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Service Training SEKV3001

Course Manual July 1997

STUDENT MATERIALS

TRUE RMS MULTIMETER


FLUKE 87
AUTO DC

0 0 00
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0
V

± 4
CATERPILLAR
MIN MAX RANGE HOLD

REL ∆ Hz
Peak Min Max


MACHINE
---
mV

---
V

~V
mA
A ELECTRONICS
µA

OFF
COURSE
A mA µA COM V-Ω

400mA MAX
FUSED

10A MAX 1000V MAX


FUSED

ACRONYMS AND GLOSSARY OF


ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONIC TERMS
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ACRONYMS

ADEM Advanced Diesel Engine Management

AESC Automatic Engine Speed Control

API American Petroleum Institute

ATA American Trucking Association

AWG American Wire Gauge

BTDC Before Top Dead Center

CAN Control Area Network

CID Component Identifier

CMI Component Module Identifier

CMS Computerized Monitoring System

CTS Controlled Throttle Shift

CWOI Crank Without Injection

DT Type of Deutsch connector

ECAP Electronic Control Analyzer Programmer

ECM Electronic Control Module

EPTC II Electronic Programmable Transmission Control (second generation)


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EMS Electronic Monitoring System

EEPROM Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory

EPROM Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory

ET Electronic Technician

EUI Electronic Unit Injector

FLS Full Load Setting

FMI Failure Mode Identifier

FRC Fuel Ratio Control (previously known as FARC or AFRC)

FTS Full Torque Setting

HD10 Type of Deutsch Connector

HEUI Hydraulic Electronic Unit Injection

HP Horsepower

kPa KiloPascal

MID Module Identifier

MPa MegaPascal

MPPS Multi Point Pressure Sensing

MUI Mechanical Unit Injection

PC Personal Computer

PRIME Pre-Injection Metering


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PSIA Pounds Per Square Inch - Absolute

PSIG Pounds Per Square Inch - Gauge

PWM Pulse Width Modulation

SAE Society of Automotive Engineers

SPM Service Program Module

TDC Top Dead Center

TIM Technical Instruction Module

TPS Throttle Position Sensor

VOM Volt Ohm Meter

VIDS Vital Information Display System

VIMS Vital Information Management System


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GLOSSARY

Abnormal
A machine condition or signal that is not normal. The presence of an abnormal condition
or signal means a problem exists and a warning operation is activated which alerts the
operator.

Absolute Pressure
Pressure measured from a vacuum reference, i.e. atmospheric pressure at sea level
equals 14.7 psia. See also "Gauge Pressure."

Advanced Diesel Engine Management (ADEM)


The EUI system previously used in the 3500 engine was known as the "ADEM I"
system. ADEM II is used on the 3176B, 3406E, 3408E, 3412E, 3500B and some other
applications.

Air Gap
Distance between a gear tooth and tip of a magnetic pickup. (A Hall effect speed sensor
has no gap.)

Alert Indicator
A red indicator lamp associated with the machine monitoring system that notifies the
operator of an abnormal condition. An alert indicator alone indicates a Category 1
warning.

Alternating current (AC)


Electrical current that flows first in one direction in a wire and then in the other
direction. The applied voltage changes polarity and causes the current to change
direction. This direction reversal continues at a rate that depends on the frequency of the
AC.

Alternator
A machine used to generate alternating-current electricity.

American Wire Gauge (AWG)


A measure of the diameter (and therefore the current carrying ability) of electrical wire.
The smaller the AWG number, the larger the wire.
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Ampere (A)
The basic unit of electrical current, equal to 6.24 x 1018 electrons moving past a point in
one second. We abbreviate amperes as amps.

Amplifier
A device usually employing electron tubes or transistors to increase the voltage, current,
or power of a signal. The amplifying device may use a small signal to control voltage
and/or current from an external supply. A larger replica of the small input signal appears
at the device output.

Amplitude Modulation (AM)


A method of combining an information signal and an RF carrier. In double-sideband
voice AM transmission, we use the voice information to vary (modulate) the amplitude
of a radio-frequency signal. Short-wave broadcast stations use this type of AM, as do
stations in the Standard Broadcast Band (510-1600 kHz). Amateurs seldom use double-
sideband voice AM, but a variation, known as single sideband (SSB), is very popular.

