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FABRICATION OF MINI HYDRAULIC PALM CUP MAKING

MACHINE

SYNOPSIS

A hydraulic press is a machine using a hydraulic cylinder to generate


a compressive force. Frame and cylinder are the main components of the
hydraulic press. In this project press frame and cylinders are designed by
design procedure. Using the optimum resources possible in designing the
hydraulic press components can effect reduction in the cost by the
optimizing the weight of material utilized for building the structure. An
attempt has been made in this direction to reduce the volume of the
material.

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1. PROJECT PLANNING

Before starting every project its planning is to be done. Planning is very


important task and should be taken with great care, as the efficiency of the whole
project largely depends upon its planning while planning a project each and every
details should be worked out in anticipation and should carefully is considered with
all the relating provisions in advance. Project planning consists of the following
steps.

PROJECT CAPACITY

The capacity of the project must be decided considering the amount of money
which can be invested and availability of material and machines.

DRAWINGS

Drawing been decided for the project to be manufacture. Its detailed drawing
specification for raw material and finished products should be decided carefully
along with the specification of the machines required for their manufacture.

MATERIAL EQUIPMENT

The list of materials required for manufacture is prepared from the drawings.
The list of is known as “BILL OF MATERIALS”. This passes to the store keeper
and the required materials taken from the store under permission of store keeper
operation, the necessity of operation, the person to do the job, machine to be used to
do the job are considered while planning the operation. After considering tea above
questions a best method is developed and the best method is applied to the operation.

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MACHINE LODING

While planning proper care should be taken to find the machining time for
each operation as correct as possible. So that the arrangement for full utilization of
machine can be made machine loading programmed is also known.

PURCHASE CONSIDERATION

It is different to manufacture all the component needed for the equipment in


the workshop it self. The decision about a particular item whether to purchase or to
manufacture is taken by planning after making through study of relative merits
demerits.

EQUIPMENT CONSIDERATION

Result obtained from “PROCESS PLANNING” and “MACHINE LODING”


helps in calculating the equipment requirement specification of the equipment
should be laid down by considering the drawing. Drawing will also help in deciding
and necessary requirement of tools, accessories.

COST CALCULATION

The cost of the project can be calculated by adding following.

1. Material Cost
2. Machining Cost
3. Overhead Expenses.

COMPARISION

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The various items in the finished project are compared to the standards for the
further correction.

REPORT

At the end of the project work report is prepared for future references. The
report consists of all the items done the project work.

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2. OVER VIEW OF HYDRAULIC PRESS MACHINE

The hydraulic bending press is one of the most flexible machines in the
market, allowing the fabricator or ironworker to shear, punch, bend, scroll, and press
thousands of different parts. When considering industrial machinery, the hydraulic
bending press is the perfect machine shop tool for the metal fabricator. The hydraulic
pipe bending press fits any small to medium-sized industry when machinery for
large-scale production must necessarily make way for machinery with distinctly
lower production costs. The operating procedure of hydraulic pipe bending machine
is simple when compared to other pipe bending machine (Colliers Encyclopaedia,
1997). Tube bending as a process starts with loading a tube into a pipe bender and
clamping it into place between two dies, the clamping block and the forming die.
The tube is also loosely held by two other dies, the wiper die and the pressure die.

The process of tube bending involves using mechanical force to push stock material
pipe or tubing against a die, forcing the pipe or tube to conform to the shape of the
die. Often, stock tubing is held firmly in place while the end is rotated and rolled
around the die. Other forms of processing including pushing stock through rollers
that bend it into a simple curve. For some tube bending processing, a mandrel is
placed inside the tube to prevent collapsing. The tube is also held in tension by a
wiper die to prevent any creasing during stress (Kalpakjian, 1997 and Acherkan,
1973). A wiper die is usually made of a softer alloy i.e. aluminium, brass to avoid
scratching or damaging the material being bent. Much of the tooling is made of
hardened steel or tooled steel to maintain and prolong the tools life. However
wherever there is a concern of scratching or gouging the work piece, a softer material
such as aluminium or bronze is utilized. For example, the clamping block, rotating
form block and pressure die are often formed from the hardened steel because the
tubing is not moving past these parts of the machine. On the other hand, the pressure

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die and the wiping die are formed from aluminium or bronze to maintain the shape
and surface of the work piece as it slides by. Pipe bending machines are typically
human powered pneumatic powered, hydraulic assisted, hydraulic driven or electric
servomotor. Hydraulic machines are machinery and tools that use liquid fluid power
to do simple work. Heavy equipment is a common example .In this type of machine,
hydraulic fluid is transmitted throughout the machine to various hydraulic motors
and hydraulic cylinders and which becomes pressurised according to the resistance
present. The fluid is controlled directly or automatically by control valves and
distributed through hoses and tubes. The popularity of hydraulic machinery is due
to the very large amount of power that can be transferred through small tubes and
flexible hoses, and the high power density and wide array of actuators that can make
use of this power Hydraulic machinery is operated by the use of hydraulics, where a
liquid is the powering medium (Beer and Johnston, 1992 and Dagwa and Ibhadode,
2005).

