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IONESCU Razvan Mihai1, SCUTARU Gheorghe1, NEGOITA Andrei1

1

”Transilvania” University of Brasov, Romania,

Department of Advanced Electrical Systems, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science,

29 B-dul Eroilor, 500036, Brasov, Romania, ionescu.razvan.mihai@gmail.com:

Abstract – The paper presents an approach based on between the direction of the flux density on radial

numerical analysis methods for induction motors with direction with no eccentricity and with 15 % eccentricity

squirrel-cage rotor. A finite element method simulation and between the tangential components of the flux

with the software produced by CEDRAT, FLUX 2D/3D density. This percentage of eccentricity is limited

is made. A 2 pole, 2.2 kW, 24 stator slots and 22 rotor because of the motor geometry. The tested motor is used

slots motor is modeled for static eccentricity of up to 15 in production at a local plant. Apart from diagnosis, the

%, on radial direction. Comparative results are modeling method could be a good basis for the

discussed. simulation of machines with known eccentricity defects.

Keywords: eccentricity, FEM, induction motor, II. FINITE ELEMENT METHOD DESCRIPTION

numerical analysis

The studies on noise analysis for induction motors

I. INTRODUCTION showed two ways of approach: the deterministic method

using finite element analysis and the statistical method.

Nowadays induction motors are widely used. The The finite element method is an analysis technique used

reasons are high reliability, high efficiency and good for obtaining approximate solutions for the boundary

performance of the motor. Faults in an induction motor problems in engineering. The finite element method

may arise due to the inappropriate maintenance, the (FEM) has a solid theoretical foundation, based on

excessive use of the motor or of the bearings and lead to mathematical theorems that guarantee an asymptotic

a decrease of the motor lifetime and an increase of the increase of the accuracy of the field calculation towards

noise level. Diagnosis and detection of noise sources and an exact solution. The finite element method is the most

of motor faults make it possible to improve the flexible numerical method used for determining the

performance and increase lifetime [1]. solutions of partial differential equations.

Mechanical faults in the operation of the motor lead The different stages for the simulation with the finite

to eccentricity between the rotor and the stator. element method [5] are presented in Fig. 1:

Deterioration of the bearings leads to a variation of the

airgap which causes an unbalanced magnetic pull.

Since 20 years ago, investigations of faults of ac

drives have been reported. The Finite Element Method

(FEM) has been widely used during the last years in

electromagnetic analysis. Arkkio has studied unbalanced

magnetic pull for motors with different kind of

asymmetry including eccentricity [2], [3]. Belmans et al.

showed that in two-pole induction machine an eccentric

rotor may cause a significant homopolar flux closing

through the shaft, bearings, end-caps and frame [4]

which shortens the motor lifetime.

The paper introduces an approach based on

numerical analysis of three-phase induction motor, with

cage rotor, mainly for diagnosis purposes. Most of the

faults in three-phase squirrel cage induction motors

occur due to airgap eccentricity which is the condition of

the unequal airgap between the stator and the rotor. A

finite element method simulation of a 2 pole, 2.2 kW

motor, with static eccentricity of up to 15% and the

obtained results are presented. A comparison is made,

Fig. 1. Finite element method simulation stages.

r r

Solving an electromagnetic field problem is always where E is the electric field intensity, H is the

based on solving Maxwell’s equations. The numerical

magnetic field intensity, ρimp is the imposed charge

simulation generates data which may be used for testing r r

different states, faults, vibrations, noise levels and density, D is the electric flux density, B is the

r

allows the verification of the analytical results magnetic flux density, J is the current density, ε , µ ,

previously obtained. The advantage of using FEM is the σ are the environment permittivity, permeability and

accurate modeling of rotating electrical machines, by

conductivity.

representing the material properties and the nonlinearity.

