O v [½]
r
M
Earth R
1
Board Answer Paper : March 2016
a. Let,
M = mass of the earth
R = radius of the earth
h = height of the satellite from the earth’s surface
m = mass of the satellite
vc = critical velocity of the satellite in the given orbit
r = (R + h) = radius of the circular orbit [1]
b. For the circular motion of the satellite, the necessary centripetal force is given as,
mvc2
FCP = ….(1)
r
c. The gravitational force of attraction between the earth and the satellite is given by,
GMm
FG = .…(2)
r2
d. Gravitational force provides the centripetal force necessary for the circular motion of
the satellite.
FCP = FG
mv c2 GMm
= ….[From equations (1) and (2)] [½]
r r2
GM
vc2 =
r
GM
vc = .…(3)
r
e. But, r = R + h
GM
vc = ….(4) [½]
(R h)
Also, GM = gh (R + h)2
where, gh is acceleration due to gravity at height ‘h’ above earth’s surface.
vc = gh R h ….(5)
Equations (4) and (5) represent critical velocities of satellite orbiting at a certain height
above the earth’s surface.
iii. a. Let,
M = mass of the body
v = linear velocity of the body
= angular velocity of the body
I = moment of inertia of the body
K = radius of gyration
b. Translational kinetic energy of body,
1
(K.E.)translational = Mv2 [½]
2
Similarly,
Rotational kinetic energy of rolling body is
1
(KE)rotational = I2 [½]
2
c. Total K.E of rolling body = (K.E) translational + (K.E) rotational
1 1
(K.E)rolling = Mv2 + I2
2 2
But I = MK2 [½]
and v = r [½]
2
Physics
1 1 v2
(K.E)rolling = Mv2 + MK2 2
2 2 r
1 K2
(K.E)rolling = Mv2 1 + 2
2 r
iv. a. Emissive power: The emissive power of a body at a given temperature is defined as the
quantity of radiant energy emitted by the body per unit time per unit surface area of the
body at that temperature. [1]
b. Coefficient of emission of a body: The ratio of the emissive power of a body at a given
temperature to the emissive power of a perfectly black body at the same temperature is
called coefficient of emission (emissivity) of the body. [1]
v. Solution:
Given: r = 5 cm = 0.05 m
90
n = 90 r.p.m. = r.p.s.
60
g = 9.8 m/s2
To find: Coefficient of static friction (s)
r2
Formula: s = [½]
g
Calculation:
2 90
Since, = 2n = = 3 rad/s
60
0.05 (3) 2
s = [½]
9.8
0.45 (3.14) 2
=
9.8
= {antilog [(1.6532) + 2(0.4969) – (0.9912)]}
= {antilog(1.6558)}
= 0.4527
The coefficient of static friction between the coin and the turntable is 0.4527. [1]
vi. Solution:
Given: Fundamental frequency for closed pipe = Third overtone of open pipe.
l
To find: Ratio of lengths of air columns in both the pipes c
lo
Formulae: a. Fundamental frequency of pipe closed at one end:
v
nc = [½]
4lc
b. Fundamental frequency of pipe open at both ends:
v
no = [½]
2lo
c. Third overtone of open pipe:
n3 = 4n0
Calculation:
Fundamental frequency of closed pipe (nc) is same as third overtone of open pipe.
nc = n3
nc = 4n0 [½]
3
Board Answer Paper : March 2016
v v
= 4
4lc 2lo
1 2
=
4lc l0
lc 1
=
lo 8
The ratio of lengths of air columns in closed pipe and open pipe is 1:8. [½]
vii. Solution:
Given: 2A = 20 cm A = 10 cm,
T = 6.28 s, x = 6 cm
To find: Velocity (v)
Formula: v = A2 x 2 [½]
2 2 3.14
Calculation: Since, = = = 1 rad/s
T 6.28
v = (1) (10) 2 (6) 2 [½]
= 100 36 = 8 cm/s
The velocity of the particle at x = 6 cm is 8 cm/s. [1]
viii. Solution:
Given: E = 5T
To find: Diameter of the drop (d) in C.G.S. system
Formula: E = TA
Calculation: A = 4r2
E = 4r2T
5T = 4r2T [½]
4r2 = 5
5 5
r= =
4 2
d = 2r = 5 [½]
= 2.236 cm
Diameter of the drop is 2.236 cm. [1]
Q.2. Select and write the most appropriate answer from the given alternatives for each sub
question:
i. (D)
s
=
r
D
s = vt and r =
2
2vt
= [1]
D
ii. (B)
1
K
x
and x W
1
W [1]
K
4
Physics
iii. (A)
1
Stress [1]
r2
iv. (D) [1]
v. (B) [1]
vi. (C) [1]
vii. (C)
K.E1 = K.E2
1 1
I1 12 mv 2
2 2
5 36 20v 2
2 2
90 = 10 v2
v = 3 m/s [1]
Q.3. A. Linear S.H.M is defined as the linear periodic motion of a body, in which the restoring force
(or acceleration) is always directed towards the mean position and its magnitude is directly
proportional to the displacement from the mean position. [1]
i. Consider a particle ‘P’ moving along the circumference of a circle of radius ‘A’ with
constant angular speed ‘’ in anticlockwise direction.
ii. At any instant t = 0, particle P has its projection at point M as shown in the
figure (a). Particle P is called as reference particle and the circle on which it moves is
called as reference circle.
iii. As reference particle P revolves, its projection moves back and forth about centre O
along the diameter BC. [½]
Y Y
P P
A A
t +
X
X
B O M C X B Mx O A X
t=0 t>0
Y Y
Figure (a) Figure (b) [½]
iv. The xcomponent of the displacement, velocity and acceleration of P is always same as
the displacement, velocity and acceleration of M.
v. Suppose that the particle P starts from an initial position with initial phase ‘’. In time
‘t’, the angle between OP and Xaxis is (t + ) as shown in the figure (b).
x
vi. In figure (b), cos (t + ) =
A
where x = displacement from mean position.
x = A cos (t + ) ….(1) [½]
Equation (1) represents displacement of projection of P at time ‘t’.
vii. The velocity of particle is the time rate of change of displacement.
dx d
v= = [A cos (t + )]
dt dt
v = Asin (t + ) ….(2) [½]
Equation (2) represents velocity of projection of P at time ‘t’.
5
Board Answer Paper : March 2016
viii. The acceleration of particle is the time rate of change of velocity.
dv d
a= = [A sin(t + )]
dt dt
a = A2 cos (t + )
a = 2x [ x = A cos (t + )]
a = 2x ….(3) [½]
Equation (3) represents acceleration of projection of P at time ‘t’.
From equation (3),
ax [ 2 = constant quantity]
ix. As acceleration of projection of P is directly proportional to its displacement and its
direction is opposite to that of displacement, thus projection of particle P performs
simple harmonic motion. But M is projection of particle P performing U.C.M. Hence,
S.H.M is the projection of U.C.M along a diameter of circle. [½]
B. Solution:
Given: 0 = 25 C, 1 = 50 C, 2 = 45 C,
d
dt = 4 C/min
1
d
To find: Rate of cooling at 2
dt 2
d
Formula: = K( 0) [½]
dt
Calculation: Using formula, for 1 = 50 C
4 = K(50 – 25) [½]
4
K= min1 [½]
25
For 2 = 45 C
d 4
= (45 – 25) [½]
dt 2 25
4
= (20)
25
16
=
5
= 3.2 C/min
The rate of cooling at 45 C is 3.2 C/min. [1]
OR
A. Formation of stationary waves by analytical method:
i. Consider two identical progressive waves of equal amplitude and frequency travelling
along X axis in opposite direction. They are given by,
2
y1 = A sin (vt x) along positive Xaxis .…(1) [½]
2
y2 = A sin (vt + x) along negative Xaxis ….(2) [½]
ii. The resultant displacement ‘y’ is given by the principle of superposition of waves,
y = y 1 + y2 ….(3)
2 2
y = A sin (vt x) + A sin (vt + x)
6
Physics
iii. By using,
C D C D
sin C + sin D = 2sin cos ,
2 2
we get,
2 vt x vt x 2 vt x vt x
y = 2A sin cos
2 2
2vt 2
= 2Asin cos ( x)
2x v
y = 2Asin 2πnt cos n [cos ( ) = cosθ]
2x
y = 2Acos sin 2πnt
2x
iv. Let R = 2Acos
y = Rsin (2πnt) ….(4)
But, = 2n
y = R sin t ….(5) [½]
Equation (5) represents the equation of S.H.M. Hence, the resultant wave is a S.H.M.
of amplitude R which varies with x.
v. The absence of x in equation (5) shows that the resultant wave is neither travelling
forward nor backward. Therefore it is called as stationary wave.
vi. Amplitude at node is minimum, i.e., 0.
Rmin = 0
2 x
Since R = 2A cos ,
2 x
cos =0 [½]
2x 3 5
= , , , …….
2 2 2
3 5
x= , , ,……. [½]
4 4 4
vii. At antinodes: R = 2A
2x
cos = 1 [½]
2x
= 0, , 2, 3,…….n
3
x = 0, ,, ……… [½]
2 2
Distance between first node and adjacent
antinode = xn xan = 0= [½]
4 4
λ
The distance between a node and an adjacent antinode is .
4
B. Solution:
Given: N = 48, X = 4
nF = 1.5 nL, i.e. n1 = 1.5 n48 [½]
7
Board Answer Paper : March 2016
To find: a. Frequency of first tuning fork (n1)
b. Frequency of 42nd tuning fork (n42)
Formula: nL = nF (N 1)X
Calculation: Using formula, for N = 42
n42 = n1 [(42 – 1) 4]
= n1 164 [½]
Also for N = 48,
n48 = n1 [(48 – 1) 4]
= n1 188 [½]
n
n48 = 1 ….(Given)
1.5
n1
= n1 – 188
1.5
188 1.5
n1 = = 564 Hz
0.5
Frequency of first fork is 564 Hz [1]
Substituting the value
n42 = 564 – 164 = 400 Hz
Frequency of 42nd fork is 400 Hz. [½]
Q.4. Attempt any THREE
i. Solution:
Given: m = 600 kg, g = 9.8 m/s2, d = 5000 m, R = 6400 km = 6.4 106 m
To find: Decrease in weight of body (dW)
d
formula: gd = g 1
R
Calculation: Weight of body on the earth surface,
W = mg = 600 9.8 = 5880 N [½]
Since, Wd = mgd
From formula,
d
Wd = mg 1 [½]
R
5 103
= 5880 1 6
[½]
6.4 10
6.4 0.005
= 5880
6.4
= {antilog{log(5880) + [log(6.395) log(6.4)]}}
= {antilog[3.7694 + (0.8058 – 0.8062)]}
= {antilog(3.7694 + 1.9996)}
= {antilog(3.7690)}
Wd = 5875 N [1]
Decrease in weight = W Wd
= 5880 – 5875
dW = 5N
Decrease in weight is 5 N. [½]
ii. Theorem of parallel axes:
The moment of inertia of a body about any axis is equal to the sum of its moment of inertia
about a parallel axis passing through its centre of mass and the product of its mass and the
square of the perpendicular distance between the two parallel axes.
8
Physics
Mathematically, IO = IC + Mh2
where IO = M.I of the body about any axis passing through centre O.
IC = M.I of the body about parallel axis passing through centre of mass.
h = distance between two parallel axes. [1]
Proof:
a. Consider a rigid body of mass ‘M’ rotating about an axis passing through a point O as
shown in the figure.
Let C be the center of mass of the body, situated at distance h from the axis of rotation.
P(dm)
M
r ro
O C D
h x
IO IC
[½]
b. Consider a small element of mass dm of the body, situated at a point P.
c. Join PO and PC and draw PD perpendicular to OC when produced.
d. M.I of the element dm about the axis through O is OP2 dm
M.I of the body about the axis through O is given by
IO = OP 2 dm = r 2 dm ....(1)
e. M.I of the element dm about the axis through C is CP2 dm
M.I of the body about the axis through C
IC = CP 2 dm = ro2 dm ....(2)
f. From the figure,
OP2 = OD2 + PD2
= (OC + CD)2 + PD2
= OC2 + 2 OC . CD + CD2 + PD2
CP2 = CD2 + PD2
OP2 = OC2 + 2 OC . CD + CP2
i.e. r2 = h2 + 2hx + ro2 ....(3) [½]
g. From equation (3) and (1),
h
2
IO = 2hx ro2 dm
h dm + 2 h.x dm+ r dm
2 2
= o
= h dm + 2 h x dm + r dm
2 2
o
IO = h dm + 2h x dm + I
2
C [From equation (2)]
IO = IC + h dm + 2 h x dm
2
....(4)
h. Since dm = M and x dm = 0.
algebraic sum of the moments of the masses of its individual particles about the centre
of mass is zero for body in equilibrium. [½]
Equation (4) becomes,
IO = IC + Mh2
Hence proved. [½]
9
Board Answer Paper : March 2016
iii. Expression for excess pressure inside a bubble:
Po
Pi
iv. Solution:
Given: A = 1.5 mm2 = 1.5 10–6 m2, lateral strain = 1.5 10–5,
Ysteel = 2 1011 N/m2, = 0.291,
g = 9.8 m/s2
To find: Mass attached (M)
lateral strain
Formulae: a. = [½]
longitudinal strain
longitudinal stress
b. Y= [½]
longitudinal strain
10
Physics
Calculation: From formula,
longitudinalstress
Ysteel =
lateralstrain
Mg
=
lateralstrain
A
Y A lateralstrain
M = steel [½]
g
2 1011 1.5 106 1.5 105
= [½]
0.291 9.8
4.5
M=
0.291 9.8
= {antilog{log(4.5) [log(0.291) + log(9.8)]}}
= {antilog[0.6532 (1.4639 + 0.9912)]}
= {antilog[0.6532 – 0.4551]}
= {antilog(0.1981)}
= 1.578 kg
Mass attached to the wire is 1.578 kg. [1]
SECTION – II
Q.5. Attempt any SIX:
i. The bending of light near the edge of an obstacle or slit and spreading into the region of
geometrical shadow is called diffraction of light. [1]
Two types of diffraction are:
a. Fresnel diffraction:
Diffraction pattern in which source of light and screen are kept at finite distance from the
slit is called fresnel diffraction.
eg: Diffraction of straight edge, small opaque disc, narrow rectangular slit, etc. [½]
b. Fraunhofer diffraction:
Diffraction pattern in which, the source of light and the screen are effectively at infinite
distances from the diffracting system is called Fraunhoffer diffraction.
In this diffraction pattern convex lens is used.
eg: Diffraction due to single slit, double slit, etc. [½]
ii. Construction of cyclotron:
Electromagnet
N Coils
dees
12
Physics
R eq G
S=
G R eq
21 500
= [½]
500 21
10500
=
479
= {antilog[log(10500) log(479)]}
= {antilog[4.0212 2.6803]}
= {antilog(1.3409)}
S = 21.93
The value of shunt resistance is 21.93 . [1]
vi. Solution:
Given: 1 = 1.8 10–5, T1 = 200 K
1 2 = 6 10–6
To find: Required temperature (T2)
Formula: T = constant
Calculation: Given 1 2 = 6 10–6
2 = 1.8 10–5 0.6 10–5
= 1.2 10–5
From formula,
1T1 = 2T2
T
T2 = 1 1 [½]
2
1.8 105 200
= [½]
1.2 105
= 300 K
The required temperature is 300 K. [1]
vii. Solution:
Given: M = 2H, dI = 4A, dt = 2.5 10–4 s
To find: The induced e.m.f.(e)
dI
Formula: e=M [½]
dt
Calculation: From formula,
4
e=2 [½]
2.5 104
= 2 4 0.4 104
= 3.2 104 V
The induced e.m.f. in the coil is 3.2 104 V. [1]
viii. Solution:
Given: = 4.33 10–4 year–1
To find: Half life period (T)
0.693
Formula: T= [½]
Calculation: From formula,
0.693 6.93
T= 4
= 103 [½]
4.33 10 4.33
= {antilog[log(6.93) log(4.33)]} 103
13
Board Answer Paper : March 2016
= {antilog(0.8407 – 0.6365)} 103
= 1.601 103
= 1601 years
Halflife period of a radioactive element is 1601 years. [1]
Q.6. Select and write the most appropriate answer from the given alternatives for each
subquestion:
i. (D) [1]
ii. (C) [1]
iii. (B) [1]
iv. (A) [1]
v. (D) [1]
vi. (B) [1]
vii. (C) [1]
Q.7. A. Principle of transformer:
It is based on the principle of mutual induction i.e., whenever the magnetic flux linked with a
coil changes, an e.m.f. is induced in the neighbouring coil. [1]
Construction:
i. A transformer consists of two sets of coils P and S insulated from each other. The coil
P is called the primary coil and coil S is called the secondary coil.
ii. The two coils are wound separately on a laminated soft iron core.
iii. The a.c input voltage is applied across the primary and the induced output a.c voltage is
obtained across the secondary, which is used to drive current in the desired circuit.
iv. The two coils are electrically insulated from each other but they are magnetically
linked.
v. To minimise eddy currents, the soft iron core is laminated. [½]
Soft iron core
Input a.c.
voltage P S
Load
P S
core
[½]
Working:
i. When an alternating voltage is applied to the primary coil the current through the coil
goes on changing. Hence, the magnetic flux through the core also changes.
ii. As this changing magnetic flux is linked with both the coils, an e.m.f is induced in each
coil.
iii. The amount of the magnetic flux linked with the coil depends upon the number of turns
of the coil.
iv. Let, ‘’ be the magnetic flux linked per turn with both the coils at certain instant ‘t’.
v. Let ‘NP and ‘NS’ be the number of turns of primary and secondary coil,
NP = magnetic flux linked with the primary coil at certain instant ‘t’
NS = magnetic flux linked with the secondary coil at certain instant ‘t’
14
Physics
vi. Induced e.m.f produced in the primary and secondary coil is given by,
dP d
eP = = NP ….(1)
dt dt
d d
eS = S = NS ….(2)
dt dt
vii. Dividing equation (2) by (1),
eS N
= S ….(3) [1]
eP NP
Equation (3) represents equation of transformer.
N
The ratio S is called turns ratio (transformer ratio) of the transformer.
NP
viii. For an ideal transformer,
Input power = Output power
ePIP = eSIS
eS I
= P ….(4)
eP IS
ix. From equation (3) and (4),
eS N I
= S = P [1]
eP NP IS
B. Solution:
Given: Q = 0.2 C = 0.2 10–6 C
A = 40 cm2 = 40 10–4 m2
0 = 8.85 10–12 S.I.units
To find: a. Electric field intensity (E)
b. Mechanical force per unit area (f)
Formulae: a. E=
0 k
1
b. f= 0kE2 [½]
2
Q
c. =
A
Calculation: Using formula (a) and (c),
Q
E= [½]
A 0 k
0.2 106
= ….(k = 1 for air)
40 104 8.85 1012
20 108
=
3.540 1014
= {antilog[log(20) log(3.54)]} 106
= {antilog(1.3010 – 0.5490)} 106
= {antilog(0.7520)} 106
= 5.649 106 V/m
Electric intensity is 5.649 106 V/m [1]
15
Board Answer Paper : March 2016
From formula (b)
1
f = 8.85 10–12 (5.649 106)2
2
= 4.425 10–12 (5.649)2 1012
= {antilog[log(4.425) + 2log(5.649)]}
= {antilog[0.6459 + (2 0.7520)]}
= {antilog[2.1499]}
f = 141.2 N/m2
Mechanical force per unit area is 141.2 N/m2 [1]
OR
A. GeigerMarsden experiment:
a. The experimental arrangement is as shown in the figure.
Screen
Lead Gold
bricks foil
Source of
particles
Detector
[1]
b. In this experiment, a narrow beam of particles from radioactive source was incident
on a gold foil.
c. The scattered particles were detected by the detector fixed on rotating stand. Detector
used had zinc sulphide screen and microscope.
d. particles produced scintillations on screen which could be observed through
microscope.
e. The whole setup is enclosed in an evacuated chamber.
Observation:
a. Most of the particles passed undeviated.
b. Only few particles (about 0.14%) were scattered by more than 1.
c. Some particles were deflected slightly and very few (1 in 8000) deflected by more
than 90.
d. Some particles were bounced back with = 180. [2]
Mass defect:
The difference between the actual mass of the nucleus and the sum of masses of
constituent nucleons is called mass defect.
Let,
M = measured mass of nucleus
A = mass number
Z = atomic number
mp = mass of hydrogen atom
mn = mass of free neutron
(A Z) = number of neutrons
Mass defect,
m = [Zmp + (A Z)mn] M [1]
16
Physics
B. Solution:
Given: 0 = 2.3 eV, = 6800 Å = 6.8 10–7 m
c = 3 108 m/s, h = 6.63 10–34 Js
To find: a. Threshold frequency (0)
b. Incident frequency ()
Formulae: a. 0 = h0
c
b. = [½]
Calculation: From formula (a),
0 = 0 [½]
h
2.3 1.6 1019
= [½]
6.63 1034
.68 1015
=
6.63
36.8
= 1014
6.63
= {antilog[log(36.8) – log(6.63)]} 1014
= {antilog(1.5658 – 0.8215)} 1014
= {antilog(0.7443)} 1014
= 5.550 1014 Hz
Threshold frequency 0 is 5.55 1014 Hz. [½]
From formula (b)
3 108
=
6.8 107
30 107
=
6.8 107
= {antilog[log(30) log(6.8)]} 1014
= {antilog(1.4771 0.8325)} 1014
= {antilog(0.6446)} 1014
= 4.412 1014 Hz
Frequency of incident light is 4.412 1014 Hz. [½]
As < 0, emission of photoelectrons is not possible. [½]
Q.8. Attempt any THREE:
i. Solution:
14
Given: ag = 1.5, = 3.5 10 Hz,
8
c = 3 10 m/s
To find: a. Change in wavelength of light ()
b.
Wave number of light
Formulae: a. = 1
a
b. ag =
g
c. c = [1]
17
Board Answer Paper : March 2016
Calculation:
a. Using formula (c),
c 3 108 6
a = = 106 = 0.8571 106 m
3.5 10 14
7
a = 8571 Å [½]
Using formula (b),
a 8571A
g = =
a g 1.5
g = 5714 Å [½]
= a g = 8571 5714
= 2857 Å
The change in wavelength of light is 2857 Å. [½]
b.
Now, using formula (a), =
1
g
1
= = 1.75 106 m1
5.714 107
The wave number of light is 1.75 106 m1. [½]
ii. Solution:
Given: x10 = 2.09 mm, R = 6400 Å, B = 4800 Å
To find: Change in fringe width (X)
D D
Formulae: a. X= b. x = (2m 1)
d 2d
Calculation: Using formula (b),
D
x10 = (2(10) – 1)
2d
19
2.09 = XR
2
2.09 2
XR = [½]
19
4.18
=
19
= 0.22 mm [½]
From formula (a) we can conclude, for same setting,
X
X1 X 2
1 2
i.e. XB = B XR [½]
R
4800Å
= 0.22 mm
6400Å
0.66
=
4
= 0.165 mm [½]
change in fringe width (X) = XR XB
= 0.22 – 0.165 = 0.055 mm
The change in fringe width is 0.055 mm. [1]
18
Physics
iii. Kelvin’s method to determine the resistance of a galvanometer:
Construction:
a. In Kelvin’s method, the galvanometer (G) whose resistance is to be determined is
connected in the left gap of a metrebridge and a known resistance R is connected in the
right gap.
b. A jockey (J) is connected directly to the point B and it can slide along the wire.
G R
B
T1 T2
T3
lg D J
A lR
C
Scale
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
+ ( )
E K Rh
G : Galvanometer
R : Resistance from resistance box
AC : Metal wire one metre long
Rh : Rheostat
E : Cell
K : Plug key
J : Jockey [1]
c. A cell of e.m.f ‘E’ is connected between points A and C of the wire in series with a
high resistance box.
d. The rheostat is used to adjust the deflection in the galvanometer to half of its maximum
value. Hence, this method is also called half current method or half scale method.
e. First the deflection in the galvanometer is adjusted at half of its original value and the
reading is noted. It acts as null position.
f. The value of R is adjusted, so that the galvanomter gives a fairly large deflection, i.e.,
full scale deflection.
If the jockey is touched to different points on the wire then galvanometer shows
increase or decrease in the deflection.
g. A point D is located on the wire so that when the jockey is touched at that point,
galvanometer shows the same deflection as before. It means that point D and B are at
the same potential, i.e., bridge is balanced. [½]
Working:
a. Let,
lg = length of wire corresponding to left gap
lR = length of wire corresponding to right gap
G = resistance of galvanometer
b. In the balanced condition,
G Resistance of wire of length lg
= [½]
R Resistance of wire of length lR
G lg l
= = g
R lR lR
where,
= resistance per unit length of wire
lg
G = R. [1]
lR
19
Board Answer Paper : March 2016
c. Since lg + lR = 100 cm
lR = (100 lg)
lg
G =R
100 lg
Measuring lg and R, value of G can be determined.
iv. Principle of working of an oscillator:
+
d. c. supply
Feedback Network
Vf = Vo
()
[1]
a. A simple oscillator consists of an amplifier and feedback network with frequency
determining components.
b. A frequencydetermining network, (resonant tank circuit) which also works as feedback
network and transistor amplifier acts as element.
c. With enough feedback, the oscillations start as soon as the circuit is switched on.
d. With positive feedback, the output current of the amplifier will be in the right phase to
increase the alternating current in the resonant circuit.
e. The oscillations then built up in amplitude until the power losses in the circuit are equal
to the power that the amplifier can develop.
f. The natural frequency of the oscillator is close to the resonant frequency of the resonant
circuit. [1]
V
g. Suppose the voltage gain without feedback of the amplifier is A = o .
Vi
h. The feedback factor is the fraction of the output voltage fed back to the input,
Vi = Vf = Vo
Vo 1
A= =
Vi
A = 1
i. The condition A = 1, is called Berkhausen’s criterion. It states that the phase shift of
the feedback voltage will be zero or integral multiple of 2 rad, i.e., there will be
positive feedback. [½]
A
j. The voltage gain of complete system is given by, Af = .
1 A
Thus, for the frequency for which A = 1, Af will be infinite, i.e., the circuit will
operate without any external signal voltage, which means the circuit will oscillate at
that frequency. [½]
20
Physics
N sin
G C
F cos
F h [1]
F sin
A
B
W = mg
AC : inclined road surface
AB : horizontal surface
BC : height of road surface
G : centre of gravity of vehicle
W : (mg) weight of vehicle
N : normal reaction exerted on vehicle
: angle of banking [1]
1
Board Answer Paper : July 2016
ii. Expression for critical velocity:
m
vC
h
r
M [½]
Earth R
a. Let,
M = mass of the earth
R = radius of the earth
h = height of the satellite from the earth’s surface
m = mass of the satellite
vc = critical velocity of the satellite in the given orbit
r = (R + h) = radius of the circular orbit [½]
b. For the circular motion of the satellite, the necessary centripetal force is given as,
mvc2
FCP = ….(1)
r
c. The gravitational force of attraction between the earth and the satellite is given by,
GMm
FG = .…(2)
r2
d. Gravitational force provides the centripetal force necessary for the circular motion of
the satellite.
FCP = FG
mv c2 GMm
= ….[From equations (1) and (2)] [½]
r r2
GM
vc2 =
r
GM
vc = .…(3)
r
e. But, r = R + h
GM
vc = ….(4) [½]
(R h)
Equation (4) represents the expression for critical velocity.
iii.