Description of the Work

The horizontal press brake was first introduced by SIMASV in 1957, are
particularly distinguished by their flexibility and versatility. User-friendly and easy
to maintain, the horizontal press brakes can be fitted with countless tools. The
horizontal bending press fits any small to medium-sized industry when machinery
for large-scale production must necessarily make way for machinery with distinctly
lower production costs. The hydraulic pipe bending consists of two series of
horizontal press brakes, the standard series and the super series. Both series have
gone through decades of improvements which is why no other bending press offers

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as much value for the investment. One of our biggest improvements was placing the
Hydraulic Jack below the table. After years of producing machines with the cylinder
above the table (which we still produce today upon request) we standardized on
machines with the cylinder below, offering the greatest working environment, and
the most bend accuracy due to less deflection in the table. The horizontal machine
has the following features:

 Cylinder under work table allowing for better accuracy and more work surface;
 User performs operation in front of the machine instead of the side of the
machine making it easier to produce quality products, and frontal position on
our press brakes is protected and practical position for the operator;
 Our patented conical pins with lock-on bayonet fittings eliminate all mechanical
slack as far as tolerance is concerned, providing maximum rigidity with minimal
flexing of work table. This patented feature is why no other horizontal bending
press is as accurate;
 Our super series stroke control is by means of hydraulically controlled stroke
end devices that allows for greater accuracy (compared to limit switch stroke
end control) allowing for continuous movement under pressure, achieving
maximum accuracy and repeatability in position; and much more.
Twenty-five tons is the proper tonnage for approximately 50 % of all
applications out there. The horizontal press brake the operator should start with a
machine no lower than 25 tons if they want to capitalize on a greater amount of
profitable work that can be shifted to the machine. The unique cylinder is under the
table allowing for the perfect flat open work table

Environment that will bring more profit to the end user. This series is a simple

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series where the operator controls the stroke in and the stroke back by two hand
wheels. Simplicity means profit. The 45 ton machine is the proper tonnage for 90%
of all applications for a horizontal press brake. For many people who buy or 25 ton
machine soon wish they would have made the small extra investment, because the
45 ton machine covers the biggest spectrum of profitable jobs. The most profitable
machine in line up for the investment made

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Hydraulic jack consists of piston, piston rod, screw rod and hydraulic oil. The
hydraulic jack reciprocating handle is move upward and downward continuously, so
that the compressed oil goes to the hydraulic jack piston. The end of the piston rod
the moving die is fixed. The compressed oil pushes the hydraulic jack piston
forward. Already the pipe to be bended is fixed in between revolving die and moving
die. The die is supported by the die holders. By changing the die in the hydraulic
pipe bending machine, we have to produce different shape of bended pipe such as
“V” type, “L” type etc. The ram (moving die) is strike the pipe forcibly, so that the
pipe is bended according to the shape of the die in the die holder. This is a simple
pressing mechanism (Degarmo et al., 1997 and Khurmi and Gupta, 1997). The main
components in a portable hydraulic pipe bending machine are hydraulic cylinder,
ram, oil tank, plunger pump, release valve lever, handle, die, die holder, helical
spring and hydraulic drive. Hydraulic systems possess numerous advantages over
other systems of power operation. They are light in weight; they are simple and
extremely reliable, requiring a minimum of attention and maintenance. Hydraulic
controls are sensitive, and afford precise controllability

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Design Details

There is no fixed machine design procedure for when the new machine

element of the machine is being designed a number of options have to be considered.

When designing machine one cannot apply rigid rules to get the best design for the

machine at the lowest possible cost. The designer who develops the habit of

following a fixed line of steps for designing the machine or machine elements cannot

come out with the best product. Figure 1 shows the design details of the hydraulic

pipe bending machine

METHODOLOGY

This project is designed with

 Hydraulic bottle cylinder

 Pressing tool

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3. INTRODUCTION OF HYDRAULICS

BASIC PRINCIPLES

 Most industrial processes require substances to be transformed from one place


to another. Also the final products should be shaped (or) compressed (or) held
by applying a great force. Such activities are performed by using prime
movers.
 The prime movers are operated by (i) electrical system (ii) Hydraulic system
(iii) Pneumatic system.
 In electrical system, the rotary motions are provided by simple motors. The
linear motions can be obtained by converting rotary motions with the aid of
screw jack (or) Rack and pinon.
 In ‘Hydraulic system, enclosed water (or) oil can be used to convey energy
from one location to another. In Greek, hydra means water.
 In Pneumatic system, enclosed gas (normally compressed air) is used to
transfer energy from one location to another). In Greek, Pneumatic means
wind.

Hydraulic Principles

There are certain governing principles in a hydraulic system

1. All liquids are non-compressible and can be used to transmit power.

2. Any load to be lifted offers resistance to flow of liquid. This resistance to flow is
pressure.

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3. If the capacity of the pump is more, then it pumps out more liquid. If it pumps out
more liquid, then it makes the hydraulic actuators (hydraulic cylinder (or) hydraulic
for the speed of the hydraulic actuator.

