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Rizal Technological University


Graduate School
Boni Avenue, Mandaluyong

Research Proposal:

ORAL PRESENTATION TECHNIQUES GEARED TOWARDS


IMPROVEMENT OF PUBLIC SPEAKING

Submitted by:
Princess Mae Merced
Jennifer Dioneda
Elgie Marie Fuego
Neo Gabriel Cagadas
Angela Nicole Roldan
Anna Adriatico

To be Submitted to:
Dr. Arsenia Allam
Professor - Methods, Strategies and Testing for Speech Listening and
Grammar
Saturday (07:30-10:30 AM)

As a Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of


Master of Arts in Literature and Language Instruction(MALLI)
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ORAL PRESENTATION TECHNIQUES GEARED TOWARDS


IMPROVEMENT OF PUBLIC SPEAKING

Princess Mae Merced, Jennifer Dioneda, Elgie Marie Fuego


Neo Gabriel Cagadas, Angela Nicole Roldan and Anna Adriatico
(SPEECH GROUP)
Master of Arts in Literature and Language Instruction (MALLI)
Rizal Technological University- Graduate School
Boni Avenue, Mandaluyong

Abstract
This study is an investigation into the different oral presentation techniques of
a class of graduate students under the majorship of Master of Arts in Literature
and Language Instruction (MALLI). The researchers aim to assess their
speaking skills using the standard assessment rubric provided for
professionals in giving oral presentations. Thus, the components, factors and
types of oral presentation will be discussed in this article as part of the
research. Included in this study are the outcome of analysis on what needs to
be improved in their oral presentation along with the resulting guidelines in
giving oral presentations - crafted by the researchers from their findings and
conclusion.

Introduction

Oral presentations play a vital role in teaching and learning language

and literature. Teachers use oral presentation as technique in teaching and as

a type of task-based assessment of the student’s learning, (Torres, 2016).

The researchers of the study chose this particular research to provide

keen details upon the techniques used and what are the important factors to be

considered in giving an effective oral presentation. To accomplish this task, this

study will use the standard guidelines for giving oral presentation used by
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professionals to assess a set a group of students’ oral presentation techniques.

Such assessment will be used to come up for creating a teacher’s guide in

giving oral presentations.

Theoretical Framework

Oral presentation, Baker, 2000, is an extension of oral communication

skill. It is where the presenter shows their knowledge on a particular subject.

The participant may choose the title or the teachers give it to them. In order to

talk about it to their classmates, the participant makes a small research to get

more information about this topic. The presenter is giving the most important

information first, leaving the details for last, and concludes his idea.

In addition to that Baker (2000, p.115) reported that oral presentation is

like a formal conversation, speaking to group as a natural activity. Most of

people spending hours of their daytime, speaking to others, however making an

oral presentation that is a formal conversation , it is difficult task for them. Oral

presentation is part of spoken language. The purpose of this practice is to

communicate. It is design to inform or persuade. Oral presentation occurs in

organizational setting and with limitation in time. Presentation should been

structured carefully. In addition, the speakers can support their talk with visual

aids. Melion and Thompson(1980 ,p.503)state that if oral presentation is guided

and organized ,it will give the students a learning experience and teach them an

important skill which will be beneficial to ESL/EFL in all their education subject

and later in their work. According to Chivers and Shoolbred (2007, p.5), “doing
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presentation is very good learning experience.” In the end of oral presentation,

the speakers give their audience the opportunity to ask about things that are not

clear to them. The speakers answer them to complete their work.

To further tackle on that, Mandal (2000, p.8) states, “presentations are

speech that is usually given in a business, technical, professional, or scientific

environment. The audience is likely to be more specialized than those attending

a typical speech event.” There are different between normal speech and oral

presentation. The latter is a type of speech, but the former is more nature than

oral presentation.

Conceptual Framework

The figure below shows the research paradigm used as a guide in

conducting this study.

INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT

Oral Presentation Assess and analyze


Proposed
Techniques of the the video using the
Module for
M.A.L.L.I. rubrics set forth by
Public
students recorded the Department of
Speaking
in the video Education

Figure 1. Research Paradigm


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The figure shows the Input-Process-Output method that served as a

guide in conducting the study. The study sought to determine the orl

presentation techniques that geared towards the improvement of oral public

speaking. The researchers recorded the speeches of the M.A.L.L.I students in

LLI257 class. The researchers then dealt with the documentary analysis in

which they will be adapting series of rubrics set by the Department of education.

From this, it will be the tool to be used in order to analyze the oral presentation

techniques of M.A.L.L.I students. After which, the result will be anchored to the

proposed module for Public Speaking.

Statement of the Problem

The general problem of this study is to determine the oral presentation

techniques that geared towards the improvement of public speaking of

M.A.L.L.I Students. It is to be conducted during the second semester of

Academic Year 2018 – 2019 under LLI257 under:

1. What are the oral presentation techniques used by MALLI students

enrolled in LLI257 in public speaking?

2. What is the assessment of the students in public speaking based from

the guidelines and public speaking rubrics used?

3. What needs to improve in students’ public speaking?

4. What is the proposed module to be presented based from the

guidelines?
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Significance of the Study

The outcome of this research, which aimed to address the oral

presentation techniques of M.A.L.L.I students, A.Y. 2018 - 2019, is of

importance who wishes to gain a holistic, comprehensive and research-based

picture of the understanding of the oral presentation techniques of M.A.L.L.I.

students that are geared towards the improvement of their public speaking.

Furthermore, the results of the study will be of great benefit to the following:

 M.A.L.L.I. Students. The data found in the study will allow graduate

school students, particularly in the M.A.L.L.I. department to analyze

themselves and their skills to see where improvement should be made.

The oral presentation techniques that are proven effective in this study

will aid them in the field of work and further studies for self-improvement

and teaching upgrade and development.

 Graduate School Professors. The oral presentation techniques which are

proven effective in the study are beneficial for graduate school professors

for it may enlighten them on the different teaching strategies that may be

applied to help language educators in their strands. The results of the

study may guide them to write other research studies that would clarify

details which were not mentioned in the actual study.

 Language Educators. The different oral presentation techniques will allow

language educators today and of the future to advance them when it

comes to public speaking since this skill is a must for them. Continuous

learning and development is inevitable in achieving better teaching and


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learning skills. The results may also allow language educators to see in

which aspects they see themselves that needs improvement which will

later on benefit their future students.

 Language Students. The results of the study will help language students

at present time and future students who are aiming to be in the field of

language and literature or in any field that requires them to be good

speakers. The oral presentation techniques found to be effective in this

study may be used by language students to increase their speaking

capabilities in order for them to develop themselves in terms of speaking.

 Future Researchers. The data revealed through the study will allow future

researchers to search for more oral presentation techniques geared

towards improvement of public speaking may it be in the field of

education or elsewhere. Future researchers may also seek to improve

this research study in the hopes of finding an even better solution to self-

improvement of various individuals in diverse grounds of work, study,

business, and many others.

Scope and Limitations

The general focus of the study is to determine the oral presentation

techniques utilized by M.A.L.L.I. students of the Graduate School of Rizal

Technological University – Boni Campus to come up with a module appropriate

to be used towards the improvement of public speaking skills of the students.


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This will specifically identify and evaluate the different oral presentation

techniques used by the whole M.A.L.L.I. students in an individual video

discussion submitted in Methods, Strategies and Testing for Speech, Listening

and Grammar (LLI257) class A.Y. 2018 - 2019 using the public speaking

guidelines and rubrics set for professionals in giving oral presentations.

Review of Related Literature

In any language, speaking is a productive necessary skill to


communicate effectively especially when speakers are not using their native
language. The ability to speak a language is often thought as the product of
language learning. However, language learners must understand that
speaking plays an important part of the language learning process – from
learning how to speak into speaking to learn.
Different speaking skill components are being brought into focus in
considering effective English speaking performance, such as accuracy and
fluency. Roger (2008) says that a successful second language speaker is one
who is able to operate in all speaking situations appropriately. Richards (2008)
applies Jones (1996) and Burns’ (1998) proposal to categorize speech
activities into three main division: talk as interaction, talk as transaction, and
talk as performance.