Solving the set of differential equations of the

By using FEM, a complex problem represented by

electromagnetic field, with certain boundary conditions,

differential equations is transformed into a series of

is in fact minimizing the integral which expresses the

algebraic problems solved by partitioning the domain in

potential energy of the system. From the mathematical

a large number of elements. Usually, the discretization

point of view, solving the set of equations is equivalent

of the domain is made using triangular elements. Over

with the variational calculus problem, finding the

each element, the solution is approximated by a linear

function that minimizes the integral, for the given

interpolation of the values of the potential at the vertices

differential equation of Euler and Lagrange. The

of the triangle.

advantage of using the vector potential method is that all

The linear algebra problem is formed by minimizing

conditions which must be satisfied are included in a

a measure of the error between the exact differential

single equation.

equation and the approximate differential equation as

The minimum of the J integral will be computed

written in terms of linear functions.

An example of mesh with triangular elements is [7]:

presented in Fig. 2.

∫ f ( x, y, z,V ,V ,V ,V ) dx dy dz +

' ' '

J= x y z

VΣ

, (8)

1

∫

+ (qV + αV 2 ) dS

S

2

which the function f is computed, V a function which

depends on the same coordinates, Vx' ,V y' ,Vz' are the first

order derivatives of function V with respect to

coordinates x, y, z and q, α are real parameters.

The following assumptions are made: the function

Fig. 2. Mesh with triangular elements

f is a continuous and derivable function in any point of

For magnetic fields, variable in time, the first order the considered domain; the first order derivatives,

Maxwell equations are [6], [7]: V ,Vx' ,V y' ,Vz' are also continuous and derivable functions;

r the integral J has a finite value.

r ∂B

∇× E + = 0 , (Faraday’s law) (1) The value of the function V is assumed as known in

∂t every point of the surface Σ d = Σ − S , where S is a part

r of the surface Σ :

r ∂D r

∇× H − − J = 0 , (Maxwell-Ampere law) (2)

∂t V = V ( x, y, z ) for ( x, y, z )∈Σ d . (9)

r

∇ ⋅ D = ρimp , (Gauss’s law for an electric field) (3) It is also considered that in every point of the surface

S , the value of a linear combination of the function V

r and the derivatives of the function f is known:

∇ ⋅ B = 0 , (Gauss’s law for a magnetic field) (4)

r r ∂f ∂f ∂f

D = εE , (5) (i ⋅ n ) + ( j ⋅ n) + (k ⋅ n ) +

' '

∂Vx ∂V y ∂Vz' . (10)

r r

B = µH , (6) + q + αV = 0

J = σE , (7)

depends on unknown functions. The purpose is to

determine the value of the function V in every point of

the domain, for which the functional J has a minimum circuit coupling and kinematic coupling, suitable for

value: static, harmonic and transient analysis.

It may be used to process different types of

( x, y , z ) → V ( x, y , z ) , ( x , y , z )∈ D ⊂ ℜ3 . (11) applications and regimes as: magneto static, steady AC

magnetic, transient magnetic, coupling with circuit

equations, magnetic, rotating motion, translating motion,

skew, electro static, steady AC electric, electric

conduction, electrolysis, steady thermal, transient

thermal, superconductivity, iron losses.

FEMM [9] is a suite of programs used for solving

low frequency electromagnetic problems on two-

dimensional planar and axisymmetric domains. The

program is capable of solving linear/nonlinear magneto-

static problems, linear/nonlinear time harmonic

magnetic problems, linear electrostatic problems and

steady-state heat flow problems. The magnetics

problems addressed are those in which the displacement

currents can be ignored.

Fig. 3. The domain (D) bounded by the surface Σ and the LMS Virtual.Lab [10] is an integrated software

surface S , included in the domain. suite used to simulate and optimize the performance of

mechanical systems for structural integrity, noise and

The mathematical equations of Euler and Lagrange vibration, system dynamics and durability. Using LMS

are [7]: Virtual.Lab simulation models can be built, real-life

performance may be simulated, the design may be

optimized before prototype construction. Any

∂f ∂ ⎛ ∂f ⎞ ∂ ⎛ ∂f ⎞

− ⎜ ' ⎟− ⎜ ' ⎟− modification on the geometry, parameters or mesh is

∂V ∂x ⎜⎝ ∂Vx ⎟⎠ ∂y ⎜⎝ ∂V y ⎟

⎠ ; propagated over the entire model.