4. If the force developed in the hydraulic cylinder is more than the external load,
then the actuator lifts the external load. If the force developed in the hydraulic
cylinder is less than the external load, then the actuator will not lift the external load.
The flow rate is nothing to do with the load carrying capacity of the hydraulic
system.

5. In the operation of a hydraulic system, the liquid chooses the path of least
resistance

For example, there are two passages of flow from the pump. One path is connected
to the hydraulic actuator to lift the load. Another path is connected to the reservoir.
The liquid will choose the path of least resistance (reservoir path) and flows back
into the reservoir, without choosing the path that offers higher resistance i.e. lifting
the load. Ultimately, the load remains uplifted in this case.

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4. GENERAL APPLICATION OF FLUID POWER

Agriculture : Farm equipment

Construction : Earth moving equipment, concrete mixing equipment

Ships : Controllable pitch propellers

Aviation : Hydraulic retractable landing wheels

Defense : Missile launches system

Transportation : Hydraulic elevators

Fabrication : Hydraulic presses for metal forming pneumatic hand


tools, Injection moulding machine Fabrication

Material handling: Hydraulic jacks’ hydraulic ram, conveyor system,


pneumatically operated packing warping and bottling equipments

Automation : Hydraulically operated machine tools, robots’, pneumatically


Operated indexing holding gripping and feeding devices.

3.1 PASCAL’S LAW&: CHARACTERISTICS OF HYDRAULIC OF OIL


PUMP

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Pascal’s law states that the pressure applied anywhere to a confined liquid is
transmitted equally to every portion of the surface of the containing vessel. When a
force is applied to the liquid by a piston, the liquid transmits this force equally to all
surfaces of the container.

HYDRAULICS PUMP CHARACTERISTICS

Hydraulic pumps are used to pump out the liquid from the reservoir to the hydraulic
actuator through a set of valves.

 A pump converts mechanical energy into hydraulic energy. The mechanical


energy is given to the pump by an electric motor. Due to mechanical action,
the pump creates a partial vacuum at its inlet.
 This makes the atmospheric pressure to force the liquid through the inlet line
and into the pump. The pump then pushes the liquid into the hydraulic system.
The pumps are classified as

(i) Positive displacement pumps

(ii) Hydrodynamic (or) Non-positive displacement pumps

 Hydrodynamic (or) Non-positive displacement pumps are used for


transporting fluids from one location to another.
 These types of pumps are generally used for low pressure, high-volume flow
applications, since they are not capable of withstanding high pressures.
 The centrifugal pumps and axial flow pumps are the examples of non-positive
displacement pumps. These pumps provide smooth flow. But the output flow
rate is reduced when the resistance to flow is increased.

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 Positive displacement pumps have the internal working elements which make
a very close fit together so that there is very little leakage (or) slippage
between them. This type of pumps ejects a fixed quantity of liquid into the
hydraulic system per revolution of the pump shaft.
These pumps have the following advantages.

1. High pressure capability

2. Small and compact size

3. High volumetric efficiency

4. Great flexibility of performance. i.e. These pumps can operate over a wide range
of pressure requirements and speed ranges.

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5. MAJOR COMPONENTS OF HYDRAULIC LADDER

1.Struture

2.Hydraulic componenets

2.1 Hydraulic cylinder

2.2 Hydraulic pump

2.3 .Hydraulic circuits

2.4 Hydraulic oil

3.Ladder

1.STRUCTURE

Structural steel is steel construction material, a profile, formed with a specific shape
or cross section and certain standards of chemical composition and strength.
Structural steel shape, size, composition, strength, storage, etc, is regulated in most
industrialized countries.Structural steel members, such as I-beams, have high second
moments of area, which allow them to be very stiff in respect to their cross-sectional
area.

A steel I-beam, in this case used to support wood beams in a house.

Structural steel in construction: A primed steel beam is holding up the floor above,
which consists of a metal deck (Q-Deck), upon which a concrete slab has been
poured.

Steel beam through-penetration with incomplete fireproofing.

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Metal deck and OWSJ (Open Web Steel Joist), receiving first coat of spray
fireproofing plaster, made of polystyrene leavened gypsum. Contents

1 Common structural shapes

2 Standards

2.1 Standard structural steels

2.2 Standard structural steels

2.2.1 Carbon steels

2.2.2 High strength low alloy steels

2.2.3 Corrosion resistant high strength low alloy steels

2.2.4 Quenched and tempered alloy steels

3 Steel vs. concrete

4 Thermal properties

5 Fireproofing of structural steel

COMMON STRUCTURAL SHAPES

In most developed countries, the shapes available are set out in published
standards, although a number of specialist and proprietary cross sections are also
available.

