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SAE INDIA

SOUTHERN SECTION
AERO DESIGN CHALLENGE-2018
DESIGN REPORT

SUBMITTED BY,

TEAM NAME: RAASALI


TEAM ID : ADC20180148
TEAM MEMBERS:

1. KIRAN. M (CAPTAIN)

2. DEEPAK. M.S

3. MANIVANNAN. R

4. MOHAMED RAFI .J

5. NIVEDHAN. D.N
6. SHYLESH. M

7. HARIESSH.B

GUIDED BY

Mr. ASHOK.R
Assistant Professor

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Panimalar Institute of Technology

Chennai 600123

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Scanned by CamScanner
TABLE OF CONTENTS
S.NO TITLE PAGE NO
1 INTRODUCTION 4
1.1 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN 4
1.2 PRELIMINARY DESIGN 4
1.3 DETAIL DESIGN 4
2 GOAL 4
3 EXECUTION ALGORITHM 5
4 PRELIMINARY DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 5
5 MISSION PROFILE 6
6 SELECTION OF AIR FOIL 6
6.1 POLAR DATA TABLE 7
7 WING DESIGN 8
7.1 CALCULATION OF WING PLATFORM AREA 8
8 FORCE CALCULATION 9
9 SIZING AND WEIGHT 10
9.1 MAJOR DIMENSIONS OF THE AIRCRAFT 13
10 POWER CALCULATIONS 13
10.1 RESULT 16
11 SELECTION OF PROPELLER 17
12 SELECTION OF MOTOR 18
13 BATTERY 19
14 SERVO 19
15 ELECTRONIC SPEED CONTROL UNIT 20
16 LANDING GEARS 21
17 OTHER COMPONENTS 22
18 FLIGHT REMOTE CONTROL SYSTEM 23
18.1 RECIEVER AND AUTO PILOT 23
18.2 TRANSMITTER 23
19 STRUCTURAL WEIGHT ESTIMATION 24
20 CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS 25
21 3-DIMENSIONAL VIEW OF AIRCRAFT 27
22 2-DIMENSIONAL VIEW OF AIRCRAFT 28
23 TECH DATA SHEET: THEORETICAL PAYLOAD 29
PREDICTION
24 REFERENCE 30

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1. INTRODUCTION
Aircraft design is an iterative process. The design depends on many factors such as customer
and manufacturer demand, safety protocols, physical and economic constraints etc. It is a compromise
between many competing factors and constraints and accounts for existing designs and market
requirements to produce the best aircraft. The design starts out in three phases:

1.1 Conceptual Design


This involves sketching up a variety of possible configurations that meet the required design
specifications. Fundamental aspects like fuselage shape, wing configuration and location, engine
size/power plant size and type are all determined at this stage. Constraints to design are taken into
account at this stage.

1.2 Preliminary Design


At this stage, the design configuration arrived at in the conceptual design phase is then tweaked
and remodelled to fit into the design parameters. Major structural and control analysis is also carried
out in this phase. Aerodynamic flaws and structural instabilities if any are corrected and the final design
is drawn and finalised.

1.3 Detail Design


This phase deals with the fabrication aspect of the aircraft. It determines the number, design and
location of ribs, spars, sections and other structural elements. All aerodynamic, structural, propulsion,
control and performance aspects have already been covered in the preliminary design phase.

2. GOAL
The goal is to design a flying model of a miniature aircraft mainly intended to undertake
surveillance missions and reconnaissance at national border lines. The most common aircrafts i.e. the
remote-controlled aircrafts have multiple applications such as in military, weather forecast, topological
survey, reconnaissance etc.

The team’s primary plan is to design for surveillance using Thermal Imaging in borders lines
to track the other country’s military forces entry into our nation and to study zone’s militant movements

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through the collected data. The surveillance aircraft can also be used during disasters to scan for humans
and also in forest zone to capture poacher activities.

