© All Rights Reserved

0 views

Current transformer.docx

© All Rights Reserved

- Power Transformer Water in Oil Analysis Basic and Tutorials
- SIP-2008_09_Busbar_Differential_Protection_en
- Automatic Overload Protection System
- CT Requirement for Micoms
- IEEE Projects 2014 - 2015 Abstracts -Electrical 07
- ezct-10_-_web
- SA2008-000246 en Influence of Stray Flux on Protection Systems
- 2013 Product Presentation - Slideshow Rev 7
- Insulation Monitor DAP IM 230V
- Crompton_Integra_Ci3_
- ngr spec
- B65-TEIL01-e-2007.10.30
- 220 KV Switchyard Equipments
- Maintenance of CT&PT
- Protection Basics Jan-2012
- TR_1_10E
- abb-dtr current transformers en 11-01a.pdf
- 2010IASCoordination
- TRANSFORMER testing manual final.pdf
- Acti 9 Iem3000_metsect5da040

You are on page 1of 10

high primary current Ip to a k-times lower secondary current Is that can be connected

to standard measuring or protection devices. The primary and secondary windings are

galvanically separated and can be on a different potential level. The transformation ratio

k of a current transformer is the number of secondary turns Ns to the number of primary

turns Np and is equal to the primary current Ip over the secondary current Is.

Contents

[hide]

o 3.4 Ratio k

o 3.6 Accuracy

According IEC

At the moment TC38 of the IEC is busy converting all the instrument transformers from

the 60044-family to the new 61869 family with a general part and specific parts.

Instrument transformers - Part 1: Current

transformers

Combined transformers

IEC 60044-6 Edition 1.0 (1992-03) TC/SC 38 Instrument transformers - Part 6:

Requirements for protective current

Electronic current transformers

IEC 61869-1 Edition 1.0 (2007-10) TC/SC 38 Instrument transformers - Part 1:

General requirements

Other standard organisations

Canada CAN3-C13-M83: Instrument transformers

Australia AS 1675 Current transformers - Measurement and protection

British Standard BS3938 Specifications for Current Transformers (Withdrawn and

replaced by IEC 60044-1)

Functioning of a Current Transformer

Just like a normal voltage transformer, a CT has a primary winding, a secondary winding

and a magnetic core. In the window-type and bushing-type CT's, the primary winding is

reduced to one wire passing trough the round or square shaped core, accounting for 1

turn. The primary current Ip will produce a magnetic field with induction B round the

conductor. The magnetic induction B is amplified by the core material with very high

magnetic permeability µ and will produce a primary flux that will magnetise the core with

cross section A and induces a secondary voltage Vs in the secondary winding with N

turns.

At the same time, a N times smaller voltage, opposed to the primary current will be

induced in the primary wire creating a small extra resistance in the primary circuit. The

induced secondary voltage will drive the secondary current Is that will flow for the mayor

part trough the connected load Rb and for a small part (the error current) Ie trough the

internal resistance and induction. The internal resistance and induction represent the

part of the current that is used to magnetise the core (Inductive part) and to heat-up the

core material as iron-losses. Actually the magnetising current is taken from the primary

side but that will only make the calculation model more difficult and does not form any

additional value. The secondary current Is will also produce a secondary flux, opposite to

the primary flux. The resulting flux in the CT core is a very small magnetising flux so

that the core does not saturate at normal operation currents. The secondary current

Is will be N times smaller than the primary current Ip.

The error current Ie exists for the major part of a purely inductive part; the magnetising

current

Im that can be seen on the magnetising curve of the CT and a small resistive part Ig that

represent the iron losses. The magnetising current Im is proportional to the field strength

H

The Primary current Ip

According to IEC 60044-1, the primary current I_p is standadise of the decadic series 1 -

1,25 - 1,5 - 2 - 2,5 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7,5. When selecting a CT; the primary current of the

CT must be at least the maximum current of the line in which the CT will operate. When

the current is bigger than the rated primary current of the CT, the windings will

overheat, age faster and finally the insulation will fail. According ANSI, the primary

currents are fixed values; for single Ratio CT's Ip = 10; 15; 25; 40; 50; 75; 100; 200;

300; 400; 600; 800; 1200; 1500; 2000; 3000; 4000; 5000; 6000; 8000; 12000A.