Talk as interaction, in his definition, is what normally means a


‘conversation’, which describes interactions with a social function; Talk as
transaction is defined as a situation in which the focus is on what is said or
done; and Talk as performance is defined as a public talk, i.e., talk that gives
information to audience, which is made of a recognizable format and is similar
to written language rather than conversational language.

Using this categorization, Ferris (1998) studied the tertiary ESL (English
as Second Language) students closely at three different American institutes
considering their difficulties in English listening and speaking skills and found
that students were highly concerned with oral presentations and whole class
discussions, but they had little difficulty conducting small-group discussions.
His findings show that a great number of learners’ difficulties are with talk as
performance.
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Unlike Ferris’ study which followed a quantitative approach, Morita


(2004) conducted a qualitative study which examined how students were
expected to speak in two graduate courses in a TESL (Teaching English as
Second Language) program at a Canadian university and how they acquired
the oral academic competence required to perform successful oral academic
presentations. Morita’s findings suggested that both non-native and native
speakers gradually outperformed in oral academic discourses through ongoing
negotiations with instructors and peers.
Considering the great importance of speaking to the learners, teachers
have tried to use different methods and teaching techniques to help learners
master this skill, one of which is task-based language teaching (TBLT). Some
researchers emphasize the importance of task-based approaches over
communicative instruction in which teachers and learners feel freer to find their
own procedures to maximize communicative effectiveness (Gass & Crookes,
1993; cited in Skehan, 1996). Task-based second language performance is
an interesting subject in itself and needs more empirical investigation, but as
tasks are widely used in language teaching methods and also language
examination, knowing more about their efficacy can have practical value
(Tavakoli & Foster, 2008).

In the area of task-based research, a growing interest has been created


in the role of tasks in second language teaching and learning in recent years.
Most task-based studies have focused on oral language production.
Most of the researches indicate that task type is an important variable
both in how learners approach language production and in how it affects the
fluency, accuracy, and complexity of language products. One of the studies
done to find out the effect of task structure on language performance (fluency
and accuracy with regard to oral performance) was carried out by Tavakoli and
Foster (2008). In this study, they tried to operationalize the narrative structure
by choosing two structured and two unstructured tasks. They defined tasks
with loose structure, the ones in which the events could be reordered without
compromising the story while this is not possible for the tasks with tight
structures. Results showed that tightly structured tasks led to more accurate
performance. However, with regard to fluency, the performance on structured
tasks was just slightly more fluent.

Duff (1986), as cited in Skehan (1996), investigated task type among


non-native speakers. The focus of her study was on quantity and quality of
interaction while doing two tasks. In the first task, the participants were
required to solve a problem together; the second one assigned them different
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viewpoints on an issue which they had to discuss. The quantity of their


language production was measured in c-units, defined as any word, phrase, or
sentence which contains pragmatic or semantic meaning in a conversation.
The quality, on the other hand, was evaluated by the number of turns, types of
questions and syntactic complexity. Results showed that problem-solving task
generated more turns (per individual and for the whole task), and more c-units
per task. The debate task resulted in more words per turn, more words per c-
unit, and more syntactic complexity.

Birjandi and Ahangarani (2008) examined the effects of task repetition


and task type on fluency, accuracy, and complexity of Iranian EFL (English as
a Foreign Language) learners’ speaking. The researchers focused on
particular types of task such as, narrative task, personal task and decision-
making task. Participants did those tasks in immediate and delayed post-test
sessions after the treatment. Findings indicated that task repetition and task
type can cause significant differences in learners’ oral discourse in terms of
fluency, accuracy, and complexity.