T Tcos T
r T cos 2r
Tsin r T sin
h
[1]
Water
4
Physics
m3
F3 F2
r3 O r m2
2
mn
rn r1 F1
Fn m1
a. Suppose a rigid body consists of n particles of masses m1, m2, m3, ......, mn which are
situated at distances r1, r2, r3, …, rn respectively, from the axis of rotation as shown in
figure.
b. Each particle revolves with angular acceleration .
c. Let F1, F2, F3, …., Fn be the tangential force acting on particles of masses,
m1, m2, m3, …, mn respectively. [1]
d. Linear acceleration of particles of masses m1, m2,…, mn are given by,
a1 = r1, a2 = r2, a3 = r3, …, an = rn
e. Magnitude of force acting on particle of mass m1 is given by,
F1 = m1a1 = m1r1 [ a = r] [½]
Magnitude of torque on particle of mass m1 is given by,
1 = F1 r1 sin
But, = 90 [ Radius vector is ar to tangential force]
1 = F1 r1 sin 90
= F1r1
= m1a1 r1
1 = m1r12 [ a1 = r1 ] [½]
5
Board Answer Paper : July 2016
Similarly,
2 = m 2 r22
3 = m3 r32 ,
.…
.…
n = mn rn2
f. Total torque acting on the body,
= 1 + 2 + 3 + …. + n
= m1r12 + m 2 r22 + m3 r32 + … + m n rn2 [½]
2 2 2
= (m1r1 + m2r2 + m3r3 +.....+ m r ) 2
n n
n
= m i ri 2
i 1
n
But, m r
i 1
i i
2
=I
= I [½]
g. If = 1 rad/s2 then = I.
Thus, when a torque rotates the body with uniform angular acceleration of 1 rad/s2 then
M.I of the body about a given axis of rotation becomes equal to torque acting on it.
iii. Given: A = 2 mm2 = 2 10–6 m2
F = 10 N
Ysteel = 2 1011 N/m2
= 0.29
To find: Lateral strain
longitudinalstress
Formula: i. Y =
longitudinalstrain
lateralstrain
ii. =
longitudinalstrain
F
Calculation: Longitudinal stress =
A
10
=
2 106
= 5 106 N/m2 [½]
Using formula i.,
longitudinalstress
longitudinal strain = [½]
Y
5 10 6
=
2 1011
= 2.5 10–5 [½]
Using formula ii,
lateral strain = longitudinal strain [½]
= 0.29 2.5 10–5
lateral strain = 7.25 10–6
Lateral strain produced in the wire is 7.25 10–6. [1]
62 54
iv. Given: 1 = = 58 C in 10 minutes
2
54 48
2 = = 51 C in next 10 minutes
2
6
Physics
d 62 54 8
= = = 0.8 C/min
dt
1 10 10
d 54 48 6
= = = 0.6 C/min
dt 2 2 10
To find: Temperature of surroundings (0)
d
Formula: = K( – 0) [½]
dt
Calculation: From formula,
d
= K(1 – 0)
dt 1
0.8 = K(58 – 0) ….(1) [½]
and
d
= K(2  0)
dt 2
0.6 = K(51 – 0) ….(2) [½]
Dividing equation (1) by (2)
0.8 58 0
=
0.6 51 0
8 58 0
= [½]
6 51 0
8(51 – 0) = 6(58 – 0)
408 – 80 = 348 – 60
20 = 408 – 348
20 = 60
0 = 30C
Temperature of surroundings is 30C [1]
Q.4. A. Formation of stationary waves by analytical method:
i. Consider two identical progressive waves of equal amplitude and frequency travelling
along X axis in opposite direction. They are given by,
2
y1 = A sin (vt x) along positive Xaxis .…(1)
2
y2 = A sin (vt + x) along negative Xaxis ….(2) [½]
ii. The resultant displacement ‘y’ is given by the principle of superposition of waves,
y = y 1 + y2 ….(3)
2 2
y = A sin (vt x) + A sin (vt + x) [½]
iii. By using,
CD C D
sin C + sin D = 2sin cos ,
2 2
we get,
2 vt x vt x 2 vt x vt x
y = 2A sin cos
2 2
2vt 2
= 2Asin cos ( x)
7
Board Answer Paper : July 2016
2x v
y = 2Asin 2πnt cos n [cos ( ) = cosθ]
2x
y = 2Acos sin 2πnt [½]
2x
iv. Let R = 2Acos
y = Rsin (2πnt) ….(4) [½]
But, = 2n
y = R sin t ….(5)
Equation (5) represents the equation of S.H.M. Hence, the resultant wave is a S.H.M.
of amplitude R which varies with x.
v. The absence of x in equation (5) shows that the resultant wave is neither travelling
forward nor backward. Therefore it is called as stationary wave.
Amplitude at node is minimum, i.e., 0.
Rmin = 0
2 x
Since R = 2A cos ,
2 x
cos =0 [½]
2x 3 5
= , , , …….
2 2 2
3 5
x= , , ,…….
4 4 4
Distance between two consecutive nodes,
3
x1 x0 = = ,
4 4 2
5 3
x2 x1 = = and so on.
4 4 2
Thus, distance between two successive nodes is . [½]
2
2x
Since R = 2A cos ,
At antinodes: R = 2A
2x
cos = 1 [½]
2x
= 0, , 2, 3,…….n
3
x = 0, , , ………
2 2
Distance between two consecutive
antinodes = x1 x0 = , x2 x1 = = and so on.
2 2 2
Thus, distance between two successive antinodes is /2.
Hence, nodes and antinodes are equispaced. The distance between a node and an
λ
adjacent antinode is . [½]
4
8
Physics
B. Given: Speed limit, vL = 120 km/hr
10
nA = nA – nA = 0.9 nA [½]
100
Velocity of sound, v = 340 m/s
To find: Velocity of source (vS)
v
Formula: nA = n .…(1) [½]
v vS
v
nA = n ….(2) [½]
v vS
Calculation: Divide equation (1) by (2)
n A v vS
= [½]
n A v vS
1 340 vS
= [½]
0.9 340 vS
340 – vS = 0.9(340 + vS)
340 – vS = 306 + 0.9 vS
1.9 vS = 34
34 340
vS = =
1.9 19
= 17.89 m/s
vS = 64.40 km/hr [½]
VS < VL
Hence, the policeman is not justified in punishing the car driver.
OR
A. Practical simple pendulum:
Practical simple pendulum is defined as a small heavy sphere (bob), suspended by a light and
inextensible string from a rigid support. [½]
To show motion of the bob of simple pendulum is S.H.M:
O
l
T T
mg sin
B
A x
mg cos
mg mg
i. Consider a simple pendulum of mass ‘m’ and length ‘L’.
L = l + r,
where, l = length of string
r = radius of bob
ii. Let OA be the initial position of pendulum and OB, its instantaneous position when
the string makes an angle with the vertical.
In displaced position, two forces are acting on the bob:
a. Gravitational force (weight) ‘mg’ in downward direction.
b. Tension T in the string.
9
Board Answer Paper : July 2016
iii. Weight ‘mg’ can be resolved into two rectangular components:
a. Radial component mg cos along OB and
b. Tangential component mg sin perpendicular to OB and directed towards
mean position. [1]
iv. mg cos is balanced by tension T in the string, while mg sin provides restoring force.
F = mg sin [½]
where, negative sign shows that force and angular displacement are oppositely directed.
Hence, restoring force is proportional to sin instead of . So, the resulting motion is
not S.H.M.
v. If is very small then,
x
sin =
L
x
F = mg [½]
L
F x
=g
m L
ma x
=g
m L
g
a= x .…(1)
L
g
ax .... constant [½]
L
Hence, motion of the bob of simple pendulum is simple harmonic.
Expression for time period:
In S.H.M,
a = 2 x ….(2)
Comparing equations (1) and (2),
g
2 =
L
2
But, = [½]
T
2
2 g
=
T L
2 g
=
T L
L
T = 2 ….(3) [½]
g
Equation (3) represents time period of simple pendulum.
Thus period of simple pendulum depends on the length of the pendulum and
acceleration due to gravity. [1]
B. Given: E = 2 T
To find: Diameter of drop (d)
Formula: E = TA
Calculation: A = 4r2
From formula,
E = 4r2T
10
Physics
2 T = 4r2T [½]
4r2 = 2
2
r2 =
4
1.414
=
4
r2 = 0.3535
r = 0.3535
r = 0.5946 m [1]
d = 2r
= 2(0.5946)
d = 1.1892 m
Diameter of the drop is 1.1892 m. [½]
SECTION – II
Q.5. Select and write the most appropriate answer from the given alternatives for each
subquestion:
i. (B) [1]
ii. (D) [1]
iii. (C) [1]
iv. (B) [1]
v. (C) [1]
vi. (A) [1]
vii. (B)
e = v lb
5
= 54 1 3 104
18
= 45 10–4 = 4.5 mV [1]
Q.6. Attempt any SIX:
i.
No. Intrinsic semiconductors Extrinsic semiconductors
i. Semiconductor in the pure form The semiconductor, resulting from mixing of
is known as intrinsic impurity in it, is known as extrinsic
semiconductor. semiconductor.
ii. Their conductivity is low. Their conductivity is high.
iii. Its electrical conductivity is a Its electrical conductivity depends upon the
function of temperature alone. temperature as well as on the quantity of
impurity atoms doped in the structure.
iv. The number of free electrons in In these semiconductors, number of free
conduction band is equal to the electrons and number of holes are unequal.
number of holes in valence
band.
v. These are not practically used. These are practically used.
vi. In these, the Fermi energy level In these, the Fermi energy level shifts towards
lies in the middle of valence valence or conduction energy band.
band and conduction band.
(Any two correct points of difference) (1+1) [2]
11
Board Answer Paper : July 2016
ii. Receiving
Antenna
Output
Amplifier IF Stage Detector Amplifier
Received
signal
Block diagram of a receiver
(Diagram and labelling) (1+1) [2]
2
iii. Given: x1 = 6.5 cm = 6.5 10 m,
x2 = 6.65 cm = 6.65 102 m,
= 5000 Å = 5 107 m
To find: Nature of illumination at the point
Formula: x=n
Calculation: Path difference is given by,
∆x = x2 x1 = 6.65 102 6.5 102
= 0.15 102 m
From formula,
x
n= [1/2]
λ
0.15×10 –2
n= [½]
5×10 –7
= 3000 [½]
λ
∆x = 3000 = 6000
2
λ
As the path difference is even multiple of ,
2
The point is bright. [1/2]
iv. Magnetic dipole moments in paramagnetic substance:
B
S N
(a): Absence of external field (b): Strong external magnetic field [2]
v. Given: R = 100 , r = 20 , E = 2 V
To find: Reading of voltmeter (V)
Formula: V = E Ir [1/2]
Calculation: Current through the circuit is given by
E 2 2
I= = = [1/2]
R r 100 + 20 120
1
I= A
60
From formula,
1
V = 2 20 = 2 0.3333
60
V = 1.667 V
The reading on the voltmeter is 1.667 V. [1]
12
Physics
vi. Given: 1 = 1.2 105, T1 = 300 K,
2 = 1.8 105
To find: Required temperature (T2)
Formula: χT = constant
Calculation: From formula,
1T1 = 2 T2 [1/2]
1 T1 1.2 105 300
T2 = = [1/2]
2 1.8 105
T2 = 200 K
The required temperature is 200 K. [1]
vii. Given: V = 25000 volt
To find: Debroglie wavelength ()
12 27
Formula: = Å [1/2]
V
Calculation: Using formula,
12 27
= 10–10 [1/2]
25000
12 27 1010
=
2 5 104
12 27
= 1
1012
2 5 2
1
= antilog log 12.27 log 2 5 1012
2
1
= antilog 1 0888 0 3979 1012
2
= antilog 0 8899 10 12
x
S1 M
d/2
d O P
x d/2
K
S2 N
D
B [1/2]
e. In S1MQ,
(S1Q)2 = (S1M)2 + (MQ)2
2
2 2 d
(S1Q) = D + x ….(1) [1/2]
2
f. In S2NQ,
(S2Q)2 = (S2N)2 + (NQ)2
2
2 2 d
(S2Q) = D + x ….(2) [1/2]
2
g. Subtract equation (1) from (2),
(S2Q)2 (S1Q)2
d
2
d
2
= D2 x D2 x
2 2
2 2
d d
= D2 x D2 x
2 2
2 2
d d
= x x
2 2
d 2
d2
= x 2 xd x 2 xd
4 4
2 2
d d
= x 2 xd x 2 xd
4 4
(S2Q)2 (S1Q)2 = 2xd [1/2]
(S2Q + S1Q) (S2Q S1Q) = 2xd
2xd
S2 Q S1 Q = ….(3)
S2 Q S1Q
h. If x << D and d << D then,
S1 Q S2 Q D
S2Q + S1Q = 2D
Equation (3) becomes,
2xd
S2 Q S1 Q =
2D
14
Physics
xd
S2 Q S1 Q =
D
xd
x = ….(4) [1/2]
D
Equation (4) gives the path difference of two interfering light waves.
ii. Law of radioactive decay:
The number of nuclei undergoing the decay per unit time is proportional to the number of
unchanged nuclei present at that instant. [1]
If ‘N’ is the number of nuclei present at any instant ‘t’, ‘dN’ is the number of nuclei that
disintegrated in short interval of time ‘dt’, then according to decay law,
dN
N
dt
dN
= N [1/2]
dt
where, is known as decay constant or disintegration constant. The negative sign indicates
disintegration of atoms.
Derivation of relation N = N0 et :
a. Let, N = number of nuclei present at any instant t.
dN = number of nuclei disintegrated in short interval dt.
b. According to decay law,
dN
= N ….(1)
dt
c. Integrating both sides of equation (1),
dN
N = dt [1/2]
loge N = t + c .…(2)
where, c is constant of integration whose value depends on initial conditions.
d. At t = 0, N = N0
loge N0 = 0 + c [From equation (1)]
e. Substituting the value of c in equation (1), we get,
loge N = t + loge N0
loge N loge N0 = t
N
loge = t
N0
N
= et
N0
N = N0 e t [1/2]
Decay curve:
N0
No. of unchanged
nuclei N
(NdN)
[1/2]
O t t + dt time
15
Board Answer Paper : July 2016
iii. Given: ag= 15, = 5 1014 Hz
To find: a. Change in wavelength ()
b. Wave number of light in glass ν g
λa 1 c
Formula: a. ag = b. ν = c. =
λg λ ν
Calculation: Using formula (c),
c 3 108
a = = = 06 10–6 m
ν 5 1014
a = 6000 Å [1/2]
From formula (a),
λ
g = a [½]
a μg
6000
= = 4000 Å [1/2]
1 5
Change in wavelength = a g
= 6000 – 4000
= 2000 Å
Change in wavelength is 2000 Å [1/2]
1
Wave number of light in glass = ν g = [½]
λg
1
=
4000Å
= 25 106 m–1
Wave number of light in glass is 25 106 m–1 [1/2]
iv. Given: = 3000 Å = 3 10–7 m, me = 91 10–31 kg,
o = 23 eV, h = 663 10–34 Js, c = 3 108 m/s
To find: Maximum velocity (vmax)
hc
Formula: (K.E)max = o [1/2]
λ
Calculation: From formula,
6 63 1034 3 108
(K.E.)max = 7
2 3 1 6 1019 J [1/2]
3 10
= (663 10–19) (368 10–19 ) J
= 295 10–19 J [1/2]
Also,
1
m e v 2max = (K.E.)max
2
2(K.E.) max
vmax = [1/2]
me
2 2 95 1019
= [1/2]
9 1 1031
5 90 1012
=
9 1
16
Physics
590
= 105
9 1
1
= antilog log 590 log 9 1 105
2
1
= antilog 2 7709 0.9590 105
2
1
= antilog 1 8119 105
2
= antilog 0 9059 10 5
B PP
F1 I Q
F v
l
x
S R
F2 dx
[1/2]
ii. Let ‘l’ be the length of the side PS and ‘x’ be the length of the loop within the field.
A = lx = area of the loop, which lies inside the field. [1]
iii. The magnetic flux () through the area A at certain time ‘t’ is = BA = Blx [1/2]
iv. The loop is pulled out of the magnetic field of induction ‘B’ to the right with a uniform
velocity ‘v’.
d d
v. The rate of change of magnetic flux is given by, = (Blx)
dt dt
d dx
= Bl
dt dt
But, = v
dx
dt
d
= Blv .…(1) [1/2]
dt
vi. Due to change in magnetic flux, induced current is set up in the coil. The direction of
this current is clockwise according to Lenz’s law. Due to this, the sides of the coil
experiences the forces, F1, F2 and F as shown in figure. The directions of these forces is
given by Flemings left hand rule.
vii. The magnitude of force ‘F’ acting on the side PS is given by, F = BIl.
17
Board Answer Paper : July 2016
viii. The force F1 and F2 are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction, therefore they
cancel out. The only unbalanced force which opposes the motion of the coil is F .
Hence, work must be done against this force in order to pull the coil.
ix. The work done in time ‘dt’ during the small displacement ‘dx’ is given by,
dW = Fdx
ve sign shows that F and ‘dx’ are opposite to each other.
dW = (BIl) dx ….(2) [1/2]
x. This external work provides the energy needed to maintain the induced current I
through the loop (coil).
xi. If ‘e’ is the e.m.f induced then,
dW
electric power = = eI
dt
dW = eIdt .…(3) [1/2]
xii. From equations (2) and (3),
eIdt = BIl dx
e = Bl
dx
dt
e = Blv .…(4) [1/2]
xiii. From equation (1) and (4),
d
e=
dt
B. Solution:
Given: L = 2 m, R = 10 , RE = 990 ,
E=2V
To find: Potential gradient of wire (K)
V
Formula: K= [1/2]
L
E
Calculation: Since, I = [1/2]
R RE
ER
Also, V = IR=
R RE
2 10
=
10 990
20
=
1000
V = 2 102 volt
From formula,
2 102
K=
2
K = 102 V/m = 0.01 V/m
The potential gradient of wire is 0.01 V/m. [1]
OR
18
Physics
A. Construction:
Steel
chamber
Metallic S
comb
P2 Metallic
C2 sphere
D
I
Insulating
M1 M2 belt
C1
HT
P1 Motor
driven pulley
Target [1]
i. It consists of a large hollow metallic sphere S mounted on two insulating columns M1 and
M2.
ii. There are two pulleys P1 and P2. P2 is mounted at the centre of sphere S while P1 is mounted
near the bottom. A long narrow belt made of insulating material passes over the pulleys. The
belt is driven by an electric motor, connected to the lower pulley P1.
iii. C1 and C2 are two pointed metal combs, having a number of metallic needles, pointing
towards the belt. C1 is called the spray comb and C2 is called the collecting comb. C1 is kept
at a positive potential of about 10,000 V by using a high tension source (HT) while C2 is
connected to the sphere S.
iv. D is an evacuated accelerating tube having an electrode I at its upper end. This electrode is
connected to the sphere S. To prevent the leakage of charge from the spray, the generator is
enclosed in a steel chamber filled with nitrogen or methane at high pressure. [11/2]
Working:
i. When the spray comb is maintained at high positive potential, it produces charges in its
vicinity. The positive charges get sprayed on the belt due to the repulsive action of comb
C1, which are carried upward by the moving belt. A comb C2, called collecting comb is
positioned near the upper end of the belt, such that the pointed ends touch the belt and the
other end is in contact with the inner surface of the metallic sphere S.
ii. The comb C2 collects the positive charge and transfers them to the metallic sphere. The
charge transferred by the comb C2 immediately moves on to the outer surface of the hollow
sphere.
iii. As the belt goes on moving, the accumulation of positive charge on the sphere also keeps on
taking place continuously and its potential rises considerably.
iv. With the increase of charge on the sphere, its leakage due to ionisation of surrounding air also
becomes faster. When the rate of loss of charge due to leakage becomes equal to the rate at
which the charge is transferred to the sphere, the potential of sphere becomes maximum.
v. The projectiles such as protons, deuterons etc. are introduced in the upper part of the
evacuated accelerator tube. They get accelerated in the downward direction along the length
of the tube and acquire very high energy. At the other end, they come out and hit the target
with large kinetic energy and bring about nuclear disintegration. [11/2]
19
Board Answer Paper : July 2016
B. Solution:
Given: G = 25 , Ig = 10 mA = 10 10–3 A,
V = 100 V
To find: Resistance (Rs)
V
Formula: Rs = G [1/2]
Ig
Calculation: From formula,
100
Rs = 25 [1/2]
10 103
= 104 – 25
= 10000 – 25 [1/2]
= 9975 [1]
A resistance of 9975 should be connected in series. [1/2]
20
Physics
1
Board Answer Paper : March 2017
iii. Differential equation of linear S.H.M:
a. Let a particle of mass ‘m’ undergo S.H.M about its mean position O. At any instant ‘t’,
displacement of particle be ‘x’ as shown in the following figure.
Equilibrium position
O F = kx
Q P R
A A
FA
A
P
Air
Liquid
FC
FR T
Solid
2
Physics
R
v. Given: W = mg = 350 N, d =
2
To find: Weight (Wd)
d
Formula: gd = g 1 [½]
R
Calculation: Since Wd = mgd,
from formula,
d
Wd = mg 1 [½]
R
R
2
Wd = 350 1
R
1
= 350 = 175
2
Wd = 175 N
The body would weigh 175 N half way down to the centre of the earth. [1]
vi. Solution:
Given: m = 1kg, v = 2 m/s
To find: Total K.E
1 K2
Formulae: E = MV 2 1 2 [½]
2 R
Calculation:
2
For solid sphere, K2 = R2
5
1 2 2 2 1 7
1 5 R / R 2 5 MV
2
E= MV 2 [½]
2
E = 2.8 J
The total kinetic energy of the solid sphere is 2.8 J. [1]
vii. Solution:
Given: l = 0.9 m, n = 324 Hz
To find: Speed (v)
Formula: v = n [½]
Calculation: In 2nd overtone, 3 loops are formed.
3
l =
2
2l
= [½]
3
From formula,
2l 2
v = n = 324 0.9
3
3
v = 194.4 m/s
The speed of the transverse wave is 194.4 m/s. [1]
3
Board Answer Paper : March 2017
viii. Solution:
Given: 1 = 25 C, 2 = 15 C,
d
dt = 0.5 C/min
1
d
To find: Rate of cooling at 2
dt 2
d
Formula: = K( 0)
dt
Calculation: Using formula, for 2 = 15 C,
d / dt 2 2 0
[½]
d / dt 1 1 0
d
dt 2 15
[½]
0.5 25
= 0.3 C/min
The rate of cooling when it is 15 C above same surroundings is 0.3 C/min. [1]
Q.3. Attempt any THREE:
i. a. Let,
M = mass of earth
m = mass of satellite
R = radius of earth
vc = critical velocity
b. In one revolution, distance covered by satellite is equal to circumference of its circular
orbit. [½]
c. If T is the time period of satellite, then
Circumference of the orbit
T=
Critical velocity
2r
T= .…(1) [½]
vc
GM
But, vc = ….(2) [½]
r
d. Substituting equation (2) in (1),
2r
T= [½]
GM
r
r
= 2 r 2
GM
r3
T = 2 ….(3) [½]
GM
Thus, period of a satellite revolving around the Earth depends upon mass of the Earth. [½]
ii. Expression for torque acting on a rotating body:
a. Suppose a rigid body consists of n particles of masses m1, m2, m3, ......, mn which are
situated at distances r1, r2, r3, …, rn respectively, from the axis of rotation as shown in
figure.
b. Each particle revolves with angular acceleration .
4
Physics
c. Let F1, F2, F3, …., Fn be the tangential force acting on particles of masses, m1, m2, m3,
…, mn respectively.
d. Linear acceleration of particles of masses m1, m2,…, mn are given by,
a1 = r1, a2 = r2, a3 = r3, …, an = rn
m3
F3 F2
r3 O r m2
2
mn
rn r1 F1
Fn m1
n = mn rn2
f. Total torque acting on the body,
= 1 + 2 + 3 + …. + n
= m1r12 + m 2 r22 + m3 r32 + … + m n rn2
= (m1r12 + m2r22 + m3r32+.....+ m n rn2 )
n
= m i ri 2
i 1
n
But, m r
i 1
i i
2
=I
= I [½]
g. Unit: Nm in SI system. [½]
h. Dimensions: [M1L2T2] [½]
iii. Solution:
Given: E = 2T [½]
To find: Diameter of drop (d)
Formula: E = TA [½]
5
Board Answer Paper : March 2017
Calculation: From formula,
E
A =
T
2T
A =
T
A = 2π ....(1) [½]
We know , A = 4r2
Substituting in equation (1),
2 = 4r2 [½]
4r2 = 2
2 1
r2 = =
4 2
r2 = 0.5
r = 0.5 = 0.71 m
d = 2r
= 2(0.71)
d = 1.414 m
The diameter of the drop is 1.414 m. [1]
5
iv. Given: v = 36 km h1 = 36 = 10 m/s, = 10
18
To find: Length of circular track s(l)
v2
Formula: tan = max [½]
rg
Calculation: From formula,
v2
r max
g tan
10
2
r = [½]
9.8 tan 10o
= 57.88 m [1]
l = 2πR = 2 3.14 57.88 = 363.7 m
The length of the circular track is 363.7 m. [1]
Q.4. A. Conservation of energy in linear S.H.M.:
i. Suppose a particle of mass m performing linear S.H.M. is at point P which is at a distance x
from the mean position O as shown in figure.
O P
X x X
Negative Mean Positive
extremity position extremity
1
P.E. = m2A2
2
1
T.E. = P.E.+ K.E. = m2A2 .…(3) [½]
2
vii. From equations (1), (2) and (3), it is observed that total energy of a particle performing linear
S.H.M. at any point in its path is constant. Hence, total energy of linear S.H.M. remains
conserved. [½]
viii. a. Graph of variation of kinetic energy w. r. t. instantaneous displacement.
K.E
K.Emax
x=A O x=A
x=0
[½]
b. Graph of variation of potential energy w.r.t. instantaneous displacement.
P.E
P.Emax
8
Physics
2x
iv. Let R = 2Acos
y = Rsin (2πnt) ….(4) [½]
But, = 2n
y = R sin t ….(5)
Equation (5) represents the equation of S.H.M. Hence, the resultant wave is a S.H.M.
of amplitude R which varies with x.
A A A A
N N N
N Node N
A Antinode
2 4 2
Position and displacement of nodes
and antinodes in a stationary wave
l = 2.495 104 m
From formula (ii),
Mg
A=
Elatic limit
1 9.8
=
2.4 108
A = 4.083 108 m2 [1]
4
The extension produced in length is 2.495 10 m and the area of cross section of the
wire should be 4.083 108 m2.
9
Board Answer Paper : March 2017
SECTION – II
Q.5. Select and write the most appropriate answer from the given alternatives for each
subquestion:
i. (C) [1]
ii. (B) [1]
iii. (A) [1]
iv. (B) [1]
v. (C) [1]
vi. (C) [1]
vii. (D) [1]
Q.6. Attempt any SIX:
i.
No. Interference Diffraction
i. Interference is due to superposition of Diffraction is due to waves coming from
waves from different wavefronts. different parts of the same wavefront.
ii. All bright fringes are of equal intensity. Intensity decreases with the order of
bright band.
iii. Minimum intensity may be zero. Minimum intensity is not zero.
iv. Width of the central maximum is same as Width of central maximum is broader
that of other bright fringes i.e fringe width than other maxima and it is double the
is same for all fringes including central fringe width.
maxima.
v. The waves emitted by two coherent The light waves are bend at the corners and
sources travel in straight line. displaced from their straight line path.
vi. The resolving power of an optical The resolving power of an optical
instrument does not depend on the instrument depends on the phenomenon
phenomenon of interference. of diffraction.
V = (G + Rs)Ig
V = GIg
Ig G Ig Ig
Ig
G
b. Let ‘G’ be the resistance of the galvanometer coil and ‘Ig’ be the maximum current
which can be passed through the galvanometer coil for fullscale deflection.
10
Physics
c. Let ‘V’ be the potential difference to be measured.
Let ‘Rs’ be the resistance connected in series with the galvanometer coil.
d. From Ohm’s law,
V = Ig (G + Rs) [½]
V
G + Rs =
Ig
V
Rs = G [½]
Ig
Knowing V, Ig and G, value of Rs can be determined.
iii. Advantages of potentiometer over voltmeter:
a. The voltmeter is used to measure terminal P.D of cell while potentiometer is used to
measure small terminal P.D as well as e.m.f of the cell.
b. The accuracy of potentiometer can be easily increased by increasing the length of wire.
c. A small P.D can be measured accurately with the help of potentiometer. The resistance
of voltmeter is high but not infinity to work as an ideal voltmeter.
d. The internal resistance of a cell can be measured with the help of potentiometer.
e. Potential difference across the wire is greater than E1 or E2 or E1 + E2.