According IEC the secondary current can be 0.5, 1 , 2 or 5A. According ANSI the

secondary current is allways 5A.

Dual or Multi-Ratio CT's

Dual ratio CT's exist in all standards but only according the ANSI standard, the ratio's

are standardised. Note the for multi ratio CT's, many primary currents are mentionned

and only one secondary current but in reality there is only one primary connection and 5

secondary terminals that allow 10 different ratings.

Ratio k

As already mentionned, the most important property of the current transformer is

the ratio k that is both the ratio of secundary turns to primary turns and the ratio of

primary current to secondary current. Note the often the primary is only one turn and

practically it's just the conductor passing trough the core. Since a small amount of

energy is necessary to magnetising the core and to produce heat as iron loss in the core,

the secondary output Ampere-turns is a bit less than the primary Ampere-turns. The

difference in current is the error current or magnetising current. In case of very critical

CT's, ratio-turn-correction is applied; remove some secondary turns so that the ratio is a

bit higher and the output is thus a bit higher at rated current. Of course this can only be

applied when the CT meets all accuracy requirements after ratio-turn correction.

RCT is often called the secondary DC resistance at 75°C. It's value depends on the length

en cross section of the secondary winding wire Pouillet's law. So RCTalso depends on the

core dimensions; bigger core cross section implies a longer wire length per turn. The

smaller RCT; the more the current transformer approaches the ideal current source.

Accuracy

Figure 4. The current vectors Ip and k.Is and the error current vector Ic

Figure 5. The current error of a measuring class CT; here class 0.5 and class 1 are represented

The accuracy of a CT is given by it's "class". The division into accuracy classes depends

on the type of CT; we mainly distinguish measuring class CT's and Protection class CT's

who are defined quite differently. We will discuss accuracy for both types further. Of

course they both have a primary current I_p, a secondary current I_s and a ratio k.

From these 3 parameters we can define some important property's related to accuracy.

The secondary current vector Is that is here represented k times larger to be able to

compare them and to have an idea of the error current. In case the error would be 0,

both vectors I_p and k.I_s would be identical.

The total error vector (composite error) can be seen as the composition of:

an amplitude error (ratio error), expressed in % and

an angle error, expressed in radians or seconds.

Note that for protection CT's, the angle error is disregarded and only the total composite

error is given in %. When examining the equivalent diagram, one would easily conclude

that the error current can only be the magnetising current of the CT. Indeed, normally

the magnetising current is very low but at the saturation point of the core, 50% increase

in magnetising current produces only 10% extra secondary voltage so at saturation the

error current rises quickly. Therefore, the property's accuracy and saturation of the core

are closely linked. Hense the error vector is allways a reducion in secondary output

current; negative error. Positive error is only possible by ratio-turn correction.

A Voltage transformer is unloaded when the secondary terminals are open; it behaves

like a normal voltage source. A current transformer is just the opposite and is unloaded

with the secondary terminals short-circuited. Stonger even, when the secondary

terminals of a CT are open, there is no secondary flux to oppose the primary flux and the

core goes to positive saturation on the positive current-sine and to negative saturation

on the negative current sine. The induced seconday voltage is proportional to - N.dφ

/ dt and from -Vsat to +Vsat is a huge voltage. One might also conclude that the current

transformen is raising the voltage in trying to drive the secondary current trough the

open terminals. The insulation of the CT is not calculated for this situation and it will

distroy the CT secondary winding and may cause fire at the terminals & high voltage

injury. The nominal load of a CT is the rated resistive burden RB; expressed in VA. The

correct resistance can be calculated with below formula

Example: A 50VA CT with rated secondary current of 5A is designed for a connected load

of 50VA/5² = 2 Ohm. Measuring transformers are tested at rated load and at 1/4 of the

rated load so this CT should be loaded within these limits to be sure the accuracy is

within specification.