In a similar way, Khaghaninejad (2008) conducted a study to find more


evidence of the efficacy of task-based approach in speaking proficiency
development of Iranian EFL learners. It was found that those who experienced
task-based principles of teaching speaking outperformed remarkably
comparing learners who didn’t experience task- based approach in their
speaking classes.
It should not be forgotten that learners are responsible for their own
development in the process of language learning. Thus, in the case of
speaking ability, learners should reinforce themselves by participating in
speaking class activities to reach accuracy and fluency of speech in the target
language.

In this study, the considered task is oral presentation by learners and


the focused features in speaking ability are fluency and accuracy.

Oral Presentation and Its Types

Oral presentation is defined as “a speech someone delivers in front of an


audience to express his ideas and orally communicate his message.” (Ait
Atmane, 2016) What does it mean? It involves not only presenting a set of
information but using someone’s oral communicative skills and other language
competences to explain and inform an audience.
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Consequently, a person giving oral presentation is required to be


competent in order to deliver his of her message effectively and accurately as
much as possible. De Grez (2009) referred oral presentation competence as
“the combination of knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to speak in public
in order to inform, self-express, to relate and to persuade” (p. 5).

According to Baker (2000, p.115), oral presentation is like a formal


conversation, speaking to group as a natural activity. It is part of spoken
language; and it doesn’t concern the written language. Oral presentations
generally take place in formal and organizational settings with time limits. Time
limits is usually set to guide the presenters in making their information short,
concise yet complete and relevant. And they should be prepared, structured
and guided in order to be interesting and beneficial for both learners and
teachers (Melion & Thompson, 1980).

Moreover, Mandal (2000) stated that “Presentations are speech that is


usually given in business, technical, professional, or scientific environments”
(p.8). They are to be distinguished from normal or natural speech since they
are formal and need preparation and efforts. Mallete and Clare (2001) claimed
that OPs are “(…) the most common method for presenting information and
are usually done with a computer and a projector” (p.161). Likewise, Ming
(2005) believes they are typically and partly spoken, partly visual form of
communication, and they are normally limited in time and occurs in
organizational settings.

There are three types of oral presentations: the controlled, guided and free.
The controlled oral presentation is usually required by teachers for specific
purposes such as usage of language, practice of oral communication skills and
gaining self-confidence (Al-Issa & Redha, 2010). Facilitators of such activities
confine the topic and choose ones that make the speakers feel comfortable
talking about. It is usually suggested not to assess the learners’ performance;
and errors should be expected due to the limited knowledge of the presenters.
The second type is often used when the students have already acquired some
language background and developed some competences. Therefore, the
guided presentation should be relevant for them. There is no need for control -
only guidance to make sure they use relevant grammatical structures and
lexical items (Al-Issa & Redha, 2010). Even at this stage, students are
expected to make language errors. The instructor can guide his students to
prepare their projects, using PowerPoint and Overhead Projectors (OHP) if
such materials are available.
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“Research has shown that oral presentations that use visuals are more
persuasive, more interesting, more credible, and more professional—i.e., more
effective than presentations without such aids’’ (Rice University, ‘‘Select and
Use Visual Aids Effectively,’’ Para. 1). Besides, memorization can help
learners gain confidence and speak more fluently and accurately. Good
memorization is “to learn by heart with deep understanding and proper
application in use for communication’’ (Duong & Nguyen, 2006, p. 14).

Free oral presentations require the highest level of proficiency among the
three. The participants are given the chance to choose a topic and deliver in
the language they wish to use. They are allowed and able to use complex
language and deliver longer presentations as long as they were exposed
enough to guided practice. Students gained confidence and are able to tackle
wider subjects by collecting data from different sources. Another key feature of
free oral presentations is certainly the debate and reactions generated once
the presentation is over. There is a question-answer process triggered over
the topic and students are expected to answer the questions asked either by
the teacher or by their peers (Al-Issa & Redha, 2010).

Importance of Oral Presentations for Students

Introducing students to making oral presentations is an effective way of


motivating them to communicate in the target language of English and teaches
lifelong skills that can also extend beyond the educational setting and into a
professional context after graduation.