I-beam (I-shaped cross-section - in Britain these include Universal Beams (UB) and
Universal Columns (UC); in Europe it includes the IPE, HE, HL, HD and other
sections; in the US it includes Wide Flange (WF) and H sections)

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Z-Shape (half a flange in opposite directions)

HSS-Shape (Hollow structural section also known as SHS (structural hollow


section) and including square, rectangular, circular (pipe) and elliptical cross
sections)

Angle (L-shaped cross-section)

Channel ( [-shaped cross-section)

Tee (T-shaped cross-section)

Rail profile (asymmetrical I-beam)

Railway rail

Vignoles rail

Flanged T rail

Grooved rail

Bar a piece of metal, rectangular cross sectioned (flat) and long, but not so wide so
as to be called a sheet.

Rod, a round or square and long piece of metal or wood, see also rebar and dowel.

Plate, sheet metal thicker than 6 mm or 1/4 in.

Open web steel joist

While many sections are made by hot or cold rolling, others are made by welding
together flat or bent plates (for example, the largest circular hollow sections are made
from flat plate bent into a circle and seam-welded).

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Standard structural steels

Most steels used throughout Europe are specified to comply with the European
standard EN 10025. However, many national standards also remain in force.

Typical grades are described as 'S275J2' or 'S355K2W'. In these examples, 'S'


denotes structural rather than engineering steel; 275 or 355 denotes the yield strength
in newtons per square millimetre or the equivalent megapascals; J2 or K2 denotes
the materials toughness by reference to Charpy impact test values; and the 'W'
denotes weathering steel. Further letters can be used to designate normalized steel
('N' or 'NL'); quenched and tempered steel ('Q' or 'QL'); and thermo mechanically
rolled steel ('M' or 'ML').

The normal yield strength grades available are 195, 235, 275, 355, 420, and 460,
although some grades are more commonly used than others e.g. in the UK, almost
all structural steel is grades S275 and S355. Higher grades are available in quenched
and tempered material (500, 550, 620, 690, 890 and 960 - although grades above
690 receive little if any use in construction at present).]

Thermal properties

The properties of steel vary widely, depending on its alloying elements.

The austenizing temperature, the temperature where a steel transforms to an


austenite crystal structure, for steel starts at 900°C for pure iron, then, as more carbon
is added, the temperature falls to a minimum 724°C for eutectic steel (steel with only
.83% by weight of carbon in it). As 2.1% carbon (by mass) is approached, the
austenizing temperature climbs back up, to 1130°C. Similarly, the melting point of
steel changes based on the alloy.

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The lowest temperature at which a plain carbon steel can begin to melt, its solidus,
is 1130 °C. Steel never turns into a liquid below this temperature. Pure Iron ('Steel'
with 0% Carbon) starts to melt at 1492 °C (2720 °F), and is completely liquid upon
reaching 1539 °C (2802 °F). Steel with 2.1% Carbon by weight begins melting at
1130 °C (2066 °F), and is completely molten upon reaching 1315 °C (2400 °F).
'Steel' with more than 2.1% Carbon is no longer Steel, but is known as Cast iron.
http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/phase-trans/images/FeC.gif

Fireproofing of structural steel

In order for a fireproofing product to qualify for a certification listing of structural


steel, through a fire test, the critical temperature is set by the national standard, which
governs the test. In Japan, this is below 400°C. In China, Europe and North America,
it is set at ca. 540°C. The time it takes for the steel element that is being tested to
reach the temperature set by the national standard determines the duration of the fire-
resistance rating.

Care must be taken to ensure that thermal expansion of structural elements does not
damage fire-resistance rated wall and floor assemblies. Penetrants in a firewalls and
ferrous cable trays in organic firestops should be installed in accordance with an
appropriate certification listing that complies with the local building code.

2.2DESCRIPTION OF THE HYDRAULICS COMPONENTS

1 Operation Pumps convert mechanical input of motor into pressure energy of fluid.
Hydraulic actuators do just the opposite. They convert the pressure energy of fluid
into mechanical output to perform useful work. Fluid power is transmitted through
either linear (or) rotary motion. Linear motion is obtained by using linear actuators
called hydraulic cylinders Rotary motion is obtained by using rotary actuators called

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hydraulic motors. Rotary actuators are the hydraulic and pneumatic equivalent of an
electric motor.

2 Parts of a hydraulic cylinder

2.1 Cylinder barrel

2.2 Cylinder Bottom or Cap

2.3 Cylinder Head

2.4 Piston

2.5 Piston Rod

2.6 Rod Gland

2.7 Other parts

3 Hydraulic Cylinder Designs

3.1 Tie Rod Cylinders

3.2 Welded Body Cylinders

4 Piston Rod constructions

4.1 Metallic coatings

4.2 Ceramic coatings

4.3 Lengths

5 Special hydraulic cylinders

5.1 Telescopic cylinder

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5.2 Plunger cylinder

5.3 Differential cylinder

5.4 Rephasing cylinder

OPERATION OF HYDRAULIC CYLINDER

Hydraulic cylinders get their power from pressurized hydraulic fluid, which is
typically oil. The hydraulic cylinder consists of a cylinder barrel, in which a piston
connected to a piston rod moves back and forth. The barrel is closed on each end by
the cylinder bottom (also called the cap end) and by the cylinder head where the
piston rod comes out of the cylinder. The piston has sliding rings and seals. The
piston divides the inside of the cylinder in two chambers, the bottom chamber (cap
end) and the piston rod side chamber (rod end). The hydraulic pressure acts on the
piston to do linear work and motion.

