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ROLL NO: RN1714724

REGD: 22242/2016


Smt. Sabita Nayak

(Lecture in HISTORY)



SESSION 2016-2019


I am A. MAHESH PATRO hereby declare that the

project report titled “JAINISM IN ODISHA” Is done by
me and submitted to the RAMANARAYAN DEGREE
COLLEGE, DURA in partial fulfilment of the
requirements for the award of the degree of ARTS.

Place: Berhampur


Student Signature



This is certified that A. MAHESH PATRO 6thsemester

student, of +3 3rd year Arts in History.
On the project titled “JAINISM IN ODISHA” is a bonfire
Submitted to partial fulfilment of the requirement. For
the guidance & supervision during the period Two weeks
Department of Arts, on February 2019.
This has not previously submitted for the award of any
degree, or other similar title. This project is with submitting
for the Degree of Arts.


Signature of guide & supervising



Every study is a learn more. It is essentially a pursuit in

solitude. However, there cannot be any action yielding results
without help of others. There are many I thank in the
successful completion of this project.
First and foremost, I thank almighty God for his blessings in
the successful completion of this project.

I acknowledge my sincere and profound gratitude to our

Smt.Sabita Nayak Head of department of Arts,
RAMANARAYAN DEGREE COLLEGE and other teachers of
the department for the advice and inspiration given.
I am extremely grateful to my supervising teacher Smt.Sabita
Nayak department of Arts, RAMANARAYAN DEGREE
College for the valuable guidance; supervision and
encouragement with enabled me to complete this project.
I express my deepest sense of gratitude to, Lecture of
Smt.Sabita Nayak department of Arts, for his enormous help,
invaluable ideas and knowledge, advice, encouragement for
the successfully completion project.

I would like to express my great thanks to all the respondents

for their invaluable support in project work.
I convey my sincere thanks to my family and my friends for all
their helps, support and encouragement for this study.
This list is almost complete and I am grateful to all those who
have helped me directly and indirectly in my research work.

CHAPTER-1 Introduction of Jainism 6
CHAPTER-2 The Teaching of Jainism 7
Five Great Vows 9
1-Ahimsa(non-violence) 10
2-Satya(Truth) 10-11
3-Achaurya(Not stealing) 11
4-Brahmachrya 11
5-Aparigraha (non- 11-12
CHAPTER-3 Role Of Kharavela.
Carrier of king 14
Events of 13 years 14
CHAPTER-4 Jaina sites of Odisha 19
Udayagiri 20
Khandagiri 21



Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is one of the most
ancient religious traditions of the Indian subcontinent with its origin
rooted in prehistoric times. Although it is now reduced to a minority
religion in India and elsewhere, there was a time when it dominated
most parts of India and enjoyed patronage from some of the most
prominent rulers of ancient India. Chandragupta Maurya, the first
well known emperor of India, became a follower of Jainism in the last

phase of his reign and ended his life by fasting in the true tradition of
a Jain monk.

Although it yielded place to Brahmanism and Buddhism, it left an

indelible impression on the canvass of Indian religious life. There is
no exaggeration in saying that it was not Buddhism but Jainism
which lives in the core of Hinduism in the form of some vital concepts
and practices that are too difficult to ignore. According to Jain
beliefs, its doctrine is ancient and eternal. It is passed on to
humanity in each time cycle and becomes lost over a period of time. It
reappears again through the teachings of purified and enlightened
beings known as tirthankaras.

According to Jain tradition, the first to come upon earth in this time
cycle to reintroduce the ancient dharma was Rishabhanatha also
known as Adinatha, the first in the line of 24 thirthankaras who
were destined to manifest upon earth. Parshvanatha (877-777 BC)
and Vardhaman Mahavira were the two in the succession. Jainism
played a significant role in the religious tradition of India. Perhaps
there is no other tradition in the country that left its impression so
much as Jainism upon the religious way of life which we now
distinguish as the Sanatana Dharma or more popularly Hinduism.
Jainism stresses the spiritual independence and equality of all life
with a particular emphasis on non-violence, which is now an
essential component of Hindusim. Self-control (vrata) and vigorous
asceticism are the means by which Jains attain moksha or liberation
from the cycle of rebirth. It is in the rigors of the practice and the

degree of seriousness with which the ideals of asceticism are

followed where Jainism stands apart from both Hinduism and


Five Great Vows (Maha-vratas) of Jainism

1) Ahimsa or Ahinsa (Non-Violence)