3. EXECUTION ALGORITHM

Assigning Selection of Calculating


work to each aerofoil by geometry of
team design team flight
members

Selection of battery Selection of Calculation of


and electronic motor and lift and drag
circuit propeller

4. PRELIMINARY DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

SNO PARAMETER PRELIMINERY ESTIMATE


1 flying weight 2kg – 5kg
2 aspect ratio 5– 8
3 Wing type High wing
Electrical power plant inclusive of
4 Power plant battery, motor, electronic speed control
(ESC) and propeller
5 Aerodynamic control Rudder, elevator, ailerons, flaps
6 Thrust to weight ratio To be decided

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5. MISSION PROFILE

S. No PARAMETER DESIGN VALUE


1. Vstall 10 m/s
2. Vcruise 20 m/s
3. Vmax 25 m/s
4. Take off distance 400 feet
5. Range / Endurance ~15 minutes of flight time (includes take off, climb to
cruise altitude, descent and landing time)
6. Landing distance 400 m

6. SELECTION OF AEROFOIL
The selection of the airfoil was based on requirements for the military based aircraft, which
shall be of STOL (Shorter Take Off and Landing) type and also a higher lift for the payload. From the
catalogue of aerofoils the design specifications that were required to be met, such as take-off, cruise,
stall and manoeuvre characteristics.

Other than NACA series with the 2% camber and higher radius of curve at the trailing end, the
airfoil we have chosen is

[RolfGirsberger] RG 15 A 2.5/13.0 AIRFOIL

Maxthickness 13% at 30.2% chord.

Maxcamber 2.5 % at 39.7% chord

Chord: 250mm

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6.1 POLAR DATA TABLE
Alpha Cl Cd Cdp Cm Top Xtr BtmXtr

-2.7500 -0.1929 0.0196 0.0134 -0.0418 0.9449 0.6645

-2.5000 -0.1653 0.0199 0.0138 -0.0409 0.9342 0.7166

-2.0000 -0.1041 0.0205 0.0142 -0.0396 0.9157 0.7913

-1.5000 -0.0537 0.0207 0.0144 -0.0359 0.8965 0.8527

-1.0000 -0.0013 0.0207 0.0143 -0.0331 0.8757 0.9012

-0.5000 0.0990 0.0206 0.0140 -0.0396 0.8612 0.9429

0.0000 0.2766 0.0200 0.0132 -0.0611 0.8551 0.9646

0.5000 0.4216 0.0189 0.0119 -0.0775 0.8408 0.9831

1.0000 0.5516 0.0175 0.0104 -0.0913 0.8211 0.9976

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1.5000 0.6060 0.0169 0.0098 -0.0913 0.7905 1.0000

2.0000 0.6474 0.0167 0.0094 -0.0886 0.7590 1.0000

3.5000 0.7480 0.0167 0.0092 -0.0763 0.6633 1.0000

4.0000 0.7818 0.0170 0.0094 -0.0722 0.6306 1.0000

4.5000 0.8235 0.0175 0.0097 -0.0695 0.5954 1.0000

5.0000 0.8698 0.0179 0.0101 -0.0675 0.5595 1.0000

5.5000 0.9179 0.0185 0.0105 -0.0659 0.5235 1.0000

6.0000 0.9632 0.0192 0.0111 -0.0638 0.4864 1.0000

6.7500 1.0285 0.0203 0.0121 -0.0603 0.4296 1.0000

7. WING DESIGN
There are several types of airplane configurations that fit with in the specifications of the
competition that the team had to choose from. The team spent time brainstorming and presented ideas
to each other which consisted of wing configurations, airfoil profiles and other body configurations.
The team’s first decision was between the monoplane, bi-plane, tri-plane, and delta wing designs.

7.1 Calculation of wing planform area :


Wing type: Rectangular planform with elliptical tip High wing

250

300 1000 300


All di e sio s are i

Airfoil Chord Length ( c ) = 0.25 metres

Area of the wing ( A )= Area of centre rectangle + 2 x Area of ellipse quarter

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= × + × × × ×

= .

Aspect ratio =
𝐴

=
.
= 6.918

8. FORCE CALCULATION

LIFT FORCE

L = ρ× ×𝐴×

Where ρ = 1.225 kg/m3(standard air density at STP) A = 0.37 m2

V = 10 m/s

The coefficient of drag at 25m/s air stream and 1.8 bar static
pressure is Cl = 1.028

L = 0.5 x 1.225 x 102 x 0.37 x 1.028

L = 23.3 N

DRAG FORCE

D = ρ× ×𝐴×
The coefficient of drag at 25m/s air stream and 1.8 bar static
pressure is Cd = 0.02032
D = 0.5 x 1.225 x 100 x 0.37 x 0.02032
D= 0.46 N