Analog Power Supply


The power supply (such as that used on the 3500 EUI system) for all analog sensors.
5 VDC is supplied by the ECM to the sensors.

Analog Sensor
Analog Sensors produce a DC voltage output signal that can vary from +0.2 to +4.8 V in
the case of the 3500 EUI. These analog sensors may include: Coolant Temperature,
Turbo Outlet Pressure, Turbo Inlet Pressure, Atmospheric Pressure, Oil Pressure, and
Hydraulic Pressure.

Analog Signal
An analog signal is a voltage which varies smoothly and progressively over time with
changing conditions.

Anode
The terminal that connects to the positive supply lead for current to flow through a
device.

Apparent power
The product of the RMS current and voltage values in a circuit without consideration of
the phase angle between them.
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ASCII
American National standard Code for information interchange. This is a seven-bit
digital code used in computer and radio-teleprinter applications.

Asperity
An abnormal condition in which the surface of a connector pin contact contains
microscopic peaks and valleys.

ATA Data Link


An electrical connection for communication with other microprocessor based devices
that are compatible with the American Trucking Association and SAE Standards. The
ATA Data Link is one communication medium used with the ECAP service tool. See
also "CAT Data Link."

Atmospheric Pressure Sensor


An analog sensor which measures ambient air pressure. The sensor generates a signal in
which the voltage is proportional to pressure. The ECM interprets the signal as pressure.

Atom
A basic building block of all matter. Inside an atom, there is a positively charged, dense
central core, surrounded by a "cloud" of negatively charged electrons. There are the
same number of negative charges as there are positive charges, so the atom is electrically
neutral.

Automatic Air Filter Compensation


A system which automatically derates the engine for protection as the air filter plugs
with dirt. The atmospheric and turbo inlet pressure sensors are used to calculate
differential pressure across the air filters.

Automatic Altitude Compensation


Automatic continuous engine derating with altitude. Uses the atmospheric pressure
sensor for altitude reference. This system automatically gives the engine the optimum
power for any altitude up to 17000 feet without overfueling.

Automatic Engine Speed Control


The Automatic Engine Speed Control (5130/5230 Excavators) idles the engine down to
1350 rpm when the hydraulics have been idle for four seconds. The system works in
conjunction with a pressure switch which senses pilot hydraulic pressure. The purpose is
to save fuel, reduce noise and reduce engine wear.

Average power
The product of the RMS current and voltage values associated with a purely resistive
circuit, equal to one half the peak power when the applied voltage is a sine wave.
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Battery
A device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy. It provides excess
electrons to produce a current and the voltage or EMF to push those electrons through a
circuit.

Baud
The unit used to describe the transmission speed of a digital signal. For a single-channel
signal, one baud is equal to one digital bit per second.

Before Top Dead Center (BTDC)


The 180 degrees of crankshaft rotation before the piston reaches Top Dead Center
(normal direction of rotation).

Bipolar junction transistor


A transistor made of two PN semiconductor junctions using two layers of similar type
material (N or P) with a third layer of the opposite type between them.

Block diagram
A picture using boxes to represent sections of a complicated device or process. The
block diagram shows the connections between sections.

Breakdown voltage
The voltage that will cause a current in an insulator. Different insulating materials have
different breakdown voltages. Breakdown voltage is also related to the thickness of the
insulating material.

Breakout Harness
A test harness used to facilitate normal circuit operation while taking VOM readings in a
circuit. It is positioned between the two halves of the connector and is sometimes called
a "T" harness.

Bypass Circuit
A circuit, usually temporary, to substitute for an existing circuit, typically for test
purposes.

Calibration
As used in this course, an electronic adjustment of a sensor signal. For example,
calibration will correct small output differences between the atmospheric and boost
sensors. The boost sensor output is corrected by the ECM to equal atmospheric sensor
output after calibration. See also "Timing Sensor Calibration."
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Capacitor
An electrical component composed of two or more conductive plates separated by an
insulating material. A capacitor stores energy in an electrostatic field.

Caterpillar Electronic Technician (ET)


A diagnostic service tool software program for a personal computer (PC). This program
is designed to supplement the ECAP service tool.