2) Satya (Truth)
3) Asteya or Achaurya (Not stealing)
4) Brahmacharya (Celibacy)
5) Aparigraha (Non-possessiveness)

1. Ahimsa or Ahinsa. (Non-Violence):

Ahimsa or Non-Violence is the fundamental or cardinal principle of
Jainism. That’s why Jainism is considered to be the most peaceful
religion in this world. In Jainism, non-violence is the highest
religious duty.

This is the first major vow taken by the Jains that is to cause no
harm to any living being on this planet, whether it is a human being
or animal or plants or tiny microorganisms.

Furthermore, non-violence is not constrained to physical violence.

Jainism also emphasises non-violence also in speech and in thought.

It is believed that causing violence in any form to any living being

creates bad Karma which affects one’s rebirth, future well-being and
Jainism also emphasizes the fact that violence is not equivalent to
actual harm as it may be unintentional.

Violence is simply the intention to harm any individual or any living

being, the absence of compassion, unawareness, and the ignorance
that makes an action violent. If you don’t have violent thoughts, you
won’t do violence to anyone.

2. Satya (Truth):
This is the second vow of Jainism that says always speak the truth,
neither lie nor speak what is not true.
Speaking the truth all the time is not an easy task to do. One who is
free from anger, greed, fear, jealousy and ego can only utter truth in
every situation.

Jainism preaches truth should be wholesome and pleasant. It must

not hurt anybody feelings. Therefore one should remain silent if
truth causes pain, anger or death of any living being.

3. Asteya or Achaurya (Not stealing):

This is the third vow of Jainism. Asteya is the virtue of non-stealing
and not wanting to take by force or deceit or exploitation, by deeds or
words or thoughts, what is owned by and belongs to someone else.
It simply means one should covet things that belong to others. It says
that one should not steal anything from anybody. One should not
take something from somebody if it is not willingly given.

There are five transgressions (sins) of this vow which are mentioned
in the Jain text which are:
1. Prompting someone to steal – prompting someone to steal either
directly or through someone or approving of the theft is the first
2. Receiving stolen goods – receiving stolen goods from someone or
buying it other than the lawful and just means is the second sin.
3. Under buying in a disordered state – an attempt to buy very
precious things very cheaply in a disordered state is the third sin.
4. Using false weights and measures – cheating other people by using
false weights and measures to get more profit is the fourth sin.
5. Deceiving other with artificial or imitation goods – selling artificial
or imitation goods to someone without telling them with the
purpose of cheating them and earning more profit is the fifth sin.

4. Brahmacharya (Celibacy / Chastity):

This is the fourth vow of Jainism. Brahmacharya is the virtue of
celibacy when unmarried and fidelity (not cheating on one’s spouse)
when married.
Celibacy is the total abstinence of sensual pleasures and pleasure of
all five senses. It should be strictly practised by the Jain monks in
thought, words and actions.
For householder, brahmacharya simply means fidelity i.e. one should
remain sexually faithful to one’s chosen partner.
Also, lay Jains who are unmarried, they should avoid sex before
marriage. Jainism strictly prohibits adultery that is one should not
have any physical relationship other than with their spouse

5. Aparigraha (Non-possessiveness):

This is the fifth vow of Jainism. After Ahimsa, it is the second most
important principle of Jainism. Aparigraha is the virtue of non-
possessiveness, non-grasping or non-greediness.
It simply means taking only what is necessary for survival and no
more. This Jain vow is the principle of limiting one’s possessions
(parimita-parigraha) and limiting one’s desires (iccha-parimana).
It must be strictly observed by the monks and partially by the
householders. Monks in Jainism must observe this by giving up all
attachments to things such as:

1. Relationships – with their father, mother, spouse, children,

brother, sister, relatives, friends etc.
2. Material things – wealth, power, property etc.
3. The pleasure of five senses – touch, taste, smell, sight, and
4. Feelings
According to Jainism, one should not be possessive or attached to
things or people. One should eat for survival and not for taste.