[Any two advantages] (1 2) [2]
iv.
Receiving
Antenna
Output
Amplifier IF Stage Detector Amplifier
Received
signal
Block diagram of a receiver
[Diagram and labelling] (1+1) [2]
v. Solution:
Given: N = 100, A = 15 cm2 = 15 104 m2,
B = 0.03 Wb/m2,
C = 15 1010 Nm/degree
To find: Sensitivity (Si)
NAB
Formula: Si = [½]
C
Calculation: From formula,
100 15 104 0.03
Si = [½]
15 1010
Si = 3 106 div/A
The sensitivity of a moving coil galvanometer is 3 106 div/A. [1]
vi. Given: = 6t2 + 7t + 1 (in milliweber), t = 2 s
To find: Magnitude of induced e.m.f. (e)
d
Formula: e= (in magnitude) [½]
dt
11
Board Answer Paper : March 2017
Calculation: Using formula,
d
e= (6t2 + 7t + 1)
dt
= 12t + 7 [½]
At t = 2s
e = 12 2 + 7
= 31 mV = 31 103 V
The magnitude of induced e.m.f. is 31 103 V. [1]
vii. Solution:
Given: R = 50 , lX = 40 cm = 0.4 m, lR = 60 cm = 0.6 m
To find: Unknown resistance (X)
l
Formula: X=R x [½]
lR
Calculation: From formula,
50 40
X= [½]
60
100
=
3
= 33.33 Ω
The value of unkown resistance is 33.33 Ω. [1]
10
viii. Given: r2 = 2.14 10 m, n = 2,
v2 = 1.09 106 m/s
To find: Frequency of revolution (2)
Formula: v = r = r(2)
v
= [½]
2r
Calculation: From formula,
v 1.09 106
2 = 2 = [½]
2r2 2 3.142 2.14 1010
2 = 8.11 1014 Hz
The frequency of revolution of electron in 2nd Bohr orbit is 8.11 1014 Hz. [1]
Q.7. Attempt any THREE:
i. PN junction diode as half wave rectifier:
P N Id
_ +
P1 +
S1 D
Vo = Id RL
d.c out put
a.c input
RL
S2
P2 _
Figure (a): Half wave rectifier
12
Physics
Working:
a. A rectifier, which rectifies only one half cycle of each a.c input supply, is called a half
wave rectifier.
b. The circuit diagram is as shown in figure (a).
c. When a.c input is applied to a junction diode, it gets forward biased during one half
cycle and reverse biased during the next opposite half cycle.
d. The a.c supply is fed across the primary coil P1P2 of a step down transformer. The
secondary coil S1S2 of the transformer is connected to the junction diode D and a load
resistance RL. The output d.c. voltage is obtained across the load resistance RL. The
output d.c. voltage is given by Vo = Id RL.
e. Suppose that during the first half of the input a.c voltage terminal S1 becomes positive
w.r.t. S2. Then, P region of diode D becomes positive w.r.t. N region. This makes the
junction diode forward biased, thus the conventional current flows in the direction of
the arrowheads through RL.
f. During the negative half cycle the terminal S2 is at positive potential w.r.t. S1. Thus, P
region of diode D is negative w.r.t. N region. This makes the diode reverse biased.
Thus diode does not allow current through it and no current will flow through RL.
g. During the next half cycle, output is again obtained as the junction diode gets forward
biased. Thus, a half wave rectifier gives pulsating unidirectional and intermittent d.c
output voltage V across the load resistance RL. [1½]
h. Graph of a.c input and d.c output voltage with respect to time is shown in figure below.
+V
a.c input
voltage +ve + ve + ve
o time
ve ve
V
+V
d.c output +ve +ve +ve
voltage o time
V
Input and out put waveforms
for half wave rectifier
[½]
ii. Derivation of induced e.m.f due to self induction:
L
+ [½]
E K
a. Consider a coil connected with battery E, plug key K and inductor L carrying current of
magnitude I as shown in figure.
b. Since magnetic flux linked with the coil is directly proportional to the current.
I
= LI .…(1)
where, L = constant called coefficient of self induction or self inductance of the coil,
which depends upon the material of the core, number of turns, shape and area of the
coil.
13
Board Answer Paper : March 2017
c. Induced e.m.f in the coil is given by,
d
e=
dt
dI
e=L ….(2)
dt
ve sign in equation (ii) shows that self induced e.m.f opposes the rate of change of
current.
dI dI
e = L =L
dt dt
dI
Magnitude of self induced e.m.f is given by, e = L
dt
This is required induced e.m.f. [1]
Derivation of induced e.m.f. due to mutual induction:
+
E
P S G
K
[½]
a. Consider primary coil P and secondary coil S fitted with galvanometer G are placed
very close to each other as shown in figure. The coil P is connected in series with the
source of e.m.f (battery) and key K.
b. When tap key K is pressed current IP passes through the coil P.
Magnetic flux S linked with secondary coil S at any instant is directly proportional to
current IP through primary coil P at that instant.
S IP
S = M IP ….(1)
where M is constant called coefficient of mutual induction or mutual inductance of the
coil.
d S
c. e.m.f induced in S at any instant is given by, eS =
dt
d
= (MIP) [From equation (1)]
dt
dI
eS = M P
dt
Magnitude of induced e.m.f is given by,
MdIP MdIP
eS = =
dt dt
eS
M [1]
dI P / dt
iii. Solution:
Given: l = 1 cm = 102 m, E = 300 Vm1, k = 8
To find: Energy contained in the cube (U)
U
Formula: u=
V
14
Physics
Calculation: Volume of marble,
V = (l3) = (102)3 = 106 m3
1
Energy density, u = 0 kE2 [½]
2
1
= 8.85 1012 8 (300)2 [½]
2
= 3.185 106 J/m3 [½]
From formula,
U = u V = 3.185 106 106 [½]
U = 3.185 1012 J
The energy contained in the cube is 3.185 1012 J. [1]
iv. Given: r = 0.53 Å = 0.53 1010 m, f = 9 109 MHz = 9 1015 Hz
To find: Angular momentum (L0)
M0
Formula: L0 = [½]
gyromagneticratio
Calculation: M = IA [½]
1
Since, I = e = fe
T
From formula,
M = feA = fer2 [½]
= 9 1015 1.6 1019 (0.53 1010)2
= 1.6 0.25 1023
M = 1.270 1023 Am2
Using formula,
1.270 1023
L0 = [½]
8.8 1010
L0 = 0.1443 1033 kgm2/s
The oribital angular moementum of the electron is 0.1443 1033 kgm2/s. [1]
Q.8. A. Biprism experiment:
This experiment is used in the laboratory to measure the wavelength of monochromatic light.
Apparatus:
Monochromatic source (sodium lamp), optical bench, lens, micrometer, biprism etc.
Experimental arrangement:
S B
L E
S
A A
S1 Interfering region
d S E
S2
B
Ray diagram of biprism experiment
S1, S2: Virtual images of the source
B: Biprism,
E: Eyepiece
Determination of d:
i. Conjugate foci method is used in the determination of d. A convex lens (L) of suitable
focal length is fixed between the biprism and eyepiece on the optical bench.
ii. The convex lens is moved, towards the slit till the magnified images of S1 and S2 are
seen. The distance between them is measured say d1.
iii. Now, move the convex lens away from the slit till the diminished images of S1 and S2
are seen. The distance between them is measured, say d2.
iv. The distance between S1 and S2 is given by the formula, d = d1d 2 [1]
16
Physics
Determination of :
D
Since band width is given by X =
d
Xd
=
D
Substituting value of d,
X d1d 2
= [½]
D
Putting value of X, d1, d2 and D wavelength can be measured exactly.
B. Solution:
AB = width of incident
B wavefront
Rarer i
medium CD = width of refracted
i C wavefront
A r
Denser r
medium r
D
N1 N2
17
Board Answer Paper : March 2017
OR
A.
E = 0 n=
n=6
E6 = 0.38
E5 = 0.54 Pfund series n = 5
n=4
E4 = 0.85 Brackett series
E3 = 1.51 n=3
Paschen series
E2 = 3.4 n=2
Balmer series
E(in eV)
E1 = 13.6 n=1
Lyman series Quantum number (n)
19
Physics
1
Board Answer Paper : July 2017
1 T
= 2 [½]
2 273
T2 = 136.5 K
At 136.5 K, the average kinetic energy of the gas will be exactly half of its value at
N.T.P. [1]
v. a. Surface tension is defined as the force per unit length acting at right angles to an
imaginary line drawn on the free surface of liquid. [1]
b. The extra energy that a liquid surface holds under isothermal condition is called surface
energy. [1]
vi. Variation of g due to altitude:
a. Let,
M = mass of the earth
R = radius of the earth
h = height at which acceleration due to gravity is to be found.
g = acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the earth.
gh = acceleration due to gravity at height h.
b. On the surface of the earth,
GM
g = 2 ….(1) [½]
R
At height ‘h’ above the earth surface,
GM
gh = ….(2) [½]
(R h) 2
c. Dividing equation (2) by (1),
g h GM / (R h) 2
=
g GM / R 2
GM R2
=
(R h)2 GM
gh R2
= ….(3) [½]
g (R h)2
gh R2
= 2
g h
R 1
2
R
gh 1
= 2
g h
1
R
2
gh h
= 1 ….(4)
g R
d. Expanding equation (4) by using binomial expansion and neglecting higher power of
h
gives,
R
g h 2h
= 1 ( h << R) [½]
g R
2h
gh = g 1 ....(5)
R
Above equation represents acceleration due to gravity at altitude h.
2
Physics
vii. Physical significance of K:
a. Radius of gyration is a measure of distribution of mass about the given axis of rotation.
b. If the particles of the body are distributed close to the axis of rotation, the radius of
gyration is less. [1]
c. If the particles are distributed away from the axis of rotation, the radius of gyration is
more.
d. The knowledge of mass and radius of gyration of the body about a given axis of
rotation gives the value of its moment of inertia about the same axis, even if we do not
know the actual shape of the body. [1]
viii.
N N cos
N sin
G C
F cos
F h
A F sin
B
W = mg
AC : inclined road surface
AB : horizontal surface
BC : height of road surface
G : centre of gravity of vehicle
W : (mg) weight of vehicle
N : normal reaction exerted on vehicle
: angle of banking
Uniform
temperature
enclosure
O B
[½]
d. Quantity of heat absorbed per unit area per unit time by body O = aQ.
Quantity of heat energy emitted per unit area per unit time by body O = E.
Since there is no change in temperature
E = aQ
3
Board Answer Paper : July 2017
E
Q= .…(1) [½]
a
e. Quantity of heat absorbed per unit area per unit time by perfectly black body,B = Q
The radiant heat energy emitted per unit time per unit area by perfectly black body,
B = Eb
Since there is no change in temperature.
Eb = Q .…(2) [½]
f. From equations (1) and (2),
E E
= Eb =a
a Eb
E
But, =e [½]
Eb
a=e [½]
ii. Expression for strain energy:
a. Let,
L = length of wire
A = area of cross section of wire
r = radius of cross section of wire L
l = elongation of the wire by applying load.
b. If the wire is perfectly elastic then,
Young’s modulus, 0 A
F/A l
Y=
l/L F
F L
=
A l
YAl
F= ….(1)
L
c. Let ‘f’ be the restoring force and ‘x’ be its corresponding extension at certain instant
during the process of extension.
YAx
f= ….(2)
L
d. Let ‘dW’ be the work done for the further small extension ‘dx’.
dW = fdx [½]
YAx
dW = dx ….(3) [½]
L
e. The total amount of work done in stretching the wire from 0 to l can be found out by
integrating equation (3).
l l l
YAx YA
W=
0
dW =
0
L
dx =
L xdx
0
[½]
l
YA x 2
W= [½]
L 2 0
YAl 2
W = [½]
2L
YAl l
W = .
L 2
4
Physics
YAl
But, =F
L
1
W= Fl .…(4) [½]
2
Equation (4) represents the work done by stretching a wire.
iii. Solution:
Given: N = 12, nL = 2 nF , n5 = 90 Hz
To find: Number of beats (x),
Frequency of last fork (nL)
Formula: nL = nF + (N 1) x [½]
Calculation: From formula,
nL = nF + (5 1) x
nF + 4x = 90 ….(1)
nL = nF + (12 1) x [½]
nL = nF + 11x ….(2)
nL = 2nF
nF = 11x ….From (2) [½]
Substituting in equation (1),
15x = 90 or x = 6 beat/s [½]
nF = 11 6 = 66 Hz [½]
nL = 2 66 = 132 Hz [½]
The frequency of the first and last tuning fork is 66 Hz and 132 Hz respectively.
iv. Solution:
Given: R = 0.2m, = 8000 Kg/m3
To find: Moment of inertia (I)
Formulae: i. I0 = Ic + MR2 [½]
7
I0 = MR2
5
ii. Mass (M) = volume density
Calculation: From formula (ii),
4
M = V = R 3 [½]
3
From formula (i),
7 4
I = R 3 R2 [½]
5 3
28 5
= R
15
28
= 3.14 (2 101 )5 8000 [½]
15
I = 15.02 kg m2
M.I. of the uniform solid sphere about a tangent to its surface is 15.02 kg m2. [1]
Q.3. A. Linear S.H.M is defined as the linear periodic motion of a body, in which the restoring force
(or acceleration) is always directed towards the mean position and its magnitude is directly
proportional to the displacement from the mean position. [1]
Displacementtime graph:
i. At extreme position, = /2
Displacement, x = A cos t
5
Board Answer Paper : July 2017
Velocity time graph:
i. At extreme position, = /2
Velocity of a particle is v = A sin t [½]
ii. Table:
2
Substituting = in above equation,
T
Time Phase Velocity
(t) (t) (v)
0 0 0
T/4 /2 A
[½]
T/2 0
3T/4 3/2 A
T 2 0
iii. Graph:
+A
Velocity
0 T T 3T 5T 3T
t
T
4 2 4 4 2
A
+A2
0 T T 3T 5T 3T
t
T
4 2 4 4 2
A2
Conclusions:
i. Displacement, velocity and acceleration of S.H.M. are periodic functions of time.
ii. The displacement and acceleration curves are sine curves whereas velocity curve is
cosine curve ( = 0).
6
Physics
iii. The phase difference between displacement and acceleration is of radian.
iv. The phase difference between displacement and velocity and velocity and acceleration
is of /2 radian.
v. The displacement and acceleration is maximum at extreme position whereas velocity is
minimum at the same position.
vi. All curves repeat same path after phase of 2 radian.
[Explanation and graphical variation of velocity and time.] [1]
B. Solution:
Given: L = 1.005 m, g = 9.8 m/s2
To find: Loss in period (T)
L
Formula: T = 2 [½]
g
Calculation: From formula,
1.005
T = 2 3.14
9.8
1.005
= 6.28
9.8
= 2.012 s
The period of a seconds pendulum is 2 second.
Hence, the given pendulum clock will lose 0.012s in 2.012s (during summer). [½]
Loss in period per day
24 3600 0.012
T =
2.012
T = 515.3 s
The clock will gain or lose 515.3 s in one day. [1]
OR
B. Solution:
Given: l = 1m, M =10g = 10103kg, n= 50 Hz
To find: Tension (T)
1 T
Formula: n= [½]
2l m
Calculation: Linear density of wire,
M 10 103
m= = = 10 103 kg/m
l 1
From formula,
1 T
50 = [½]
2 1 10 103
T
100 =
10 103
T
(100)2 =
10 103
T = 104 10 103
T = 100 N
The tension to be applied to the wire is 100 N. [1]
Q.4. Select and write the most appropriate answer from the given alternatives for each sub
question:
i. (D) [1]
ii. (C) [1]
iii. (C) [1]
iv. (A) [1]
v. (A) [1]
vi. (D) [1]
vii. (D) [1]
9
Board Answer Paper : July 2017
SECTION – II
Q.5. Attempt any SIX:
i. When an particle is emitted by an atom, its atomic number decreases by 2 and mass
number decreases by 4. [½]
When 90Th232 disintegrates to 82Pb200, 8 particles are emitted. [½]
When particle is radiated, the atomic number increases by 1 and mass number does not
change. [½]
When 90Th232 disintegrates to 82Pb200, 8 particles are emitted. [½]
ii. Solution:
Given: W0 = 3eV = 3 1.6 1019
= 4.8 1019 J,
h = 6.63 1034 J – s,
e = 1.6 1019 C,
c = 3 108 m/s,
To find: Threshold wavelength (0),
hc
Formula: 0 = [½]
W0
Calculation: From formula,
hc 6.63 1034 3108
(0) = = [½]
W0 4.8 1019
0 = 4.14 10–7 m
Threshold wavelength of the metal is 4.14 10–7 m. [1]
iii. Solution:
Given: C1 = 8 F, C2 = 8 F, C3 = 4 F, V = 120 volt
To find: Charge on the capacitor C3
1 1 1 1
Formulae: i. [½]
CS C1 C 2 C3
Q
ii. C=
V
Calculation: Using formula (i),
1 1 1 1
=
CS C1 C 2 C3
1 1 1
= + +
8 8 4
CS = 2 F = 2 10–6 F [½]
In series combination,
Q1 = Q2 = Q3 [½]
Using formula (ii),
Q = CS V
Q = 2 10–6 120 = 240 10–6 C
The charge on the capacitor C3 is 240 10–6 C. [½]
iv. Solution:
Given: E = 6.63 J, = 1014 Hz, h = 6.63 10–34 Js.
To find: Number of photons (n)
E
Formulae: n= [½]
h
10
Physics
Calculation: Using formula,
6.63
n= [½]
6.63 1034 1014
n = 1020
The number of photons emitted in the radiation are 1020. [1]
v.
Appleton layer
Ionosphere
400 km
Thermosphere Edge of
140 km
atmosphere
Mesosphere
80 km
Ozone layer
Stratosphere 50 km
Troposphere 12 km
Earth’s surface
11
Board Answer Paper : July 2017
vii. Huygens’ construction of plane wavefront:
ct
P P1 N1
ct
Q Q1 N2
ct
R R1 N3
Gaussian
surface
P
ds
E1 = E E1 = E
PS [½]
d. To find electric field intensity at a point P due to uniformly charged infinite thin plane
sheet, construct an imaginary cylinder around P with its axis perpendicular to plane
sheet carrying charge with ends having cross sectional area ds.
12
Physics
e. The plane sheet passes through the middle of cylinder’s length so that the ends of
cylinder are equidistant from the plane sheet carrying charge.
f. Electric field intensity, E is perpendicular to the ends of cylinder, hence the electric flux
through each end is Eds.
g. Since E is perpendicular to plane sheet, it is parallel to the curved surface of Gaussian
cylinder. Hence, electric flux does not pass through the curved surface of Gaussian
cylinder. [½]
h. Now, Total Normal Electric Induction over Gaussian surface = E (2ds)
where, ds is surface area of end faces of the cylinder.
Algebraic sum of charges enclosed by Gaussian cylinder = ds
i. According to Gauss’ law,
E (2ds) = ds [½]
E= [½]
2
This is the expression for electric field intensity at a point outside uniformly charged
thin plane sheet.
j. Above equation shows that the magnitude of electric field intensity is independent of
the distance of point from plane sheet.
Q.6. Attempt any THREE:
i.
+
mA
IC
C +
NPN
R I +
A B B V
+ VCE VCC
+ + T E
VBB V
VBE
IE
IB = 50 A
IB = 40 A
IC (mA)
IB = 30 A
IB = 20 A
IB = 10 A
IB = 0 A
0 0.3 1 2 3 4 5
VCE (volt)
O P
r
I I [½]
b. The magnetic field around the toroid consists of concentric circular lines of force
around it. Magnetic field is produced, when a steady current ‘I’ flows through toroid.
c. The direction of magnetic field at a point is along the tangent to the circular path at that
point.
d. Let r be the radius of the Amperian loop. This loop is concentric with the axis of toroid.
P is a point on the loop. We have to determine magnetic induction at P. [½]
e. Applying Ampere’s law,
B . dl = Bdl = B dl .…(3)
g. Also dl = 2r
From equation (3),
1 16 9
=R 9 16
L
1 7R
=
L 9 16
9 16 144
L = = [½]
7R 7R
Shortest wavelength in Balmer series is obtained when p = 2, n =
For shortest wavelength,
1 1 1
= R 2 2 [½]
S 2
4
S = [½]
R
L 144 R 36
= =
S 7R 4 7
L
= 5.131
S
The ratio of longest wavelength in Paschen serires to shortest wavelength in Balmer series is
5.131. [½]
Q.7. A. Principle:
It is based on the principle of mutual induction i.e., whenever the magnetic flux linked with a
coil changes, an e.m.f is induced in the neighbouring coil. [½]
Construction:
i. A transformer consists of two sets of coils P and S insulated from each other. The coil
P is called the primary coil and coil S is called the secondary coil.
ii. The two coils are wound separately on a laminated soft iron core.
iii. The a.c input voltage is applied across the primary and the induced output a.c voltage is
obtained across the secondary, which is used to drive current in the desired circuit.
iv. The two coils are electrically insulated from each other but they are magnetically
linked.
v. To minimise eddy currents, the soft iron core is laminated. [1]
Soft iron core
Input a.c.
voltage P S
Load
P S
core [½]
Working:
i. When an alternating voltage is applied to the primary coil the current through the coil
goes on changing. Hence, the magnetic flux through the core also changes.
ii. As this changing magnetic flux is linked with both the coils, an e.m.f is induced in each
coil.
iii. The amount of the magnetic flux linked with the coil depends upon the number of turns
of the coil.
16
Physics
iv. Let, ‘’ be the magnetic flux linked per turn with both the coils at certain instant ‘t’.
v. Let ‘NP and ‘NS’ be the number of turns of primary and secondary coil,
NP = magnetic flux linked with the primary coil at certain instant ‘t’
NS = magnetic flux linked with the secondary coil at certain instant ‘t’ [1]
vi. Induced e.m.f produced in the primary and secondary coil is given by,
dP d
eP = = NP ….(1)
dt dt
d d
eS = S = NS ….(2)
dt dt
vii. Dividing equation (2) by (1),
eS N
= S ….(3) [1]
eP NP
Equation (3) represents equation of transformer.
N
The ratio S is called turns ratio (transformer ratio) of the transformer.
NP
viii. For an ideal transformer,
Input power = Output power
ePIP = eSIS
eS I
= P ….(4)
eP IS
ix. From equation (3) and (4),
eS N I
= S = P [1]
eP NP IS
B. Solution:
Given: Mnet = 2 Am2, l = 10 cm = 10 10–2 m,
area of cross section = 4 cm2 = 4 10–4 m2
To find: magnetisation (MZ)
M
Formula: MZ = net [½]
V
Calculation: Since, V = l cross sectional area
= (10 10–2 4 10–4)
= 4 10–5 m3
From formula,
2
MZ = [½]
4 105
MZ = 50000 A/m
The intensity of magnetisation is 50000 A/m. [1]
OR
A. Theory of interference bands:
i. Let S1 and S2 be the two coherent monochromatic sources which are separated by short
distance d. They emit light waves of wavelength .
ii. Let D = horizontal distance between screen and source.
iii. Draw S1M and S2N AB
OP = perpendicular bisector of slit.
Since S1P = S2P, the path difference between waves reaching P from S1 and S2 is zero,
therefore there is a bright point at P.
17
Board Answer Paper : July 2017
iv. Consider a point Q on the screen which is at a distance x from the central point P on the
screen. Light waves from S1 and S2 reach at Q simultaneously by covering path S1Q
and S2Q, where they superimpose. [½]
A
Q
x
S1 M
d/2
d O P
x d/2
K
S2 N
D
[½]
B
v. In S1MQ,
(S1Q)2 = (S1M)2 + (MQ)2
2
d
(S1Q)2 = D2 + x ….(1)
2
vi. In S2NQ,
(S2Q)2 = (S2N)2 + (NQ)2
2
2 2d
(S2Q) = D + x ….(2)
2
vii. Subtract equation (1) from (2),
d
2
d
2
(S2Q)2 (S1Q)2 = D2 x D2 x
2 2
2 2
d d
= D2 x D2 x
2 2
2 2
d d
= x x
2 2
d2 d2
= x 2 xd x 2 xd
4 4
d2 d2
= x2 xd x 2 xd
4 4
(S2Q)2 (S1Q)2 = 2xd
(S2Q + S1Q) (S2Q S1Q) = 2xd
2xd
S2 Q S1 Q = ….(3)
S2 Q S1Q
viii. If x << D and d << D then,
S1 Q S2 Q D
S2Q + S1Q = 2D
Equation (3) becomes,
2xd
S2 Q S1 Q =
2D
18
Physics
xd
S 2 Q S1 Q =
D
xd
x = ….(4) [1]
D
Equation (4) gives the path difference of two interfering light waves.
ix. Point Q will be bright if,
x = n = 2n
2
xd
= n = 2n [From equation (4)]
D 2
D
x=n ….(5) [½]
d
Equation (5) represents distance of nth bright fringe from central bright fringe.
where n = 0, 1, 2,….
x. Point Q will be dark point if,
x = (2n 1)
2
where n = 1, 2, 3,……
xd
= (2n 1)
D 2
D
x = (2n 1) .…(6) [½]
2d
Equation (6) represents distance of nth dark fringe from central maximum.
Expression for the fringe (band) width:
i. The distance between the centre of two consecutive bright or dark fringe is the fringe
(band) width.
ii. Let xn = distance of nth bright fringe and xn+1 = distance of (n + 1)th bright fringe
D
xn = n
d
D
xn+1 = (n + 1)
d
iii. If X is the fringe width between two bright fringes then,
X = xn+1 xn
D D
= (n + 1 ) n
d d
D
X= ….(7) [1]
d
Equation (7) represent fringe (band) width of bright fringes.
iv. Similarly if xn and x(n + 1) represent distance of nth and (n + 1)th dark fringe then,
D
xn = (2n 1)
2d
D
x(n + 1) = [2(n + 1) 1]
2d
width of dark fringe or dark band is given by,
X = x(n + 1) xn
D D
= [2 (n + 1) 1] (2n 1 )
2d 2d
19
Board Answer Paper : July 2017
D
X = ….(8) [1]
d
Equation (8) represents fringe (band) width of dark fringes.
B. Solution:
3 4
Given: ag = , aw =
2 3
To find: wg
a g
Formula: wg = [½]
a w
Ca C
Calculation: ag = and aw = a
Cg Cw
Cw
wg = [½]
Cg
From formula,
3/ 2
wg = [½]
4/3
w g = 1.12
The refractive index of glass w.r.t. water is 1.12. [½]
Q.8. Select and write the most appropriate answer from the given alternatives for each sub
question:
i. (C) [1]
ii. (D) [1]
iii. (B) [1]
iv. (D) [1]
v. (B) [1]
vi. (A) [1]
vii. (D) [1]
20
Chemistry
vii. a. The enthalpy change that accompanies the conversion of one mole of solid directly into
its vapour at constant temperature and pressure is called its enthalpy of sublimation
(subH). [1]
b. Whether the conversion of solid to vapour takes place directly in one step or in two
steps (i.e., first melting of solid into liquid and then its vaporization), the enthalpy
change is the same because enthalpy is a state function.
Therefore,
ΔsubH = ΔfusH + ΔvapH [1]
Where fusH is enthalpy of fusion and vapH is enthalpy of vaporization.
iv. Cell constant: The ratio of the distance between the electrodes divided by the area of cross
section of the electrode is called as cell constant. [1]
3s2 3p4 3d1
First excited state
sp3d Hybridized state
0
sp3d hybrid orbitals 3d
Hybridization of Cl in ClF3
(Hybridized state of Cl) [½]
Three half filled hybrid orbitals overlap with half filled porbitals of three F atoms and
form three ClF sigma bonds.
Two lone pairs occupy the equatorial positions to minimise the lone pairlone pair and
the lone pairbond pair repulsions which are greater than bond pairbond pair
repulsions.
The two axial F atoms bend towards equatorial F atom to minimise the lone pairlone
pair repulsion, giving Tshaped structure.
o
Cl
8729
F F
F
Molecular Shape of ClF3
[Diagram (geometry + bond angle)] [1]
2 + 2Na
dry ether
+ 2NaCl
Chlorobenzene Diphenyl
(Reaction + names of reactants, products and reagents) [1]
iv. Metamerism (positional isomerism): Ethers having same molecular formula but different
alkyl groups attached on either side of the oxygen atom are called metamers of each other.