Current transformers are used to measure high currents; higher than 5A. So the most

important parameter in defining a CT is indeed the Ratio that gives us the Magnetude of

primary current and the secondary current. But for the following specifications of the

current transformer, the purpose of the CT is needed since measuring CT's and

Protection CT's require different specifications. Indeed, there will be two mayor groups of

Current Transformers:

Measurement current transformers

Regarding specification, different standards have different ways in specifying CT's but it

all comes down to specifying core property's (saturation point or knee-point) and

secondary wire property's (RCT) although it may look a totally different.

Protection CT's

Protection CT's:

and their operating current range is above nominal current In or more specific from

In to ALF times In. It is important for the good functionning of the protection relays

that the CT's are NOT saturated at ALF times rated current. Where ALF is the ratio of

the expected maximum fault current over the rated current. It is thus important that

the core material has a high saturation induction.

their accuracy is not very high but most important is that the accuracy in fault

conditions is high enough. This can only be the case when the core is not saturated in

case of a fault current. Therefore their accuracy is best described with an Accuracy

Limit and an Accuracy Limit Factor (ALF).E.g. a 5P20 CT has an Accuracy limit of 5%

at 20 times rated current (Accuracy Limit Factor). The accuracy of this CT at rated

current is 1%.

They will be connected to one or more protection relays

according the application, they can be defined in a few ways:

The standard IEC protection class CT's are of class "P" that only takes the AC

behaviour into account in IEC 60044-1

Class PX CT's are defined by the position of the knee-point (saturation point or

knee-point voltage and magnetising current) and the secondary wire resistance

RCT.

Class PR CT's are defined like the PX CT's but they have a low remanence; less

than 10%. Note that remanence in CT's can be 60-80% that may cause quick

saturation in case of a fault-current DC offset in the remanent direction. A class

PX CT can't have that problem.

CT's for transient response class "TP" are defined by their connected load RB, time

constant TS and their overcurrent figure KSSC. These linearised CT's have air-gaps

in the core to obtain extreme high saturation voltage and current.

Ex. A 5P10 CT at 10 times rated current has a maximum error of 5% and only 1% at

nominal current. A 10P15 CT at 15 times rated current has a maximum error of 10% and

3% at nominal current.

Measurement CT's

Therefore, the core material must have a high permeability (µ-metal) so that the

magnetising current is low.

Measurement CT's are often being used for billing of electrical power consumption

and their accuracy is determinent for a lot of money.

For the protection of the measuring instruments in case of a fault current, it is

favorable that for currents far above rated current In, the core is saturated and the

output lowers so that the fault-current trough the meter is only a part of the

expected current trough the meter. This is expressed by the Instrument Security

Factor SF. Of course, the dilemma is that the CT must be accurate at In (and 1,2 x

In) but at f.i. 5 times rated current ( FS 5) the CT may be saturated for at least 10%.

The accuracy of a measurement CT is given by it's accuracy class that corresponds to

the error% at rated current and at 1.2 times rated current In. The standard accuracy

classes according IEC are class 0.2, 0.5, 1, 3 en 5. For classes 3 and 5, no angle

error is specified. The classes 0.2S and 0.5S have their accuracy shifted toward the

lower currents. This means that they have 5 measuring points instead of 4 (or 2 for

class 3 & 5).

The accuracy of the CT must be within these limits at the given currents and with

rated load and at 1/4 of the rated load. A measurement CT that is not loaded is

therefore not necessary accurate! Ratio turn correction may have been applied to get

the CT ratings witthin spec and then not loading gives a higher error.