CAT Data Link


An electrical connection for communication with onboard microprocessor based devices
that use the Data Link such as: Engine ECM, Caterpillar Monitoring System, VIMS,
electronic transmissions, and service tools (such as the ET). The CAT Data Link is also
the communication medium used for programming and troubleshooting with Caterpillar
service tools.

Cathode
The terminal that connects to the negative supply lead for current to flow through a
device.

Check Engine Lamp


Sometimes referred to as the "Diagnostic Lamp" or "Fault Lamp." It is used to warn the
operator of the presence of an active diagnostic code. It indicates that an electronic
engine or machine system problem has been detected by the ECM. It is also used to
flash a diagnostic code to identify a specific problem.

Circuit
A continuous, unbroken path along a conductor through which electrical current can
flow from the source, through various units, and back to the source.

CMS Check Engine Lamp


The same function as the Check Engine Lamp except that it is used in conjunction with
CMS.

Coaxial cable
Coax (pronounced ko’ -aks). This is a type of feed line with one conductor inside the
other. Plastic, foam or gaseous insulation surrounds the center conductor. The insulation
is covered by a shielding conductor.

Code
See "Diagnostic Code."

Coil
A Conductor wound into a series of loops.
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Cold Mode
A mode of operation where the timing is retarded and the low idle may be raised for
engine protection, reduced smoke and faster warm-up. See also "Cool Engine Elevated
Low Idle."

Color code
A system where numerical values are assigned to various colors. Colored stripes are
painted on the body of resistors and sometimes other components to show their value.

Component Identifier (CID)


A code used to identify a particular component when using CMS for example (see also
"FMI").

Communication Adapter
The Communication Adapter tool provides a communication link between the ECM and
the ECAP service tool. It converts CAT Data Link Communication to RS-232 data or
ATA Data Link Communication and vice versa.

Conductance
The reciprocal of resistance. This is the real part of a complex admittance.

Conductor
A material that has a loose grip on its electrons, so that an electrical current can pass
through it.

Conductor
A substance or body through which an electrical current can be transmitted.

Controlled Throttle Shift (CTS)


A system used by the transmission to relieve the drive line of high stress during shifting.
The transmission controls the engine rpm during shifting.

Conventional Theory
The theory which states that the direction of current flow is from positive to negative in a
circuit.

Coolant Temperature Sensor


A sensor which measures coolant temperature and sends an analog signal to an electronic
control.
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Cool Engine Elevated Low Idle


The low idle is slowly raised when the coolant temperature is below a specific
temperature, the transmission is in NEUTRAL, the parking brake is engaged, and the
idle enable switch is in the ON position. (Not all machines have this feature.)

Crank Without Injection Plug


A means of cranking the D11N engine without fuel for maintenance purposes. Two
Sure-Seal plugs are joined together by wires, one of which must be installed for normal
running. When this plug is removed and replaced by the other, the engine will not start.

Current
A flow of electrons in an electrical circuit.

Current
Movement of electricity along a conductor and is measured in amperes.

Data Link
See "CAT Data Link."

Data Link Connector


See "Service Tool Connector."

Deadband
A portion of the range of mechanical or electrical movement of a sensor such as the
Throttle Position Sensor in which the output signal remains constant.

Decelerator Position Sensor


Used in conjunction with the Engine Speed Switch on the D9R, D10R and D11R to
reduce engine rpm according to operator input. The sensor sends a Pulse Width
Modulated Signal to the ECM. See also "Throttle Position Sensor."

Demand Fan Control


A system controlled by the ECM which controls fan speed based on coolant temperature.
The hydraulic fan motor operates at minimum speed when the coolant temperature is
below a specific value. Fan speed increases as the coolant temperature increases.

Desired Engine Speed


An input to the electronic governor within the ECM. The electronic governor uses
inputs from the Throttle Position Sensor or Throttle Switch, Speed/Timing Sensor,
Coolant Temperature Sensor (Cold Mode), and Throttle Back-up switch (Off-highway
Truck) to determine "Desired Engine Speed."
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Diagnostic Code
A code which describes a problem in a System.

Dielectric
An insulating material. A dielectric is a medium in which it is possible to maintain an
electric field with little or no additional energy supplied after the field has been
established.

Digital Sensors
Digital Sensors are powered from an 8 to 28 VDC power supply. Digital Sensors
produce a Pulse Width Modulation or Duty Cycle type signal. Digital sensors are used
to measure pressures and temperatures on some electronic monitoring systems.