For householders, one should have only that much amount of wealth
which is necessary for their survival and not for showing off or
satisfying ego. Also, one should perform its duties towards people but
should not be attached to them.
Desires and attachments are the root cause of all the suffering in this
world. It makes a person greedy, jealous, egoistic, selfish and angry.
A person who is full of desires would never feel contentment and
satisfaction in life.


Aira Maharaja Mahameghavahana Kharavela was one of the
greatest kings of ancient India.

He was the first great historical monarch of ancient Kalinga who

belonged to the soil, and styled himself as Chetaraja-Vamsa
Vardhana, and Kalingadhipati.

His personality is known from the Hatigumpha Inscription. It

says that he possessed many auspicious signs on his body, was
gifted with many qualities, and was handsome in appearance
having brown complexion. For first fifteen years of his life, he
played the usual childhood games meant for the royal princes to
train them for their future role.

The education of Kharavela, as known from the Hatigumpha

Inscription, throws much light on the princely education of ancient
India. A future king was obliged to pass in his early life through a
system of education and learning, necessary for a royal career.
Similar subjects -of education have some other ancient works like
Kautilya’s Arthashastra.

As the King:

As the King of Kalinga, Kharavela immediately turned his attention
to the fortification of his capital city of Kalinganagari. The capital
which was earlier damaged by a severe storm required repair and
reconstruction. Kharavela, thus, in the very first year after
coronation, repaired the gates, ramparts, and the structures of the
fort of Kalinganagari. He also improved the conditions of the tanks
and gardens for the beautification of the city. The cost of construction
of such works has been stated in the Hatigumpha Inscription as
thirty five hundred thousand. The King pleased his subjects by his
works of public welfare.

His Career as a Prince:

After giving a description of his early life up to the 24th year, the
Hatigumpha inscription records the events of his 13 years’ reign

Renovation of his capital (First year)

In his first regnal year, he involved himself in the renovation work by

repairing the gates and buildings of his capital Kalinganagara, which
had been destroyed by a furious cyclone.

These repairs and some other public works in the same year cost him
thirty-five lakhs of coins from the royal exchequer. This fact has been
amply corroborated with the excavation at Sisupalgarh that brings
out the remnants of defensive ramparts gateways, high rowers etc.

Expedition against Satavahana king (Second year)

Kharavela possessed a large army, consisting of infantry, cavalry,

elephant force and chariots. Having made adequate preparation, he
undertook expedition against the powerful Satavahan king,
Satakarni-I in the second year of his rule.

Satakarni-I was ruling over a vast empire, comprising northern part

of modern Maharashtra, western part of modern Madhya Pradesh
and Andhra region. Kharavela’s army advanced up to the Krishna

River and besieged the city of Rishikanagara which was obviously
situated within the Satavahana territory.

Entertainment of his subjects (Third year)

After the southern campaign, Kharavela provided entertainment to

his subjects in the third year. Kalinganagari, the capital of
Kharavela was overwhelmed with joy and jubilation in his third
regnal year. Kharavela was proficient in all Arts of music and dance.
He organised various performances where dance and music, both
vocal and instrumental, took place. He also arranged ceremonials
and social gatherings in which feast and merrymaking etc. for the
entertainment of his subjects.

Southern campaign (Fourth year)

In the fourth regnal year, the war-drum of Kalinga was heard again.
Kharavela mobilised his army and marched towards the Deccan
again. The territory of the Rathikas and Bhojakas lying respectively
to the south and north of Nasik region were conquered.

