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ich weiss das nicht auch!!!

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You are on page 1of 6

del Alamo

In this project, you will characterize the current-voltage characteristics of an npn bipo

lar junction transistor (BJT). To do this, you will use our online microelectronics device

characterization laboratory. Refer to the User Manual for instructions on how to use the

system.

is available on line. This exercise involves three separate phases: (i) measurement and

graphing, (ii) model parameter extraction, and (iii) comparison of model with measure

ments. Take the measurements speciﬁed below. When you are happy with the results (as

judged by the characteristics displayed through the web), download the data to your local

machine for more graphing and further analysis. You will ﬁnd useful to study the contents

of Appendix A which describes the ideal model for the I-V characteristics of an npn BJT.

Important note: For all measurements, hold VBE (or VBC ) between 0 and 0.9 V , and VCE

between 0 and ±4 V .

1. (10 points) Measure and download the common-emitter output characteristics of the

BJT. This is a plot of IC (linear scale) vs. VCE (linear scale) with IB as parameter

for positive VCE . Do this for 0 ≤ IB ≤ 100 µA and 0 ≤ VCE ≤ 4 V . In your local

machine and using your favorite software tool, graph the output characteristics. Turn

in a printout of this graph (graph 1).

2. (10 points) Measure and download the common-emitter transfer characteristics of the

BJT in the forward active regime (also known as Gummel plot). This is a semilog plot

of IC and IB (logarithmic scale) vs. VBE (linear scale). Do this for VCE = 2.5 V . In

your local machine graph the Gummel plot. Turn in a printout of this graph (graph

2). In a separate plot, graph the current gain of the bipolar transistor vs. IC . This

is a semilog plot of βF = IC /IB (linear scale) vs. IC (logarithmic scale). The lower

end of the IC scale should be IC = 10−7 A. Turn in a printout of this graph (graph

3).

Cite as: Jesús del Alamo, course materials for 6.720J Integrated Microelectronic Devices, Spring 2007.

MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

1

3. (10 points) Measure and download the reverse common-emitter output characteristics

of the BJT. This is a plot of IC (linear scale) vs. VCE (linear scale) with IB as

parameter for negative VCE . Do this for 0 ≤ IB ≤ 100 µA and 0 ≥ VCE ≥ −4 V .

In your local machine graph the reverse output characteristics. Turn in a printout of

this graph (graph 4).

4. (10 points) Measure and download the reverse common-emitter transfer characteris

tics of the BJT (also known as reverse Gummel plot). This is a plot of IE and IB

(logarithmic scale) vs. VBC (linear scale). Do this for VEC = 2.5 V . In your local

machine graph the reverse Gummel plot. Turn in a printout of this graph (graph

5). In a separate plot, graph the reverse current gain of the bipolar transistor vs. IE .

This is a semilog plot of βR = IE /IB (linear scale) vs. IE (logarithmic scale). Turn

in a printout of this graph (graph 6).

5. (15 points) From the forward and reverse Gummel plots, extract VBEon and VBCon ,

respectively. Deﬁne these voltages as the values of VBE and VBC that yield IB =

10 µA. Derive VCEsat = VBEon − VBCon .

6. (15 points) From the forward and reverse Gummel plots, extract the model parameters

IS , βF and βR . Refer to Appendix A for the deﬁnitions and roles of these parameters.

7. (20 points) Using the model parameter set just derived, play back the characteristics

of the BJT and compare them with the measurement data. As model, use equations

1-3 in Appendix A. Construct the following graphs that include both measurements

and model calculations. Use individual dots for the data points and continuous lines

for model calculations.

graph 8: Gummel plot in forward regime. Print this graph.

graph 9: Common-emitter output characteristics in reverse regime. Print this graph.

graph 10: Gummel plot in reverse regime. Print this graph.

8. (5 points) The model can by reﬁned by accounting for the ﬁnite output conductance

of the device. From the forward output characteristics, extract the Early voltage VA .

Refer to Appendix A for the deﬁnition and role of this parameter.

forward regime using the model set that incorporates VA (Equations 4-6 in Appendix

A). Turn in this graph (graph 11).

• This project might take a substantial amount of time. You should start early.

Cite as: Jesús del Alamo, course materials for 6.720J Integrated Microelectronic Devices, Spring 2007.

MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

2

• The model parameter determination should not demand extensive numerical analysis.

There is no need to do regressions or least-squares ﬁts.

• The required graphs need not be too fancy, just simply correct. They must have

proper tickmarks, axis labeling and correct units. If there are several lines, each one

should be properly identiﬁed (handwriting is OK).

• If you encounter problems with the lab, please e-mail the TA, the instructor, or the

lab system manager. Use the ”Report a Bug” tab in the iLab website to report

problems.

• You have to exercise care with these devices. Please do not apply a higher voltage

than suggested. The BJTs are real and they can be damaged. If the characteristics

look funny let us know.

• It will be to your advantage to make good use of the Set-up management functions

that are built into the tool under the File menu (see manual).

• For research purposes, the system keeps a record of all logins and all scripts that each

user executes and all the data that the user obtains.

In carrying out this exercise (as in all exercises in this class), you may collaborate with

somebody else that is taking the subject. In fact, collaboration is encouraged. However,

this is not a group project to be divided among several participants. Every individual

must have carried out the entire exercise, that means, using the web tool, graphing the

data oﬀ line, and extracting suitable parameters. Everyone of these items contains a

substantial educational experience that every individual must be exposed to. If you have

questions regarding this policy, please ask the instructor. Prominently shown in your

solutions should be the name of the person(s) you have collaborated with in this homework.

Cite as: Jesús del Alamo, course materials for 6.720J Integrated Microelectronic Devices, Spring 2007.

MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

The conventions for terminal naming, voltage and current notations, and the various regimes

of operation for an npn BJT are all shown below:

collector

VBE

IC

- +

VBC forward� saturation

active

IB +

base

VCE

+ VBC

VBE

- - cut-off reverse

IE

emitter

The ideal I-V characteristics of an npn BJT are given by the following set of equations:

IC = IS (exp − exp )− (exp − 1) (1)

kT kT βR kT

IS qVBE IS qVBC

IB = (exp − 1) + (exp − 1) (2)

βF kT βR kT

IS qVBE qVBE qVBC

IE = − (exp − 1) − IS (exp − exp ) (3)

βF kT kT kT

In the forward active regime (VBE > 0, VBC < 0), these equations simplify to:

qVBE

IC � IS exp

kT

IS qVBE

IB � (exp − 1)

βF kT

qVBE IS qVBE

IE � −IS exp − (exp − 1)

kT βF kT

Cite as: Jesús del Alamo, course materials for 6.720J Integrated Microelectronic Devices, Spring 2007.

MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

4

In the reverse regime (VBE < 0, VBC > 0), the equations simplify to:

qVBC IS qVBC

IC � −IS exp − (exp − 1)

kT βR kT

IS qVBC

IB � (exp − 1)

βR kT

qVBC

IE � IS exp

kT

The common-emitter output characteristics of an ideal npn BJT look as in the ﬁgure below:

IC

IB

IB=0

0

0 VCE

VCEsat

The common-emitter transfer characteristics (Gummel plot) of an ideal npn BJT look as in

the ﬁgure below:

log IC, IB

VBC<0 IC

IB

60 mV/dec �

at 300 K

IS

IS

βF

0 VBE

MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

A more reﬁned model includes the ﬁnite output conductance of the device (Early eﬀect)

through a new parameter called the Early voltage, VA . In the forward active regime, the

equation set becomes:

VBC qVBE

IC � IS (1 − ) exp

VA kT

IS qVBE

IB � (exp − 1)

βF kT

VBC qVBE IS qVBE

IE � −IS (1 − ) exp − (exp − 1)

VA kT βF kT

One way of estimating the Early voltage is as indicated in the ﬁgure below:

IC

IB

IB=0

-VA 0 VCE

The complete set of equations of the BJT including the Early eﬀect becomes:

IC = IS (1 − )(exp − exp )− (exp − 1) (4)

VA kT kT βR kT

IS qVBE IS qVBC

IB = (exp − 1) + (exp − 1) (5)

βF kT βR kT

IS qVBE VBC qVBE qVBC

IE = − (exp − 1) − IS (1 − )(exp − exp ) (6)

βF kT VA kT kT

Cite as: Jesús del Alamo, course materials for 6.720J Integrated Microelectronic Devices, Spring 2007.

MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

6

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