Digital Signal
A constant amplitude, variable width signal (PWM) in which the width or duty cycle
varies. See also "Pulse Width Modulation."

Diode
An electrical device that will allow current to pass through itself in one direction only.

Direct Current (DC)


Current which flows only in one direction along a conductor from a point of high
potential to one of lower potential.

Directional Shift Management


Directional Shift Management allows a reduction in engine speed during a change of
direction (i.e. neutral to reverse). A signal is sent to the engine via the CAT Data Link to
reduce engine speed to low idle before the gear can be engaged.

Double-pole, double throw (DPDT) switch


A switch that has six contacts. The DPDT switch has two center contacts. The two
center contacts can each be connected to one of two other contacts.

Duty Cycle
See "Pulse Width Modulation."

EEPROM
A type of computer memory "chip." EEPROM means "Electrically Erasable
Programmable Read Only Memory."

Effective Rack (Fuel)


A hypothetical term given to injector duration to describe the equivalent dynamic rack
and is used for comparative purposes. Although it could be compared to a linear
dimension in an MUI system, it does not have a linear value in the EUI system.
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Effective voltage
The value of a DC voltage that will heat a resistive component to the same temperature
as the AC voltage that is being measured.

Electric field
A region through which an electric force will act on an electrically charged object. An
electric field exists in a region of space if an electrically charged object placed in the
region is subjected to an electrical force.

Electron
A tiny, negatively charged particle, normally found in an area surrounding the nucleus of
an atom. Moving electrons make up an electrical current.

Electron Theory
The moving charges that have a negative polarity toward the more positive end.

Electromotive force (EMF)


The force or pressure that pushes a current through a circuit.

Electronic Control Analyzer Programmer (ECAP)


A Caterpillar Electronic Service Tool used for programming and diagnosing a variety of
electronic controls. It is a dedicated computer which is used for CAT electronic controls.
This tool is being superceded by ET. See also "ET."

Electronic Control Module (ECM)


The electronic engine control that provides power to EUI electronics and injectors,
monitors EUI inputs and acts as a governor to control engine speed.

Electronic Unit Injector (EUI) System


A fuel system in which the injection pump is a mechanically actuated, electronically
controlled unit injector which combines the pumping, electronic fuel metering and
injecting elements in a single unit.
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Electronic Technician (ET)


Software for programming electronic controls on engines and transmissions. Similar to
ECAP functions, but based on a PC. See also "Electronic Control Analyzer
Programmer."

Energy
The ability to do work; the ability to exert a force to move some object.

Engine Speed Switch


Used on the HEUI/EUI powered tractors with the Decelerator Sensor to control engine
speed. Activation of the switch alone causes the engine to go from low idle to high idle
or vice versa.

Engine Warning Derate


A means of reducing engine power to alert the operator that a serious problem exists,
such as high coolant or hydraulic temperature or low oil pressure. (Example: 5130/5230
Excavators.)

EPROM
A type of computer memory "chip." EPROM means "Erasable Programmable Read
Only Memory."

Event
An out of range condition where, for example, engine speed, oil pressure or coolant
temperature is above or below limits to such an extent that engine damage is likely.
Events are logged by the ECM and must have a factory password to be cleared (except
for a remote shutdown).

Factory Password
A group of numeric or alpha-numeric characters designed to restrict access to logged
events and fuel settings (except fuel ratio). The EUI and HEUI systems require correct
factory passwords to clear most events.

Farad
The basic unit of capacitance.

Fault
A failure of a component of a machine electronic system.

Fault Mode Identifier (FMI)


A code used to identify the type of fault and used with a CID.

Fixed resistor
A resistor with a fixed value of resistance.
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Flash Programming
A means of re-programming or updating the Personality Module in the ECM without the
need for physical replacement of the module. Requires the use of the ET program on a
PC.

Forward biased
A condition in which the anode of a diode is positive with respect to the cathode, so it
will conduct.

Frequency
The number of cycles of an alternating current that occur per second and is measured in
Hertz.

Frequency modulation (FM)


The process of varying the frequency of an RF carrier in response to the instantaneous
changes in a modulating signal. The signal that modulates the carrier frequency may be
audio, video, digital data or some other kind of information.