Extension of canal from the Tansulia to Kalinganagari (Fifth year)

The role of Kharavela as a benevolent king is reflected in the fifth

year of his reign. In this year, Kharavela extended the canal from the
Tansulia road up to Kalinganagari. This canal was excavated 300 or
103 years before by king Nanda (a Nanda king) for the purpose of

Remittance of taxes (Sixth year)

In the sixth year of his reign, Kharavela did not undertake any war
campaign rather he devoted himself to the welfare activities of his
subjects. He remitted taxes and benevolences both in urban and rural
area of his kingdom. This clearly shows that the treasury of
Kharavela was overflowed with wealth. As a benevolent ruler, he
took up this task of remitting taxes to his beloved subjects to win
their hearts.

Attainment of fatherhood (seventh year)

In the seventh year of his rule, Kharavela attained fatherhood. His

chief queen known by the name ‘the queen of Vajiraghara’ gave birth
to a son.

Expedition to the north (Eighth year)

In the eighth year of his reign, Kharavela led an expedition to the

north and attacked the city of Rajagriha and devastated Gorathagiri
which was situated on the Barbara hill of the Gaya district. His
triumph at Rajagriha created terror among the yavanas who were
then in occupation of Mathura. After their success in that region,
they had a plan to attack Magadha, Hearing the exploits of
Kharavela, the yavana king fled away from Mathura. The yavana
ruler, whose name is read doubtfully as ‘Dimita’ or ‘Dimata’ might be
Demitrius or Minandar as opined by several scholars. He had
collected large booty from that war campaign of north.

Establishment of Victory of Palace (Ninth year)

In the ninth year of his rule, he built the ‘Great Victory

Palace(Mahavijaya Prasadam) by spending 38 lakhs of coins in order
to commemorate his victory in the northern campaign. He had also
distributed the wealth gained from exploits among the Brahmins and
Arhats of his empire.

Northern Indian campaign (Tenth year)

In the tenth year, Kharavela, who was the embodiment of the
principles of politics, diplomacy and peace directed the army towards
North India for conquest but the result was obscure.

Expedition against southern confederacy (Eleventh year)

In the eleventh year, he defeated a confederacy of southern powers.

The confederacy of the southern powers consisted of Cholas, Pandyas,
Satpuriyas, keralaputras and Tamraparnis. He secured large amount
of jewels, pearls and precious stones as a symbol of allegiance.

Campaign against Bruhaspati Mitra(Twelfth year)

i. In the twelfth regnal year, Kharavela led campaign against

Bruhaspati Mitra, the Sunga ruler of Magadha with a vast
army. He inflicted a crushing defeat on the Magadhan king and
also on the ruler of Anga. The people of Magadha and Anga
bowed to Kharavela in awe and respect. By defeating
Bruhaspati Mitra, he secured the Kalinga Jina (the venerated
image of Kalinga ) as trophy of his victory which was taken 300
or 103 years before by a Nanda king most probably

ii. He also brought a vast treasure of wealth from Anga and

Magadha. Really Kharavela avenged the defeat of the
Kalingans at the hand of the Nanda King who had taken away
the Jina image from Kalinga. The scene of Bahasatimita’s
surrendering at the feet of Kharavela is found in the
Ranigumpha of Udayagiri.

iii. A scene from the Manchapuri cave shows the installation of

Kalinga Jina by Kharavela. After his victory over the
Magadhan king, Kharavela’s suzerainty was acknowledged by
the Naga king of Central India and the Pandya king of South
India. The Naga king sent to him jewels, elephants, horses and
deer as presents. The pandyan king also sent jewels to him as a
mark of loyality.

Construction of caves

I. In the thirteenth year of his reign, Kharavela probably gave up
military activities and turned his attention towards religious
pursuits. He built 117 (1700 ? not possible) caves at Kumari
Parvata (Udayagiri) for Jaina monks, monks of other religion,
sheers and Arhats.

II. This was his noble service rendered to the Jaina and other
monks. He revived the art and architecture of ancient Kalinga
(Mukhiya Kala) which was going to be extinguished.

III. In different caves of Udaygiri and Khandagiri the images of

Jaina Tirthankaras, trees, creepers, images of royal servants
were built by him in that year.