Categories: Transformers | Protection

page

discussion

view source

history

Log in

navigation

Main Page

Calculations

Books

Links

Jobs

About

Contribute

Contact Us

search

Go Search

toolbox

Related changes

Special pages

Printable version

Permanent link

Disclaimers

- Power Transformer Water in Oil Analysis Basic and TutorialsUploaded bySellappan Muthusamy
- SIP-2008_09_Busbar_Differential_Protection_enUploaded byVase Jovevski
- Automatic Overload Protection SystemUploaded byRaHuL R
- CT Requirement for MicomsUploaded byjaved shaikh chaand
- ezct-10_-_webUploaded byjorgemichela
- IEEE Projects 2014 - 2015 Abstracts -Electrical 07Uploaded byFinal Year Projects 2014
- SA2008-000246 en Influence of Stray Flux on Protection SystemsUploaded byhydrazine4
- 2013 Product Presentation - Slideshow Rev 7Uploaded byparu0509
- Insulation Monitor DAP IM 230VUploaded byDerargh
- Crompton_Integra_Ci3_Uploaded byAmit Bhatia
- ngr specUploaded byi_m_pranay
- B65-TEIL01-e-2007.10.30Uploaded bybeckam88
- 220 KV Switchyard EquipmentsUploaded byRaj Kumar Prajapati
- Maintenance of CT&PTUploaded byajaynmenon
- Protection Basics Jan-2012Uploaded byEli Siyaha
- TR_1_10EUploaded byCh. Ali Ghafoor
- abb-dtr current transformers en 11-01a.pdfUploaded bykhai
- 2010IASCoordinationUploaded byabboali9924
- TRANSFORMER testing manual final.pdfUploaded byMukund Chaudhary
- Acti 9 Iem3000_metsect5da040Uploaded byPaun Al
- Hybrid SwitchgearUploaded bybinode
- Measurming &I Lab ManualUploaded bySh RixXwan
- Inst_Trx_TRENCH.pdfUploaded byBruce Cox
- Ct AccuracyUploaded byAnonymous NGXdt2Bx
- PCIC-2005-32CUploaded byAns Mehmood
- Assignment 1 Sem Dec 08Uploaded byChiang Yaw
- MKP.P1.3BC.B3A-MMD-SST-001-XX-DR-EE-5000 Mark-up.pdfUploaded byBaskaran Gangatharan
- 3BC.B3AMKP.P1.3BC.B3A-MMD-SST-001-XX-DR-EE-5000 Mark-up.pdfUploaded byBaskaran Gangatharan
- Electrical Power engineeringUploaded byFawad Hassan
- UntitledUploaded byPiyush Bansal

- Gearshift Mechanism Nonlinear Torque ControlUploaded bymail2priyanshu8428
- Chapter 1 Atomic StructureUploaded bydanielmahsa
- A New Look at the Chemical Bonding InUploaded byChandra Reddy
- Keep 507Uploaded byrajatgupt
- Laser GyroscopeUploaded byanandintel
- Electrical Engineering Prelab GuidelinesUploaded byLoren Baldwin
- Chp 07 PrecipitasiUploaded byNurul Husna
- Summarised Yearly Teaching Plan F4Uploaded byFatimahHishamuddin
- Chapter 09Uploaded byvschein333
- Listening SectionUploaded bysilvia
- Photosynthesis A2Uploaded byAysha Mohideen
- Sheet 1 (1).docxUploaded byAnonymous 1ov0Gtcd
- bim geom ch 3 testUploaded byapi-347025977
- article 1Coordinated control of AFS and DYC for vehicle handling and stability based on optimal guaranteed cost theoryUploaded byPsyBaba
- Cinder concrete1.pdfUploaded bykilmaster
- 01495738308942166Uploaded bysijyvinod
- 72429308 Armature WindingUploaded byFarid Afifi
- Excellent Review on Lum MaterialsUploaded byShreyas Pitale
- Ch17 Young Freedman1Uploaded byAndrew Merrill
- Introduction to Cosmology Matt Roots - IndexUploaded byTiago Marques
- ResEngCh10.pdfUploaded byweldsv
- JournalNX- Measuring Floe ResistivityUploaded byJournalNX - a Multidisciplinary Peer Reviewed Journal
- Gas Pipeline Blowdown TimeUploaded byTruong Minh Hoang
- equilibrium.pdfUploaded byPatricia
- Locking System-FULL REPORTUploaded byMurali Vannappan
- Atomic StructureUploaded byKunalKaushik
- Physics Question bankUploaded byRoberto De La Paz
- ET Lab ManualUploaded byjith16
- Forging and ForgeabilityUploaded byjestin
- Angry Birds Physics LabUploaded byEmilie M. Sharkey