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9. SIZING & WEIGHT
HORIZONTAL TAIL
Surface area of horizontal stabilizer = 0.25 x wing area
= 0.25 x 0.37
= 0.1

Volume of each stabilizer = area x thickness = 0.1 x 0.005



= ×


Weight of each stabilizers = density x volume = × ×
= 0.075 Kg
= 75 g

Total weight = 2 x 75 = 150 grams [ ⸪ 2 stabilizers ]

VERTICAL TAIL
Area = 0.35 x wing area
= 0.35 x 0.37
= 0.13 m2

Volume = 0.13 x 0.005



= 6.47 x


Weight = 150 x 6.47 x
=97.12g

VERTICAL TAIL SIZING :


L T ∗S T
CVT=
b ∗s

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[ bw- wing span, sw- wing area]
Moment arm LVT= 0.6 x fuselage length
=0.6 x1232
=739.2 mm
Vertical tail area,
C T ×s ×b .04×1.6×0.3
SVT= =
L T .
=0.032 m2
Assume,
AR=1.4

Aspect ratio =
𝐴
b
1.4=
.

b = 0.21 m
Vertical tail span , b = 210mm

SVT = b x c
.
c =
.

c = 152mm

( take taper ratio = 0.4 )


SVT = 0.5 x b x (Cr+Ct)
2c = 1.4 Cr
2 x152 =1.4 x Cr
Cr =217.14mm [Cr-root chord]
Ct = Cr x 0.4
=217.14 x 0.4
Ct =86.85 mm [Ct- tip chord]

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HOIZONAL TAIL WING

LHT SHT
CHT=
C s
LHT = 60% of fuselage length
= 0.6 x 1232
=0.74 m
Assume ,
CHT=0.5
CHT S C
SHT=
LHT
. . .
=
.

SHT= 0.063 m2

Location of main wing from nose tip = 20% of fuselage length


= 0.20 x 1232
= 0.246 m
SHT
Chord of horizontal tail =
CHT
.
=
.

= 0.45 m
Location of horizontal tail from main wing nose = 60% of the fuselage
length mm
= 0.62 x 1232
= 0.76 m
= 763.84 mm

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9.1 MAJOR DIMENSIONS OF THE AIRCRAFT
S.No. Component Dimensions

1 Wing span 1600 mm


2 Wing chord 250mm
3 Wing Area 0.37 m2
4 Aspect Ratio 6.918
5 Fuselage Length 1232 mm
6 Horizontal Tail Span 450 mm
7 Horizontal Tail chord 180 mm
8 Vertical Tail Root Chord 217.14 mm
9 Vertical Tail Tip chord 86.85 mm
10 Vertical Tail Height 210 mm
11 Vertical Tail Area 0.037 m2
12 Distance of main wing from nose tip 246 mm
13 Location of horizontal tail from main wing 763.84 mm
nose

10. POWER CALCULATIONS


Thrust to Weight ratio for take-off conditions
STO = SG + Sa
= 50 m
. ×
Turn radius, R =
𝑔

. ×
=
.
R= 7.95 m
Maximum height . hob = 1 m (for landing)
ℎ𝑜
𝜃 = cos − −

=cos − −
.

𝜃 = 9.63 ̊

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Sa = R Sin𝜃
Sa= . × − 𝑠𝑖 . ̊
=11.87m
SG = STO-Sa
= 50 - 11.87
SG = 38.13m
𝑊
. ×
SG =
𝑔 × 𝜌∞ × 𝐿 𝑥×𝑊× . 𝐿

VLO= 1.1 VSTALL


V∞ = 0.7 VLO
𝑊
. ×
. =
𝑔 × 𝜌∞ × 𝐿 𝑥× 𝐺

. × .
=
. × . × . × .

= 0.0846

= 0.651

ꞂPROP = 0.6

Power,
/ . 𝐿 ∞ 𝑔
P=

. . . .
=
.

Power= 23.43W

Thrust to Weight ratio for cruising conditions


= /

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CDO =

.
CL =√
.

CL=0.77

⁄ 𝑚 =√
𝜌 ∞ 𝐿

.
=√
. .

⁄ 𝑚 = 8.36 m/s

𝑅 Ꞃ .
⁄ 𝑎 = 𝜌∞
√ / 𝑥

⁄ =
𝑚 √

=
√ . .