Jaina sites of Odisha
1. Udayagiri

2. Khandagiri

From Bhubaneswar, Udayagiri is the hill on the right and access to
its 18 caves is provided by a flight of steps. The largest and the most
beautiful, Cave 1, Rani Gumpha or Queen's Cave, off the pain path to
the right is double storeyed. Excavated on three sides of a quadrangle
with fine wall friezes and some recently restored pillars, not exactly
architectural marvel, but has some beautiful sculptures.

I. The main central wing, consisting of four cells, has themes

apparently indicating victory march of a king, starting from his
capital and returning back after passing through various lands.
At the angles, where the right and left wings meet, are two
small guard rooms which are lavishly decorated-springs
cascading down the hills, fruits laden trees, wild animals,
sporting elephants in lotus pools, etc.
The better preserved Upper Storey there are six cells, one each
in the left and right wings and four in the rear. All the four cells
of the main wing are provided with two doorways each, flanked
by two pilasters, from which springs a ornately carved torana
(arch) with auspicious Jain symbols (snake and lotus), and
friezes depicting scenes laid in wild surroundings story
reminiscent of Dushyanta's first meeting with Sakuntala, a
dance performance for the royal couple, etc.


Guarding the entrance to Cave 1, are two sentries in dhotis and
scarves and armed with swords. Between the two arches of the
doorways providing entrance to cell is a one line inscription calling
the cave that of Kusuna. Cave 2 is more spacious and its decorations
more elaborate. On the back wall of the cell are Brahmi inscriptions
in red pigment, of the first century BC to first century AD,
presumably scrawled by a monk in attempt to improve his

Farther ascending by the same flight of steps, the path goes to Cave
3, Ananta Gumpha or Snake Cave after the figures of twin serpents
on the door arches. It is one of the most important caves on the
Khandagiri hill on account of its unique motifs in some relief figures
of boys chasing animals including lions and bulls, geese with spread
wings holding in its bill the stalk of a lotus bud or a blue lotus, a
royal elephant flanked by a smaller one carrying lotus flower, a
female figure driving a chariot drawn by four horses and the
Lakshmi in a lotus pool being bathed with water from pitchers held
by two elephants.

On the back wall of the cell is carved a nandipada on a stepped

pedestal flanked on either side by a set of three symbols-a triangle
headed symbol, a srivatsa and a swastika, auspicious to the Jains.
Cave 7, Navamuni Gumpha, called so due to the figures of nine
(nava) tirthankars carved on the back and right walls and Cave
8, Barabhuji Gumpha, named so from two 12 armed (bara-bhuj)
figures of sasana-devis carved on the side walls of the verandah, both
also have relief of Hindu deities.

The last noteworthy Cave out of 15 Caves of Khandagiri, Cave 9, like

Cave 8 was also reconverted in medieval times. Ranged along the
three sides of the chamber is the relief of 24 robeless tirthankars.
Except for the three standing images of Rishabnath, the rest of
images exhibit some crude workmanship.

The 18th century, Jain Temple, at the top of the hill dedicated to
Rishabnath, was most probably built on the site of an earlier shrine.

The temple enshrines some old tirthankars and affords a panoramic
view across the plains. The site, every year, late in January, for a
week attracts holy men who assemble on the hillside to intone verses
from Hindu epics and meditate.



Jainism is probably the most peaceful religion that I know or heard

of. Before this project I didn’t even know what Jainism was. Now that
I know about it I realize the people of Jainism are very nice people. It
has changed my view on religions as a whole. It’s opened my eyes so
much to see where people in different parts of the world see. I would
like to meet a Jainism monk and get to know someone of Jainism

Hindus, Buddhists, and Jains in India were in the midst of redefining

what it meant to belong to their communities by the end of the 19th
century. This occurred within the confines set by the English
language, and European ideas of religion, history, societies, and
nations. It is argued that the new role of religion that emerged in the
19th century had major implications for political life in the 20th
century in South Asia. They also laid the foundation for different
types of religious nationalism and communalism in South Asia.