This phenomenon is called metamerism (positional isomerism). [1]
eg. Ethers with molecular formula C4H10O have three metamers having different alkyl
groups attached on either side of oxygen atom.
a. CH3 CH2 O CH2 CH3 Diethyl ether
b. CH3 O CH2 CH2 CH3 Methyl npropyl ether
c. CH3 O CH CH3 Isopropyl methyl ether
vi. a.
H H O O
vii. Antioxidant is a substance which when added to food, retards or prevents oxidative
deterioration of food. [1]
Structure of Butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT):
OH
(CH3)3C C(CH3)3
CH3
Butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) [1]
viii. Carbohydrates are optically active polyhydroxy aldehydes or polyhydroxy ketones or the
compounds that can be hydrolysed to polyhydroxy aldehydes or polyhydroxy ketones. [1]
Preparation of nylon6:
O H
C N
O H O H
CH2 CH2
533K
n
N
C (CH2)5 N C (CH2)5 Nn
2
[1]
CH2 CH2 Repeating unit Nylon6
CH2
Caprolactum
8
Chemistry
Q.6. Answer any THREE of the following:
i. a. The elements in which the last electron enters into (n2) forbital of the atoms are
called fblock elements. [1]
b.
Lanthanoids Actinoids
1. In lanthanoids, last differentiating electron
In actinoids, last differentiating electron
occupies 4f orbital. occupies 5f orbital.
2. They are the elements of first inner They are the elements of second inner
transition series. transition series.
3. They are present in period 6. They are present in period 7.
4. Most of lanthanoids (with exception of Most of actinoids (with exception of
promethium) occur in nature. uranium and thorium) are prepared in
laboratory.
5. Most of lanthanoids (with exception of All the actinoids are radioactive.
promethium) are nonradioactive.
6. Lanthanoids do not form oxo cation. Actinoids form oxo cation such as UO 22 ,
PuO2+, UO+.
7. 4f orbitals in lanthanoids have higher 5f orbitals in actinoids have lower binding
binding energy. energy.
8. Contraction in atomic and ionic radii is Contraction in atomic and ionic radii is
relatively less in lanthanoids. relatively greater in actinoids due to poor
shielding of 5f electrons.
9. Lanthanoids show +2, +3 and +4 oxidation Actinoids show +3, +4, +5, +6, +7
states. oxidation states.
10. Lanthanoids have less tendency to form Actinoids have greater tendency to form
complexes. complexes.
11. Some ions of lanthanoids are coloured. Most of the ions of actinoids are deeply
coloured.
12. Lanthanoid hydroxides are less basic in Actinoid hydroxides are more basic in
nature. nature.
(Any four distinguishing points) [½ 4] [2]
ii. a. Optical activity (Chirality): The property of a substance to rotate the plane of a plane
polarised light towards the right (clockwise) or towards the left (anticlockwise) is
called optical activity.
eg. Lactic acid, glucose, cane sugar, 2chlorobutane, etc., shows optical activity. [1]
b. The molecules or ions which are coordinated to the central atom or ion in the
coordination compound are called ligands or donor groups.
eg. 1. In [Ni(NH3)6]2+ , central metal ion is Ni2+ and ligands are NH3 molecules.
2. In [Cr(H2O)6]3+, the central metal ion is Cr3+ and the ligands are H2O
molecules. [1]
c. 1. Interstitial compounds are those which are formed when small atoms like H, C,
N, B, etc., are trapped inside the crystal lattice of metals.
2. Interstitial compounds have variable composition and are nonstoichiometric in
nature.
eg. TiC, TiH1.73, Mn4N, Fe3H, VH0.56, ZrH1.92, etc. [1]
9
Board Answer Paper : March 2016
iii. Formula: [Pt(NH3)4Cl2]Cl2 [1]
Propene on reaction with hydrogen bromide in the presence of peroxide follows anti
Markownikoff’s rule and forms npropyl bromide as a major product.
peroxide
CH3 CH = CH2 + HBr CH3 CH2 CH2Br
Propene nPropyl bromide
(1Bromopropane)
(Explanation + Reaction)
(Major product) [1]
Addition of hydrogen bromide to propene gives isopropyl bromide as a major product
according to Markownikoff’s rule.
Markownikoff's rule
CH3 CH = CH2 + H Br CH3 CH CH3
Propene
Br
Isopropyl bromide
(2Bromopropane)
(Major product)
Cl Cl Cl
n
Chloroprene Repeating unit Neoprene
(Reaction + names of reactants, products and reagents + Reaction condition) [1]
Q.7. Answer any ONE of the following:
i. a. Mechanism of esterification reaction:
The mechanism involves two steps:
1. The mineral acid protonates the carbonyl oxygen of the carboxylic acid. This
increases the positive character of carbonyl carbon. The nucleophile (alcohol)
attacks the carbonyl carbon. This is followed by the loss of proton to obtain ester
hydrate.
+ OH OH
O OH
+
R 'O H
H R C OH
R R C OH + ROH2
R C OH
R C OH O
+OH H O R
R
Tetrahedral intermediate Ester hydrate
OH OH H +O H O
H
+ R C + H3O+
R C O H R C O H
RC + H2O
OR OR OR OR
(Explanation + chemical reaction for acid catalysed dehydration) [2]
b. Dehydration of alcohols:
1. Primary alcohol is dehydrated by heating with 95% H2SO4 at 443 K.
eg. H H
H H
HCCH
95% H 2SO4
443K
C=C + H2O
H OH H H
Ethanol Ethene
(Reaction + names of reactants, products and reagents) [1]
2. Secondary alcohol is dehydrated by heating with 60% H2SO4 at 373 K.
eg. H H H
H C C C H
60% H 2SO 4
373K
CH3 CH = CH2 + H2O
Propene
H OH H
Propan2ol
(Reaction + names of reactants, products and reagents) [1]
3. Tertiary alcohol is easily dehydrated by heating with 20% H2SO4 at 363 K.
eg.
H CH3 H CH3
H C C C H
20% H 2SO 4
363K
CH3 C = CH2 + H2O
2Methylpropene
H OH H
2Methylpropan2ol
(Reaction + names of reactants, products and reagents) [1]
ii. a. Vitamins: Vitamins are the organic substances that must be supplied to permit
proportionate growth in living beings (humans) or for the maintenance of the structure. [1]
b. Diseases caused due to deficiency of vitamin A:
1. Night blindness
2. Dryness of skin and hair
3. Retardation of growth
(Any two diseases) [½ × 2] [1]
c. Structure of nucleoside and nucleotide:
O
O O
HO H2C Base O P O H2C Base
Sugar Sugar
H H O H H
H H H H
OH OH OH OH
(I) (II)
Nucleoside Nucleotide [1 2] [2]
11
Board Answer Paper : March 2016
d. Reaction with nitrous acid:
The reaction is used to distinguish between primary, secondary or tertiary nitroalkanes.
With nitrous acid, hydrogen is replaced by nitroso group.
1. 1Nitropropane (Primary nitroalkane) reacts with nitrous acid to form blue
coloured nitrosonitroalkane (aci form) which on dissolution in sodium
hydroxide gives red solution.
H O H
O
+
+
C2H5 C – N + HO N = O NaNO2 / HCl
C2H5 C N + H2O
O O
H NO
1Nitropropane (nitroform)
OH ONa
C2H5 C = N + NaOH C2H5 C = N+ + H2O
+
O O
NO NO
(aci form) Red solution
Blue solution
[1]
2. 2Nitropropane (Secondary nitroalkane) reacts with nitrous acid to form
corresponding blue coloured nitrosonitroalkane, which is insoluble in sodium
hydroxide as it does not contain replaceable hydrogen atom.
CH3 O CH3
O
+
H3C C – N + HO N = O NaNO2 / HCl
H3C C N+ + H2O
O O [1]
H NO
2Nitropropane (blue solution)
12
Chemistry
ii. cC + dD
For the reaction, aA + bB [½]
before approaching equilibrium, the reaction quotient is given by,
C D or Q =
c d
pcC pdD
Qc = p [½]
A B paA p Bb
a b
Here, the values of concentrations or partial pressures are other than equilibrium values.
At equilibrium, Q = K called equilibrium constant and G = 0, because the reaction mixture
has no tendency to change in either direction. [½]
Therefore, equation G = G + RT ln Q becomes:
0 = G + RT ln K
G = RT ln K
G = 2.303 RT log10K [½]
The above equation gives the relationship between standard Gibbs energy change of the
reaction and its equilibrium constant.
1
Board Answer Paper : July 2016
iii. Facecentred cubic lattice (fcc):
a. In facecentred cubic unit cell, eight constituent particles (spheres) are present at eight
corners of unit cell. Six constituent particles (spheres) are present at centres of six
faces.
1
atom
2
1
atom (Diagram) [1]
8
viii. a. Osmosis: The spontaneous and unidirectional flow of solvent molecules through a
semipermeable membrane, into the solution or flow of solvent from a solution of lower
concentration to the solution of higher concentration through a semipermeable
membrane is called osmosis. [1]
b. Freezing point: The freezing point of a substance may be defined as the temperature
at which the vapour pressure of solid is equal to the vapour pressure of liquid. [1]
Q.3. Answer any THREE of the following:
i. Given: Rate constant k1 = 0.58 s1; Rate constant k2 = 0.045 s1
T1 = 313 K; T2 = 293 K
R = 8.314 J K1mol1
To find: Activation energy (Ea)
k2 Ea T2 T1
Formula: log10 = [½]
k1 2.303R T1T2
Calculation: From formula,
0.045 s 1 Ea 293K 313 K
log10 1
= 1 1 [½]
0.58 s 2.303 8.314 J K mol 293 K×313 K
Ea 20
log 0.0776 = 1 [½]
19.147 J mol 293 313
E a 20
1.110 =
19.147 293 313
3
Board Answer Paper : July 2016
1.110 19.147 293 313
Ea = [½]
20
= 97455.34 J mol1
= 97.45 kJ mol1 [1]
ii. Given: Given equations are,
7
C2H6(g) + O2(g) 2CO2(g) + 3H2O(l), ΔH = 1560 kJ…. (1)
2
1
H2(g) + O2(g) H2O(l), ΔH = 285.8 kJ…. (2)
2
C(graphite) + O2(g) CO2(g), ΔH = 393.5 kJ…. (3)
To find: Standard enthalpy of the given reaction
Calculation: Reversing equation (1),
7
2CO2(g) + 3H2O(l) C2H6(g) + O2(g), ΔH = 1560 kJ…. (4) [½]
2
Multiplying equation (2) by 3 and (3) by 2, then adding to equation (4) [½]
7
2CO2(g) + 3H2O(l) C2H6(g) + O2(g), ΔH = +1560 kJ
2
3
3H2(g) + O2(g) 3H2O(l), ΔH = 857.4 kJ
2
2C(graphite) + 2O2(g) 2CO2(g), ΔH = 787 kJ
2C(graphite) + 3H2(g) C2H6(g) , [1]
ΔH = 1560 + (857.4) + (787.0) = 84.4 kJ [1]
iii. Given: Mass of sulphur = W2 = 3.795 g = 3.795 103 kg
Mass of solvent = W1 = 100 g = 100 103 kg
Boiling point of solution = Tb = 319.81 K
Boiling point of pure solvent = Tb = 319.45 K
Molal elevation constant = Kb = 2.42 K kg mol1
Atomic mass of sulphur = 32
To find: Molecular formula of sulphur in solution
K ×W2
Formula: Molar mass of solute = M2 = b
Tb W1
Calculation: For solution of sulphur in CS2 (solvent),
Tb = Tb – Tb = 319.81 – 319.45 = 0.36 K
From formula,
K ×W2
M2 = b [½]
Tb ×W1
2.42 3.795 103
= [½]
0.36 100 103
= 0.2551 kg mol1
= 255.1 g mol1 [1]
Molar mass of sulphur
n = [½]
Atomic mass of sulphur
255.1
n =
32
= 7.97 8
Molecular formula of sulphur in CS2 = S8 [½]
4
Chemistry
iv. Ostwald’s process (Large scale preparation): Ostwald’s process is used to prepare nitric
acid on a large scale.
a. This method is based upon catalytic oxidation of NH3 by atmospheric oxygen.
Pt /Rh gaugecatalyst
4NH3(g) + 5O2(g)
500K,9bar
4NO(g) + 6H2O(g)
Ammonia (From air) Nitric oxide
(Reaction + names of reactants, products and reagents + Reaction conditions) [1]
The nitric oxide (NO) thus formed is recycled and the aqueous HNO3 is concentrated
by distillation to give 68 % HNO3 by mass. Further, concentration to 98 % can be
achieved by dehydration with concentrated H2SO4.
(Reaction + names of reactants and products) [1]
+
Impure copper
Pure copper
(blister copper)
Cu2+ as cathode
as anode Cu2+
Cu2+
Cu2+
15% CuSO4 + 5% H2SO4
Anode mud solution (electrolyte)
d. The radius ratio (r+/r–) defines the coordination number of the cation.
rCs+ = 1.69 Å, rCl = 1.81 Å
rCs 1.69
= = 0.9337 [½]
rCl 1.81
Since, radius ratio is greater than 0.732, the coordination number of cation (Cs+) is 8. [½]
ii. a. When thin copper leaves are thrown in a jar of chlorine they catch fire and form cupric
chloride. [1]
Cu + Cl2 CuCl2
Copper Chlorine Cupric chloride [1]
6
Chemistry
b. 1. Due to greater electronegativity of O than S, H2O undergoes extensive
intermolecular Hbonding. As a result, H2O exists as an associated molecule in
which each O is tetrahedrally surrounded by four water molecules. Large amount
of energy is required to break these Hbonds. Therefore, H2O is a liquid at room
temperature. [1]
2. In contrast, H2S does not undergo Hbonding. It exists as discrete molecules
which are held together by weak van der Waals forces of attraction. To break
these forces of attraction, only a small amount of energy is required. Therefore,
H2S is a gas at room temperature. [1]
SECTION – II
Q.5. Select and write the most appropriate answer from the given alternatives for each
subquestion:
i. (C) acetic anhydride [1]
CH3COONa + CH3COCl (CH3–CO)2O + NaCl
Sodium acetate Ethanoyl Acetic anhydride
chloride
H3O+
C6H5
C = O + Mg(OH)Br + NH3
C6H5
Benzophenone
(Reaction + names of reactants, products and reagents) [1]
v. a. Raw materials used for the preparation of BunaS:
CH2 = CH – CH = CH2 [½]
CH = CH2
[½]
Cu 2 X 2 + N2
Aryl halide [½]
Benzenediazonium halide
[X = Cl, Br]
vii. a. The reaction of benzenediazonium chloride with phenol in mild alkaline medium yields
phydroxyazobenzene (orange dye).
OH
OH
N NCl + N=N OH + HCl
Benzenediazonium chloride Phenol pHydroxyazobenzene
(orange dye)
N NCl NH2
OH
+ N=N NH2 + HCl
Benzenediazonium chloride pAminoazobenzene
Aniline
(yellow dye)
(Reaction + names of reactants, products and reagents) [1]
viii. Chemical methods used to preserve food:
a. Addition of sugar: In this method, sugar is added and then food is heated. This method
is used for the preparation of jams, jellies and marmalades. Fruits like apples, mangoes,
strawberries, carrots, etc are preserved by this method.
b. Addition of salt: Common salt has antimicrobial activity. Salt is added to food to
control the growth of fungus and microorganisms. When salt is added, bacterial
cell loses water due to osmosis. Due to this, the cell either remains dormant or dies.
This helps in storage of food. This method of preservation of food by addition of
salt is called salting. It is used for preservation of fish products, meat and for the
preparation of pickles of lemon, chillies, raw mangoes, etc. It is also used in the
preservation of amla, beans, tamarind, etc.
c. Addition of vinegar: Vinegar is added to preserve food like pickles, salad dressings,
mustard, fish, etc.
d. Addition of other chemicals: Chemicals like sodium benzoate, salts of sorbic acid and
propionic acid etc., are used as preservatives.
(Any two methods) [1 2] [2]
9
Board Answer Paper : July 2016
Q.7. Answer any THREE of the following:
i. a. Action of bromine water on glucose: The oxidation of glucose with bromine water
(which is a mild oxidizing agent) forms gluconic acid. This indicates presence of
aldehyde group.
CHO COOH
Bromine water
(CHOH)4 + [O] (CHOH)4
CH2OH CH2OH
Glucose Gluconic acid
Diazonium 2–Bromotoluene
2Methylaniline
bromide (B)
(A)
11
Board Answer Paper : July 2016
CH3
+–
N2Br
A is [½]
CH3
Br
B is [½]
2. 2CH3 – CH2 – CH – CH3 + 2KOH H3C – CH = CH – CH3 + H3C – CH2 – CH = CH2
(Alc.) But2ene But1ene
Br (A) (B)
2Bromobutane
+ 2KBr + 2H2O
A is H3C – CH = CH – CH3 [½]
B is H3C – CH2 – CH = CH2 [½]
3. CH3 CH2 N+(CH3)3I
Ag 2 O/H 2 O
CH3 CH2 N+(CH3)3OH + AgI
Ethyltrimethyl Ethyltrimethyl
ammonium iodide ammonium hydroxide
(A)
Conc.HNO3
Conc.H SO
+ H2O
2 4
NO2
Benzoic acid mNitrobenzoic acid
(Reaction + names of reactant, product and reagent) [1]
12
Chemistry
b. 1. Reaction of primary amine with benzene sulphonyl chloride gives corresponding
Nalkyl benzene sulphonylamide.
Owing to the presence of strong electron withdrawing sulphonyl group, hydrogen
attached to nitrogen atom in Nalkyl benzene sulphonylamide is strongly acidic
and dissolves in aqueous KOH. On acidification of this solution, insoluble amide
gets regenerated.
O O
R N H + Cl S R N S + HCl
H O H O
Primary Benzene NAlkyl benzene
amine sulphonyl sulphonyl amide
chloride
O O O
H
RNS
KOH
K RN S R N S
[1]
H O O H O
NAlkyl benzene NAlkyl benzene
sulphonyl amide sulphonyl amide
R N H + Cl S R N S + HCl
[1]
R O R O
Secondary Benzene N,NDialkyl benzene
amine sulphonyl sulphonylamide
chloride
3. Due to absence of hydrogen atom directly attached to the nitrogen atom, tertiary
amines do not react with benzene sulphonyl chloride. The unreacted tertiary
amine is insoluble in aqueous KOH but soluble in acid.
H
+
C6H5SO2Cl + R3N C6H5SO2N R3Cl KOH
Insoluble Clear solution
Benzene Tertiary compound
sulphonyl amine [1]
chloride
c. Uses of formaldehyde:
1. Formalin (40% solution of formaldehyde) is used as preservative for biological
specimens.
2. Formaldehyde is used for silvering mirror.
3. Formaldehyde is used for the production of several plastic and resins, bakelite
and binders in plywood.
(Any two uses) [½ 2] [1]
13
Chemistry
1
Board Answer Paper : March 2017
ii. Relationship between half life and rate constant for a first order reaction:
a. For the first order reaction A products, the integrated rate law is given as follows:
2.303 [A]0
k= log10 ....(1) [½]
t [A]t
where, [A]0 = initial concentration of the reactant at t = 0
[A]t = concentration of the reactant at time t.
[A]0
b. At t = t1/2, [A]t =
2
Equation (1) becomes,
2.303 [A]0
k= log10 ....(2) [½]
t1/ 2 [A]0 / 2
2.303
c. t1/2 = log10 2 ....(3) [½]
k
2.303
= 0.301
k
0.693
t1/2 = ....(4) [½]
k
d. From the above equation (4) for a first order reaction, halflife period is constant, i.e., it
is independent of initial concentration of the reacting species.
iii. Magnetic separation process:
a. The magnetic separation process is based on the differences in magnetic properties of
the ore components.
b. If either ore or the gangue is attracted by a magnet, then the ore can be separated from
the impurities with the help of magnetic separation method.
c. It requires an electromagnetic separator which consists of a brass or leather belt moving
over two rollers, one of which is magnetic in nature as shown in the figure.
d. Powdered ore is dropped over the moving belt at one end.
e. At the other end, the magnetic portion of the ore is attracted by the magnetic roller and
falls nearer to the roller, while the nonmagnetic impurities fall separately farther off.
(Explanation) [1]
Pulverized ore
Magnetic
roller Leather
Nonmagnetic
particles Magnetic particles
2
Chemistry
iv. a. Let W2 g of nonvolatile solute of molar mass M2 be dissolved in W1 g of solvent of
molar mass M1.
b. The number of moles of solvent, n1 and number of moles of solute n2, in solution are
given as,
W W2 mass of the substance
n1 = 1 and n2 = Number of moles (n) = [½]
M1 M2 molar mass of the substance
d. For a solution of two components A1 and A2 with mole fraction x1 and x2 respectively,
if the vapour pressure of pure component A1 is p1 and that of component A2 is p 2 = 0,
The relative lowering of vapour pressure is given by,
p p1 p p1 x2
= = = x2 .….(2)
p1 p1 p1
e. Combining equations (1) and (2)
p p1 p W2 / M 2
=
= x2 = …..(3) [½]
p1 p1 W1 / M1 + W2 / M 2
f. For dilute solutions n1 >> n2. Hence, n2 may be neglected in comparison with n1 in
equation (1) and thus equation (3) becomes,
p n W / M2 WM
= 2 = 2 = 2 1 [½]
p1 n1 W1 / M1 W1M 2
v. a. Enthalpy: Enthalpy of a system may be defined as the sum of the internal energy of the
system and the energy that arises due its pressure and volume. [1]
b. First law of thermodynamics can be given as:
U = q + W
If work is done by the system on the surroundings (work of expansion), then W is
negative (W). The negative value of ‘W’ signifies that energy has left the system as
work. Therefore, internal energy of the system decreases. [1]
vi. a. The electronic configuration of 7N is 1s2 2s2 2p3. It has 3 unpaired electrons which can
form 3 covalent bonds, thus forming NX3 molecule. [1]
b. Valence shell of Nitrogen (n = 2) contains only ‘s’ and ‘p’ orbitals. [½]
c. Therefore, due to absence of dorbitals in valence shell, nitrogen cannot expand its
octet and its maximum covalence is restricted to 4. It does not form compounds in +5
oxidation state like NCl5 and NF5. [½]
vii. Simple cubic unit cell:
a. In a simple cubic lattice, the atoms are located only on the corners of the cube. The
particles touch each other along the edge.
b. Thus, the edge length or side of the cube ‘a’, and the radius of each particle, ‘r’ are
related as a = 2r
c. The volume of the cubic unit cell = a3 = (2r)3 = 8r3 [½]
d. Since a simple cubic unit cell contains only 1 atom, [½]
4
The volume of one atom (occupied space) = r3
3
3
Board Answer Paper : March 2017
Volumeof oneatom
e. Packing efficiency = 100 % [½]
Volumeof cubic unit cell
4 / 3r 3
= 3
100 = 100
8r 6
= 52.36 % 52.4 %
f. The packing efficiency of simple cubic metal crystal is 52.4 %. [½]
viii. a. Electronic configuration of sulphur (Z = 16) is, 16S 1s22s22p63s23p4 or [Ne]3s23p4 [1]
b. Electronic configuration of krypton (Z = 36) is, 36Kr 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p6
or [Ar]3d104s24p6 [1]
Q.3. Answer any THREE of the following:
i. Preparation of Phosphine using
a. HCl: The reaction of calcium phosphide with dilute HCl gives phosphine.
Ca3P2 + 6HCl 3CaCl2 + 2PH3
Calcium Calcium Phosphine
phosphide chloride
(Reaction + names of reactants and products) [1]
b. H2SO4: The reaction of aluminium phosphide with dilute H2SO4 gives phosphine.
2AlP + 3H2SO4 Al2(SO4)3 + 2PH3
Aluminium Aluminium Phosphine
phosphide sulphate
(Reaction + names of reactants and products) [1]
c. Caustic soda (NaOH)
White phosphorus is heated with concentrated NaOH solution in an inert atmosphere of
CO2. It is the laboratory method.
P4 + 3NaOH + 3H2O PH3 + 3NaH2PO2
White Sodium hydroxide Phosphine Sodium
phosphorus (hot) hypophosphite
5
Board Answer Paper : March 2017
Q.4. Answer any ONE of the following:
i. a. Faraday’s First Law of Electrolysis: It states that “the amount of substance that
undergoes oxidation or reduction at each electrode during electrolysis is directly
proportional to the amount of electricity that passes through the cell.” [1]
b. 1. Uses of sulphuric acid:
i. Sulphuric acid is used in the manufacture of fertilizers.
eg. Ammonium sulphate, superphosphate.
ii. It is used in petroleum refining.
iii. It is used in manufacture of pigments, paints and dyestuff intermediates.
iv. It is used in detergent industry.
v. It is used in storage batteries.
vi. It is used in the manufacture of explosives. eg. T.N.T., nitroglycerine, green
cotton, etc.
vii. It is a laboratory reagent.
viii. Sulphuric acid is used in the preparation of important chemicals like HNO3, HCl,
H3PO4, Na2CO3, sulphates, alums, ether, etc.
ix. It is a dehydrating agent and used for drying wet gases which do not react with acid.
x. It is used as an oxidizing agent.
xi. Sulphuric acid is also used as a pickling agent. Pickling is an industrial process
for removing layers of basic oxides from metals like Fe and Cu before
electroplating, enamelling, galvanizing and soldering.
(Any two uses) [½ 2] [1]
2. Uses of chlorine:
i. Large quantities of chlorine are used industrially for bleaching wood pulp
(required for the manufacture of paper and rayon), bleaching cotton and textiles.
ii. It is used in the extraction of gold and platinum.
iii. It is used for the manufacture of dyes, drugs and organic compounds such as CCl4,
CHCl3, refrigerants, etc.
iv. It is used in sterilising drinking water.
v. It is used in preparation of poisonous gases such as phosgene (COCl2), tear gas
(CCl3NO2), mustard gas (Cl.C2H4 S C2H4Cl).
vi. It is used in the manufacture of DDT and BHC which are important insecticide.
vii. It is used in the manufacture of vinyl chloride which is starting material for
polyvinyl chloride plastics.
viii. It is used in the manufacture of bleaching powder, aluminium chloride, hydrogen
chloride, hypochlorites, chlorates, perchlorates, etc., which are important
industrial compounds.
(Any two uses) [½ 2] [1]
c.
Property Crystalline solids Amorphous solids
1. Shape They have definite characteristic They have irregular shape and lack
geometrical shape due to the orderly
characteristic geometrical shape due
regular long range arrangement of to the short range orderly
constituent particles. arrangement of constituent particles.
2. Melting point They have sharp and characteristic They do not have sharp melting
melting point. point. They gradually soften over a
range of temperature.
3. Cleavage When cut with a sharp edged tool, When cut with a sharp edged tool,
property they split into two pieces and the they cut into two pieces with
newly generated surfaces are plain irregular surfaces.
and smooth.
6
Chemistry
4. Heat of fusion They have a definite and They do not have definite heat of
characteristic heat of fusion. fusion.
5. Anisotropy They are anisotropic, i.e., have They are isotropic, i.e., have same
different physical properties in physical properties in all
different direction. directions.
6. Nature They are true solids. They are pseudo solids or super
cooled liquids.
7. Order in They have long range order. They have only short range order.
arrangement of
constituent
particles
eg. Copper, silver, iron, zinc sulphide, Glass, rubber, plastics, etc.
common salt, potassium nitrate,
etc.
the limits V1 to V2 as
0
dW PdV
V1
….(2) [½]
5. Since the number of moles is constant, R is a gas constant and the process is
isothermal,
therefore, T is constant. Hence, nRT = constant.
Wmax V2
1
0
dW nRT
V1
V
dV [½]
StepII: Formation of diethyl ether: Ethyl hydrogen sulphate then reacts with excess of
ethyl alcohol at 413 K and forms diethyl ether.
