas (757 to 973 A*B) also allowed Kannada

literature to prosper and progress* Under such royal patronage

the earliest work on Kannada politics got produced* It was

during this period that "Kavlraja Murgatt was written* It has

even been found from inscription that kannada seemed to have

been the royal language*

After such an upward swing, the cycle turned very unfavour­

ably for Bidar* Kalachurees took over the throne and did unfold

damage to the very core of Bidar and her oulture* Their reign

was more disruptive and was far from being constructive* The

princes of the family were ever occupied, in fighting among


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themselves for the throne and well near neglected all the

other aspects and duties of a ruler* While six princes kept

changing the crown, anarchy ruled over,the place* It was not

surprising that the climate became extremely conductive for

revolution* This period witnessed a social, a political and

a cultural revolution*,

These revolutions marked the beginning of a mass movement

which immersed itself to bring about some radical reforms and

drastic reconstructions in the society* An entirely new

approach and a different set of norms and values were getting

formed and fanned by none other than Basavanna himself along

with other towering personalities like Allataaprabhu, Chenna

Basavanna, Akkamahadevi, Siddarama Madival Maohayya and few

others*

Kalyan became the heart of this spiritual movement* The

entire country looked upto Kalyan for spiritual leadership

and impetus* As a limb of this body, in the same tradition

yet another mutt was established* This fialki Hlremutl


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Saraasthana has continued in the same path and has upheld all
v
that was considered sacred and valuable by Basavanna even

till this date* The profetindity and the purity of this mutt

is what we propose to dwell on in the pages to come*

HISTORY OF THE BALK1 HIRBMUTT SAMASTHANAl-

i 1
While elucidating the good work o£ this mutt, we would

definitely be rewarded if we began at the very beginning namely

from tracing their origin to learning the contemporary acti­

vities* Unfortunately* however* the origin of this mutt in

itself is mystery* Not very much is known about how this mutt

had come into existence and further added to this is a total

absence of insoriptional evidences which are so valuable and

illuminating in these exercises* But through circumstantial

evidences and conjectured deductions ws could conclude that


i ✓
this mutt have been established by the then teachers who moved

about in their quest for educating the country side*

When we refer to and discuss about this mutt we are in


\

reality relating the pdessy and achievements of a single man


named Chenna Basavapaita Devaru. It was when His Holiness

became the 12th pontiff of this emit that Veerashivisia as a

whola and Bidar in particular strode the path of progress*

Xn ail his ideal and endeavours» His Holiness was supported*

encouraged and blessed by Hanagal Kumara Mahaswamy* While we


y

proceed further on to learn about Swamlji and his contributions

it would bs worthwhile to comprehend the historical context

and the forces that were operational which render Swamiji*e

and therefore mutts contribution precious and priceless*

Bldar was then under the Nizamship from Hyderabad* The

district was oppressed by Andhra Pradesh on one side and

suffered autocracy in the hands of Maharashtra on the other*


i i

The entire area was actually backward in all spheres viz*

educational* political* economic and cultural fields* While

the percentage of literary contributions on the whole was low*

that Kannada was lower* Kannada was looked down upon as a

language and was considered as one for the lower castes* Xt

was barely keptr alive by Jangamas and Shiva Sharanas who put

it to a restricted use in reading the 1 Panchaga' and the


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horoscopes* The proud


f 1 i
sons of* Kannada u had vanished totally

from the scene*


* ’ ' , t

< '
Amidst such a desdrt there existed one nasts oasis in the
/

form of Swandji who ventured into spreading Kannada education*

And this was, no easy task. The population of parents were net

favourable or least inclined toward providing Kannada education

for their children* The people who were interested in edu­

cation coveted for Urdu or Marathi education and dismissed the

Kannada language as a possible means to attain culture and

literacy* Anybody who attempted to introduce Kannada education

was facing an uphill* task* Under such trying circumstance

Swamiji undauntedly carried on with his mission* In his own

ingenious way he conducted a Kannada school under the facade of

a Muslim school* All initial protest and problems were success-


i

- j

fully pruned and the school marched its way to soholarlinoss

under very erudite teaohers' like Koppala Banupura Shaatri*

Sargappa Maligi Venkatrada and Moduranga Patil* By 193^ the


V

school was established to enhance Kannada education in a place

called Moragi* His seal and enthusiasm were rather contagious


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and soon hoards of people started flocking: to hist and his