Fuel Position
An internal signal within the ECM from the Electronic Governor to the Fuel Injection
control. It is based on desired engine speed, FRC Fuel Position, rated fuel position and
actual engine speed. (Sometimes called "electronic fuel position" or "rack.")

Fuse
A replaceable safety device for an electrical circuit.

Fuse
A thin strip of metal mounted in a holder. When too much current passes through the
fuse, the metal strip melts and opens the circuit.

Fuel Ratio Control (FRC)


FRC is a fuel limit of the air/fuel ratio and is used for exhaust smoke control purposes.
After engine acceleration or increasing load, if the ECM senses a higher Turbo Outlet
pressure (more air to cylinders), the control increases the "FRC Fuel Pos" limit (allowing
more fuel to the cylinders).

Full Load Setting (FLS)


A means of performing minor adjustments to engine power.
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Full Torque Setting (FTS)


A means of performing minor adjustments to engine torque.

Full-wave rectifier
A circuit composed of two half-wave rectifiers. The full-wave rectifier allows the full
AC waveform to pass through; one half of the cycle is reversed in polarity. This circuit
requires a center-tapped transformer.

Gain (Antenna)
An increase in the effective power radiated by an antenna in a certain desired direction,
or an increase in received signal strength from a certain direction. This is at the expense
of power radiated in, or signal strength received from, other directions.

Gauge Pressure (PSIG)


Pressure measured above atmospheric pressure. See also "Absolute Pressure."

Giga
The metric prefix for 109, or times 1,000,000,000.

Ground
When any part of a wiring circuit unintentionally touches a part of the machine frame.

Ground Bolt or Stud


Used to ground electronic engine circuit on the engine cylinder block or head.

Ground connection
A connection made to the earth for electrical safety.

Grounded Circuit
A connection of any electrical unit to the machine frame, engine, or any part of the machine,
completing the electrical circuit to its source.

Ground Level Shutdown


A remote means of shutting down the engine without turning off the key start switch.
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Half-wave rectifier
A circuit that allows only half of the applied AC waveform to pass through it.

Harness
The wiring bundle connecting system components.

Heat sink
A piece of metal used to absorb excess heat generated by a component, and dissipate the
heat into the air.

Henry
The basic unit of inductance.

Hertz (Hz)
An alternating-current frequency of one cycle per second. The basic unit of frequency.

Hydraulic Electronic Unit Injection (HEUI)


A fuel system which uses hydraulic pressure to actuate the unit injectors instead of a
camshaft.

Hydraulic Injection Actuation Pressure


Hydraulic oil pressure used to actuate the HEUI injector, supplied by the Hydraulic
Supply Pump Group.

Hysteresis
A measure of the difference or lag between the turn on and turn off value of a switch or
sensor. For example, the EUI oil pressure warning lamp may turn on at 255 kPa (37 psi)
and turn off at 295 kPa (43 psi). This pressure difference is used to prevent the check
engine light from flickering and unnecessary multiple event logging.

Impedance
A term used to describe a combination of reactance and resistance in a circuit.

Inductor
An electrical component usually composed of a coil of wire wound on a central core. An
inductor stores energy in a magnetic field.

Injection Actuation Pressure


See "Hydraulic Injection Actuation Pressure."
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Injection Actuation Pressure Control Valve (IAPCV)


See "Pump Control Valve."

Insulator
A material that maintains a tight grip on its electrons, so that an electrical current cannot
pass through it.

Integrated circuit
A device composed of many bipolar or field-effect transistors manufactured on the same
chip, or wafer, of silicon.

Joule
The unit of energy in the metric system of measure.

Keystroke Programming
See "Macro."

Light-emitting diode
A device that uses a semiconductor junction to produce light when current flows through
it.

Macro
A term used with computers to describe a series of keystrokes which the computer
remembers. These keystrokes are stored and can be played back with a short command
(for example, the ECAP Learn Mode). May also be called "Keystroke Programming."

Magnetic field
A region through which a magnetic force will act on a magnetic object.

Magnetic force
A push or pull exerted through space by one magnetically charged object on another.

Magnetic Pickup
A permanent magnet, a pole piece, and a pickup coil. An electrical pulse is generated
each time a gear tooth interrupts the magnetic field.