C2H5 O SO3H + OH C2H5
413K
C2H5 O C2H5 + H2SO4
Ethyl hydrogen Ethyl Diethyl ether
sulphate alcohol
(Explanation + Reaction) [2]
ii. Hoffmann bromamide degradation:
a. Primary amine can be prepared by reaction of amide with bromine and aqueous or
alcoholic sodium hydroxide. This reaction is known as Hoffmann bromamide
degradation.
b. It involves molecular rearrangement.
c. An alkyl or aryl group migrates from the carbonyl carbon to the adjacent nitrogen
atom.
d. This reaction is useful for decreasing the length of carbon chain by one carbon atom.
(Explanation) [1]
O
R C NH2 + Br2 + 4NaOH R NH2 + Na2CO3 + 2NaBr + 2H2O
Amide (aqueous or 1 Amine [1]
alcoholic)
9
Board Answer Paper : March 2017
iii. Preparation of ethanoic acid from dry ice:
When solution of methyl magnesium iodide (Grignard reagent) in dry ether is added to solid
carbon dioxide (dry ice), it gives an adduct (magnesium salt of carboxylic acid), which on
acid hydrolysis gives ethanoic acid or acetic acid.
eg.
H3O
O = C = O + CH3 Mg I
dry ether
CH3 C OMgI CH3 C OH + Mg(OH)I
Dry ice Methyl
(Solid carbon O O
magnesium Adduct Acetic acid
dioxide) iodide (Ethanoic acid)
OCH3
Butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA)
(Molecular formula + Structural formula) [½ 2] [1]
b. Butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT)
Molecular formula: C15H24O
OH
(CH3)3C C(CH3)3
CH3
Butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT)
(Molecular formula + Structural formula) [½ 2] [1]
v. Preparation of glucose from cane sugar:
Glucose can be prepared in the laboratory by boiling sucrose (cane sugar) with dilute hydrochloric
acid or sulphuric acid for about two hours. This hydrolyzes sucrose to glucose and fructose. In
order to separate glucose from fructose, alcohol is added during cooling. Glucose is almost
insoluble in alcohol. It crystallizes out first, while fructose is more soluble. It remains in the
solution. The solution is filtered to obtain the crystals of glucose. (Explanation) [1]
H H H H H H
     
293 303K, dil Na 2 CO3
CH3 C +
H C C = O
CH3 C C C = O
   
O H B OH H
Acetaldehyde Acetaldehyde Hydroxybutyraldehyde (acetaldol)
(First molecule) (Second molecule) (3Hydroxybutanal) [½]
H H H H H H
H /
CH3 C C C = O
dehydration
CH3 C = C C = O + H2O [½]
Crotonaldehyde
HO H (But2enal)
Acetaldol
iv. a. Nucleic acids: Nucleic acids are biologically important polymers present in all living
cells, which direct the synthesis of proteins and are responsible for the transfer of
genetic information i.e., the hereditary characteristics. [1]
b. Complex lipids: The esters of long chain fatty acids which can be easily hydrolyzed
are called complex lipids. [1]
c. Functions of lipids:
1. Oils and fats can supply food energy in plants and animals.
2. Glycolipids are present in bacterial cell wall.
3. In plants, the principal lipid constituents of chloroplasts are glycolipids.
4. Cerebrosides are present in plasma membranes of neural tissues. They are animal
glycolipids. They are abundant in myelin sheath of neurons.
5. In water, phospholipids form membrane like structure.
6. The major components of cell membranes are phospholipids and sterols such as
cholesterol.
7. Waxes are water repelling solids. They provide waterproofing for body surfaces. They
form protective coatings on leaves, fruits, berries, animal fur and feather of birds.
8. Adrenal hormones, sex hormones and bile acids are steroids. Lipoproteins are the
combination of lipids with proteins. They are found in cell membranes.
9. Bile acids (such as cholic acid) aid digestion of fat in intestine.
10. Prostaglandins have a wide range of biological effects.
11. Vitamin A, E, K and phytol are terpenes. They are present in essential oils such as
menthol and camphor. The glands of certain aromatic plants secrete essential oils
which contains terpenes as the main constituents.
(Any two functions) [½ 2] [1]
12
Chemistry
Q.8. Answer any ONE of the following:
i. a. Action of nitrous acid i.e., mixture of NaNO2 and dil. HCl on:
1. Ethylamine:
Ethylamine reacts with nitrous acid in cold condition to give ethyl alcohol and nitrogen gas.
NaNO 2 dil.HCl
C2H5 NH2 + HO N = O 273 278K
C2H5OH + H2O + N2
Ethylamine Ethyl alcohol [1]
2. Aniline:
Aniline reacts with nitrous acid in cold condition to give benzene diazonium salt.
NH2 N 2 Cl
NaNO 2 dil.HCl
+ HO – N = O
273 278 K
+ NaCl + 2H2O
Aniline Benzenediazonium chloride [1]
3. Diethylamine:
Diethylamine reacts with nitrous acid in cold condition to give Nnitrosodiethylamine.
NaNO 2 dil.HCl
(C2H5)2NH + HO – N = O 273 278 K
(C2H5)2N – N = O + H2O
Diethylamine N–Nitrosodiethylamine [1]
b. Preparation of Nylon6,6:
1. Nylon6,6 is prepared by the condensation polymerization of hexamethylenediamine
with adipic acid under high pressure and at high temperature.
2. Equimolar aqueous solutions of both monomers are mixed. Nylon salt is formed by
neutralization.
+ +
H2N ( CH2 ) NH2 + HOOC ( CH2 )4 COOH H3N ( CH2 )6NH3OOC ( CH2 )4 COO
6
Hexamethylenediamine Adipic acid Hexamethylene diammonium adipate
(Hexane1,6diamine) (Hexane1,6dioic acid) (Nylon salt)
[ HN ( CH2 ) NH C ( CH2 )4 C ]n
6
Nylon6,6
(Formation of polymer) [1]
c. The chemical substances which neutralize excess acid in the gastric juices and give
relief from acid indigestion, acidity, heart burns and gastric ulcers are called antacids.
eg. Magnesium hydroxide, magnesium carbonate, magnesium trisilicate,
aluminium hydroxide, sodium bicarbonate, etc.
(Definition + Any one example) [1]
d. Side effects of tranquilizers are:
1. It produces drowsiness.
2. It is addictive.
3. It causes headache, fatigue, dizziness and muscle weakness.
4. It also causes visual disturbances (blurring of vision), discomfort and weight gain.
(Any two side effects) [½ 2] [1]
13
Board Answer Paper : March 2017
ii. a.
1. Alkaline hydrolysis of tertbutyl bromide can be explained by unimolecular
nucleophilic substitution S mechanism.
N1
Reaction:
CH3 CH3
CH3 C Br + OH CH3 C OH + Br
(Nucleophile) (Bromide ion)
[½]
CH3 CH3
(tertButyl bromide) (tertButyl alcohol)
2. Kinetics:
Rate [(CH3)3C Br]
Rate = k[(CH3)3C Br]
Hence, it is a first order reaction. [½]
3. Unimolecular nucleophilic substitution (SN ) is a two step reaction process. The first step is
1
a slow step, while the second one is a fast step. The mechanism can be written as follows:
i. Formation of carbonium ion:
a. The C – Br bond in tertiary butyl bromide slowly dissociates to form bromide ion (Br)
and tertiary butyl carbonium ion [+C(CH3)3].
b. This is a slow process and hence, it is a rate determining step (R.D.S.).
CH3
H3C CH3
* +
C Slow step
H3C C Br +
+ Br
R.D.S. C
H3C Br
H3C 120
CH3 H3C CH3
tertButyl bromide tertButyl carbonium ion [½]
Transition state I /carbocation
Back side
attack C*
[½]
HO CH3
CH3 CH3
H3C
+ tertButyl alcohol
C+ Fast H3C C OH [Inversion of
configuration (50%)]
120
H3C CH3 H3C
HO CH3
tertButyl carbonium ion
/carbocation Transition state II
Front side
attack C* [½]
H3C OH
CH3
tertButyl alcohol
[Retention of
configuration (50%)]
14
Chemistry
The intermediate formed after the bond has broken is known as carbocation (or
carbonium ion). In the carbocation, the carbon atom is sp2 hybridized and therefore, it
has planar geometry. The nucleophile can attack it either from front side or from back
side with nearly same probability. The products obtained in this case due to attack from
either side are the same, as the starting compound itself is optically inactive.
CH3
HO CH3 OH CH3
+
C* C*
Back side Front side
attack C attack
E1 E2
E2 = Activation energy for T.S. II
Carbocation
H = Heat of reaction and
product = C(CH3)3OH
Reactants
H CH3
Carbocation =
+
Products C
H3C CH3
Reaction coordinate
Energy profile diagram for S N1 mechanism (Diagram) [1]
+ NaOH(aq.)
Neutralisation
+ H2O
15
Board Answer Paper : March 2017
2. Dry sodium benzene sulphonate when fused with excess of sodium hydroxide at 573 K,
sodium phenoxide is obtained along with sodium sulphite (Na2SO3).
+ +
SO3Na ONa
3. Sodium phenoxide when hydrolysed by heating with dilute sulphuric acid, phenol is
obtained.
+
ONa OH
2 + H2SO4
Hydrolysis
2 + Na2SO4
(dil.)
Sodium Phenol or
phenoxide carbolic acid
OR
When a current of carbon dioxide is passed through aqueous sodium phenoxide, phenol
is obtained as product.
+
ONa OH
Sodium Phenol or
phenoxide carbolic acid
(Any one reaction) [½]
16
Chemistry
b. ZnO reacts with base to form salt. This shows that ZnO acts as an acidic oxide. [½]
eg. ZnO + 2NaOH Na ZnO + HO [½]
(s) (aq) 2 2(aq) 2 (l)
(Acidic) (excess)
ZnO acts as both acidic as well as basic oxide. Hence, zinc oxide is an amphoteric oxide.
vi. Minerals of aluminium:
Name of mineral Formula
[1]
a. Bauxite Al2O3.2H2O
b. Cryolite Na3AlF6 [1]
vii. a. Role of N2O: N2O acts as an intermediate since it is produced in first step and
consumed in second step. [1]
b. The first step is trimolecular/termolecular. [½]
The second step is bimolecular. [½]
viii. The mathematical expression of first law of thermodynamics is U = q + W.
Name of process Condition Mathematical expression of the first law
a. Isothermal T = 0 hence W = q [½]
U = 0
b. Adiabatic q=0 U = +W [½]
c. Isochoric V = 0, W = 0 U = qV [V is constant, hence q = qv] [½]
d. Isobaric P = Constant, U = qP + W
hence, q = qP U = qp pex.V [ W = pex.V]
[½]
or [qP = U + pex.V]
2
Chemistry
Q.3. Answer any THREE of the following:
i. Calculation:
We require to calculate the rate constant at different time intervals.
2.303 [A]
k= log10 0 ....[Integrated rate law for first order reaction]
t [A]t
a. [A]0 = 0.624
[A]t1 = 0.446
t1 = 600 s
2.303 [A]0
k1 = log [½]
t1 [A]t1
2.303 0.624
k1 = log
600 0.446
k1 = 3.838 103 log [1.399]
k1 = 3.838 103 0.1458
k1 = 5.596 104 s1 [½]
2.303 [A]0
b. k2 = log10
t2 [A]t 2
[A]0 = 0.624
[A]t 2 = 0.318
t2 = 1200 s
2.303 0.624
k2 = log
1200 0.318
k2 = 1.919 103 log (1.962)
k2 = 1.919 103 0.2927
k2 = 5.617 104 s1 [½]
2.303 [A]0
c. k3 = log10
t3 [A]t3
[A]0 = 0.624
[A]t3 = 0.226
t3 = 1800 s
2.303 0.624
k3 = log
1800 0.226
3
k3 = 1.279 10 log [2.7610]
k3 = 1.279 103 0.4411
k3 = 5.641 104 s1 [½]
4 4 4
k1 k 2 k 3 (5.596 10 ) (5.617 10 ) (5.641 10 )
k= =
3 3
4 1
k = 5.618 10 s [½]
All the k values calculated at different time intervals are almost the same. This implies that
the reaction obeys the integrated rate equation of first order reaction. Hence, the reaction is a
first order reaction. [½]
3
Board Answer Paper : July 2017
ii. Given: C(s) + O2(g) CO2(g) ; fH = –393.3 kJ mol–1 ...(1) [½]
1
H2(g) + O2(g) H2O(l) ; fH = –285.8 kJ mol–1 ...(2) [½]
2
2C(s) + 2H2(g) + O2(g) CH3COOH(l) ; fH = 483.2 kJ mol–1 ...(3) [½]
To find: The standard enthalpy of combustion of CH3COOH(l) (cH)
Calculation: The required equation is,
CH3COOH(l) + 2O2(g) 2CO2(g) + 2H2O(l) [½]
Multiplying equation (1) and equation (2) by 2, then adding to reverse of
equation (3). [½]
2C(s) + 2O2(g) 2CO2(g) ; fH = –786.6 kJ mol–1 ...(4)
–1
2H2(g) + O2(g) 2H2O(l) ; fH = –571.6 kJ mol ...(5)
–1
CH3COOH(l) 2C(s) + 2H2(g) + O2(g) ; fH= 483.2 kJ mol ...(6)
[½]
CH3COOH(l) + 2O2(g) 2CO2(g) + 2H2O(l) ; cH = –875 kJ mol–1 [½]
iv. a. Concentrated sulphuric acid reacts with PCl5 to form chlorosulphuric acid.
HOSO2OH + PCl5 ClSO2OH + POCl3 + HCl [½]
Sulphuric Phosphorus Chlorosulphuric
acid pentachloride acid
4
Chemistry
b. Sulphuric acid oxidizes metal Cu.
Cu + 2H2SO4 CuSO4 + SO2 + 2H2O [1]
Copper Sulphuric Copper Sulphur Water
acid sulphate dioxide
c. Sulphuric acid reacts with KClO3 to form KHSO4, HClO4 and ClO2.
3KClO3 + 3H2SO4 3KHSO4 + HClO4 + 2ClO2 + H2O [1]
Potassium Sulphuric Potassium Perchloric
chlorate acid hydrogen acid
sulphate
Q.4. Answer any ONE of the following:
i. a. Molality (m): Molality is defined as the number of moles of the solute dissolved in one
kilogram (kg) of the solvent. [1]
b. Osmotic pressure: The excess of pressure on the side of the solution, that stops the net
flow of solvent into the solution through a semipermeable membrane is called osmotic
pressure. [1]
c. Advantages of calomel electrode:
1. It is convenient to handle, easy to construct and transport.
2. No separate salt bridge is required for its combination with other electrode.
3. The potential of the electrode is reproducible and remains constant.
(Any two advantages) [½ 2] [1]
d. Given: Edge length of FCC unit cell (a1) = 3.5 Å
Edge length of BCC unit cell (a2) = 3.0 Å
d1 (FCC)
To find: Ratio of density of FCC and BCC =
d 2 (BCC)
ZM
Formula: Density of unit cell = d = g cm–3
NA a 3
4M
Calculation: Density of FCC unit cell = d1 = [½]
N A (3.5 Å)3
2M
Density of BCC unit cell = d2 = [½]
N A (3.0 Å)3
Ratio of densities of FCC and BCC unit cell is,
d1 M N A (3.0 Å)3
= [½]
d2 N A (3.5 Å)3 2M
d1 54
= = 1.259 1.26 [½]
d2 42.875
H3C C H H3C C O O H
[½]
+ O2
Cobalt naphthenate
423K /(alkaline medium)
(Air)
Cumene or Cumene hydroperoxide
(Isopropyl benzene
or 2Phenylpropane)
7
Board Answer Paper : July 2017
b. Auto oxidation: Cumene hydroperoxide on heating with dilute H2SO4 decomposes
forming phenol and acetone. In this method, acetone is obtained as an important
byproduct which is separated by distillation.
CH3
H3C C O O H OH
O
[1]
dil.H 2SO 4
+ CH3 C CH3
Phenol Acetone
Cumene
hydroperoxide
ii. a. Self oxidation and reduction (disproportionation) of aldehydes (which do not possess
an hydrogen atom) in the presence of concentrated alkali (aqueous or alcoholic) is
known as Cannizzaro reaction. The reaction products are alcohol and salt of
carboxylic acid. [½]
b. In this reaction, alcohol is obtained due to reduction of one molecule of aldehyde and
carboxylic acid is obtained due to oxidation of another molecule of an aldehyde. The
carboxylic acid forms a salt with alkali. [½]
eg. H H H O
H C = O + H C = O + NaOH H C OH + H C ONa [1]
Formaldehyde (50%) Sodium formate
H
Methyl alcohol
iii. Nitrogen atom of amines contains a lone pair of electrons which can be donated. Thus, amines act
as Lewis bases. Amines are LowryBronsted bases as they accept a proton. Thus, amines act as
bases and nucleophiles.
+ HCl
Cr
O
O [1]
O
Chromate ion
2
O O O
O Cr 126 Cr O
O O [1]
Dichromate ion
vii. a. Dacron (Terylene) is obtained by the condensation polymerization of ethylene glycol
(1,2Ethanediol) and dimethylterephthalate.
b. Monomers are heated at 503 K. The catalyst used is a mixture of zinc acetate and
antimony trioxide.
c. Transesterification followed by polymerization gives terylene.
O O
Catalyst,Δ
n HO CH2 CH2 OH + n H3C O C C O CH3
CH OH
3
O O O O
Polymerisation
CH2 CH2 O C CO
CH2 CH2 O C CO
n
Repeating unit Polyester
b. Poly or multidentate ligands: The ligand molecule or ion which has two or more
donor atoms or points of attachments and can be linked to the same metal in a complex
using two or more donating sites is called poly or multidentate ligands. Thus,
multiple sites of ligands are used in the coordination with metal. Based on the number
of donor atoms, polydentate ligands are further classified as bidentate, tridentate,
tetradentate, etc.
1. Bidentate ligands have two donor atoms.
eg. Ethylenediammine (en)
2. Tridentate ligands have three donor atoms.
eg. Diethylenetriammine (dien)
3. Tetradentate ligands have four donor atoms.
eg. Triethylenetetraammine (trien)
4. Hexadentate ligands have six donor atoms.
eg. Ethylenediamminetetraacetate (EDTA)
(Explanation + Examples) [1]
c. Ambidentate ligands: Ambidentate ligands are the ligands which have two or more
donor atoms capable of forming coordinate bonds; however only one donor atom is
utilized during complex formation.
eg. NO 2 group can form complexes by utilizing either N or O as donor atom, but not
both. This results in formation of either MNO2 or MONO complex
respectively.
(Explanation + Example) [1]
c. Propanone, when shaken with a saturated aqueous solution of sodium bisulphite gives
acetone sodium bisulphite.
CH3 CH3
CH3 C = O + CH3 C OH
NaHSO3(aq)
Propanone Sodium bisulphite [1]
SO3Na
Acetone sodium bisulphite
iv. a. Enzymes are defined as biocatalysts, produced by the living cells which catalyse many
biochemical reactions in animals and plant bodies. [1]
b. 1. Amino acids are bifunctional compounds containing a carboxylic acid group
and an amino group on carbon.
H2N CHCOOH
R
Amino acid
(R = H or alkyl or aryl group)
2. The reaction of the COOH group of one amino acid molecule and NH2 group of
the neighbouring amino acid molecule forms peptide having CONH linkage
by elimination of water.
R1 O H R2 O R1 R2
H2 O
H2N CH C OH + H N CH C OH
H2N CH CO NH CH COOH
Amino acid Amino acid Peptide linkage
(Dipeptide)
3. Above reaction repeats itself to give tri, tetra, penta and finally polypeptides (i.e.,
protein).
(Explanation + Reaction) [2]
Q.8. Answer any ONE of the following:
i. a. 1. Nitroethane reduced to ethylamine by the action of tin and conc. HCl.
CH3CH2NO2 + 6[H] Sn /conc.HCl
CH3CH2NH2 + 2H2O [1]
Nitroethane Ethylamine
11
Board Answer Paper : July 2017
b. Preparation of BunaN:
Name of monomers Formula
1. Buta1,3diene CH2 = CH CH = CH2
2. Acrylonitrile CH2 = CH CN
(Names) [½ 2] [1]
(Formulae) [½ 2] [1]
c. Soaps are sodium or potassium salts of higher fatty acids which contain more than 12
carbon atoms. [1]
Preparation of soaps:
1. By hydrolysis of fat using sodium or potassium hydroxide solution
(saponification):
When oils and fats are heated with solution of sodium hydroxide or potassium
hydroxide, they are hydrolysed to glycerol and sodium (or potassium) salt of fatty acid
(known as soap). This process is called saponification.
O
CH2 O C R
O CH2OH O
CH O C R + 3NaOH CHOH + 3RC ONa
Soap
O CH2OH
CH2 O C R Glycerol
Fat/oil
After saponification, common salt (NaCl) is added to the aqueous solution. This
decreases the solubility of soap due to which it precipitates. Soap being lighter,
floats on the surface of water and can be separated.
2. Direct neutralization of fatty acids: Soaps are prepared by direct neutralization of
fatty acids by using sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate.
O O
RCOH + NaOH RC ONa + H2O
Higher fatty acid Soap (Any one method) [1]
ii. a. 1. Methanal reacts with methyl magnesium iodide in presence of dry ether to give
an addition compound, which on acid hydrolysis gives ethanol.
H H
H /H OH I
H C = O + CH3 Mg I
dry ether
CH3 C O Mg I CH3 CH2 OH + Mg
Methanal Methyl Ethanol OH
magnesium H
iodide Addition compound [1]
2. Ethanal reacts with methyl magnesium iodide in presence of dry ether to give an
addition compound, complex which on acid hydrolysis gives propan2ol.
CH3 CH3
H /H OH I
CH3 C = O + CH3 Mg I
dry ether
CH3 C O Mg I CH3 CH OH + Mg
Methyl Propan2ol OH
H magnesium H
Ethanal iodide Addition compound [1]
12
Chemistry
3. Propanone reacts with methyl magnesium iodide in presence of dry ether to give
an addition compound, which on acid hydrolysis gives 2methylpropan2ol.
b. Optical activity (Chirality): The property of a substance to rotate the plane of a plane
polarised light towards the right (clockwise) or towards the left (anticlockwise) is
called optical activity. [1]
c. The optical activity of lactic acid can be discussed as:
1. Presence of asymmetrical carbon atom:
i. Lactic acid contains one asymmetrical carbon atom.
(Number of asymmetric carbon atom) [½]
ii. According to van’t Hoff’s rule: a = 2n, where, a is the number of isomers and n is
the number of asymmetric carbon atom.
iii. Thus, two isomers of lactic acid are possible. (Number of isomers) [½]
2. Nonsuperimposable mirror image structures:
COOH COOH
H C OH HO C* H
CH3 CH3
d or (+) lactic acid
Mirror
or () lactic acid (Two enantiomer structures) [1]
Hence, lactic acid can exist as dform and lform which are nonsuperimposable
mirror images of each other.
(Mentioning ‘d’ and ‘l’ forms) [½]
3. (dl) Racemic mixture and its optical inactivity:
A mixture containing equal moles of the d and l forms of lactic acid is a racemic
mixture which is optically inactive i.e., dl or () form. This inactivity arises due
to external compensation.
(Explanation of racemic mixture) [½]
13
Mathematics
r =
2 q 1 p
2 1
=
2 ˆi 4ˆj 2kˆ ˆi 2ˆj kˆ [1]
3
2i 8 j 4k ˆi 2ˆj kˆ
ˆ ˆ ˆ
=
3
=
3
1 ˆ ˆ ˆ
3i 6 j 3k
r = ˆi 2ˆj kˆ [1]
2
Mathematics
Q.2. (A) Attempt any TWO of the following:
i. [(p q) q] p
1 2 3 4 5
P q pq (p q) q [(p q) q] p
T T T T T
T F F F T
F T T T F
F F T F T
In the above truth table, the entries in the last column are a combination of T and F.
[(p q) q] p is contingency [1]
[one mark each for column 4 and column 5]
R Q
G
B C
P
By midpoint formula, we get
bc
p= ….(i)
2
ca
q= ….(ii) [1]
2
ab
r= ….(iii)
2
From (i), (ii) and (iii), we get
2p = b + c 2p + a = a + b + c
2q = c + a 2q + b = a + b + c
2r = a + b 2r + c = a + b + c
2p a 2q b 2r c a bc
= = =
3 3 3 3
2p a 2q b 2r c a bc
= = = = g (say) [1]
2 1 2 1 2 1 3
This shows that the point G whose position vector is g lies on the three medians AP, BQ, CR
dividing them internally in the ratio 2:1.
Hence, the three medians are concurrent. [1]
3
Board Answer Paper : March 2016
iii. The shortest distance between the lines
r a1 b1 and r a 2 b2 is
d
a 2
a1 b1 b2
b1 b2
3iˆ 2 kˆ
ˆi ˆj kˆ
and b1 b2 1 2 3
1 4 5
b1 b 2 = 22 22 22
= 444
= 12
= 2 3 [1]
Consider, a 2 a1 b1 b2 3iˆ 2kˆ 2iˆ 2ˆj 2kˆ
=32+02+22
=6+0+4
=2 [1]
shortest distance between the given lines
2 1
units [1]
2 3 3
4
Mathematics
ii. To draw the feasible region, construct table as follows:
Inequality 2x + y 7 2x + 3y 15 y3
Corresponding equation (of line) 2x + y = 7 2x + 3y = 15 y = 3
Intersection of line with Xaxis 7 15
,0 ,0
2 2
Intersection of line with Yaxis (0, 7) (0, 5) (0, 3)
Region Nonorigin side Origin side Origin side
Y
5
x=3
4 C(3/2,4)
[1]
3 B(3, 3)
1 A(3, 1)
X
O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
2x + y = 7 2x + 3y = 15
Y
Shaded portion ABC is the feasible region whose vertices are A, B and C.
A is the point of intersection of the lines x = 3 and 2x + y = 7.
Putting x = 3 in 2x + y = 7, we get
2(3) + y = 7
y=1
A (3, 1)
B is the point of intersection of the lines x = 3 and 2x + 3y = 15.
Putting x = 3 in 2x + 3y = 15, we get
2(3) + 3y = 15
x=3
B (3, 3)
C is the point of intersection of the lines 2x + y = 7 and 2x + 3y = 15.
Solving both equations ,we get
C(3/2 ,4)
A (3, 1), B (3, 3) and C (3/2 ,4) [1]
Here, the objective function is
Z = 4x + 5y,
5
Board Answer Paper : March 2016
Z at A(3, 1) = 4(3) + 5(1) = 17
Z at B (3, 3) = = 4(3) + 5(3) = 27 [1]
Z at C(3/2 ,4) = 4(3/2) + 5(4) = 26
Z has minimum value 17 at A(3 ,1)
Z is minimum, when x = 3 and y = 1. [1]
iii. Let the cost of 1 dozen pencils, 1 dozen pens and 1 dozen erasers be ` x, ` y and ` z
respectively.
According to the given conditions,
4x + 3y + 2z = 60
2x + 4y + 6z = 90 i.e. x + 2y + 3z = 45
6x + 2y + 3z = 70 [1]
Matrix form of the given system of equations is,
é 4 3 2ù é xù é60ù
ê ú ê ú ê ú
ê 1 2 3ú ê y ú = ê 45ú [1]
ê ú ê ú ê ú
ê 6 2 3ú êzú ê70ú
ë û ë û ë û
Applying R1 R2
é 1 2 3ù é x ù é 45ù
ê ú ê ú ê ú
ê 4 3 2ú ê y ú = ê60ú
ê ú ê ú ê ú
ê 6 2 3ú ê z ú ê70ú
ë û ë û ë û
Applying R2 R2 4R1, R3 R3 6R1
é1 2 3ù é xù é 45ù
ê ú ê ú ê ú
ê0  5  10ú ê y ú = ê120ú
ê ú ê ú ê ú
ê0  10 15 ú êzú ê200ú
ë û ë û ë û
Applying R3 R3 2R2,
é1 2 3ù é xù é 45ù
ê ú ê ú ê ú
ê0  5  10ú ê y ú = ê120ú
ê ú ê ú ê ú
ê0 0 5 úû êzú ê 40ú
ë ë û ë û
Hence, the original matrix is reduced to an upper triangular matrix.