Flanges, trunnions, and/or clevises are mounted to the cylinder body. The piston rod
also has mounting attachments to connect the cylinder to the object or machine
component that it is pushing.

A hydraulic cylinder is the actuator or "motor" side of this system. The "generator"
side of the hydraulic system is the hydraulic pump which brings in a fixed or
regulated flow of oil to the bottom side of the hydraulic cylinder, to move the piston
rod upwards. The piston pushes the oil in the other chamber back to the reservoir. If
we assume that the oil pressure in the piston rod chamber is approximately zero, the
force on the piston rod equals the pressure in the cylinder times the piston area
(F=PA).

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The piston moves instead downwards if oil is pumped into the piston rod side
chamber and the oil from the piston area flows back to the reservoir without pressure.
The pressure in the piston rod area chamber is (Pull Force) / (piston area - piston rod
area).

CUT SECTION OF THE HYDRAULIC CYLINDER AND ITS TYPES

PARTS OF HYDRAULIC CYLINDER

A hydraulic cylinder consists of the following parts:

Cylinder barrel

The cylinder barrel is mostly a seamless thick walled forged pipe that must be
machined internally. The cylinder barrel is ground and/or honed internally.

Cylinder Bottom or Cap

In most hydraulic cylinders, the barrel and the bottom portion are welded together.
This can damage the inside of the barrel if done poorly. Therefore some cylinder
designs have a screwed or flanged connection from the cylinder end cap to the barrel.
(See "Tie Rod Cylinders" below) In this type the barrel can be disassembled and
repaired in future.

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Cylinder Head

The cylinder head is sometimes connected to the barrel with a sort of a simple lock
(for simple cylinders). In general however the connection is screwed or flanged.
Flange connections are the best, but also the most expensive. A flange has to be
welded to the pipe before machining. The advantage is that the connection is bolted
and always simple to remove. For larger cylinder sizes, the disconnection of a screw
with a diameter of 300 to 600 mm is a huge problem as well as the alignment during
mounting.

Piston

The piston is a short, cylinder-shaped metal component that separates the two sides
of the cylinder barrel internally. The piston is usually machined with grooves to fit
elastomeric or metal seals. These seals are often O-rings, U-cups or cast iron rings.
They prevent the pressurized hydraulic oil from passing by the piston to the chamber
on the opposite side. This difference in pressure between the two sides of the piston
causes the cylinder to extend and retract. Piston seals vary in design and material
according to the pressure and temperature requirements that the cylinder will see in
service. Generally speaking, elastomeric seals made from nitrile rubber or other
materials are best in lower temperature environments while seals made of Viton are
better for higher temperatures. The best seals for high temperature are cast iron
piston rings.

Piston Rod

The piston rod is typically a hard chrome-plated piece of cold-rolled steel which
attaches to the piston and extends from the cylinder through the rod-end head. In
double rod-end cylinders, the actuator has a rod extending from both sides of the
piston and out both ends of the barrel.
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The piston rod connects the hydraulic actuator to the machine component
doing the work. This connection can be in the form of a machine thread or a
mounting attachment such as a rod-clevis or rod-eye. These mounting attachments
can be threaded or welded to the piston rod or, in some cases, they are a machined
part of the rod-end.

Rod Gland

The cylinder head is fitted with seals to prevent the pressurized oil from leaking past
the interface between the rod and the head. This area is called the rod gland. It often
has another seal called a rod wiper which prevents contaminants from entering the
cylinder when the extended rod retracts back into the cylinder. The rod gland also
has a rod bearing.

This bearing supports the weight of the piston rod and guides it as it passes
back and forth through the rod gland. In some cases, especially in small hydraulic
cylinders, the rod gland and the rod bearing are made from a single integral machined
part.

Other parts

Cylinder bottom connection

Seals

Cushions

A hydraulic cylinder should be used for pushing and pulling only. No bending
moments or side loads should be transmitted to the piston rod or the cylinder. For
this reason, the ideal connection of a hydraulic cylinder is a single clevis with a

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spherical ball bearing. This allows the hydraulic actuator to move and allow for any
misalignment between the actuator and the load it is pushing.

SPECIAL HYDRAULIC CYLINDER

Telescopic cylinder

The length of a hydraulic cylinder is the total of the stroke, the thickness of the
piston, the thickness of bottom and head and the length of the connections. Often
this length does not fit in the machine. In that case the piston rod is also used as a
piston barrel and a second piston rod is used. These kind of cylinders are called
telescopic cylinders. If we call a normal rod cylinder single stage, telescopic
cylinders are multi-stage units of two, three, four, five and even six stages. In general
telescopic cylinders are much more expensive than normal cylinders. Most
telescopic cylinders are single acting (push). Double acting telescopic cylinders must
be specially designed and manufactured.