Language teachers who employ the widely-known Communicative


Language Teaching (CLT) utilize oral presentation as learner-centered
approach in teaching and for those who employ Task-Based- Language-
Teaching (TBLT) can use it as an exclusive method and activity of the lessons
to improve the students’ oral proficiency.

Integrating Language Skills. Oral presentations help integrate the


language skills, which are all equally essential and important in the global
village. The literature on teaching English has emphasized integrating the four
skills and giving them equal weight (Al-Issa, 2006a, 2006b). Oral presentations
facilitate this. While the presenter is presenting his or her work using an
overhead projector (OHP), for instance, everybody else is reading the notes
appearing on the slides, listening to the talk, and taking notes in preparation
for asking the presenter questions about the topic.

Practicing Speaking. Speaking is one of the least practiced and most


neglected skills in almost any classroom, despite its importance in people’s
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daily social activities and interactions. This is particularly the case in teacher-
centered and large classes, where more emphasis is often placed on the
receptive skills. The concept of speaking is thus more or less confined to the
teacher asking comprehension questions about the lesson, and mostly from
the textbook, in what can be described as an artificial context, and the
students trying to answer these questions. Al-Mutawa and Kailani (1989)
stress that ‘‘learning to speak is a lengthy, complex process’’ and ‘‘is more
effectively achieved by speaking . . . in living natural English’’ (pp. 104–105).
Therefore, oral presentations are an efficient way to encourage the presenting
students to practice meaningful oral English and the rest of the class to
practice listening. Teachers and textbooks should not be considered the only
or most dominant source of exposure to the target language, as is the case in
many traditional classrooms and top-down systems round the world (Al-Issa,
2006a, 2006b, 2007b). Using oral presentations in the classroom is bound to
help students see that language is a living and complex entity with multiple
sources facilitating its acquisition.

Making Decisions. Oral presentations help facilitate the decision-making


process for students. This is particularly important in many developing
countries and cultures where older people in the family usually make decisions
on behalf of the younger members of the family, which often continues to be
the case even after children have grown up. However, when students are
given the freedom to choose a topic to present, for instance, in an
intermediate-level English classroom, they are indirectly asked to make a
decision and take initiative. This is something that is missing from many
classrooms teaching subjects other than English or teaching English but
through the chalk-and-talk method and transmission-based approach (Al-Issa,
2006b).

Preparing for Real Life.Taking the floor and standing in front of other
people, such as one’s classmates, to present one’s work is challenging
because it requires confidence and courage. Yet it is a marketable skill that is
much needed in various jobs round the world. Hence, presenting in the English
language classroom prepares students for the job market that they will enter
when they leave school. Often the purpose of these classes is to prepare
students for business presentations that they will likely be expected to carry
out after graduating and getting jobs. The ability to communicate is the most
important goal that communicative language teaching aims to reach. It is to be
able to operate effectively in the real world (Hedge, 2000). Students need a lot
of opportunity to practice language in situations which encourage them to
communicate their needs, ideas and opinions. With globalization graduates
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need to be proficient in oral communication skills in order to function effectively


in the professional setting (Živković & Stojković, 2011). Generally, effective
oral communication is essential for success and promotion in business
(Murphy and Hildebrand, 1997).

Acquiring Knowledge Through English. An international and


increasingly important language such as English has multiple uses and values,
and different people round the world today learn it for various purposes (Al-
Issa, 2007a). Exposure to such a language cannot be confined to a textbook
or a single source (Al-Issa, 2007b). Languages in general, and English in
particular, are powerful tools for acquiring infinite knowledge and information
(Al-Issa, 2005). Curtain and Pesola (1994) and Tedick and Walker (1996) thus
write that one of the factors that make the teaching of foreign languages
especially challenging is the variety of reasons students have for learning them
and the cultural, socioeconomic, linguistic, and academic diversity typical in
today’s student populations. Thus foreign language teachers find themselves
working with students with variable educational experiences and needs. When
students are asked to research a topic and search for particular information or
data in English, they are using the language meaningfully and purposefully
and are varying their exposure to sources of knowledge via the genuine use of
the target language, which has its implications for their language improvement
(Al-Issa, 2006b). One of the important sources of language acquisition is
authentic materials (Al-Issa, 2005, 2006a, 2007b), and presentations help
activate reference to this source.