philosophies* - .He was even able to ask. and take over the

Maregi Mutt and run the school in its premises*

Swamlji did not restrict himself only to formal education


V

within the realm of class rooms* He convenned a Santnelan and

successfully revived the philosophy of Basavanna* His idea of

Kayaka which promoted self confidence and provided a means of

livelyhood needed no Apostles*, People voluntarily began to

participate in all the aotivitles organised by Swaraiji.

This was not the end of troubles for the mutt* By esta­

blishing a school in the remote village of Maragi which was

situated on the banks of Mayara river# this mutt began to lead

a protracted life* food and shelter were also in acute short­

age and for a meaningful and successful education these needs

also had to be met* Swamiji personally and a small group of

students went personally door to door and collected alms of

grain and money* Swamiji mobilised a reasonable and steady

stook of grain by popularising tho system of 'Kanthe Biksha'


« , . ' \

Under this system each family was given a bag into which they
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donatttd some grain everyday* Thia bag was then handed over to

Swamiji once a week. Despite such difficult circumstance* a

-hostel for 50 to 60 students was started which provided free

boarding and lodging facilities to the needy students*

After some years things settled down favourably and

Swamiji could even shift the school to Balaki or Bidar to

avoid the inconvenience of the students having to walk through

the river to reach their school* Two other schools in Karaool

and Faridabad also got established at the same period of time*

Swamiji radiated a lot of reverence and securod un­

wavering devotion due to his Kayatea and selfless service to

mankind* He empowered devotees to greatly contribute in the

establishment of Shanthi Varadaka. Sangha* Swaffliji personally

worked along with the workers to build this Sangha* The

various donations like zk acres of land from Veerabadrappa

Mace Shetty and 175 asbestos sheets for roofing from Balwanthu
N. '

Sbelakya only demonstrate the extent to which Swamiji was

esteemed and his activities welcomed* Today if this school

stands like a Banyan tree with a number of colleges including


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one Engineering College on its fold* it Is because or His

holiness Swamiji*

However, yet another phase or bad tines began for the

nutt very soon* In 1948 the 'Bazakar movement* came as a

devesting force to disturb the education of the students*

Swamiji took a wise deoision and moved over to Sholapur with

a group of seventy five students*

Sholapur gave them the badly needed respite* They were

taken very good care or and this allowed Sri Swamijl to look

for further programmes in his mission of education* As a

staunch believer in Kayaka he was not the one who could be

satisfied with mere food and shelter* On the advice of several

Kannada Writers Suryadev, Jayadevi^ Thyeli&gade , Hadkl 8 an gamma,

Chakothi Iramina and Sri Bagappa, he established the Kadahl

high school at Sholapur* This school gave Kannada and Urdu

education to nearly 1500 students and about hundred or hundred a

and fifty of them were given free lodging and boarding facility

as well*
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After the reorganisation of the States in the year 195^>


, - s

two more schools were opened at Balki and San gamma.

It would be wrong to asstsne that Sri Swamiji's interest

lay only in spreading school education. He went more deeply for

the cause of education and did many things that enabled the

students to get educated. It has been reported by the renowned

author Sri Shat ha Urs<*an erstwhile student that Swamiji has been

found to clean up the messy hostels and make thorn tidy while

the students were away at school. He eould even go to the

extent of picking up the worn out foot wears of the students

and get them * mended. This touching report brings out the

humanness and humility of the crusader of Kannada education*

Sri Sri Swamiji, His Holiness Charm a Hasavapatta Devaru.