Plunger cylinder

Plunger cylinder

A hydraulic cylinder without a piston or with a piston without seals is called a


plunger cylinder. A plunger cylinder can only be used as a pushing cylinder; the
maximum force is piston rod area multiplied by pressure. This means that a piston
cylinder in general has a relatively thick piston rod.

Differential cylinder

A differential cylinder acts like a normal cylinder when pulling. If the cylinder
however has to push, the oil from the piston rod side of the cylinder is not returned
to the reservoir, but goes to the bottom side of the cylinder.

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In such a way, the cylinder goes much faster, but the maximum force the
cylinder can give is like a plunger cylinder. A differential cylinder can be
manufactured like a normal cylinder, and only a special control is added.

SELECTION OF HYDRULIC CYLINDER

While selecting a hydraulic cylinder the following design information are required

1. Types of cylinder
2. Cylinder stoke requirement

3. Thrust stroke requirement

4. Construction

5. Cylinder control and special seal requirements

6. Counter balance of loads

HYDRAULIC PUMP
Hydraulic pumps are used in hydraulic drive systems and can be hydrostatic or
hydrodynamic. Hydrostatic pumps are positive displacement pumps while
hydrodynamic pumps can be fixed displacement pumps, in which the displacement
(flow through the pump per rotation of the pump) cannot be adjusted or variable
displacement pumps, which have a more complicated construction that allows the
displacement to be adjusted.

HYDRAULIC PUMP TYPE &WORKING PRINCIPLES

1. Gear pumps

2. Gerotor pumps

3. Rotary vane pumps


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4. Screw pump

5. Piston pump

6. Axial pump with swash plate

HYDRAULIC PUMP WORKING PRINCIPLES

1.Gear pumps

Gear pumps (with external teeth) (fixed displacement) are simple and economical
pumps. The swept volume or displacement of gear pumps for hydraulics will be
between about 1 cm3 (0.001 litre) and 200 cm3 (0.2 litre). These pumps create
pressure through the meshing of the gear teeth, which forces fluid around the gears
to pressurize the outlet side. Some gear pumps can be quite noisy, compared to other
types, but modern gear pumps are highly reliable and much quieter than older
models.

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2. Gerotor pumps

Gerotor pumps (fixed displacement) are a variation of gear pumps, having internal
teeth of optimized design. The efficiency and noise level are very good for such a
medium pressure pump.

3.Screw pumps

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Screw pumps (fixed displacement) are a double Archimedes spiral, but closed. This
means that two screws are used in one body. The pumps are used for high flows and
relatively low pressure (max 100 bar). They were used on board ships where the
constant pressure hydraulic system was going through the whole ship, especially for
the control of ball valves, but also for the steering gear and help drive systems. The
advantage of the screw pumps is the low sound level of these pumps; the efficiency
is not that high.

4. Vane Pumps

 The leakage in a gear pump through the small gaps between the teeth and also
between teeth and pump housing is reduced in the vane pump. The vane
pumps reduces this leakage by using spring loaded vanes.

The following are important types of vane pumps.

1. Unbalanced Vane pump

 The rotor contains radial slots. The rotor is splined to the drive shaft and
rotates inside a cam ring. Vanes are fit and sliding in the slots of the rotor and
they are carried around by the rotor.
 These vanes are kept in continuous contact with the cam surface by centrifugal
force (or) by springs. The rotor is offset within the pump housing i.e. There is
an eccentricity between the centre of rotor and centre of cam rings.

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 If the eccentricity is zero, there is no flow. During one-half revolution of the
rotor, the volume increases between the rotor and cam ring.
 The resulting volume expansion causes a reduction of pressure i.e., vacuum.
This vacuum causes the fluid to flow through the inlet port.
 When the rotor rotates, through second half revolution, the cam ring surface
pushes the vanes back into their slots and the trapped volume is reduced.
 This positively ejects the trapped liquid through the outlet port.

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A balanced vane pump has two lobes on the cam surface on opposite sides of the
shaft. The cam surface, instead of being circular, is roughly elliptical, so that each
vane makes two strokes on each revolution of the shaft.

 This pump has two intake parts and two outlet ports diametrically opposite to
each other. Thus, the pressure ports are opposite to each other and a complete
hydraulic balance is achieved. Since the cam ring is an elliptical one, it forms
two separate pumping chambers on opposite sides of the rotor. So the side
load produced by one chamber is exactly balanced by an equal side load from
the other chamber. Thus, the bearing loads from internal pressure are zero and
it permits the higher operating pressures.
 Balanced vane pumps have much improved service lives than unbalanced
vane pumps. Balanced vane pumps, due to its symmetrical construction, are
difficult to design as a variable displacement pumps.
 These vane pumps costs a little more than the gear pumps of comparable
quality. Bearing loads are low (zero). Vane pumps are more sensitive to dirt
than gear pumps.