⁄ = 20.80
𝑚

Ꞃ 𝑅 .
= ⁄ 𝑎 + ⁄ 𝑚 )

𝑥

. .
=2+ .
. ∗ . .

P = 88.62 W

=
⁄ ⁄ 𝑥

. .
=
. . .

= 0.29

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Thrust to Weight ratio for maximum velovity conditions
= 𝟓 /

= ∞ 𝑎 + 𝑠
𝑠 𝜌∞ 𝑎

. .
= .
.
+ .
.

= . + .

=0.128

𝑊 𝑥
𝑥
P=

. . .
=
.

P=115.104 W
10.1 RESULT
Selection of Power and Thrust to Weight ratio :
𝑻⁄
Condition Power
Take off 23.43W 0.651
Cruising 88.62 W 0.29
Max Velocity 115.104 W 0.128
For a propeller-driven airplane, power to weight ratio is more relevant than the thrust-
to-weight ratio.
The maximum power for which the aircraft has to be designed is 115.104 W which is
during max velocity.
𝑻
Power, P =115.104 W Ratio = 0.651

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11. SELECTION OF PROPELLER

From the power required for motor we have taken the propeller size as 13’’x10’’

Propeller diameter (D)= 22 x 𝐻𝑃4

.
= × × ×

= 13.78 inches

.
Propeller length = = = 6.89 inches

Pitch = 10 inch Diameter = 13 inch


Propeller Brand Description Prop size Blade length
type
High power APC Electric prop 13’’ x 6.5 16.51 cm
flyer

PROPELLER Features:
a) Gray composite propeller
blades that assemble onto a
propeller hub.
b) Comes with five adapter rings
that adapt to different motor
shafts.
c) Comes in a bag attached to a
header card.
d) Diameter: 13"
e) Pitch: 10
f) Hub inner diameter: 0.25"

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12. SELECTION OF MOTOR
The motor we selected to drive the propeller is AVIONIC C3536 KV1100 The
following table shows the test on the motor
VOLTAG CURREN
E PROP THRUST T ESC POWER
7.4V 9x4.7 E 600 gms 10.2A 20A 71.4W
7.4V 10x7 E 650 gms 12.2A 20A 71.4W
7.4V 11x5.5 E 750 gms 16.7A 30A 117W
11.1V 9x4.7 E 1600 gms 34.5A 30A 379.5W
11.1V 10x7 E 1600 gms 32.7A 30A 327W
11.1V 11x5.5 E 1900 gms 32A 30A 300W
14.8V 9x4.7 E 2000 gms 42.5A 40A 595W
14.8V 10x7 E 2300 gms 48.5A 40A 630W
14.8V 11x5.5 E 2700 gms 42.7A 40A 613.6W
14.8V 9x4.7 E 2100 gms 44.7A 60A 626W
14.8V 10x7 E 2300 gms 50A 60A 660.8W
14.8V 11x5.5 E 2700 gms 48.2A 60A 626.8W

Features
(a) High Efficiency
(b) High Power
(c) High Torque
(d) Light-weight
(e) includes propeller adapter
and motor mounts
Specifications
(a) Weight: 0.198 kg
(b) Max Power: 850 W (maximum burst 1480 W)
(c) RPM/V: 1100 rpm
(d) Diameter: 42 mm
(e) Length: 50mm
(f) Shaft Diameter: 5.0mm
(g) Voltage Range: 7.4 – 14.8 V LiPo

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13. BATTERY

Specifications:
Capacity: 2200mAh
Voltage: 4S1P / 4 Cell / 14.8V
Discharge: 35C Constant / 65C Burst
Weight: 233g
Dimensions: 100x34x31mm
Balance Plug: JST-XH
Connector: Deans*

14. SERVO
Item Name: MR.RC SG90 Mini 9g Servo
Product Number: SG90
Weight: 9g
Color: Orange
Voltage: 4.8-6.0V
Stall Torque: 1.5/1.8kg.cm
Speed: 0.12/0.10s/60°
Operating Temperature: -30~+60 ℃
Dead zone set: 5 microsecond
Wire Length: 25cm

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15. ELECTRONIC SPEED CONTROL UNIT

Item Name: Hobbywing SkyWalker 60A UBEC ESC


Constant Current: 60A
Burst Current (>10s): 80A
BEC Mode: switch mode
BEC Output: 5V at 3A
Battery Cell: 2-6 cells Lipo,or 5-18 cells NiHH
Refresh Rate: 50Hz-432Hz
Dimension: 77 x 35 x 14 mm
Weight: 63g