Promoting Learner-Centeredness. Giving oral presentations helps


students replace memory- and transmission-based learning, which are still in
vogue in many education systems in the developing world (Al-Issa, 2007a,
2007b), with interactive, dynamic, reflective, and independent learning and
critical thinking. Presentations also promote and encourage learning through
discovery and research. Students are placed at the heart of the learning
process by taking responsibility for their own learning. It is important that such
positive behaviors are instilled in students from an early age to scaffold their
development as they grow older. The focus of the class is often on the specific
language for presentation, the use of visuals and organisation. This focus is
usually determined by the teacher. Nevertheless, in this day of student-
centered teaching approaches, it is important to also know what students
actually want out of a presentation class and if we as teachers are meeting
these objectives in our courses and with the textbooks we are using.
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Expanding the Teacher’s Roles. Oral presentations are becoming a


more important part of language teaching, especially in the university
environment. Teachers in the traditional English language classroom have
specific roles to play in terms of exercising authority over as well as
transmitting and controlling knowledge, information, and classroom activities.
However, in an oral presentation class, teachers delegate autonomy and
leadership to students and facilitate cooperative learning. In other words, they
facilitate, support, organize, and guide students’ learning. These are significant
teacher roles that are emphasized by the communicative language teaching
approach (Larsen-Freeman, 1986).

Learning How to Use Technology.Oral presentations are ideal tools for


introducing students to advanced and sophisticated technology and training
and encouraging them to use it for two significant purposes. First, to bring
change into the classroom, which in turn breaks monotony and adds new
flavor to foreign language education. Second, as Murphy-Judy (1997) writes,
‘‘literacy, today, is increasingly electronic and telecommunicational’’ (cited in
Schcolnik & Kol, 1999, para. 2), which necessitates that English language
learners be knowledgeable in using advanced technology to help them convey
their messages. In addition to the positive impact of the extraordinary and
rapid spread and penetration of the Internet on students’ second language
learning and acquisition (Al-Issa, 2007a), the literature on English language
has emphasized and demonstrated the significant role of technology in
general, and computers in particular, in positively enhancing the learning and
acquisition of the target language.

Assessing Oral Presentations

Oral presentations can be assessed subjectively or objectively. (Al-Issa


and Al-Qubtan,2010) Subjective assessment depends entirely on the overall
impression the teacher forms about the presentation, making it less
complicated though arguably difficult. This kind of assessment particularly
helpful with large classes and when time available to teach English is limited.

Oral presentations can also be assessed formally or informally. In the


former case, students are being assessed for the sake of receiving marks for
their performance (summative testing), whereas this is not so in the latter case
(formative testing). In either case, the teacher can use a checklist that includes
aspects such as use of audiovisual aids (PowerPoint, OHP transparencies,
posters, pictures, flipcharts, whiteboards, wall charts, video, realia, etc.), body
language, eye contact with the audience, voice projection, vitality, modulation,
rate of speech (too fast or too slow), adherence to presentation and question-
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and-answer time, natural delivery of the topic without resorting to


memorization or reading out text or notes, fluency and accuracy (grammar,
vocabulary, and pronunciation), the structure of the presentation, the way the
topic was handled, choice of topic, and how questions are handled in the
postpresentation session. It is the responsibility of the teacher to encourage,
guide, and teach students in the class to ask questions about the presentation.
This can have positive implications for the students’ reading skills, exposure to
the target language, classroom participation, and confidence. The presenter’s
body speaks to the audience even before he or she utters a word. Students
should be made aware of this and encouraged to use their body language and
establish proper eye contact with all their peers. This should give their peers
the impression that they are confident about their knowledge and enthusiastic
about their topic. These assessment aspects focus on the process and product
of the presentation together.