5. Piston pump

 A piston pump is similar to reciprocating engine. It can draw in liquid when


retracts in cylinder and discharge it when it extends.
There are two types of piston pumps

1. Axial piston pumps (a) Swash plate design (b) Bent axis design.

2. Radial piston pump.

 In axial pump, the piston is moving parallel to the axis of the cylinder block.

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In radial pump, the piston is moving radially in the cylinder block.

6.Axial pump with swash plate

 In this pump, multiple pistons are arranged in a rotating cylinder. The pistons
stroked by a fixed angled plate which is known as swash plate. Each piston
has contact with the swash plate by rotating shoe plate linked to it.
 When the cylinder rotates, the pistons reciprocate because the piston shoes
folio the angled surface of the swash plate. Pump capacity can be changed by
altering the angle of the swash plate.
 If we increase the angle, the capacity will be increased. If the swash plate is
vertical; then the capacity will be zero and even the flow can be reversed by
changing the angle of swash plate.
 So the angle of tilt of the swash plate determines the piston stroke and
therefore, determines the pump displacement and flow.

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4.2 PUMP SLECTION

Pumps are selected by considering the following factors:

1. Discharge (flow rate) requirements. (in liters/mm)

2. Operating speed (in rpm)

3. Pressure rating (in bar)

4. Performance

5. Reliability

6. Maintenance

7. Cost

8. Noise

HYDRAULIC CIRCUITS

Introduction

 A hydraulic circuit consists of various components like pumps, actuators and


control valves and they are arranged in a systematic manner to perform useful
task.
The following are the important factors to be considered while designing a hydraulic

circuits.

1. Safety of operation

2. Performance of desired function

3. Efficiency of operation.

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Single acting hydraulic cylinder circuit (Reciprocation circuit)

 The following circuit shows a two position, two ways, manually operated,
spring offset. Direction Control Valve (DCV) which is used to control the
operation of a single acting cylinder.
 In the right envelope flow path configuration (ie. in the spring offset mode)
the pump flow goes to the tank via the .pressure relief valve. The spring in the
cylinder retracts the piston to send the oil back to the tank.
 When the valve is shifted to the left envelope flow path configuration, the
pump
flow extends the piston. Once complete extension is over, the pump flow goes
through the pressure relief valve.

 If we deactivate the DCV, then it allows the piston to retract as the DCV shifts
to right envelope flow path configuration mode. (ie spring offset mode).
 During this spring offset mode as well as at the end of full extension mode,
the full pump flow goes to the tank through the pressure relief valve.

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HYDRAULIC FLUIDS AND ITS CHARACTER’S

Hydraulic fluids, also called hydraulic liquids, are the medium by which
power is transferred in hydraulic machinery. Common hydraulic fluids are based on
mineral oil or water. Examples of equipment that might use hydraulic fluids include
excavators, brakes, power steering systems, transmissions, backhoes, garbage
trucks, aircraft flight control systems and industrial machinery.

Hydraulic systems like the ones mentioned above will work most efficiently if the
hydraulic fluid used has low compressibility.

1 Functions and properties

2 Compositions

Functions and properties

The primary function of a hydraulic fluid is to convey power. In use, however, there
are other important functions of hydraulic fluid such as protection of the hydraulic
machine components. The table below lists the major functions of a hydraulic fluid
and the properties of a fluid that affect its ability to perform that function:

Function property

Medium for power transfer and control Low compressibility (high bulk
modulus)

Fast air release

Low foaming tendency

Low volatility

Medium for heat transfer Good thermal capacity and conductivity


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Sealing Medium Adequate viscosity and viscosity index

Shear stability

Lubricant Viscosity for film maintenance

Low temperature fluidity

Functioning life Material compatibility

Composition

Hydraulic fluids can contain a wide range of chemical compounds, including: oils,
butanol, esters (e.g. phthalates, like DEHP, and adipates, like bis(2-ethylhexyl)
adipate), polyalkylene glycols (PAG), phosphate esters (e.g. tributylphosphate),
silicones, alkylated aromatic hydrocarbons, polyalphaolefins (PAO) (e.g.
polyisobutenes), corrosion inhibitors, etc.

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6. COMPARISON OF PNEUMATIC SYSTEM

WITH HYDRUALIC SYSTEM

 Liquids exhibit greater inertia than gases. Therefore, in hydraulic systems, the
weight of oil is a potential problem when accelerating and decelerating the
actuators and when suddenly opening and closing the valves. In accordance
with Newton’s law of motion, the force required to accelerate oil is many
times greater than that required to accelerate an equal volume of air.
 Liquids also exhibit greater viscosity than gases. This results in larger
frictional pressure and power losses.
 Since hydraulic systems use a fluid foreign to the atmosphere, they require
reservoirs and a no-leak system design. Pneumatic systems use air which is
exhausted directly back into the surrounding environment. Generally,
pneumatic systems are less expensive than hydraulic systems.
 Due to compressibility of air, it is impossible to obtain a precise control of
actuator velocities in pneumatic systems. In applications where the actuator
travel is to be smooth and steady against a variable load, the air exhaust from
the actuator is normally metered.
 While pneumatic pressures are quite low due to the compressor design,
hydraulic pressures are high. Thus, hydraulics can be used in high power
systems whereas pneumatics are confined to low power applications.