Features:

• Safety Arming Feature: Regardless the throttle stick position, the motor
will not spin after battery connected.
• Throttle Calibration: Throttle range can be configured to provide best
throttle linearity, fully compatible with all market available transmitters.
• Selectable program setting
• Full Protection Features: Low voltage cutoff protection / Over-heat
protection / Throttle signal lost protection.
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16. LANDING GEARS
The landing gear is the structure that supports an aircraft on the ground and allows
it to taxi, take-off, and land. In fact, landing gear design tends to have several
interferences with the aircraft structural design. In general, there are ten configurations
for a landing gear and are Single main, Bicycle, Tail-gear, Tricycle or nose-gear,
Quadricycle, Multi-bogey, Releasable rail, Skid, Seaplane landing device, Human leg.

The tri-cycle landing gear layout was chosen over the tail-dragger layout because it has
superior steering during take off and landing and it’s the most commonly used layout.

Tri-cycle landing gear set

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17. OTHER COMPONENTS:

CONTROL HORNS PUSH ROD

SERVO- PUSH ROD PLASTIC HINGES


REGULATOR LINKAGE

CARBON RODS

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18. FLIGHT REMOTE CONTROL SYSTEM

18.1 RECIEVER AND AUTOPILOT

APM Flight Controller Set APM 2.8 6M/H GPS & OSD & Radio Telemetry

FEATURES:
• Arduino Compatible!
• Includes 3-axis gyro, accelerometer, along with a high-performance barometer
• Onboard 4 MegaByte Dataflash chip for automatic datalogging
• Optional off-board GPS, uBlox LEA-6H module with Compass.
• Invensense's 6 DoF Accelerometer/Gyro MPU-6000.
• Barometric pressure sensor
• Atmel's ATMEGA2560 and ATMEGA32U-2 chips for processing and usb functions
USES:
• Point-and-click waypoint entry, using Google Maps.
• Select mission commands from drop-down menus
• Download mission log files and analyze them
• Configure APM settings for your airframe
• Interface with a PC flight simulator to create a full
hardware-in-the-loop UAV simulator.
• See the output from APM’s serial terminal

18.2 TRANSMITTER :
FlySky FS-T6 2.4GHz Digital Proportional 6
Channel Transmitter and Receiver System

• Channels: 6 Channels
• Model Type: Glider/Heli/Airplane
• RF Range: 2.40-2.48GHz
• Bandwidth: 500Hz [Band: 160]
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19. Structural Weight estimation

+
W0 =

Since lift is equal to weight

L = w0 = 23.3 N =2.33 kg

Assuming payload weight as

Wp/l = 0.25 kg

= +

+ +

Wpp= 0.150+0.075+0.200+0.05

Wpp=0.415

. + .
So, 2.373=
− .

.
2.373-We=
.

Hence the structural weight of plane is 2.140 kg.

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20. CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS
1. Balsa wood
2. High density polyethylene foam
3. Depron foam
4. Carbon fire(standard CF fabric)

The materials that can be used for the construction of the RC aircraft

MATERIALS DENSITY SPECIFIC TENSILE COMPRESSIVE ELASTIC


ρ GARVITY STRENGHTH STRENGTH MODULUS

Kg/m3 MPa MPa MPa


Balsa wood 173 0.12 32.2 19.5 1280
High density 30 0.9 21.37 9 0.01
Depron foam 40 0.8 1.3 0.1 11
Carbon fibre 1600 1.8 110 110 17

• Balsa wood is lighter material, lighter the components better the aircraft will fly
• It is the standard material used for model aircraft building since the early days
• It has a outstanding strength to weight ratio
• Balsa also absorbs vibration, impacts easily
• It can also be easily cut or machined
PROPERTIES OF BALSA WOOD

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Covering RC Airplanes with Heat
Shrink Plastic Film
Film is convenient to use, and adds
more strength to the structure than tissue
or silkspan. This covering is commonly
used over balsa wood, although it can
Balsa wood wing frame
also be used over fiberglass, and even
foam (low temperature film only). There
is some skill to applying heat shrink plastic well, and this is a sample photo.