(12) ANSYS Multiphysics [11] is a software product

∂ ⎛ ∂f ⎞

− ⎜⎜ ' ⎟⎟ = 0 which includes structural, thermal, fluid and both high-

∂z ⎝ ∂Vz ⎠ frequency and low-frequency electromagnetic analysis.

The software offers the possibility to simulate the

V = V ( x, y, z ) for ( x, y, z )∈Σ d ; (13) interaction between structural mechanics, heat transfer,

flow, electromagnetics into a single environment.

∂f ∂f ∂f IV. FLUX 2D SIMULATIONS

(i ⋅ n ) + ( j ⋅ n) + (k ⋅ n ) +

∂Vx' ∂V y' ∂Vz'

q + αV = 0 The motor tested using FLUX 2D is a 2 pole motor,

2.2 kW, 3000 rpm, at the frequency of 50 Hz. The motor

for ( x, y , z )∈ S . (14) has 24 stator slots and 22 rotor slots. The slip is 0.052

and the airgap is set to 0.3 mm. A steady state AC model

The finite element method is useful for the study of is defined. For reasons of simplicity, the geometry was

the field inside a finite domain, but it may be extended built for half of the motor. Boundary conditions are

for the study of the exterior of the domain also, for automatically created based on symmetry and

infinite dimensions. This procedure is based on: periodicity.

- extending the mesh beyond a certain boundary, The boundary conditions generated for the model are

at a large distance which is considered to be the shown in Fig. 4:

“infinity” boundary of the domain;

- extending the dimensions of the elements in

geometric progression;

- considering the vector potential function to be

zero or an admitted value in the peaks of the

“infinity” boundary elements.

using the finite element method used for electromagnetic

and thermal physics simulations, both in 2D and 3D.

This software offers a large number of functions, Fig. 4. The boundary conditions of the model.

including multi-parametric analysis, advanced electrical

The red areas represent Dirichlet boundary TABLE I

conditions, in which the value of potential V is explicitly Color shade for magnetic flux density for a phase angle of 0º

defined on the boundary, for example: V = 0 . Min. Value (T) Max. Value (T) Color

The most common use of Dirichlet boundary 99,691584 x 10-6 209,263339 x 10-3

conditions in magnetic problems is to define the 209,263339 x 10-3 418,42699 x 10-3

potential as zero along a boundary to keep magnetic flux 418,42699 x 10-3 627,590655 x 10-3

627,590655 x 10-3 836,754322 x 10-3

from crossing the boundary.

836,754322 x 10-3 1,045917

The green areas represent antiperiodic boundary

1,045917 1,255081

conditions, which join together two boundaries and the 1,255081 1,464245

boundary values are made to be of equal magnitude but 1,464245 1,673408

opposite sign. 1,673408 1,882572

The geometry for half of the model, meshed, is 1,882572 2,091736

presented in Fig. 5: 2,091736 2,300899

2,300899 2,510063

2,510063 2,719227

2,719227 2,92839

2,92839 3,137554

3,137554 3,346718

through the airgap is defined. An arc of 180 degrees

through the center of the airgap will be created, which

corresponds to an electric cycle. Fig. 7. Magnetic flux density for a phase angle of 0º.

Fig. 6 presents the flux lines distribution within the

modeled induction motor. Field lines provide a simple In the case of a healthy machine, the normal flux

way to depict the magnetic field, which can be estimated density along a circle placed in the middle of the airgap

at any point, using the direction and density of the field is equally distributed.

lines nearby. A higher density of nearby field lines If the presence of leakage inductances and

indicates a larger magnetic field. Field lines are also a resistances is considered, the voltage drop on these

good qualitative tool for visualizing the magnetic forces. elements influences the repartition of the flux. The

asymmetries in the stator current and in the flux

distribution will be lower.