Product here is more associated with the presenter’s language


accuracy and fluency, which language teachers often subconsciously focus
on. However, assessors (teachers) should show interest in product and
process equally and give both almost equal priority in order to achieve a
holistic look at the presentation and end up with a fair assessment of the
presenter. Although it is hard to assess such aspects objectively, it is not
impossible.

Oral presentations can be assessed by teachers, peers, the presenting


students, and the audience. By virtue of their responsibilities and roles,
teachers continuously, consciously and unconsciously, assess students
formally and informally. However, as far as peers and the presenting students
are concerned, one can argue that this can be best implemented informally
and during the guided and free types of presentations. Students at these two
stages are linguistically, intellectually, mentally, and socially more developed
and capable than their counterparts giving controlled presentations to spot any
problems with their classmates’ presentations as pertaining to the aspects
outlined in the checklist described earlier. In teacher-centered classrooms and
contexts where English is simply another school subject on the curriculum, as
is the case in many English language learners contexts round the world,
teachers control the marking process and the marks given to learners, which
makes involving the students in the formal marking of their peers unwelcome
and impossible. This is sometimes due to certain constraints such as large
classes, limited time allocated to English language on the national curriculum,
and lack of facilities and advanced technological equipment (Al-Issa, 2007b).
However, it is important that students take part in the informal assessment of
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their classmates, because this can help them reflect on the language and
other relevant aspects related to presenting that are embodied in their
classmates’ presentations.

Otoshi and Heffernen (2008) consider peer assessment an ‘‘important


activity to develop students’ learning and to facilitate autonomy among
learners’’ (p. 2) and that ‘‘learners become more cognizant of exactly what
they are learning’’ (p. 3). Peer evaluation is, in fact, something that learners
enjoy doing, and it fosters their confidence and intrinsic motivation (Otoshi &
Heffernen, 2008). Hence, students should be encouraged, directed, guided,
and trained to learn from their peers and from their own mistakes, because it
has positive implications for developing a reflective and critical sense. Critically
reflective students are dynamic and active students who are in a strong
position to be responsible for their own education and to enrich the classroom
environment and enlighten their classmates and teachers with their informed
views, suggestions, and opinions. An integral part of the progressive and
humanistic approach to education is preparing students for tomorrow’s world
by creating opportunities that help them acquire lifelong skills that will reflect
positively on their academic, social, and professional future. Otoshi and
Heffernen (2008) stress that feedback obtained from peers impacts interaction
between learners and that interaction with peers and teachers positively
impacts learners’ learning. Thus, the presenter and his or her peers can use
the same checklist, and the results can be discussed after the presentation.

Assessment is important because it will provide an adept information on


the good points and areas of improvement of the students, especially if there is
a great variation of students in a class. It will also serve as guidelines, which
this study aims to reproduce, in order to help the students, identify the salient
points to remember in giving oral presentation.
RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY GRADUATE STUDIES PAGE 18

SECTION III

R E S E A R C H METHODOLOGY

This section discusses the different processes that the researchers

would undertake during the study. It focuses on the collection and

interpretation of data in relation to the chosen topic of Oral Presentation

Techniques Geared towards Improvement of Public Speaking involving the

two factors: Oral Presentation techniques and Improvement of Public

Speaking.

Section III includes the following: Research Design, Sample and

Sampling, Research Instruments, Data Gathering Procedures, and Data

Analysis.

Research Design

The aim of this research study is to be able to determine the oral

presentation techniques of the MALLI students enrolled in Methods, Strategies

and Testing for Speech, Listening and Grammar class. This way, the

researchers will be able to propose a Public Speaking module to improve their

speech on the aforementioned area.

This research study is a quantitative type of research that would be

done with the aid of an adapted rubric. The specific quantitative research

design utilized in the study is known as Descriptive Research Design.

Shuttleworth (2017) described this method as a scientific method which

involves observing and describing the behavior of a subject without influencing


RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY GRADUATE STUDIES PAGE 19

it in any way. He expounded that the results from a descriptive research can in

no way be used as a definitive answer or to disprove a hypothesis but, if the

limitations are understood, they can still be a useful tool in many areas of

scientific research.