By equality of matrices, we get
x + 2y + 3z = 45 ....(i)
5y 10z = 120
i.e. y + 2z = 24 ....(ii) [1]
5z = 40 ....(iii)
i.e. z=8
Substituting z = 8 in equation (ii), we get
y + 2(8) = 24
y=8
Substituting z = 8 and y = 8 in equation (i), we get
x + 2(8) + 3(8) = 45
x + 16 + 24 = 45
x=5
x = 5, y = 8, z = 8 [1]
Thus, the cost of pencils is ` 5 per dozen, that of pens is ` 8 per dozen and that of erasers is ` 8
per dozen.
6
Mathematics
Q.3. (A) Attempt any TWO of the following:
i. Let a = 7iˆ kˆ , b 2iˆ 5jˆ 3kˆ , c 4iˆ 3jˆ kˆ be the coterminus edges of a tetrahedron.
1
Volume of the tetrahedron = a b c [1]
6
7 0 1
1
= 2 5 3 [1]
6
4 3 1
1
= 7(5 9) 0 1(6 20)
6
1
= (98 14)
6
1
= (84) = 14
6
Volume of the tetrahedron is 14 cubic units. [1]
2
(by + hx)2 = h 2 ab x
2
by hx h ab x (by hx )
h 2 ab x = 0
[1]
7
Board Answer Paper : March 2016
This is the joint equation of two lines
(by + hx) +
h 2 ab x = 0
i.e., h h 2 ab x + by = 0
and h h2 ab x + by = 0
B C
8
Mathematics
Now, AB = b a = ĵ + 3 k̂
AC = c a = î 2 ĵ + 3 k̂
n is perpendicular to AB and AC both.
n = AB AC
ˆi ˆj kˆ
= 0 1 3
1 2 3
= î (3 + 6) ĵ (0 3) + k̂ (0 1)
= 9 î + 3 ĵ k̂ [1]
Vector equation of the plane is r.n a.n
r 9iˆ + 3jˆ kˆ = ˆi + ˆj kˆ 9iˆ + 3jˆ kˆ [1]
= 1(9) + 1(3) 2(1)
=9+3+2
r 9iˆ + 3jˆ kˆ = 14 [1]
for cartesian form,
putting r = xˆi + yˆj+ zkˆ in (i), we get
xˆi + yˆj+ zkˆ 9iˆ 3jˆ kˆ = 14
9x + 3y z = 14 [1]
Which is the cartesian form of equation
iii. sin x + sin 3x + sin 5x = 0
(sin 5x + sin x) + sin 3x = 0
5x x 5x x
2sin cos + sin 3x = 0 [1]
2 2
2 sin 3x cos 2x + sin 3x = 0
sin 3x (2cos 2x + 1) = 0
sin 3x = 0 or 2cos 2x + 1 = 0
1
sin 3x = 0 or 2cos 2x = [1]
2
sin 3x = 0 or cos 2x = cos = cos
3 3
2
sin 3x = 0 or cos 2x = cos [1]
3
Since, sin = 0 implies = n and cos = cos implies = 2n , n Z.
2
3x = n or 2x = 2m
3
n
the required general solution is x = or x = m , where n, m Z. [1]
3 3
SECTION – II
Q.4. (A) Select and write the most appropriate answer from the given alternatives in each of the
following subquestions:
i. (C)
f(x) is continuous at x = 1 ….(given)
lim f x lim f(x)
x 1 x 1
9
Board Answer Paper : March 2016
lim k x lim 4 x + 3
x 1 x 1
k +1 = 4(1)+3
k=6 [2]
ii. (A)
Equation of the curve is y = x2 + 4x + 1
Differentiating w.r.t. x, we get
dy
= 2x + 4
dx
Slope of tangent at (1, 2) is
dy
= 2(1) + 4 = 2 + 4 = 2
dx ( 1, 2)
dy
Equation of tangent is y y1 = (x x1)
dx ( x1 , y1 )
Here, (x1, y1) (1, 2)
[ y (2)] = 2[x (1)]
y + 2 = 2(x + 1) = 2x + 2
2x y = 0 [2]
iii. (C)
n = 10, E(X) = 8 ....(given)
But, E(X) = np
8 = 10 (p)
8 4
p= 0.8 [2]
10 5
Y
y2 = 4ax
A
X X
O S(a, 0)
Y
= 2 y dx
0
a
= 2 2 a x dx
0
[1]
=4 a 0
x dx
é2 3 a
ù
= 4 a êê x 2 úú
3 ë û0
8 é ù 8 2 3
= a êa  0ú = a sq. units
2
[1]
3 ë ê ú 3
û
n
iv. Given, Pi = 1
i 1
k + 2k + 3k + 4k + 5k = 1
15k = 1
1
k= [1]
15
X=x 1 2 3 4 5
P(X = x) 1 2 3 4 5
15 15 15 15 15
11
Board Answer Paper : March 2016
P(x ≤ 4) = P(x = 1) + P(x = 2) + P(x = 3) + P(x = 4)
1 2 3 4
=
15 15 15 15
10
=
15
2
= [1]
3
sin x
v. Let I = 36 cos2 x
dx
Put cos x = t
Differentiating w.r.t.x, we get
sin x dx = dt [1]
dt
I= 62 t 2
t
= sin 1 + c
6
I = sin1
cos x
+c [1]
6
y y u
lim = lim lim ….[ x 0, u 0] [1]
x 0 x x 0 u x 0 x
du
But, lim u = exists and is finite.
x 0 x dx
dy
Also, lim y = exists and is finite.
u 0 u du
limits on R.H.S. of (i) exist and are finite. [1]
Hence, limits on L.H.S. should also exist and be finite.
y
dy
lim =
exists and is finite.
x 0 x
dx
dy dy du
= [1]
dx du dx
12
Mathematics
a. P(none will recover)
P(X = 0) = 6C0 (0.5)0 (0.5)60
= (1) (1) (0.5)6 [1]
= 0.015625
b. P(half of them will recover)
P(X = 3) = 6C3 (0.5)3 (0.5)63
6!
= (0.5)3 (0.5)3
3!.3!
6 5 4 3!
= (0.125) (0.125)
3 2 1 3!
= 20 0.015625
= 0.3125 [1]
x
iii. Let I = a
0
2
cos2 x b2 sin 2 x
dx ....(i)
x a a
I= dx .... f x dx f a x dx [1]
0
a 2 cos2 x b 2 sin 2 x 0 0
x
I= a0
2
cos2 x b2 sin 2 x
dx ....(ii)
1
= a
0
2
cos2 x b2 sin 2 x
dx
2
sec2 x sec 2 ( x ) 2a a
= 2 2 2 2 2 2 dx …. f ( x )dx f ( x ) f (2a x ) dx
0
a b tan x a b tan ( x ) 0 0
2
sec2 x sec 2 x
= 2 2 2 2 2 2 dx
0
a b tan x a b tan x
2
sec 2 x
= 2 dx
0
a b 2 tan 2 x
2
2
sec 2 x
I = dx [1]
0
a 2 b2 tan 2 x
Put tan x = t
sec2 x dx = dt
When x = 0, t = 0 and when x = ,t=
2
13
Board Answer Paper : March 2016
dt dt
I= a 2
b 2 2
t
= 2
b a 2
t
0 0 2
b
1 1 t
= 2 tan a
b a
b b 0
1 bt
= tan a
ab 0
= (tan1 tan 1 0)
ab
= 0
ab 2
2
I= [1]
2ab
4
log
= e
log 6
f is discontinuous at x = 0. [1]
The discontinuity of f is removable and it can be made continuous by redefining the function
as
x x
4 e
f(x) = x
, for x 0
6 1
[1]
4 at x = 0
log
= e , for x = 0
log 6
14
Mathematics
= a 2 x 2 1dx
d
dx
a 2 x 2 1dx dx
[1]
2 x
= x a2 x2 x dx
2 a2 x2
(a 2 x 2 ) a 2
= x a2 x2 dx
a2 x2
a 2 x2 a2
= x a2 x2
dx
a x a x
2 2 2 2
1
= x a 2 x 2 a 2 x 2 dx + a 2 2 2 dx
a x [1]
I = x a 2 x 2 I + a 2 sin 1 + c1
x
a [1]
2I = x a 2 x 2 + a 2 sin 1 + c1
x
a
2
x 2 a x c
I= a x 2 + sin 1 + 1
2 2 a 2
x 2 a2 x
a 2 x 2 dx =
2
a x 2 sin 1 c ,
2 a
[1]
c1
where c =
2
iii. Let be the temperature of the body at time t. Temperature of air is 10C.
According to the Newton’s law of cooling we have.
d
( 0)
dt
d
= K ( 0), k > 0 [1]
dt
= 0 + c ekt
Using initial condition
= 10 + 100 ekt [1]
But = 60c, t = 1 hour
1
ek = [1]
2
we have to find t when = 35c
t
35 = 10 + 100
1
2
t
=
1 1
4 2
2 t
1 1
=
2 2
t = 2 hours
Hence additional time required to cool the body form 60C to 35C is equal to
= Time required to cool the body to 35 c Time required to cool body to 60 c
= 2 1 = 1 hour [1]
15
Board Answer Paper : March 2016
Q.6. (A) Attempt any TWO of the following:
a a
i. Let I = f ( x )dx f (2a x )dx
0 0
= I1 + I2
For I2, put 2a – x = t
dx = dt
dx = dt
When x = 0, t = 2a and when x = a, t = a [1]
a a
I2 = f (2a x )dx = f t dt
0 2a
I = I1 + I2
a a
= f ( x )dx f (t)dt
0 2a
a 2a
b a
= f ( x )dx f (t)dt .... f ( x )dx f ( x )dx
0 a a b
[1]
a 2a
b b
= f ( x )dx f ( x )dx …. f ( x )dx f (t)dt
0 a a a
2a
b c b
= f ( x )dx …. f x dx f x dx f x dx;a c b [1]
0 a a c
2a a a
f ( x )dx f ( x )dx f (2a x )dx
0 0 0
1 log x
ii. Let I = x 2 log x 3 log x dx
1 log x
= x 1 1 log x 2 1 log x dx
Put 1 + log x = t
1
dx = dt
x
t dt
I=
1 t 2 t
[1]
t A B
Let = +
1 t 2 t 1 t 2t
t = A(2 + t) + B(1 + t) ….(i)
Putting t = 1 in (i), we get
1 = A(2 1)
A = 1
Putting t = 2 in (i), we get
2 = B(1 2)
B=2 [1]
t 1 2
= +
1 t 2 t 1 t 2t
1 2
I= 1 t dt + 2t dt
= log 1 + t + 2log 2 + t + c
= log 1 + 1 + log x + 2log 2 + 1 + log x + c
16
Mathematics
= log 2 + log x + 2log 3 + log x + c
I = log (3 + log x)2  log  (2 + log x)  + c [1]
17
Board Answer Paper : March 2016
v tan = x + c
v
[1]
2
x+ y
x + y tan =x+c
2
y = tan
x+ y
+c
2
This is general solution of different equation.
Now x = 0, y = 0 then c = 0
y = tan
x+ y
is particular solution. [1]
2
ii. Let r be the radius of the circle and x be the length of the side of the square.
Then,
circumference of the circle + perimeter of the square = total length of the wire
2r + 4x = l
2r = l 4x
l 4x
r= ….(i)
2
Let A = area of the circle + area of the square
= r2 + x2
2
l 4x
= +x
2
….[From (i)] [1]
2
l 2 8lx 16 x 2
= x2
4
4x 2 16 x 2 8lx l 2
=
4
4( 4) x 2 8lx l 2
=
4
dA 8( 4) x 8l
=
dx 4
d2A 8( 4) 2( 4)
and = = [1]
dx 2
4
dA
Now, A is minimum, if =0
dx
8( 4) x 8l
i.e., if =0
4
i.e., if 8( + 4) x 8l = 0
i.e., if 8( + 4) x = 8l
8l l
i.e., if x = = [1]
8( 4) 4
d2A 2( 4) l
Also, 2 = > 0 and hence A is minimum when x = .
dx x l 4
4
From (i),
l
l 4
r = 4 = l 4 l 4l
2 2 4
l
=
2 4
18
Mathematics
l
=
2 4
x
=
2
Thus, the sum of the areas of the circle and the square is the least, when radius of the circle is
half side of the square. [1]
iii. c.d.f. of a continuous random variable x is given by
x
F (x) = f y dy
[1]
19
Mathematics
sin
A
=
s b s c = (36 24)(36 30)
=
12 6
=
1
[2]
2 bc 24 30 24 30 10
(B) Attempt any THREE of the following:
i. Let b1 and b 2 be the vectors in the direction of the lines
r = (3iˆ 2ˆj 4k)
ˆ + (iˆ 2ˆj 2k)
ˆ and r = (5iˆ 2k)
ˆ + (3iˆ 2ˆj 6k)
ˆ respectively.
1
Board Answer Paper : July 2016
19
cos =
21
= cos1
19
[1]
21
ii. (r q) p
(T F) T
(T F) F [1]
FF
T
Hence, the truth value is ‘T’ [1]
2 3
iii. Given A =
3 5
2 3
A = = 10 + 9 = 19 0
3 5
A1 exists
A11 = (1)1 + 1. M11 = 5 A12 = (1)1 + 2. M12 = 3
A21 = (1)2 + 1. M21 = –(–3) = 3 A22 = (1)2 + 2. M22 = 2
Hence, matrix of the cofactors is
A A 5 3
[Aij]2×2 = 11 12
= 3
A
21 A 22 2
T 5 3
Now, adj A = A ij = [1]
2 2
3 2
1 1 5 3
A1 = adj A = [1]
A 19 3 2
iv. Let a, b,c and d be the position vectors of vertices A, B, C, D respectively of □ABCD
a ˆi 2ˆj k,
ˆ b 8iˆ 3jˆ 4kˆ , c 5iˆ 4ˆj kˆ and d 2iˆ ˆj 4kˆ
iii. The equation r a sb tc represents a plane passing through a point having position vector
a and parallel to the vectors b and c .
Here, a = ˆi ˆj , b ˆi ˆj 2kˆ and c ˆi 2ˆj kˆ
The given plane is perpendicular to the vector n
ˆi ˆj kˆ
= b c = 1 1 2
1 2 1
= î (1 4) ĵ (1 2) + k̂ (2 + 1)
= 5 î + ĵ + 3 k̂ [1]
Vector equation of the plane in scalar product form is r n = a n
r 5iˆ + ˆj + 3kˆ = ˆi + ˆj 5iˆ + ˆj + 3kˆ [1]
r 5iˆ + ˆj + 3kˆ = 1(5) + 1(1) + 0(3)
SS1' 1
SS'22 [1]
+ L
ii. Let , , be the direction angles of the line
= 45, = 60
1 1
m = cos = cos 45 = and n = cos = cos 60 =
2 2
Since, cos2 + cos2 + cos2 = 1 [1]
2 2
1
cos2 + = 1
1
2 2
1 1 1
cos2 = 1
2 4 4
1
cos = [1]
2
1 1 1
i.e., l = , m = ,n=
2 2 2
The unit vectors along the direction of line are
û = lˆi mjˆ nkˆ
1 1 ˆ 1ˆ
= ˆi j k [1]
2 2 2
The vectors of magnitude 5 are
1 1 ˆ 1 ˆ 1 1 ˆ 1 ˆ
5 ˆi j k and 5 ˆi j k [1]
2 2 2 2 2 2
4
Mathematics
iii. To draw the feasible region, construct table as follows:
Inequality x + 4y 24 3x + y 21 x+y9
Corresponding equation (of line) x + 4y = 24 3x + y = 21 x+y=9
Intersection of line with Xaxis (24, 0) (7, 0) (9, 0)
Intersection of line with Yaxis (0, 6) (0, 21) (0, 9)
Region Origin side Origin side Origin side
24
21
3x + y = 21
18
15
12
[1]
6 D(0, 6) C(4, 5)
3 B(6, 3)
A(7, 0)
X X
O 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24
x + 4y = 24
x+y=9
Y
ii. Let p1 and p2 be the distances of points î ĵ + 3 k̂ and 3 î + 4 ĵ + 3 k̂ from the plane
r 5iˆ 2ˆj 7kˆ + 8 = 0
The distance of the point A with position vector a from the plane r n = p is given by
a n p
d=
n
6
Mathematics
15 8 21 8
=
78
10
= [1]
78
p1 = p2
Hence, points are equidistant from the plane. [1]
b
B
D
P
O c C
Let a, b and c be the position vectors of points A, B and C respectively with respect to origin
O.
8
Mathematics
Complete the parallelopiped as shown in the figure with OA , OB and OC as its coterminous
edges.
AP is a perpendicular drawn to the plane of b and c . Let be the angle made by AP with
OA. Volume of parallelopiped = (Area of parallelogram OCDB) (height)
Now, area of parallelogram OCDB = b c ….(i) [1]
Height of parallelopiped = l(AP) = l(OA) cos
= OA cos
= a cos ….(ii) [1]
From (i) and (ii), we get
volume of parallelopiped = a b c cos
= a bc
Volume of parallelopiped = a b c [1]
Let a = 2iˆ 5jˆ 4k,b
ˆ 5iˆ 7ˆj 5kˆ and c 4iˆ 5jˆ 2kˆ
2 5 4
a b c = 5 7 5
4 5 2
= 2(–14 – 25) – 5(–10 – 20) – 4(25 – 28)
= –78 + 150 + 12 = 84
Volume of the parallelopiped is 84 cubic units. [1]
SECTION – II
Q.4. (A) Select and write the most appropriate answer from the given alternatives in each of the
following subquestions:
i. (A)
7
dy 3 3 d2 y
1 + = 7 2
dx dx
7 3
dy 3 d2 y
Cubing on both sides, we get 1 = 73 2
dx dx
By definition of degree and order Degree: 3 ; Order: 2 [2]
ii. (C)
9
1
9
1 9
1
x2 9
Let I = dx = x 2 dx = 2 x
x 1 4
4 4
2 4
= 2
9 4 = 2(3 2)
I=2 [2]
iii. (A)
x
x x
y2 y3 x3 1
F(x) = f ( y )dy dy = = [2]
1 1
3 9 1 9 9
9
Board Answer Paper : July 2016
(B) Attempt any THREE of the following:
i. y = sec x
dy d
dx dx
sec x
= sec x tan x
d
dx
x [1]
1
= sec x . tan x .
2 x
dy sec x tan x
[1]
dx 2 x
x+1
ii. Let I = dx
x+ 2 x+3
x+1 A B
x+ 2 x+3 x+ 2 x+3
x + 1 = A(x + 3) + B(x + 2) ….(i)
Putting x = 2 in equation (i) we get
1 = A
A = 1
Putting x = 3 in equation (i) we get
2 = B
B=2 [1]
x+1 1 2
x+ 2 x+3 x+ 2 x+3
1 2
I = dx
x 2 x+ 3
I = log x 2 2log x 3 c [1]
10
Mathematics
sec 2 x sec 2 y
dx + dy = 0 [1]
tan x tan y
Integrating on both sides, we get
sec 2 x sec 2 y
tan x
dx + tan y
dy = 0
4 1
2 2
sin x
4sin x 1 sin 2 x
2
4 1
sin x 2
x2 sin x x
= lim = lim = lim [1]
x 0 x log 1 2 x x 0 x log 1 2 x x 0 log(1 2 x)
2
x2 2x
2
4sin x 1 sin x
lim lim
x 0 sin x x 0 x
=
log 1 2 x
2lim
x 0 2x
log 4
2
f(0) = [1]
2
1
ii. Let I = 3 + 2sin x + cos x dx
Put tan = t
x
2
x = 2 tan–1 t
2dt 2t 1 t 2
dx = 2
and sin x = 2
, cos x = [1]
1+ t 1+ t 1 + t2
11
Board Answer Paper : July 2016
1 2
I = 2t
1 t 2 1+ t 2
dt
3+ 2 +
1+ t 2 1+ t 2
2dt dt
= =2 2
3 +3t + 4t +1 t
2 2
2t + 4t + 4
2 dt dt
=
2 t 2
+ 2t + 2
= (t +1)
2
1+ 2
[1]
dt
= (t +1) + 12 2
= tan1 (t + 1) + c
éx æ ö ù
I = tan1 ê tan ççç ÷÷÷ +1ú + c [1]
êë è 2ø úû
iii. ‘y’ is a differentiable function of ‘x’.
Let there be a small change x in the value of ‘x’.
Correspondingly, there should be a small change y in the value of ‘y’.
As x 0, y 0
x y
Consider, =1
y x
x 1 y
= , 0
y y x
x
Taking lim on both sides, we get
x 0
x 1
lim = [1]
y
x 0 y
lim
x 0 x
Since ‘y’ is a differentiable function of ‘x’
y dy
lim =
x dx
x 0
As x 0, y 0
x 1
lim = ….(i)
y
y 0 y
lim
x 0 x
limits on R.H.S. of (i) exist and are finite. [1]
Hence, limits on L.H.S. of (i) also should exist and be finite.
x dx
lim = exists and is finite.
y dy
y 0
dx 1 dy
= , 0 [1]
dy dy dx
dx
Put x = a – t
dx = – dt
When x = 0, t = a 0 = a
When x = a, t = a a = 0
a 0
I= f ( x)dx = f (a t)(dt) [1]
0 a
0
= f (a t)dt
a
a b a
= f (a t)dt …. f x dx f x dx
0 a b
13
Board Answer Paper : July 2016
a
b b
= f (a x)dx …. f x dx f t dt [1]
0 a a
a a
f ( x)dx = f (a x)dx
0 0
2 sin x
Let I = …. (i)
0 sin x cos x
sin x
2
2 a a
I= dx …. f ( x)dx f (a x)dx
0
sin x cos x 0 0
2 2
2 cos x
= dx ….(ii) [1]
0 cos x sin x
Adding (i) and (ii), we get
2 sin x+ cos x
2I = dx
0 sin x cos x
2
= 1dx
0
= x 02
= 0
2
2I =
2
I=
4
2 sin x
dx [1]
0 sin x cos x 4
ii. Let X be the number of fluorescent lights that have a useful life of at least 800 hours.
P(a light has useful life of at least 800 hours) = p = 0.9, q = 1 0.9 = 0.1
Given n = 20
X ~ B (20, 0.9)
The p.m.f. of X is given by
P(X = x) = p(x) = 20Cx (0.9)x (0.1)20x , x = 0,1,2, ……,20 [1]
P(at least 2 lights will not have a useful life) = P(at most 18 will have useful life)
= P(X 18) = 1 P(X > 18)
= 1 [P(X = 19) + P(X = 20)]
= 1 [20C19 (0.9)19 (0.1) + 20C20 (0.9)20] [1]
19
9 9 20
9 19
= 1 20 = 1 20 20 9
1020 1020 10
919 29
=1 20
10
29 919
Let M =
1020
log M = log 29 + 19 log 9 20 log 10
= 1.4624 + 19 × 0.9542 20 1
= 1.4624 + 18.1298 20
= 19.5922 20
= 19.5922 19 1
= 1 .5922
M = Antilog ( 1 .5922 ) = 0.3910
P(at least two lights will not have a useful life) = 1 0.3910 = 0.6090 [1]
π π
iii. As function is continuous on [, ], it is continuous at x = and x =
2 2
lim f(x) =

lim f(x)
+
x  π x  π
2 2
æ π ö÷ æ π ö
2sin ççç ÷÷ = sin ççç ÷÷÷ +
è 2 ø è 2 ø
2(1) = (1) +
+=2 ….(i) [1]
15
Board Answer Paper : July 2016
π
Also, function is continuous at x =
2
lim f(x) = lim+ f(x)

x π x π
2 2
æπö π
sin ççç ÷÷÷ + = cos
è 2ø 2
+=0 ….(ii) [1]
Solving (i) and (ii), we get
= 1 and = 1 [1]
I.F. = e = e
Pdx 1.dx
= e x [1]
Solution of the given equation is
y (I.F.) = Q (I.F.) dx + c
y e x = ( x 5) e
x
dx + c
x e x dx 5 e x dx + c
d e x
= x e x dx x e x dx dx 5 +c
dx 1
e x
= x ex 1 dx 5e + c
x
= x ex + e x dx + 5ex + c
= x ex ex + 5ex + c
y ex = x ex + 4ex + c
y = x + 4 + cex [1]
x + y 4 = cex is the general solution.
Since the curve is passing through the point (0, 2)
x = 0, y = 2
0 + 2 4 = ce0
c=2
x + y 4 = 2ex
y = 4 x 2ex is the required equation of the curve. [1]
16
Mathematics
du
u v dx= uvdx vdx dx
dx
d
u v dx = u vdx dx (u) vdx dx [1]
17
Mathematics
î (0) ĵ(3k) + k̂ ( 4 + 2k 4) = 0
3 ĵ + ( 8 + 2k) k̂ = 0 î + 0 ĵ + 0 k̂
By equality of vectors, we get
8 + 2k = 0
k=4 [2]
ii. (A)
a b 1 d b
If A = , then A1 =
c d ad bc c a
1 2 5
A= [2]
13 3 1
iii. (B)
a + b + c 13 14 15
s= = = 21
2 2
A s b s c 21 14 21 15 1
sin = = = [2]
2 bc 14 15 5
1
Board Answer Paper : March 2017
(B) Attempt any THREE of the following:
i. Let a = 2iˆ 3jˆ 4kˆ
b = 5iˆ 7ˆj 5kˆ
c = 4iˆ 5jˆ 2kˆ
be the coterminus edges of the parallelopiped.
volume of the parallelopiped = a b c
2 3 4
V = 5 7 5 [1]
4 5 2
= 2 (– 39) –3 (– 30) – 4 (– 3)
= – 78 + 90 +12
= 24
V = 24 cubic units [1]
ii. L.H.S. = a (b cos c – c cos B)
a 2 b2 c2 a 2 c2 b2
= a b c [1]
2ab 2ac
a 2
L.H.S. = [a + b2 – c2 – a2 – c2 + b2]
2a
1
= [2b2 – 2c2]
2
= b2 – c2 [1]
= R.H.S.
iii. The coordinates of the points A and B are (0, b, c) and (a, 0, c) respectively.
OA bjˆ ckˆ , OB aiˆ ckˆ
The plane OAB passess through O 0 and is perpendicular to n OA OB
ˆi ˆj kˆ
n OA OB 0 b c [1]
a 0 c
= bciˆ acjˆ abkˆ
The equation of the plane OAB is
r 0 n 0
rn 0
r̂ bciˆ acjˆ abkˆ 0 [1]
iv. The equation of the line passing through A(x1, y1, z1) and B(x2, y2, z2) is
x x1 y y1 z z1
[1]
x2 x1 y2 y1 z 2 z1
The quation of the line passing through (3, 4, –7) and (6, –1, 1) is
x3 y 4 z7
6 3 1 4 1 7
x3 y 4 z7
[1]
3 5 8
2
Mathematics
v. Let p : n N, n2 + n is an even number.
q : n N, n2 – n is an odd number.
Required symbolic form is p q [1]
Now statement p is always True.
Statement q is always False.
Truth value of p q is
TF
F [1]
Q.2. (A) Attempt any TWO of the following:
i.
1 2 3 4 5 6
p q r pq pr (p q) (p r)
T T T T T T
T T F T F T
T F T F T T
T F F F F F
F T T F F F
F T F F F F
F F T F F F
F F F F F F
In the above truth table, the entries in the last column are a combination of T and F.
(p q) (p r) is a contingency. [1]
[1 mark each for column 4 or 5 and column 6]
ii. Equations of the lines are
x 1 y 2 z 3
2 3 4
x 2 y 4 z 5
3 4 5
Here x1 = 1, y1 = 2, z1 = 3
x2 = 2, y2 = 4, z2 = 5
a1 = 2, b1 = 3, c1 = 4
a2 = 3, b2 = 4, c2 = 5
Shortest distance between the lines is
x2 x1 y2 y1 z 2 z1
a1 b1 c1
a2 b2 c2
= [1]
b1c2 b2c1 c1a 2 c 2a1 a1b 2 a 2 b1
2 2 2
1 2 2
2 3 4
3 4 5
= [1]
15 16 12 10 8 9
2 2 2
115 16 2 10 12 2 8 9
=
1 4 1
1 4 2
=
6
1
= units [1]
6
3
Board Answer Paper : March 2017
iii. sin 2x + sin 4x + sin 6x = 0
(sin 2x + sin 6x) + sin 4x = 0
6x 2x 6x 2x
2sin cos + sin 4x = 0
2 2
2sin 4x cos 2x + sin 4x = 0 [1]
sin 4x (2cos 2x + 1) = 0
1
sin 4x = 0 or cos 2x = [1]
2
2
sin 4x = 0 or cos 2x = cos = cos = cos
3
3 3
Since, sin = 0 implies = n and cos = cos implies = 2n , n Z.