Mega
The metric prefix for 106, or times 1,000,000.

Metric prefixes
A series of terms used in the metric system of measurement. We use metric prefixes to
describe a quantity as compared to a basic unit. The metric prefixes indicate multiples of
10.
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Metric system
A system of measurement developed by scientists and used in most countries of the
world. This system uses a set of prefixes that are multiples of 10 to indicate quantities
larger or smaller than the basic unit.

Mica capacitor
A capacitor formed by alternating layers of metal foil with thin sheets of insulating mica.

Micro
The metric prefix for 10-6, or divide by 1,000,000.

Milli
The metric prefix for 10-3, or divide by 1000.

Modulation
The process of varying some characteristic (amplitude, frequency or phase) of an RF
carrier for the purpose of conveying information.

Module Identifier (MID)


A diagnostic code used by electronic controls to identify which electronic control
module detected a fault.

Multimeter
A test instrument used to make basic measurements in a circuit.

Mutual inductance
The ability of one coil to induce a voltage in another coil. Any two coils positioned so
that the magnetic flux from one coil cuts through the turns of wire in the other are said to
have mutual inductance.

N-type material
Semiconductor material that has been treated with impurities to give it an excess of
electrons. We call this a "donor material."

Neutral Coast Inhibit


A means to prevent high speed coasting in neutral.
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Ohm
The standard unit for measuring resistance to the flow of electrical current.

Ohm's Law
A basic law of electronics. Ohm's Law gives a relationship between voltage, resistance
and current (E = IR).

Oil Pressure Sensor


An analog sensor (on EUI/HEUI engines) which measures engine oil pressure and sends
a signal to the ECM.

Open Circuit
Condition where an electrical wire or connection is broken, interrupting the flow of
current through a circuit.

Operational amplifier (Op Amp)


A linear IC that can amplify DC as well as AC. Op amps have very high input
impedance, very low output impedance and very high gain.

Oscillator
A circuit built by adding positive feedback to an amplifier. It produces an alternating
current signal with no input except the DC operating voltages.

P-type material
Semiconductor material that has been treated with impurities to give it an electron
shortage. This creates excess positive charge carriers, or "holes," so it becomes an
"acceptor material."

Parallel circuit
An electrical circuit in which the electrons follow more that one path.

Parameter
A programmable value which determines the characteristics or behavior of the engine
and/or machine electrical system. See also "Protected Parameter."

Password
See "Factory Password."

Peak Injection Pressure


The injection pressure produced by maximum hydraulic injection actuation pressure,
usually about 150 MPa (22000 psi).
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Peak-to-peak (P -P) voltage


A measure of the voltage taken between the negative and positive peaks on a cycle.

Peak voltage
A measure of voltage on an AC waveform taken from the centerline (O V) and the
maximum positive or negative level.

Period, T
The time it takes to complete one cycle of an AC waveform.

Personality Module
The small module inserted into the ECM which contains all the instructions (software)
and performance maps for the ECM in a specific engine application.

Pico
The metric prefix for 10-12, or divide by 1,000,000,000,000.

Plug (connector)
A fitting for making an electrical connection to a circuit by insertion in a receptacle or
body of electrical equipment.

PN-junction
The contact area between two layers of opposite-type semiconductor material.

Power
The time rate of transferring energy, or the time rate at which work is done. In an
electric circuit, power is found by multiplying the voltage applied to the circuit by the
current through the circuit.

Power factor
The ratio of real power to apparent power in a circuit. Also calculated as the cosine of
the phase angle between current and voltage in a circuit.

Power supply
That part of an electrical circuit that provides excess electrons to flow into a circuit. The
power supply also supplies the voltage or EMF to push the electrons along. Power
supplies convert a power source (such as the AC mains) to a useful form. (A circuit that
provides a direct-current output at some desired voltage from an AC input voltage.)
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Pre-Injection Metering (PRIME)


Pre-Injection Metering, a HEUI pilot injection process used to inject a small amount of
fuel to establish combustion before injecting the main charge. This feature reduces
smoke, emissions and engine noise.

Protected Parameter
A parameter such as FLS, FTS or FRC which is protected by a service tool history log of
changes and a warning screen when attempting to make changes. The Parameter Change
History functions as an audit trail to deter unauthorized tampering.

Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)


A signal consisting of variable width pulses at fixed intervals, whose "TIME ON" versus
"TIME OFF" can be varied (also referred to as "duty cycle").

Pulsating DC
The output from a rectifier before it is filtered. The polarity of a pulsating DC source
does not change, but the amplitude of the voltage changes with time.

Pulse modulation
Modulation of an RF carrier by a series of pulses. These pulses convey the information
that has been sampled from an analog signal.

Pump Control Valve


A valve controlled by the ECM which supplies a PWM signal to vary the swashplate
angle and the displacement of the Hydraulic Supply Pump Group in the HEUI fuel
system.

Rated Fuel Limit


("Rated Fuel Limit" on ECAP.) This figure indicates the maximum allowable fuel
position (longest injector pulse). It will produce rated power for this engine
configuration.

Reactance
The property of an inductor or capacitor (measured in ohms) that opposes current in an
AC circuit without converting power to heat.

Reactive power
The apparent power in an inductor or capacitor. The product of RMS current through a
reactive component and the RMS voltage across it. Also called wattless power.

Receptacle (connector)
An electrical fitting that receives the plug assembly in an electrical circuit.

Real power
The actual power dissipated in a circuit. calculated to be the product of the apparent
power times the phase angle between the voltage and current.
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Rectifier
A device that converts alternating current to direct current.

Resistance
The ability to oppose an electric current.

Resistor
Any material that opposes a current in an electrical circuit. An electronic component
specifically designed to oppose current.

Resolver Switch
See "Automatic Engine Speed Control."

Reverse biased
A condition in which the cathode of a diode is positive with respect to the anode, so it
will not conduct.

Root-mean square (RMS) voltage


Another name for effective voltage. The term refers to the method of calculating the
value.

Semiconductor
An element which has four electrons in the outer ring of atoms. Used to make diodes
and transistors.

Semiconductor material
A material with resistivity between that of metals and insulators. Pure semiconductor
materials are usually doped with impurities to control the electrical properties.

Sensor
A device used to detect and measure information such as pressure, temperature, or
mechanical movement and transmit an electrical signal that an electronic control can
interpret.

Series circuit
An electrical circuit in which all the electrons must flow through every part of the circuit.
There is only one path for the electrons to follow.

Service Program Module (SPM)


An ECAP software program on a factory programmable computer chip (or chips)
designed to adapt this service tool to a specific application (i.e. earthmoving machine
functions).

Service Tool Connector


A connector mounted on the machine, used to connect the ET or ECAP service tools to
the CAT Data Link and onboard electronic systems such as HEUI, EUI or EPTC II.
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Short Circuit
A condition when one part of a circuit comes in contact with another part of the same
circuit, diverting the flow of current from its desired path.

Signal
A voltage or waveform used to transmit information, typically from a sensor to the ECM.

Signal generator
A test instrument that produces a stable low-level radio-frequency signal. The signal can
be set to a specific frequency and used to troubleshoot RF equipment.

Signal Reading Probe


A tool used with a VOM to test a circuit through the Deutsch connectors, but without
disconnecting the plug and socket.

Silicon-controlled rectifier
A bistable semiconductor device that can be switched between the off and on states by a
control voltage.

Sine wave
A single-frequency waveform that can be expressed in terms of the mathematical sine
function. A smooth curve, usually drawn to represent the variation in voltage or current
over time for an AC signal.

Single-pole, single-throw (SPST) switch


A switch that only connects one center contact to another contact.

Sinking Driver
When the driver is on, provides a ground to the load. The other load connection is
connected to +B.

Solenoid
A coil used for producing a magnetic field. Usually performs some type of mechanical
work.

Solid-state devices
Circuit components that use semiconductor materials. Semiconductor diodes, transistors
and integrated circuits are all solid-state devices.

Sourcing Driver
When the driver is on, provides a battery supply to the load. The other load connection
is connected to -B (ground).
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Speed/Timing Sensor
Provides a PWM signal to the ECM which the ECM uses to detect crankshaft position
and direction of rotation. The sensor also provides a frequency modulated signal for
engine speed measurement.

Speed/Timing Sensor Calibration


A means of correcting any error between actual TDC and the TDC signal coming from
the Speed/Timing Sensor. See also "Timing Calibration Sensor."