The relative permeability for the stator, rotor, stator

slots, rotor slots is represented in Fig. 8 and the

corresponding values are presented in Table II:

phase angle of 0º, we can express the maximum and the

minimum values of the magnetic flux (T):

Fig. 8. Relative permeability in the model.

When the model is tested at steady-state mode, the f r = f1 ⋅ [ni ⋅ Z 2 ⋅ (1 − s )] ; (16)

flux distribution is almost symmetrical. There may be

some asymmetries due to the possible faults in the

⎡ n ⋅ Z ⋅ (1 − s ) 1 − s ⎤

motor. When the eccentricity occurs, the air gap field f r = f1 ⋅ ⎢ i 2 + ⎥; (17)

that consists of the fundamental component, stator and ⎣ p p ⎦

rotor mmf harmonics and stator and rotor slot

permeances, will have new harmonic components due to ⎡ n ⋅ Z ⋅ (1 − s ) 1 − s ⎤

the possible faults. f r = f1 ⋅ ⎢ i 2 + ⎥, (18)

⎣ p+2 p ⎦

TABLE II

Color shade for relative permeability of the model where f1 is the supply frequency; ni is an integer

Min. Value Max. Value Color

number, ni = 0,±1,±2,±3,... ; p is the number of pole

1 396,851836

396,851836 792,703735 pairs; s is the slip and Z 2 is the number of rotor slots.

792,703735 1,188555 x 103 In the case of static eccentricities, the position of

1,188555 x 103 1,584406 x 103 minimum airgap is fixed with regard to the stator.

1,584406 x 103 1,980259 x 103 In order to be able to observe the differences

1,980259 x 103 2,37611 x 103 between the model with no eccentricity and the model

2,37611 x 103 2,771962 x 103

with 15% eccentricity on radial direction, two plots will

2,771962 x 103 3,167814 x 103

be made and the resulted charts will be superimposed, as

3,167814 x 103 3,563666 x 103

in Fig. 9:

3,563666 x 103 3,959518 x 103

3,959518 x 103 4,355369 x 103

4,355369 x 103 4,751221 x 103

4,751221 x 103 5,147073 x 103

5,147073 x 103 5,542925 x 103

5,542925 x 103 5,938776 x 103

5,938776 x 103 6,334628 x 103

between the stator and the rotor is the cause for

eccentricity harmonics. Static eccentricity means that the

center of symmetry of the stator is not synchronized

with the center of symmetry of the rotor. The rotor has a

fixed position with respect to the center of symmetry of

the stator. For induction motors with static eccentricity, Fig. 9. The direction of flux density with 0 % eccentricity and

an unbalance of electromagnetic forces which act upon 15 % eccentricity on radial direction.

the stator and the rotor is produced and a radial force

occurs, named unbalanced magnetic pull. Noise and It can be noticed that important peaks appear for the

vibration occur when the frequencies of the forces due to 15 % eccentricity curve corresponding to the area in

static eccentricity correspond to the natural frequency of which the width of the airgap has decreased.

the stator [12]. Fig. 3 shows the tangential components of the flux

Static eccentricity injects harmonics with particular density, where important peaks appear in the same area

frequencies into the air gap magnetic flux density in which the width of the airgap has decreased.

distribution. These frequencies depend on the number of

slots, the static and the dynamic degrees. Also rotating

flux waves induce currents with the same frequencies in

the stator.

Eccentricity has an important influence on the airgap

flux distribution and the fundamental stator currents are

greatly affected. The influence of eccentricity on the

stator currents depends on the position of the

eccentricity with regard to the stator windings.