2
4x = n or 2x = 2m
3
n
general solution is x = or x = m , where n, m Z. [1]
4 3
(B) Attempt any TWO of the following:
i. Given equations are
x–y+z=4
2x + y – 3z = 0
x+y+z=2
Matrix form of the given system of equations is
1 1 1 x 4
2 1 3 y 0 [1]
1 1 1 z 2
1 1 1 x 4
Where, A = 2 1 3 , X = y , B =
0
1 1 1 z 2
Applying R2 R2 – 2R1, R3 R3 – R1
1 1 1 x 4
0 3 5 y 8
0 2 0 z 2
2
Applying R3 R3 – R2
3
1 1 1 x 4
0 3 5 y 8 [1]
10 z 10
0 0
3 3
Hence, The original matrix A is reduced to an upper triangular matrix
By equality of matrices, we get
x–y+z=4 …(i)
3y – 5z = – 8 …(ii)
10 10
z …(iii) [1]
3 3
i.e., z = 1
4
Mathematics
Substituting z = 1 in equation (ii), we get
3y – 5 = – 8
3y = – 3
y=–1
Substituting y = –1 and z = 1 in equation (i), we get
x+1+1=4
x=2
x = 2, y = – 1, z = 1 is the required solution [1]
ii. The given combined equation of lines is ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0
Let m1 and m2 be the slopes of the lines represented by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0
2h a
m1 + m2 = and m1m2 = , b 0
b b
a
If = 1, then m1m2 = 1.
b
lines are perpendicular. [1]
a
So we assume that 1
b
Y y = m2x
y = m1x
X X
O
Y
Now, (m1 m2)2 = (m1 + m2)2 4m1.m2
2
4a 4h 2 4a
=
2h
= 2
b b b b
4h 2 4ab 4 h ab
2
2
(m1 m2) = =
b2 b2
Taking square root on both the sides, we get
2 h 2 ab
m1 m2 = [1]
b
Let be the acute angle between the lines.
2 h 2 ab
m1 m 2
tan = = b , a 1
1 m1 .m 2 a b
1
b
2 h 2 ab
tan = ,a+b0 [1]
ab
Lines are coincident (parallel), if and only if m1 = m2
i.e., if m1 m2 = 0
5
Board Answer Paper : March 2017
2 h 2 ab
i.e., if =0
b
i.e., if h2 ab = 0
i.e., if h2 = ab
Lines are coincident if and only if h2 = ab. [1]
S1 S2
S1 [1]
S1 S2
L
6
Mathematics
ii. Given equation is 5x2 + 2xy 3y2 = 0.
Comparing with ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0, we get
a = 5, 2h = 2, b = 3
Let m1 and m2 be the slopes of the lines represented by 5x2 + 2xy 3y2 = 0
2h 2 a 5
m1 + m2 = = and m1 m2 = = [1]
b 3 b 3
Since, the required lines are perpendicular to these lines
1 1
slopes of the required lines are  and  .
m1 m2
Required lines also pass through the origin, therefore their equations are
1 1
y=  x and y =  x
m1 m2
x + m1y = 0 and x + m2y = 0
the joint equation of the lines is
(x + m1y)(x + m2y) = 0 [1]
x2 + (m1 + m2)xy + m1m2y2 = 0
2 5
x2 + xy y2 = 0
3 3
3x + 2xy 5y2 = 0
2
[1]
4
iii. Let x = cos1
5
4
cos x = and 0 < x < sin x > 0
5 2
2
4 16 3
Now, sin x = 1 cos x = 1 = 1
2
=
5 25 5
12
Let y = cos1
13
12
cos y = and 0 < y <
13 2
sin y > 0
2
12 144 5
Now, sin y = 1 cos 2 y = 1 = 1 = [1]
13 169 13
4 12 3 5
But, cos (x + y) = cos x cos y sin x sin y = [1]
5 13 5 13
48 15 33
= =
65 65
33
x + y = cos1
65
4 12 33
cos1 + cos1 = cos1 [1]
5 13 65
7
Board Answer Paper : March 2017
(B) Attempt any TWO of the following:
i. Let AB be a line with direction cosines l, m, n.
Z
B
A
L
P(x, y, z)
Y
O
L
Consider a line L passing through the origin and parallel to the line AB.
Let P(x, y, z) be a point on the line L and l(OP) = r.
The position vector of point P is
OP = x î + y ĵ + z k̂
If , , are the direction angles of line OP, then
l = cos , m = cos , n = cos .
Consider, OP î = (x î + y ĵ + z k̂ ) î
=x ….(i) [1]
Also, OP . î = OP î cos
= r cos ….(ii)
x = r cos ….[From (i) and (ii)]
Similarly, we have
y = r cos , z = r cos [1]
OP = r cos î + r cos ĵ + r cos k̂
2
Now, OP OP = OP
(r cos )2 + (r cos )2 + (r cos )2 = r2
r2 (cos2 + cos2 + cos2 ) = r2
cos2 + cos2 + cos2 = 1
l2 + m2 + n2 = 1
Given, = 135, = 45
Since, cos2 + cos2 + cos2 = 1 [1]
cos2 + cos2 (135) + cos2 (45) = 1
2 2
1 1
cos2 + =1
2 2
1 1
cos2 + + =1
2 2
cos2 = 0
cos = 0
= 90
the direction angle of the line with the X  axis is 90 [1]
8
Mathematics
a = î + ĵ 2 k̂ , b = î + 2 ĵ + k̂ , c = 2 î ĵ + k̂
B C
Now, AB = b a = ĵ + 3 k̂
AC = c a = î 2 ĵ + 3 k̂ [1]
= î (3 + 6) ĵ (0 3) + k̂ (0 1)
= 9 î + 3 ĵ k̂ [1]
r 9iˆ + 3jˆ kˆ = 14
Shaded portion OABCD is the feasible region, whose vertices are O(0, 0), A(2, 0), B, C and D(0, 1).
B is the point of intersection of the lines x = 2 and x + y = 3.
9
Board Answer Paper : March 2017
Putting x = 2 in x + y = 3, we get
Y
y=1
B (2, 1) 5
C is the point of intersection of the
lines x + y = 3 and 2x + y = 1. 4
Solving the above equations, we get 3
C ,
2 7
2 7 2 7
x= ,y= C= , [1] 2 3 3
3 3 3 3
1 B(2, 1)
Here, the objective function is Z = 6x + 4y, (0, 1)D
A(2, 0)
Z at O(0, 0) = 6(0) + 4(0) = 0 X X
4 3 2 1 O 1 2 3 4
Z at A(2, 0) = 6(2) + 4(0) = 12
1
Z at B(2, 1) = 6(2) + 4(1) = 12 + 4 = 16
2 7 2 7 2 x+y=3
Z at C , = 6 + 4
3 3 3 3 3
x=2
12 28 40 2x + y = 1
= + = = 13.33 4
3 3 3
Z at D(0, 1) = 6(0) + 4(1) = 4 Y [1]
Z has maximum value 16 at B(2, 1)
Z is maximum, when x = 2 and y = 1 [1]
SECTION – II
Q.4. (A) Select and write the most appropriate answer from the given alternatives in each of the
following subquestions:
i. (B)
Let u = tan3
du
= 3 tan2 sec2
dθ
and v = sec3
dv
= 3sec2 sec tan = 3sec3 tan
dθ
du 3tan 2 sec 2 tan
= =
dv 3
3sec tan sec
at =
3
tan
du
= 3 = 3 [2]
dv 2
sec
3
ii. (A)
Equation of the curve is y = 3x2 x + 1
Differentiating w.r.t. x, we get
dy
= 6x 1
dx
Slope of tangent at (1, 3) is
dy
= 6(1) 1 = 5
dx (1,3)
10
Mathematics
dy
Equation of tangent is y y1 = (x x1)
dx ( x1 , y1 )
Here, (x1, y1) (1, 3)
y 3 = 5(x 1)
5x – y = 2 [2]
iii. (B)
Three coins are tossed
S = {HHH, HHT, HTH, THH, TTH, THT, HTT, TTT}
n(S) = 8
Thus, the probability distribution of X is as follows:
Here X= number of heads obtained
X 0 1 2 3
1 3 3 1
P(X = x)
8 8 8 8
Expected value = E(X) = x P( x )
i i
1 3 3 1
= 0 + 1 + 2 + 3 = 1.5 [2]
8 8
8
8
(B) Attempt any THREE of the following:
i. x sin y + y sin x = 0
Differentiating w.r.t. x, we get
d d d d
x (sin y) + sin y x + y sin x + sin x y = 0 [1]
dx dx dx dx
dy dy
xcos y + sin y + y cos x + sin x = 0
dx dx
dy
(x cos y + sin x) = (sin y + y cos x)
dx
dy (sin y y cos x)
= [1]
dx ( x cos y sin x)
1
ii. f(x) = x , x R, x 0
x
1
f (x) = 1 + 2 [1]
x
Since x2 is always positive, x 0
f (x) > 0 for all x R, x 0
Hence, f(x) is an increasing function, for all x R, x 0. [1]
sin x
iii. Let I = x
dx
Put x t
Differentiating w.r.t. x, we get
1
dx = dt [1]
2 x
11
Board Answer Paper : March 2017
I = sin t 2dt
= 2 sin t dt
= 2 (– cos t) + c
= –2 cos x c [1]
iv. y = Ae5x + Be 5x ....(i)
Differentiating w.r.t. x, we get
dy
= 5Ae5x 5Be 5x [1]
dx
Again, differentiating w.r. t. x, we get
d2 y d d
2
= 5A (e5x) 5B (e 5x)
dx dx dx
= 5A(5e5x) 5B( 5e 5x)
= 25Ae5x + 25Be 5x
= 25(Ae5x + Be 5x) = 25y ....[From (i)]
d2 y
= 25y
dx 2
d2 y
25y = 0 [1]
dx 2
v. Let X be the number of bombs hitting the target.
P(bomb hits the target) = p = 0.8, q = 1 0.8 = 0.2
Given, n = 10
X ~ B (10, 0.8)
The p.m.f. of X is given by
P(X = x) = p(x) = 10Cx (0.8)x (0.2)10x , x = 0, 1, 2, ….,10 [1]
P(exactly 4 bombs will hit the target) = P(X = 4)
= 10C4 (0.8)4 (0.2)6
10 9 8 7
= 0.4096 6.4 10–5
4 3 2 1
= 210 0.4096 6.4 10–5
= 550.5024 10–5
–5
required probability is 550.5024 10 . [1]
Q.5. (A) Attempt any TWO of the following:
dy
i. Given, = cos (x + y) …(i)
dx
Put x + y = v …(ii)
y=v–x
dy dv
–1 …(iii)
dx dx
Substituting (ii) and (iii) in (i), we get
dv
1 cos v [1]
dx
dv
= 1 + cos v
dx
dv v
= 2 cos2
dx 2
12
Mathematics
1
dv 2dx
v
cos 2
2
v
sec2 dv = 2dx [1]
2
Integrating on both sides, we get
2 v
sec 2 dv 2 dx
v
2tan = 2x + c
2
v c
tan = x +
2 2
x y c
tan = x + c, where c = 2 [1]
2
ii. Let v dx w
dw
=v
dx
d dw du
Consider, (uw) = u +w [1]
dx dx dx
du
= uv + v dx
dx
du
dx
= uv + v dx
Integrating on both sides w.r.t. ‘x’, we get
du
uw = u vdx v dx dx [1]
dx
du
u v dx= uv dx v dx dx
dx
d
u v dx = u v dx dx (u) v dx dx [1]
iii. f is continuous at x = 0.
2
e x cos x
f(0) = lim f(x) = lim [1]
x 0 x 0 x2
2
e x 1 cos x +1 e x2 1 1 cos x
= lim = lim 2
x2 x0
2
x 0
x x
x
2 2sin 2
ex 1 2
= lim + lim [1]
x 0 x2 x 0 4 2
x
4
2
x
1 sin 2 1 2 1
= log e + lim = log e + (1) = 1 +
2 x 0 x 2 2
2
3
f(0) = [1]
2
13
Board Answer Paper : March 2017
(B) Attempt any TWO of the following:
i. ‘y’ is a differentiable function of ‘x’.
Let there be a small change x in the value of ‘x’.
Correspondingly, there should be a small change y in the value of ‘y’.
As x 0, y 0
x y
Consider, =1
y x
x 1 y
= , 0
y y x
x
Taking lim on both sides, we get
x 0
x 1
lim = [1]
x 0
y lim y
x 0 x
Since ‘y’ is a differentiable function of ‘x’,
y dy
lim =
x 0 x
dx
As x 0, y 0
x 1
lim = ….(i)
y lim y
y 0
x 0 x
limits on R.H.S. of (i) exist and are finite. [1]
Hence, limits on L.H.S. of (i) also should exist and be finite.
x dx
lim = exists and is finite.
y dy
y 0
dx 1 dy
= , 0
dy dy dx
dx
y = tan1 x, [1]
x = tan y
Differentiating w.r.t. y, we get
dx
= sec2 y
dy
dy 1
=
dx sec2 y
dy 1
=
dx 1 tan 2 y
dy 1
= [1]
dx 1 x2
ii. Number of subscribers = 5000
and annual rental charges per subscriber = ` 3000.
For every increase of 1 rupee in the rent, one subscriber will be discontinued.
14
Mathematics
Let the rent be increased by ` x.
New rental charges per year = `(3000 + x)
and number of subscribers after the increase in rental charges = 5000 x.
Let R be the annual income of the company.
Then, R = (3000 + x)(5000 x) [1]
= 15000000 3000x + 5000x x2
= 15000000 + 2000x x2
dR d2R
= 2000 2x and = 2 [1]
dx dx 2
dR
Now, R is maximum if =0
dx
2000 2x = 0
x = 1000 [1]
d R
2
2 = 2 < 0 and hence, R is maximum when x = 1000.
dx x 1000
Thus, the annual income of the company is maximum when the annual rental charges are
increased by ` 1000. [1]
a
ax
iii. Let I =
a
ax
dx
a
ax ax
=
a
ax ax
dx
a
ax
=
a a 2 x2
dx [1]
a a
a x
=
a a 2 x2
dx
a a 2 x2
dx
a a
f ( x)dx 2 f ( x)dx if f ( x) is even
a
1
I = 2a dx 0 …. a 0
a 2 x2 if f ( x)is odd
0
=0
= 0 if f(x) is odd [1]
a
x
= 2a sin 1 [1]
a 0
= 2a [sin 1 – sin–1 0]
–1
= 2a 0
2
I = a [1]
Q.6. (A) Attempt any TWO of the following:
x
i. lim f ( x) lim
x 0 x 0 x
x
= lim
x 0 x
= –1 [1]
15
Board Answer Paper : March 2017
x x
lim f ( x) lim lim
x 0 x 0 x x 0 x
=1 [1]
lim f ( x) lim f ( x)
x 0 x 0
log x = kt + c [1]
When t = 0, x = X0
log X0 = k(0) + c
c = log X0
log x = kt + log X0
When t = 60, x = 2X0
log (2X0) = 60k + log X0
60k = log (2X0) log X0
2X
60k = log 0
X0
1
k= log 2 ....(i) [1]
60
When x = 3X0, we get
log(3X0) = kt + log X0
1
log (3X0) log (X0) = t log 2 ....[From (i)]
60
æ 3X ö t
log çç 0 ÷÷÷ = log 2
çè X 0 ÷ø 60
log 3
60 =t
log 2
60(1.0986)
t= = 95.364 95.4 years
0.6912
The population of the country will triple approximately in 95.4 years. [1]
iii. Let X be the number of heads out of 8 tosses.
1 1 1
P(getting head) = p = , q = 1 p = 1 =
2 2 2
Given n = 8
16
Mathematics
1
X ~ B (n, p) X ~ B 8,
2
The p.m.f. of X is given by
x 8 x
1 1
P(X = x) = p(x) = 8 C x , x = 0, 1, 2, ….,8 [1]
2 2
a. P(exactly 5 heads) = P(X = 5)
5 3
1 1 ! 1 8 7 6 5! 1 8 7 7
P(X = 5) = 8C5 = 8= = = = 0.21875 [1]
2 2
5! 3! 2 3 2 1 5! 256 256 32
sin d
= (1 cos )(1 cos )(1 2cos )
Put cos = t
sin d = dt
sin d = dt
dt
I =
(1 t)(1 t)(1 2t)
dt
= (1 t)(1 t)(1 2t)
1 A B C
Let = [1]
(1 t)(1 t)(1 2t) 1 t 1 t 1 2t
1 = A(1 + t)(1 + 2t) + B(1 t)(1 + 2t) + C(1 t)(1 + t) ….(i)
Putting in (i), t = 1, we get
1 = A(2)(3) + B(0)(3) + C(0)(2)
1
A=
6
Putting t = 1 in (i), we get
1 = A(0)(1) + B(2)(1) + C(2)(0)
17
Board Answer Paper : March 2017
1
B=
2
1
Putting t = in (i), we get
2
3 1
1 = A(0) + B(0) + C
2 2
4
C= [1]
3
1 1 4
1
= +
6 2 3
+
(1 t)(1 t)(1 2t) 1 t 1 t 1 2t
1 1 4
6 2 3
I = dt
1 t 1 t 1 2t
1 1 1 1 4 1 1 log 1 t 1 4 log 1 2t
=
6 1 t
dt
2 1 t
dt
3 1 2t
dt =
6 1
+ log 1 t
2 3 2
c
1 1 2
I = log 1 cos log 1 cos log 1 2cos c [1]
6 2 3
ii.
Y
x2 = 4ay
P(4a, 4a)
X X
O
(0, 0)
y2 = 4ax
Y
The equations of the parabolas are y2 = 4ax and x2 = 4ay
Solving the equations, we get
2
x2
= 4ax
4a
x4 = 64 a3 x
x[x3 – (4a)3] = 0
x = 0 or x = 4a [1]
When x = 0, y = 0 and when x = 4a, y = 4a
The points of intersection of the parabolas are O (0, 0), P(4a, 4a) [1]
the required area is,
18
Mathematics
A = (Area under parabola y2 = 4ax) – (Area under parabola x2 = 4ay)
4a 4a 2
x
= 4ax dx dx [1]
0 0
4a
4a
2 3 1 1 4a
= 4a x 2 x3
3 0 4a 3 0
4 a 1
= 4a 4a 64a 3
3 12a
32 2 16 2
= a a
3 3
16 2
= a sq. units. [1]
3
19
Mathematics
4 3 3 4 5 5
cos = [1]
42 3 52 32 42 52
2
12 12 25
=
16 9 25 9 16 25
25 1
= =
50 2
cos = cos
3
=
3
The angle between the lines is . [1]
3
v. 3 a + 5 b – 8c = 0 ….(given)
3 a = 8 c 5b
8c  5b
a= [1]
3
8c  5b
a=
85
A a divides BC externally in the ratio 8 : 5. [1]
10
Now, (3x + 2y – z + 1) + (x + y + z – 2) = 0 .…[From (i)]
3
9x + 6y – 3z + 3 – 10x – 10y – 10z + 20 = 0
–x – 4y – 13z + 23 = 0
x + 4y + 13z – 23 = 0 [1]
The equation of plane is
x + 4y + 13z = 23
ii.
O
b
a r
A m n
R B
mb na
r= ….(i) [1]
mn
This is the section formula for internal division.
Let P. V. of point A a = i 2j k
P. V. of point B b = i 4j 2k
m 2
Given,
n 1
2(i 4j 2k)
1(i 2j k)
Now, r = ....[From (i)]
2 1
3i 6j 3k
r =
3
P. V. of R is r i 2j k [1]
4
Mathematics
r (3iˆ + 4 ˆj 7 k)
ˆ ( 3iˆ 5 ˆj 8 k) ˆ ….(i) [1]
For cartesian form:
Putting r x ˆi + y ˆj+ z kˆ in (i), we get
x ˆi + y ˆj z kˆ ( 3iˆ 4 ˆj 7 k)
ˆ ( 3iˆ 5 ˆj 8 k)
ˆ
6
Mathematics
1 2
A31 = (1)3 + 1 M31 = 1 = 1(2 0) = 2
0 2
1 2
A32 = (1)3 + 2 M32 = 1 = 1(2 6) = 8
3 2
1 1
A33 = (1)3 + 3 M33 = 1 = 1(0 + 3) = 3
3 0
Hence, matrix of the cofactors is
é A11 A12 A13 ù é 0 11 0ù
ê úê ú
ê A 21 A 22 A 23 ú =
ê3 1 1ú = A ij
ê úê ú 33
êA A 32 A 33 úûê2 8 3ú
ë 31 ë û
é 0 3 2ù
T ê ú
Now, adj A = A ij = ê 11 1 8ú [1]
33 ê ú
ê 0 1 3úû
ë
é 1 1 2ù é 0 3 2ù
ê ú ê ú
A(adj A) = êê3 0 2úú êê11 1 8ú
ú
ê1 0 3úû êë 0 1 3úû
ë
é 0 +11+ 0 3 1 2 2  8 + 6ù
ê ú
= êê 0 + 0 + 0 9 + 0 + 2 6 + 0  6ú
ú
ê 0 + 0 + 0 3 + 03 2 + 0 + 9 úû
ë
é11 0 0 ù
ê ú
= ê 0 11 0 ú .…(i) [1]
ê ú
ê 0 0 11ú
ë û
é 1 0 0ù é11 0 0 ù
ê ú ê ú
A I = 11 êê0 1 0úú = êê 0 11 0 úú ….(ii)
ê 0 0 1ú ê 0 0 11ú
ë û ë û
From equations (i) and (ii), we get
A(adj A) = A I [1]
ii. Let x number of bicycles and y number of tricycles be manufactured by the company.
Total profit Z = 180x + 220y
This is the objective function to be maximized. [1]
The given information can be tabulated as shown below:
Shaded portion OABC is the feasible region, whose vertices are O (0, 0), A (20, 0), B and C
(0, 18)
B is the point of intersection of the lines 3x + 10y = 180 and 6x + 4y = 120.
Solving the above equations, we get Y
B (10, 15)
40
Here the objective function is,
Z = 180x + 220y 30
Z at O(0, 0) = 180(0) + 220(0) = 0 [1]
20
Z at A(20, 0) = 180(20) + 220(0) = 3600 B(10, 15)
C(0,18)
Z at B(10, 15) = 180(10) + 220(15) = 5100 10
A(20, 0)
Z at C(0, 18) = 180(0) + 220(18) = 3960 X X
O 10 20 30 40 50 60
Z has maximum value 5100 at B(10, 15) 3x + 10y = 180
Z is maximum when x = 10, y = 15
Y 6x + 4y = 120
Thus, the company should manufacture 10 bicycles and 15 tricycles to gain maximum profit
of `5100. [1]
iii. The given combined equation of lines is
ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0
Let m1 and m2 be the slopes of the lines represented by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0
2h a
m1 + m2 = and m1m2 = , b 0
b b
a
If = 1, then m1m2 = 1.
b
lines are perpendicular. [1]
a
So we assume that 1
b
Y
y = m2x
y = m1x
X X
O
Y
8
Mathematics
Now, (m1 m2)2 = (m1 + m2)2 4m1.m2
2
4a
=
2h
b b
4h 2 4a
= 2
b b
4h 2 4ab 4 h ab
2
(m1 m2)2 = =
b2 b2
Taking square root on both the sides, we get
2 h 2 ab
m1 m2 = [1]
b
Let be the acute angle between the lines.
2 h 2 ab
m1 m 2 a
tan = = b , 1
1 m1 .m 2 a b
1
b
2 h 2 ab
tan = ,a+b0 [1]
ab
The given pair of lines are x2 – 4xy + y2 = 0
Comparing with ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0, we get
a = 1, h = –2, b = 1
2 h 2 ab 2 4 1
tan =
ab 11
2 3
=
2
tan = 3
= 60 or [1]
3
SECTION – II
Q.4. (A) Select and write the correct answer from the given alternatives in each of the following
subquestions:
i. (D)
2x , x < 0
f(x) =
0, x 0
lim f(x) = lim 2x = 0
x 0 x 0
and f(0) = 0
lim f(x) = lim f(x) = f(0)
x 0 x 0
f 0 + h f 0 00
i.e., f (0+) = lim = lim =0
h 0 h h 0 h
Left hand derivative at x = 0
f 0 + h f 0 h 0
i.e., f (0) = lim = lim
h 0 h h 0 h
h
= lim = 1
h 0 h
f (0+) f (0)
Hence, f(x) is not differentiable at x = 0. [2]
ii. (B)
3x
2
2 x 1 dx = 14
0
x3 x 2 x = 14
0
3 + 2 + – 14 = 0
( – 2) (2 + 3 + 7) = 0
But 2 + 3 + 7 = 0 does not have real roots
=2 [2]
iii. (A)
f (x) = x3 – 3x2 + 3x – 100, x R
f (x) = 3x2 – 6x + 3
= 3(x2 – 2x + 1)
= 3(x – 1)2
Since, (x – 1)2 is always positive x ≠ 1
f (x) > 0 for all x R, x ≠ 1
Hence, f (x) is an increasing function, for all x R, x ≠ 1 [2]
10
Mathematics
ii. f(x) = (x 1)(x 2)(x 3), x [1, 3]
3 2
= x 6x + 11x 6
As f(x) is a polynomial function, it is continuous and differentiable everywhere on its domain.
Thus,
a. f(x) is continuous on [1, 3]
b. f(x) is differentiable on (1, 3) [1]
Further, f(1) = 0 and f(3) = 0
f(1) = f(3)
Thus, all the conditions of Rolle’s theorem are satisfied. [1]
tan x
tan x cos 2 x
iii. Let I = dx = sin x cos x dx
sin x cos x
cos 2 x
sec 2 x tan x
= tan x dx [1]
sec 2 x
= tan x
dx
f (x)
I = 2 tan x + c ….
f ( x)
dx 2 f ( x ) c
[1]
iv. Y
y=6
y=2
X X
O
Y
y varies from y = 2 to y = 6.
Equation of parabola x2 = 16y
x=4 y
b
Required area = xdy
a
6
= 4 y dy [1]
2
6
3
y2
= 4
3
2 2
2 32 3
=4 (6) 2 2
3
8 32 3
= 6 2 2
sq. units [1]
3
11
Board Answer Paper : July 2017
v. Given, n = 10, p = 0.4
q = 1 – p = 1 – 0.4 = 0.6
Now, E(X) = np = 10 0.4 = 4 [1]
Var(X) = npq = 10 0.4 0.6 = 2.4 [1]
5 1
2 2
sin x
5sin x 1 sin 2 x
5 1
sin x 2
2
x 2
sin x x
f(0) = lim = lim = lim [1]
x 0 x log 1 2 x x 0 x log 1 2 x x0 log(1 2 x)
2
x 2 2x
2
5sin x 1 sin x
lim lim
x 0 sin x x 0 x
=
log 1 2 x
2 lim
x 0 2x
log 5
2
f(0) = [1]
2
ii. E(X) = x P( x )
i i
E(X2) = x 2
i P( xi )
= 0 (0.08) + 12(0.15) + 22(0.45) + 32(0.27) + 42(0.05)
2
Put x = t
dx = dt
When x = a, t = a and when x = 0, t = 0
0 0
I = f ( t)(dt) = f ( t)dt
a a
a
b a
= f ( t)dt …. f ( x)dx f ( x)dx
0 a b
a
b b
= f ( x)dx …. f ( x)dx f (t)dt
0 a a
Equation (i) becomes
a a a
a
f ( x)dx = f ( x)dx + f ( x)dx
0 0
a
= f ( x) f ( x) dx
0
….(ii) [1]
f ( x)dx =
a
f ( x) f ( x) dx = 2 f ( x)dx
0 0
[1]
f ( x)dx =
a
f ( x) f ( x) dx = 0
0
[1]
14
Mathematics
Q.6. (A) Attempt any TWO of the following:
i. Since f is continuous on [4, 2],
f is continuous on x = 2
lim f x lim f x [1]
x 2 x 2
x 1
lim = [1]
x 0
lim y
y
x 0 x
Since ‘y’ is a differentiable function of ‘x’,
y dy
lim =
x 0 x
dx
As x 0, y 0
x 1
lim = ….(i)
y lim y
y 0
x 0 x
16
Mathematics
dy 1
=
dx cos y
dy 1
=
dx 1 sin 2 y
dy 1
=
dx 1 x2
Since y , y lies in I or IV quadrant.