Square wave
A periodic waveform that alternates between two values, and spends an equal time at
each level. It is made up of sine waves at a fundamental frequency and all odd
harmonics.

Static Timing
The basis for correct fuel injection timing and valve mechanism operation as determined
by the relative positions of the camshaft and crankshaft.

Subsystem
As used in the electronic engine control system, it relates to a particular function (for
example, throttle subsystem).

Supply Voltage
A constant voltage supplied to a component to provide electrical power for its operation.
It may be generated by the ECM, or it may be machine battery voltage supplied by the
machine wiring.

Switch
A device used to connect or disconnect electrical contacts.

"T" Harness
See "Breakout Harness."

Temperature coefficient
A number used to show whether a component will increase or decrease in value as it gets
warm.

Thermistor
A temperature compensated resistor where the resistance varies with temperature.

Throttle Back-up Switch


Operates in the limp home mode and functions only when the throttle position sensor
signal is disabled or is out of range (Off-highway Truck).
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Throttle Position
The ECM’s interpretation of the signal from the Throttle Position Sensor.

Throttle Position Sensor


An electronic digital sensor which is connected to the accelerator pedal and sends a Pulse
Width Modulated signal to the ECM to set desired engine speed.

Thyristor
Another name for a silicon-controlled rectifier.

Timing Calibration
Dynamic timing is measured by the sensor using a timing wheel mounted on the
camshaft. Timing calibration is a means of electronically correcting a timing error
between the crankshaft and the camshaft. The correction is stored in the EEPROM.

Time Based Injection


A system where injection pressure and fuel quantity delivered are functions of actuation
pressure and current duration. This system allows injection to be independent of engine
speed unlike camshaft actuated systems where injection pressure is a function of engine
speed.

Timing Calibration Sensor


A sensor mounted in the flywheel housing and used by the ECM to calibrate the
Speed/Timing Sensor. May also be called a "magnetic pickup." See also "Timing
Calibration."

Total Tattletale
Total number of changes to all parameters, used in factory password determination.

Transformer
Two coils with mutual inductance used to change the voltage level of an AC power
source to one more suited for a particular circuit.

Transistor
An electronic switch that is used to control the flow of current.

Transmitter
A device that produces radio-frequency signals.

Turbo Compressor Inlet Pressure Sensor


An analog sensor which measures Turbo Compressor Inlet air pressure. The sensor
generates a signal in which the voltage is proportional to pressure. The ECM interprets
the signal as pressure.
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Turbo Compressor Outlet (Boost) Pressure Sensor


An analog sensor which measures Turbo Compressor Outlet air pressure. The sensor
generates a signal in which the voltage is proportional to pressure. The ECM interprets
the signal as pressure.

User Defined Shutdown


A feature provided by the ECM that will shut down the engine. After this input is
activated, power must be cycled on and off to the ECM before the fuel will be injected.
The feature could be used in conjunction with a customer installed Fire Suppression
System.

Variable resistor
A resistor whose value can be adjusted over a certain range.

Variable-frequency oscillator (VFO)


An oscillator used in receivers and transmitters. The frequency is set by a tuned circuit
using capacitors and inductors. The frequency can be changed by adjusting the
components in the tuned circuit.

Vital Information Display System (VIDS)


A system designed to monitor all onboard systems for abnormal operating conditions.

Vital Information Management System (VIMS)


A system designed to monitor all onboard systems for abnormal operating conditions.
VIMS controls the operator's electronic instrument panel via the CAT Data Link. VIMS
also provides offboard capabilities.

Volt (V)
The basic unit of electrical pressure or EMF.

Voltage
The EMF or pressure that causes electrons to move through an electrical circuit.

Voltage source
Any source of excess electrons. A voltage source produces a current and the force to
push the electrons through an electrical circuit.

Watt (W)
The unit of power in the metric system. The watt describes how fast a circuit uses
electrical energy.

Wattmeter
A test instrument used to measure the power output (in watts) of a transmitter.
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Wiring Harness
The trunk and branches that form an electrical circuit.

Zener Diode
A special diode that will conduct current in the reverse direction when the voltage
becomes higher than a predetermined value.
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NOTES
SEKV3001 Printed in U.S.A.
7/97