The frequencies corresponding to the radial forces

produced due to the eccentricity between the stator and

the rotor are [13, 14]:

ni ⋅ Z 2 ⋅ (1 − s )

f r = f1 ⋅ ; (15) Fig. 10. Tangential components of flux density for 0 %

p+2

eccentricity and 15 % eccentricity with respect to X axis

V. CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES

The paper presents numerical methods of analysis of [1] J. Faiz, B. M. Ebrahimi, “Static Eccentricity Fault

three-phase induction motor, with cage rotor. A finite Diagnosis in an Accelerating No-Load Three-Phase

element method simulation of a 2 pole, 2.2 kW motor, Saturated Squirrel-Cage Induction Motor”, Progress in

Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 10, pp. 35 - 54, 2008.

with static eccentricity of up to 15% and the obtained

[2] A. Arkkio, O. Lindgren, “Unbalanced magnetic pull in a

results are presented. A comparison is made, between high-speed induction motor with an eccentric rotor”,

the direction of the flux density on radial direction with Proceedings of ICEM’94, pp. 53 - 58, Paris, France,

no eccentricity and with 15 % eccentricity. September 1994.

[3] A. Arkkio, “Unbalanced magnetic pull in cage induction

The simulation was carried out with the software motors with asymmetry in rotor structures”, IEEE

produced by CEDRAT, FLUX 2D/3D. The tested motor Conference Publication Proceedings of the 8th International

is a 2 pole motor, 2.2 kW, 3000 rpm, at the frequency of Conference on Electrical Machines and Drives, no. 444,

50 Hz. It has 24 stator slots and 22 rotor slots. The slip is pp. 36 - 40, Cambridge, United Kingdom, September

1997.

0.052 and the airgap is set to 0.3 mm. A steady state AC

[4] R. Belmans, A. Vandenput, W. Geysen, “Calculation of

model is defined. For reasons of simplicity, the the flux density and the unbalanced pull in two pole

geometry was built for half of the motor. Boundary induction machines”, Archiv für Elektrotechnik, vol. 70,

conditions are automatically created based on symmetry pp. 151 - 161, 1987.

and periodicity. [5] M., Kuczmann, A., Iványi, ”The Finite Element Method in

Magnetics”, Budapest, 2008.

The differences between no eccentricity and 15 % [6] J., Gieras, C., Wang, J., Cho Lai, ”Noise of Polyphase

eccentricity on radial direction may be observed from Electric Motors”, Taylor&Francis, 2006.

the presented charts. [7] A., Nicolaide, ”Masini electrice. Teorie. Proiectare”,

“Scrisul Romanesc” Publishing House, 1975.

[8] Cedrat FLUX 2D/3D Help, Tutorials, 2009.

The Finite Element Method is a powerful tool to [9] D., Meeker, “Finite Element Method magnetics”, Version

analyse machine behaviour and to serve as test-bench 4.2, User’s Manual, 2009.

with precisely known and controlled environment. There [10]www.lmsintl.com.

is though a drawback of this method, the extensive time [11]www.ansys.com.

required for machine modelling, simulation and data [12]P. Vijazrabhaven, R. Knshann,“Noise in Electric

manipulation. Machines”, Review, IEEE “Transactions on Industry

Application”, vol. 35, No. 5, pp. 1007 - 1013, 1999.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT [13]I. Peter, M., Ţaţa, ”The Noise of the Electrical Induction

Single-Phase Motors with Squirrel-Cage Rotor”, IEEE

Conference Proceedings of OPTIM’2006 International

This paper is supported by the Sectoral Operational Conference, Braşov, 2006.

Programme Human Resources Development POSDRU [14]Ghe., Scutaru, I., Peter, ”The Noise of the Electrical

ID6600 and by The National University Research Induction Motors with Squirrel-Cage Rotor”, “LUX

Council (CNCSIS) under the contract number 848/2009. LIBRIS” Publishing House, Braşov, 2004.

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