2 2
cos y is positive.
dy 1
= , x < 1 [1]
dx 1 x2
8
iii. Let I = x 2 x 2
4
dx
8 A Bx + C
Let = 2 [1]
x 2 x 2
4 x 2 x 4
8 = A (x2 + 4) + (Bx + C) (x + 2)
8 = Ax2 + 4A + Bx2 + 2Bx + Cx + 2C
8 = (A + B) x2 + (2B + C) x + (4A + 2C)
Comparing the coefficients of x2 , x and the constant term, we get
A + B = 0, 2B + C = 0 and 4A + 2C = 8
On solving these equations, we get
A = 1, B = –1, C = 2 [1]
8 1 x + 2
= 2
x 2 x 4 x 2 x 4
2
1 x 2
I = 2 dx
x 2 x 4
1 1 2x 1
= dx 2 dx 2 x dx [1]
x2 2 x 4 2
2 2
1 x
= log x 2 – log x 2 4 + tan–1 + c
2 2
x2 x
= log tan 1 c [1]
x 4
2
2
17
Biology
iii. A set of three exposed nitrogen bases present on anticodon loop of tRNA is called
anticodon. [1]
iv. The process of formation of dark coloured amorphous substance known as humus, which
is a partially decomposed organic matter, is known as humification. [1]
vi. Ecological succession is the gradual (and predictable) change in the species composition
of a given area. [1]
(B)
Ribosome
Outer membrane
. Inner membrane Peristromium
. . .. . . . .
. .. . .. . Stroma
. DNA
. . . . . . . ... Stroma lamellae
. . .. Thylakoids
. Granum
Chloroplast [Proportionate diagram] [½]
[Any three labels: ½ mark each] [1½]
[Labels: Outer membrane, inner membrane, grana, stroma, stroma lamellae, thylakoids]
1
Board Answer Paper : March 2016
(C) Answer the following (Any TWO):
i. a. The process of induction and utilization of mutation for development of new crop
varieties having desirable traits is known as mutational breeding. [½]
b. Mutational breeding helps in producing disease resistant varieties. [½]
c. Plants are produced by inducing mutations. Chemicals or physical mutagens are used
for bringing about mutation. [½]
d. Varieties of moong beans resistant to yellow mosaic virus and powdery mildew have
been developed by the technique of mutational breeding. [½]
ii. Following are the advantages of Biogas:
a. Biogas is a cheap, safe and renewable source of energy.
b. Biogas can be burnt in gas stoves to provide heat.
c. It can be used for cooking, domestic lighting, street lighting.
d. It burns with a blue flame and without smoke.
e. It is ecofriendly and does not cause pollution.
f. It can be used for driving engines.
g. It helps to improve sanitation of the surrounding.
h. It can be easily generated, stored and transported.
i. The residue left after biogas production can be used as manure.
[Any four points: ½ mark each] [2]
iii. Carbon cycle:
i. The carbon enters the biotic components of ecosystem through green plants,
photosynthetic bacteria and cyanobacteria in terrestrial ecosystem and through
phytoplanktons and hydrophytes in the aquatic ecosystems.
These are called producers and carry out photosynthesis by taking in the atmospheric
CO2 and make carbohydrates and oxygen.
ii. Carbohydrates are used as source of food by animals. Thus, carbon fixed by producers
enters the food chain and keeps moving through different living organisms. They are
returned to the soil in the form of detritus.
iii. The decomposers breakdown the larger organic compounds into simpler ones and then
into inorganic molecules. In this process, small amount of CO2 is returned back to
atmosphere during enzyme catalyzed breakdown of dead matter by decomposers.
iv. CO2 is released into atmosphere by respiration of producer and consumers.
v. Burning of fossil fuels in automobiles and machineries to produce energy, burning of
wood, organic debris also release CO2 in atmosphere.
vi. Volcanic eruption and hot springs also release CO2 into atmosphere. [1]
CO2
Sugars,
Starches
Fossil
Fuels
Decomposition
Carbon Cycle
[1]
2
Biology
iv. a. Flowers are large, stout enough so that bats can hold on to the flowers.
b. Flowers open during night.
c. Flowers emit rotten fruit odour.
d. Flowers have large number of stamens.
Flower produce a considerably large quantity of pollen grains.
[Any four points: ½ mark each] [2]
f. Thus, the gene for sicklecell anaemia is lethal in homozygous condition and produces
sickle cell trait in heterozygous carrier.
g. Two different expressions are produced by a single gene.
h. A marriage between two carriers will produce normal, carriers and sicklecell anaemic
children in 1:2:1 ratio. But, sicklecell anaemics who are homozygous for gene HbS
will die, as HbS is a lethal gene causing death of the bearer. [1]
Thus the sickle cell anemics die leaving carriers and normals in the ratio 2:1.
3
Board Answer Paper : March 2016
ii.
Pyruvic acid (3C)
NAD
CO2 NADH2
Acetylation Acetyl (2C)
CoA
NADH2
Fumaric acid (4C)
FAD
Succinic acid (4C) CO2
CoA
H2O ketoglutaric acid (5C)
CoA
GTP GDP
(1ATP) Succinyl CoA CO2
ADP ATP
NADH2
NAD
TCA Cycle/ Krebs Cycle
[Correct schematic representation] [3]
iii.
No. Cyclic Photophosphorylation Noncyclic Photophosphorylation
i. Electrons emitted by chlorophyll return The electrons emitted by chlorophyll do not
back to the same chlorophyll. return back to the same chlorophyll.
ii. NADPH2 is not formed. NADPH2 is formed.
iii. Does not involve photolysis of H2O. Involves photolysis of H2O.
iv. First electron acceptor is FRS. First electron acceptor is COQ.
v. No evolution of O2. There is evolution of O2.
4
Biology
vi. Less efficient and less significant. More efficient and significant process.
vii. Only PhotosystemI (P700) is involved in Both Photosystem PSI (P700) as well as PSII
this cycle. (P680) are involved.
viii. It operates under low light intensity, It takes place under optimum light, aerobic
anaerobic conditions, poor availability of conditions and in the presence of sufficient CO2.
CO2.
ix. Found in photosynthetic bacteria. Absent in photosynthetic bacteria.
[Any six points:½ mark each] [3]
(B) Perfect pairing
mRNA
G U U
C A A
tRNA
[1]
5 G C
C
A
Wobble pairing
G U C G U A G U G
mRNA
C A A C A A C A A
tRNA
5 G C 5 G C 5 G C
C C C
A A A [2]
Wobble Hypothesis
Q.4. Definition:
The fusion of one male gamete with egg and that of another male gamete with secondary
nucleus is called as double fertilization. [1]
It is the characteristic feature of angiosperms. It was discovered by Nawaschin (1897) in Lilium
martagon plant.
It consists of two processes:
a. Syngamy: [½]
It is the fusion of first male gamete with egg. It results in the formation of diploid zygote
which develops to form embryo. It is also called generative fertilization.
b. Triple Fusion: [½]
It is the fusion of second male gamete with secondary nucleus. It results in the formation
of triploid PEN (Primary Endosperm Nucleus) which develops to form endosperm.
Since both male gametes participate in fertilization, it is called double fertilization.
Process of double fertilization is described as follows:
i. After pollination, the intine of the pollen grain forms pollen tube and passes through the germ
pore.
ii. The growth of pollen tube is stimulated by the sugary substance produced on the stigma.
iii. The pollen tube with two male gametes and tube nucleus runs through the style and
finally turns towards the micropylar end of the ovule in the cavity of the ovary.
5
Board Answer Paper : March 2016
iv. The length of the pollen tube depends on the length of style.
v. When the pollen tube enters through the micropylar end of the ovule for fertilization, it is
called porogamy (sometimes it may enter through integuments and called as mesogamy
or sometimes through chalaza and called as chalazogamy). [½]
vi. Filiform apparatus of synergids attract the pollen tube towards egg apparatus.
vii. As the pollen tube elongates, it carries with it two haploid, nonmotile male gametes and
hence, the fertilization is also called siphonogamy (siphon = tube). [½]
viii. On piercing the nucellus, the pollen tube penetrates the embryo sac. Its tip penetrates the
embryo sac and reaches the egg apparatus passing either between the egg and synergids
or between one synergid and wall of embryo sac.
ix. Ultimately, the tip of the pollen tube bursts and two male gametes are released.
x. The tube nucleus degenerates before bursting of the pollen tube.
xi. One of these male gametes fuses with the egg cell or oosphere causing fertilization, as a
result of which diploid oospore or zygote is formed. This is called first fertilization or
syngamy. [½]
xii. The other male gamete fuses with the secondary nucleus forming the triploid endosperm
nucleus which later on gives rise to endosperm. This is called as triple fusion or second
fertilization. [½]
xiii. Thus, this process of fertilization which occurs twice in the same embryo sac at a time by
two male gametes (syngamy and triple fusion) is called double fertilization.
Pollen grain (Germinating)
Stigma
Pollen tube
Antipodal cells
OR
a. It is defined as the technique of manipulating the genome of a cell or organism so as to
change the phenotype desirably. [1]
b. Manipulation of the genome involves addition, removal, replacement or repair of a part of
genetic material that results into the desirable phenotype change.
The following steps are involved in genetic engineering or rDNA technology:
i. Isolation of desired gene:
The donor individual having desired gene is selected. [½]
6
Biology
ii. Fragmentation of desired gene:
From the DNA of this donor, desired gene is selected and isolated with the help of restriction
endonuclease enzyme. The donor DNA containing the desired gene is called passenger DNA. [½]
iii. Selection of vector:
A vector DNA (usually plasmid DNA or Phage DNA) is selected. [½]
iv. Formation of recombinant DNA:
The vector DNA is cleaved at a specific point using restriction endonuclease enzyme. The cut
ends of vector DNA are sticky, i.e. cohesive.
The desired gene is now ligated with the vector DNA using ligase enzyme.
The vector DNA containing a new introduced gene is called recombinant DNA (rDNA) or
chimeric DNA (Chimeric vector or chimeric plasmid). [½]
v. Gene transfer to the host:
This chimeric plasmid is introduced into bacterial cell (Host cell). e.g. E.coli for cloning.
Bacillus subtilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae can also be used as host.
Such a bacterial cell with chimeric or rDNA is called transformed host.
The incorporation of rDNA into bacterial cell is generally done by electroporation. [½]
vi. Cloning:
The transformed bacterial cell is now allowed to grow on the nutrient medium where it multiplies
rapidly.
It results in the formation of a large number of transformed bacterial cells.
All these cells have a copy of recombinant or chimeric DNA.
Generally, after introduction of rDNA or chimeric plasmid in the host cell, amplification is done.
It is a process in which the number of rDNA in a bacterial cell is increased. [½]
Therapeutic products made by recombinant DNA technique
No. Therapeutic product Examples
i. Blood proteins Erythropoietin; Factors VII, VIII, IX, Tissue plasminogen
activator, Urokinase
ii. Human hormones Epidermal growth factor, Follicle stimulating hormone,
Insulin, Nerve growth factor, Relaxin, Somatotropin
iii. Immune modulators Interferon, interferon, Colony stimulating factor,
Lysozyme, Tumor necrosis factor
iv. Vaccines Cytomegalovirus, Hepatitis B, Measles, Rabies.
[Any three points: 1mark each] [3]
SECTION – II
[ZOOLOGY]
Q.5. Select and write the most appropriate answer from the given alternatives for each sub
question:
i. Metacentric [1]
ii. Tissue Growth Factor. [1]
iii. Rh–ve [1]
iv. atherosclerosis [1]
v. intraspecific struggle [1]
vi. Volant adaptation [1]
vii. inbreeding [1]
7
Board Answer Paper : March 2016
Q.6. (A) Answer in ‘One’ sentence each:
i. Visit of veterinary doctor is mandatory for checking health problems of cattles, diseases of
cattles and their rectification.
[Any two points: ½ mark each] [1]
ii. Aquatic animals can afford to be ammonotelic because large quantity of water is required to
eliminate ammonia and water is available in excess to them. [1]
iii. PUC is mandatory for all vehicles in order to check air pollution. [1]
iv. Organic evolution is a slow, gradual, continuous and irreversible changes through which
the present day complex forms have descended from their simple, preexisting forms of the
past. [1]
Lumen
Tunica media
Tunica externa
Parents:
Gametes:
Chromosomes:
Offsprings:
[Chart: ½ mark]
[Labels: 1 mark] [11/2]
9
Board Answer Paper : March 2016
Human diploid cell has 46 chromosomes, i.e. 23 pairs in each cell.
Out of these, 22 pairs of chromosomes are called autosomes.
Autosomes determine all body characters like colour of hair, skin, colour of eyes, height, etc.
Out of 23 pairs, one pair of chromosomes is called sex chromosomes.
They are X and Y chromosomes. [½]
Every individual gets one set of chromosomes from his mother and one from his father.
A human male thus has 44 +XY chromosomes, whereas a female has 44 + XX chromosomes.
During gamete formation; meiosis or reductional division takes place and a gamete gets only
one set of chromosomes and thus it is haploid.
e.g. Female gamete (ovum) 22 + X, Male gamete (sperm) 22 + X or 22 + Y. [½]
When the male and female gametes unite to form a zygote, the chromosomes again become
diploid. Thus, the offspring gets the same number of chromosomes as his parents. Sex of the
baby is determined by the nature of sperm (X or Y) that fertilizes the ovum. Thus, in human
being, it is the male which determines the sex of the baby. [½]
ii. Steady population
The relative proportion of various age groups in population is called the age structure. It
determine the reproductive status of a population. [½]
The three major age groups are:
a. Pre reproductive group ( 0 to 14 years)
b. Reproductive group (15 to 59 years)
c. Post reproductive group ( age 60 years and above) [½]
The age structure determines the trend of the population. A population is said to be steady,
when it has same number of pre reproductive and post reproductive age groups. It is a
stable population. [½]
Post
reproductive
Reproductive
Pre
reproductive
Renal column
of Bertini Renal pelvis
Major calyx Ureter
Minor calyx
Q.8. Gametogenesis is the process of formation of gametes in sexually reproducing animals. [1]
It includes two process: spermatogenesis and oogenesis.
Spermatogenesis:
i. Spermatogenesis is the process of formation of haploid, microscopic and motile male
gametes, called spermatozoa, from the diploid spermatogonia of the testis of male organism.
Spermatogonium (46)
Proliferation
Maturation
Spermatid (23)
Transformation
Sperm (23)
Spermatogenesis
[Diagrammatic representation] [11/2]
11
Board Answer Paper : March 2016
Each testis has seminiferous tubules which are lined by cuboidal epithelium called germinal
epithelium.
Germinal cells in testes are known as primary germinal cells. Primordial cells passes through
three phases, namely:
i. Multiplication phase: Primordial cells undergo repeated mitotic divisions to produce
large number of spermatogonia.
Each spermatogonium is diploid (2n). [½]
ii. The Growth phase: Spermatogonium cell accumulates food and grows in size. Now, it
is called primary spermatocyte. [½]
iii. The Maturation phase: The primary spermatocyte undergoes first meiotic or
maturation division. The homologous chromosomes start pairing.
Each homologous chromosome splits longitudinally. Chiasma formation results in
exchange of genetic material.
At the end of 1st meiotic division, two haploid, secondary spermatocytes are formed.
Each secondary spermatocyte undergoes 2nd meiotic division and produces spermatids.
So, at the end of maturation phase, each spermatogonium produces four haploid
spermatids.
Spermatid is nonmotile, so it has to undergo spermiogenesis to become functional,
motile male gamete, i.e. spermatozoan. [½]
Oogenesis is the process of formation of haploid female gametes, called ova, from the diploid
oogonia of the ovary of female organism. It is completed in three stages:
i. Multiplication phase
ii. Phase of Growth
iii. Maturation Phase
Mitosis
Oogonia
Primary
Oocyte
Meiotic Division
Secondary
oocyte
14
Biology
F1 particles or oxysomes
Ribosome
Outer membrane
Matrix DNA
Cristae
Inner membrane
[Description] [1½]
Helobial endosperm [Proportionate diagram] [½]
iv. Use of certain agrochemicals have been associated with some major environmental and
ecological damages. Such as:
a. The pesticides and weedicides are toxic, not only to target organisms but also to
many other nontarget organisms, which are important components of the soil
ecosystem.
b. Continuous use of inorganic fertilizers changes the chemical nature of soil and
reduces its fertility.
c. In addition, the run off of agrochemical fertilizers into streams, lakes and ponds can
cause an increased productivity of those aquatic ecosystems causing eutrophication
and algal blooms in the water bodies.
d. The pesticide residues can remain in the soil for long and can enter the food chain
and undergo biomagnification.
2
Biology
e. Pesticides also enter the aquatic food chain. They get accumulated in the fatty tissues
of fishes as well as in birds which feed on them. This process is called as
bioaccumulation.
f. People handling pesticides in industries also suffer from various disorders like
respiratory diseases, nervous disorders, skin diseases, blindness, etc.
[Any four points: ½ mark each] [2]
Q.3. (A) Answer the following (Any TWO):
i. Incomplete dominance:
a. Incomplete dominance can be defined as a phenomenon in which neither of the alleles
of a gene is completely dominant over the other and hybrid is intermediate between the
two parents.
b. Incomplete dominance is a deviation of Mendel’s law of dominance which states that
out of two contrasting allelomorphic factors, only one expresses itself in an individual
in F1 generation called as dominant, while other which has not shown its effect is called
as recessive, however this recessive hidden character reappeared, unchanged in F2
generation.
c. Thus, according to incomplete dominance, F1 phenotype is intermediate between the
parental traits. Incomplete dominance is demonstrated in Mirabilis jalapa (four o’clock
plant) as given below:
Phenotype of Parents Red flower White flower
Genotype RR rr
Gametes R r
F1 generation Rr
Pink flower
Selfing of F1 Rr Rr
generation
R r R r
Gametes
F2 generation
R r
R RR Rr
Red Pink
r Rr rr
Pink White [Graphical representation] [1]
Functional
megaspore
Functional 1st nuclear division 2nd nuclear division 3rd nuclear division
megaspore (2 nucleate embryo sac) (4 nucleate embryo sac) (8 nucleate embryo Sac)
Synergids
Egg (n) Egg
apparatus
Embryo sac Female
Polar nuclei Polar nuclei gametophyte
Antipodals (n)
Mature embryo sac
Shifting of nuclei
(Organisation of 7 celled and 8 nucleate embryo sac)
Development of the embryo sac or Female gametophyte [3]
4
Biology
Q.4. Give the central dogma of protein synthesis. Explain the process of translation.
i. Central dogma of molecular biology can be defined as unidirectional or one way flow of
information from DNA to mRNA (Transcription) and from mRNA to protein (Translation).
This can be represented as:
DNA
Transcription
mRNA
Translation
Protein
However, in some retroviruses, reverse transcription takes place due to which DNA is
synthesized from RNA. This can be represented as:
Transcription
mRNA Protein
Translation
DNA [1]
Re verse
Transcription
Translation:
Translation is the process in which the sequence of codons on the mRNA strand is used
(read/decoded) and accordingly the amino acids are joined to each other to form a
polypeptide chain that makes protein.
The process involves the following steps:
a. Activation of amino acids and formation of AAtRNA complex:
In presence of an enzyme aminoacyl tRNA synthetase, the amino acid (AA) molecule is
activated and each amino acid is attached to the specific tRNA molecule at 3/CCA end to
form aminoacyltRNA complex. The reaction requires ATP. This process is called charging
of tRNA or aminoacylation of tRNA.
b. Formation of the polypeptide chain: It is the actual translation which involves the
following steps:
Initiation:
It begins with the formation of initiation complex which requires the mRNA having codons
for a polypeptide, the smaller (30S) and larger (50S) subunits of ribosome, the initial
AA1tRNA complex and ATP and GTP as source of energy.
The process of initiation needs initiation factors.
In prokaryotes, the first AA1tRNA complex has amino acid, Nformylmetheonine (fmet);
In eukaryotes, it is metheonine (met).
The process starts with binding of mRNA on the smaller 30S subunit of ribosome.
The start codon AUG is positioned properly.
The AA1tRNA complex, i.e. fmettRNA complex now gets attached to the start codon
AUG. This is done with the help of anticodon UAC of tRNA.
Small and large subunits of ribosome join to form 70S ribosome.
The ribosome has three sites namely, Aminoacyl site (A), Peptidyl site (P) and Exit site (E).
The empty tRNA leaves from E site.
Only the AA1tRNA complex binds at P site directly, while all the other incoming tRNA
complexes get attached first at A site and then are shifted to P site.
Polypeptide chain is released from Psite.
In eukaryotes, 40S (smaller sub unit) and 60S (larger sub unit) combine to form 80S type of
ribosome. [2]
5
Board Question Paper : July 2016
Polypeptide chain
G U Next tRNAAAcomplex
Empty tRNA G U
A A
START STOP
CGU CAA
A U G U C U C U U G G G U C C G C A G U U A A U U U C U A U C C C U A A
5 3
Ribosome (small unit)
RuBP
6CO2
Carboxylase
Ribulose
Bisphosphate Unstable
(5C) Compound (6C)
6 ATP Carboxylation
6 ADP 3Phosphoglyceric acid
(3C)
Ribulose
Monophosphate 12 ATP
(5C)
Regeneration Reduction 12 ADP
1, 3Diphosphoglyceric
Sedoheptulose Acid (3C)
phosphate (7C)
12 NADPH2
12 NADP
Erythrose
3phosphoglyceraldehyde
Phosphate (4C)
(3C)
3phosphoglyceraldehyde
Fructose1, 6diphosphate
(6C)
Pi
Fructose6phosphate
(6C)
Glucose6phosphate
(6C)
Pi
Glucose
(6C)
Calvin cycle
[Diagram with correct sequential labels] [3]
SECTION – II
[ZOOLOGY]
Q.5. Select and write the most appropriate answer from the given alternatives for each sub
question:
i. (A) vestigial [1]
ii. (D) Down’s syndrome [1]
iii. (C) haemophilliacs [1]
iv. (C) polyuria [1]
v. (B) retina [1]
vi. (C) AIDS [1]
vii. (A) Banded Krait [1]
8
Biology
Q.6. (A) Answer in ‘One’ sentence each:
i. Two example of commensalism are:
a. An orchid plant growing as an epiphyte on a mango tree. [1/2]
b. Sea anemone and hermit crab [1/2]
ii The common name for Apis mellifera is European Bee. [1]
iii. Bovine somatotropin is used to enhance dairy productivity. [1]
iv. The tendency of the genes on the same chromosome to inherit together is called linkage. [1]
v. Archaeopteryx is the connecting link between birds and reptiles. [1]
vi. Natality is defined as the number of births per unit time, per unit area, per 1000 individuals of
a population. [1]
(B) Afferent arteriole
Efferent arteriole
Glomerulus
Parietal layer
Visceral layer
Bowman’s capsule
Podocyte
Capsular space
Neck
Proximal convoluted tubule
Dryopithecus
Ramapithecus
Australopithecus
Homo habilis
Java Man
Homo erectus
Peking Man
Homo neanderthalensis
(Neanderthal man)
F1: ZZ ZW
Male Female
[Chart] [11/2]
ii. Unique features of acquired immunity are as follows:
a. Specificity:
Acquired immunity is specific for each type of pathogen. It has the ability to
differentiate between various foreign molecules.
10
Biology
b. Diversity:
It has the ability to recognize vast variety of diverse pathogens or foreign molecules.
c. Discrimination between self and nonself:
It is able to differentiate between own cells (self) and foreign cells or molecules
(nonself).
d. Memory:
When the immune system encounters a specific pathogen for the first time, it generates
immune response and eliminates the invader. The immune system retains the memory
of this encounter. As a result, a second encounter with same pathogen stimulates a
stronger immune response.
[Any two features: 1½ mark each] [3]
Post
reproductive
Reproductive
Pre reproductive
Connector or Adjust
neuron Effector organ (muscle)
Motor neuron
[Proportionate diagram : 1 mark]
Reflex arc [Any four labels : 1/2 mark each] [3]
Q.8. Process of early cleavage.
Definition: The process of rapid mitotic division of single celled zygote to form hollow, spherical,
multicellular blastula is called cleavage. [1]
Cleavage occurs during its passage through the Fallopian tube to the uterus.
In humans, cleavage is complete or holoblastic and equal.
11
Board Question Paper : July 2016
Cleavage
[Proportionate diagram] [1]
[Correct labelling] [1]
1st Cleavage:
It is completed about 30 hours after fertilization.
It is vertical, i.e. it takes place from animal pole to vegetal pole.
Two daughter cells or blastomeres are formed. [1]
2nd Cleavage:
It is completed about 60 hours after fertilization.
The second cleavage is also vertical, but at right angle to the first one.
The second cleavage occurs first in one blastomere resulting in transitory threecelled stage
followed by four cell stage. [1]
3rd Cleavage:
It takes place about 3 days (72 hours) after fertilization.
It is longitudinal and horizontal and forms 8 cells.
The cleavage continues and results in the formation of a solid mass of cells known as Morula. [1]
Morula:
Morula is about 16 to 32 celled stage, which looks like a small mulberry. It reaches the uterus 4 6
days after fertilization. It is still surrounded by Zona pellucida. Zona pellucida prevents
implantation at abnormal site. It does not expose trophoblast cells till it reaches implantation site. [1]
OR
Leucocytes are colourless, nucleated, amoeboid and phagocytic cells.
Leucocytes are of two types: Granulocytes and Agranulocytes. [½]
i. Granulocytes: They are produced in red bone marrow and contain large sized granules in the
cytoplasm.
Granulocytes are of three types:
a. Neutrophils (neutro = neutral, philic = affinity)
They constitute about 70% of total WBCs.
Nucleus is multilobed containing 3 to 5 lobes.
The granules in cytoplasm of these cells take up neutral stain. [½]
Functions: These are chief phagocytic cells.
They protect the body against invasion of bacteria.
Dead neutrophils along with damaged tissue are removed from the body in the form of
pus. [½]
Multilobed
nucleus
Granules
[½]
Neutrophil
12
Biology
b. Eosinophils (acidophils):
They constitute about 3% of total WBCs.
The nucleus is bilobed.
The granules in the cytoplasm of these cells take up acidic stain. [½]
Functions:
They are nonphagocytic and their number increases during allergic reactions.
They show antihistamine property. [½]
Bilobed nucleus
Eosinophil
c. Basophils: [½]
They are the smallest white blood cells which constitute about 0.5% of the total WBCs.
They show twisted nucleus (‘S’ or comma shaped).
The granules in the cytoplasm of these cells take up basic stain. [½]
Functions:
They are nonphagocytic.
They secrete heparin, histamine, thus play an important role in local anticoagulation
and formation of ground substance. [½]
S shaped nucleus
[½]
Basophil
ii. Agranulocytes: They are produced in spleen and do not contain granules in the cytoplasm.
Agranulocytes are of two types:
a. Lymphocytes: They form 30% of total WBCs.
Nucleus is large, spherical and surrounded by thin layer of cytoplasm.
Functions: They produce antibodies and opsonins to neutralize the harmful effects of
foreign matter and their toxins. [½]
Cytoplasm
Nucleus
Lymphocytes [½]
b. Monocytes: They are the largest leucocytes and constitute 1 to 3% of total WBC.
They have large amount of cytoplasm and kidney shaped nucleus.
Functions: They are phagocytic in action. They engulf foreign particles. e.g. bacteria.
They also remove the damaged and dead cells, hence are referred to as scavengers. [½]
Kidney
shaped nucleus [½]
Monocyte
13
Biology
Sugars,
Starches
Fossil
Fuels
Decomposition
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