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DESIGN CALCULATIONS

MAX. LENGTH OF THE RAM = 170mm

DIA OF THE RESERVOIR = 88mm

DIA OF THE RAM = 42mm

LENGTH OF THE PULLER ARM = 225mm + 30mm (hinged edge of 40mm


by welding process + hand forging)

DIA OF THE PULLER ARM = 10mm

LENGTH OF THE BASE = 150mm

BREADTH OF THE BASE = 125mm

Diameter of cylinder base: 42

Delivery pressure of the pump is 8.6/mm^2

Formula used

Pressure=force/area

To find the maximum capacity of load to be apply:

8.6=F/ ((3.14/4))*42^2)

F = 11.914 tons

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7. CONSTRUCTION AND LINE DIAGRAM OF DESIGN AND

FABRICATION OF MINI HYDRAULIC PALM CUP MAKING MACHINE

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8. WORKING PRINCIPLE

A hydraulic press is a machine that uses pressurized liquid to create force. These
machines are composed of a simple cylinder and piston mechanism. The press consists of
a large cylinder and the small cylinder, with a large piston, and a small cylinder and a small
piston. The large cylinder and the small cylinders are connected to one another by means
of a pipe. The two cylinders, and the pipe connecting them, are filled with a liquid. At this
point, the function of the hydraulic press depends on Pascal’s principle.pascals principle
states that when pressure is added to a liquid at rest, there is an identical increase in pressure
at all points. Applying this principle to the hydraulic press by means that any force that is
added to the piston in the smaller cylinder will be ISSN:2455-2631@july 2017
IJSDR|volume 2, issue 7 IJSDR1707035 international journal of scientific development
and research(IJSDR) ww.ijsdr.org 228transfered to the piston in the larger cylinder, in a
propositionally increased level of force. This allows a hydraulic press to produce a great
deal of force from the application of a small amount of force to the small piston.this
increase of the force produced by the larger piston is proportionally larger than the force
exerted on the small piston. The amount of the increase depends on the ratio of the sizes of
the piston. For an example, if the ratio of the sizes of the two pistons is 10, and the amount
of force applied to the small piston is 50 N, the amount of force that the large piston will
produce is 500 N. hydraulic presses can be used in any task that requires a larger amount
of force. These can be including any type of lifting as well, since the hydraulic press can
work as a type of lever. These presses are the most efficient contemporary press, as well as
the most common.

ADVANTAGES

 quite simple
 easy maintenance
 low cast

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DISADVANTAGES

 getting very tired when continuous process

APPLICATIONS

 Used in small and large scale industries and cable wire making industries

etc..,

LIMITATIONS
1. Oil leakages are there, which makes the machines ugly and dust and dirt are
adhering to them.
2. The life of the parts, like seals, packing and gaskets etc., are very short. But
they are essential to prevent leakage.
3. Hydraulic system becomes costlier.

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10. COST ESTIMATION

MATERIAL
S.NO COMPONENT QUANTITY COST(RS)
USED

1 Hydraulic pump 1 M.S 2400

Internal structure
2 work &machining - 3500
work

3 Hydraulic fluid 1 - 350

4 Structure work 1 M.S 1000

5. Return valve 1 - 350

TOTAL 7600

Total cost =7600

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CONCLUSION:

This work has provided a n excellent opportunity and experience, to use


limited kno wledge. It has gained a lot of practical knowledge regarding, planning,
purchasing, assembling and machining whiile doing this project work. The work is
a good solution to brid ge the gates between institution and industries. The work is
completed the work with the limited time successfully. The “HYDRAULIC PIPE
BENDING MACHINE” is working with satisfactory

conditions. Before concludi ng a point to note is that the particular pipe bending
machine which we have designed for multiple operation. To facilita te the above,
there is a provision in the frame to change the table if necessary. Thus if we want to
perform any press operations using die and punch, than a table having a provision to
hold a die can be used and corresponding punch can be fix ed to the ram.

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BIBLOGRAPHY

 GUPTA J.K and KHURUMI R.S (1981) “Text book of Machine Design”,
S.Chand & comp and.

 Parr. ANDREW (2003) ‘Hydraulic & Pneumatics’ Butterworth Heimann Ltd

 Dr.D.K.AGGARVAL & Dr.P.C SHARMA(2004) “machine design”,


S.K.Kataria and sons

 MAJUMDAR.S.R “Pneumatic systems”, Tata mcgraw-hills company ltd.

 SRINIVASAN.R(2004) “Hydraulic & pneumatic controls”, vijay Nicole


imprints private ltd.

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