Glues
An airplane kit is almost always assembled using glue. This is not the
Testors plastic cement of your display model airplane. There are specific glues for
different tasks. CA glue - CyanoAcrylate glue. Similar stuff to Krazy Glue, works almost
instantly. Comes in different thicknesses. Generally best for bonding wood to wood.
Also great for bonding fingers to each other. Always use eye protection with theseglues!
Will melt foam (exception: the "odorless" version). Yellow glue - Carpenter's wood glue.
Best for wood. Works much more slowly than CA glue, but can create an ever stronger
bond. Epoxy Glue - A two-part glue that must be mixed. Different working times
are available, eg 5 min, 30 min, 1 hour. Very strong. Will bond almost anything together.
Silicone Glue - Good for bonding rubber or foam. RC56 - Canopy glue.

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21. 3-DIMENSIONAL VEIW OF AIRCRAFT
Designed using SOLIDWORKS ver 2015

ISOMETRIC

TOP FRONT

SIDE

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63.4 3.15 17.7

20.23

9.84
9.68

16.92

8.54

48.50

19.33 College name: PANIMALAR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

Team Name:
PERTINENT DATA
Aerofoil Wing span Chord Empty weight Propeller Motor
AVIONIC
C.G. MINIONS
RG 15A APC Scale:
64” 10” 2100gms C3536 19.33” 1:10 Team id: ADC20170139 28
2.5/13.0 13x6.5 E KV1100
23. TECH DATA SHEET: THEORETICAL PAYLOAD
PREDICTION

Payload weight (lbs) vs Density altitude(ft)


5

4.5
y = 4.43-0.001x
4

3.5
PAYLOAD WEIGHT ( lbs )

2.5
Payload weight (lbs) vs Density
2 altitude(ft)

1.5

0.5

0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000
DENSITY ALTITUDE ( ft )

DENSITY ALTITUDE PAYLOAD WEIGHT


0 4.43
500 3.93
1000 3.43
1500 2.93
2000 2.43
2500 1.93
3000 1.43
3500 0.93
4000 0.43

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24. REFERENCES
[2] For airfoil and their properties: www.airfoiltools.com
[3] ANDERSON J.D., Aircraft Performance and Design, WCB/McGraw Hill, 1999
[4] Anderson, John D., Introduction to Flight, 5th ed
[5] RAYMER D., Aircraft Design-A Conceptual Approach 2nd ed., AIAA Education
Series,AIAA, 1992
[6] RAYMER D., Simplified Aircraft Design book
[7] http://www.ehow.co.uk/list_6164413_properties-balsa-wood.html
[8] http://www.auszac.com/Balsa%20wood%20Properties%20Guide.pdf
[9] http://www.indoorflyingmodel.com/DesignParameters.html
[10] http://www.hobby-lobby.com/
[11] http://www.geistware.com/rcmodeling/cg_super_calc.htm
[12] http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/index.html
[13] http://www.rcpowers.com/e-books.htm
[14] Jon Dansie Model Aircraft Design.pdf
[15] The NACA airfoil series.pdf
[16] Crane, Dale: Dictionary of Aeronautical Terms, third edition, page 194. Aviation
Supplies & Academics, 1997. ISBN 1-56027-287-2
[17] Ross Hoag, A highly integrated UAV avionics system, Cloud Cap Technology,
[18] Robert Nelson, Flight Stability And Automatic Control, WCB/McGraw-Hill,
Ohio,
[19] 1998
[20] Trammell Hudson, “autopilot: Do it yourself UAV,” SourceForge.net, 9 Sep
2001, http://autopilot.sourceforge.net/
[21] Fundamentals of Small Unmanned Aircraft Flight by Jeffrey D. Barton
[22] http://www.banggood.com
[23] https://www.unmannedtechshop.co.uk/ardupilot-apm-2-8-flight-controller-
board/
[24] https://hobbyking.com/en_us/servos/hobbyking.html
[25] http://rcduniya.com/product/avionic-c3536-kv1100-brushless-motor
[26] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_STOL_aircraft
[27] https://www.rcgroups.com/forums
[28] http://web.mit.edu/drela/Public/web/xfoil/
[29] http://www.rcbazaar.com/default.aspx
[30] http://home.anadolu.edu.tr/~mcavcar/common/Stall.pdf
[31] http://m-selig.ae.illinois.edu/uiuc_lsat/Airfoils-at-Low-Speeds.pdf
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