In other words, it attempts to gather quantifiable information that can be

used to statistically analyze a target audience or a particular subject.

Description research is used to observe and describe a research subject or

problem without influencing or manipulating the variables in any way.

The researchers would like to reiterate that due to the context, this

action research does not attempt to answer “why” and is not used to discover

inferences, make predictions or establish causal relationships.

Sampling Technique

As recorded, there are 28 students enrolled in the class. Since they

were five (5) students who have had their presentation done prior to the

prescribed presentation date, there will be 23 respondents or students who will

be evaluated using a rubric. Therefore, the researchers will be using purposive

sampling technique.

A purposive sample, according to Crossman (2018), is a non-probability

sample that is selected based on characteristics of a population and the

objective of the study. Purposive sampling is also known as judgmental,

selective, or subjective sampling.


RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY GRADUATE STUDIES PAGE 20

In this case, the researchers have used the Homogeneous Purposive

Sampling, which was defined as one that is selected for having a shared

characteristic or set of characteristics (Crossman, 2018).

Description of the Respondents

The respondents are enrolled in Methods, Strategies and Testing for

Speech, Listening and Grammar at Rizal Technological University. These

students are professional teachers teaching diverse levels of students. They

are teaching in different regions of National Capital Region in both Public and

Private sectors. These teachers are female and male who are working during

weekdays and studying during Saturdays.

Research Instrument

The research instrument used was an adapted rubric. This is adapted

from California State University in Northridge, California. The reason for

adapting such instrument was because of its target: the Professionals who are

studying in this field or expertise.

The rubric has seven (7) aspects:

i. Response to Assignment: Oral presentations are expected to

completely address the topic and requirements set forth in the

assignment, and are appropriate for the intended audience. In


RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY GRADUATE STUDIES PAGE 21

this case, the assignment task to the respondents is to answer

a question – “Is there such thing as the most effective teaching

strategy”? They are tasked to back up their answers with

different references from different authors.

ii. Analysis and Discussion: Oral presentations are expected to provide

an appropriate level of analysis, discussion and evaluation as

required by the assignment. Presented material is completely

analyzed and evaluated, providing support for main points with

reasons, discussion of alternatives, explanations, and

examples as appropriate.

iii. Organization: Oral presentations are expected to be well-organized in

overall structure, beginning with a clear statement of the

problem and ending with a clear conclusion.

iv. Style/Form and Format: Presentations are expected to be stylistically

effective – that is, to consist of visual aids with well-chosen

words and graphics which complement the speaker, and

consistent with the time limit of the presentation.

v. Speaking Skills: Presenters are expected to use an effective speaking

style which exhibits enthusiasm, generates interest in the

audience, and communicates the intended information.


RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY GRADUATE STUDIES PAGE 22

vi. Professionalism: Presenters are expected to dress appropriately for

the audience and act in a manner expected in a professional

setting.

vii. Conclusions: Presentations are expected to draw appropriate

conclusions and recommendations based on its content

Data Gathering Procedure

In gathering the data needed for the research study, there were certain

steps followed. First, the researchers had a consultation with their Professor

and came up with the process of the research. Second, they had asked for

permission in getting the video for evaluation. Then, they looked at the

presentations based from the lens of the rubric adapted from California State

University, Northridge since it is focused on professionals. After evaluation,

they have taken the result per aspect of the rubric. Lastly, the results were

organized through the form of tables and were analyzed for further

understanding.

Data Analysis

The researchers will be utilizing Measures of Central Tendency

specifically the Mean. According to Australian Bureau of Statistics (2013), A

measure of central tendency (also referred to as measures of center or central


RIZAL TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY GRADUATE STUDIES PAGE 23

location) is a summary measure that attempts to describe a whole set of data

with a single value that represents the middle or center of its distribution.

In addition to that, the mean is the sum of the value of each observation

in a dataset divided by the number of observations. This is also known as the

arithmetic average. It has the formula:

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https://explorable.com/course/research-design Martynn Shuttleworth