One more contribution of this Sri Swamiji which is

relevant with regard to time and indispensable with regard to

society* is his introduction of women fs education in the

district. He for the first time in Bidar's history opened a

eolloge for women in 19*»9 and named it after his esteemed peer

Akka Mahadevi*
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SOCIAL WORK UNDERTAKEN BY SW^MIJX t-

Along with, the education of the Weaker Section, Sri

Swamiji in hie own indominable style wrought in a social change]

He opposed the caste system and discrimination practiced on the]

basis of birth* Once it is said that he in his passing learnt

that some ladies of the backward class were forbidden to draw

water from the common well* It was a hot summer afternoon and

Swamiji could sifeand this injustice no mors* He invited them

to his mutt and permitted them to carry water from its well*

This bold action is but only a sample of his respect and love

for all human beings*

He truly believed in what was preached is clear from the


, ! 1

honour and respect he bestowed on the supressed and oppressed

scheduled caste Sri Siddarama Helladai*


>
Siddarama was an
i

ardent student of Yeerashiva philosophy but by the curse of

bis birth into the lower caste* had to discontinue his studies

ai the early age of tei|* But fortune smiled on him in the

form of Sri Swamiji. On one particular Jyanthi Celaboration,


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Sri Swaaijl honoured Siddarama with a garland and hugged hie

In fond embrace* Their mutual regard later fructified into

Swamiji doing Lingadarana (initiation) on Sidd-arama and

blessing him with Jangama Deeksha* This Siddarama Beladal

was the later famed author who wrote about Veerashivism and

its idealism* He is now popularly referred to as 'Baladala

Sharanaru'

If today several scheduled castes and Scheduled tribes

students are enjoying facilities like a school and a Ashram

near Bidar, it is because the bud of Siddarama was transformed


/

into a blossom by Sri Swamiji*

Sri Swamiji also imparted personal values and social

education through his own exemplary way of living* One of his

headmasters of KantW^Primary school Sri Vishwanatha was note-


, i

rious for his, vices Of drinking, gambling and such like habits*

During one of his visits there, Sri Swaraiji adviced him to

give up the Bohemean way of living and blessed him to gain

strength and break away from the clutches of these vices*


—“ - 322-

Whether under the spell or out of* Sri Swamiji humane charm,

Shri Vishwanatha turned a new leaf in his life from the very

next day*

Sri Swamlji always carried with him everywhere the

message of good living and high moral practices* All his

visits to hutments and houses of the weaker section of the

population were utilised only to convey this special message*

( (

That Sri Swamiji had unshaken faith for ushering in a

casteless society is obvious, he on becoming the head of the

mutt began his service by renewing and constructing the

AnubhaVa Hantapa at Basava Kalyan. This created a place where

people could freely meet on the basis of being human rather

than belonging to a specific caste*

In this own Mutt at fialki all villagers, irrespective of

their caste and creed are allowed to join in the morning and

evening sessions of Stotra Goshtl* During these sesslone after

the recital of all the bajans, the participants follow it with

the recital of one vacbana. Thus Sri Swamiji has very

i
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intelligently captured the entire village into the fold of

social education imparted through a cultural sublimnation.


/

Since my research work carried me to these remote parte

and threw me in a privileged association with Sri Swamiji

himself and his close companions» it came out clearly that a

human being like Sri Swamiji with his deep devotion* relentless

service and unwavering practice of all that ho preaches is rare

to,find. He is 88 years old and even to this day is physically

involved even in construction work. It was this single man

whose life saga became the histcry of the contributions made by

the Balki mutt. It would probably not be an error to consider

this Sri Swamiji as the reincarnation of Basavanna of the 12th

century* the similarity is too striking in the identical social

philosophies and allied approach' towards the down-trodden.

Related Interests