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Review of literature on training and development includes the history, development and effectiveness
of employee training and development practices. This chapter also includes models of training and
development, methods of needs assessment for training and development programs for employers and
employees, managerial techniques that contribute to improve productivity and morale. The main trust
of this chapter is on the employee training and development in the IT industry. The focus naturally is on
employee training and development to improve the individual abilities and skills. This review will give
idea for implementation of employee training and development practices in IT. Based on these aspects,
the researcher has tried to focus on the training and development programs and the practices in the IT
industry. This chapter will help in formulating solutions to employee training and development in IT that
can be applied to IT industries.

History of Training programs

The apprenticeship system emerged in ancient cultures to provide a structured approach to the training
of unskilled workers by master craftsmen. With the onset of the Industrial Age, the training of the
unskilled underwent a dramatic transformation in which vocational education and training emerged to
replace the traditional apprentice system. The division of labor in an industrial factory resulted in
specific training in a much shorter time span. As training activities grew more methodical and focused,
the first recognizable modern training methods began to develop during the 19th and early 20th
centuries: gaming simulations became an important tool in the Prussian military during the early 1800s
and psychodrama and role playing were developed by Dr. J.L. Moreno of Vienna, Australia, in 1910.

The early 20th century witnessed the emergence of training and development as a profession, resulting
in the creation of training associations and societies, the advent of the assembly line requires greater
specificity in training and the dramatic training requirements of the world wars.

The enormous production needs of the World War I and II created a heavy influx of new workers with
little or no industrial education or skills to the workplace, thereby necessitating massive training efforts
that were at once fast and effective. In particular, the heavy demand for shipping construction during
the World War I resulted in a tenfold increase in workers trained on-site by instructors who were
supervisors using a simple four- step methods: show, tell, do, check. During World War II, large numbers
if trained industrial workers left their jobs to enter the armed forces, severely limiting the organizational
support normally provided by coworkers in training their replacements. Heavy demand was placed on
foremen and supervisors and the training within industry services was formed to train supervisors on

Job instruction training was employed to train defense- plant supervisors in instructing new employees
in necessary job skills as quickly as possible. Other programs included job relations training, job methods
training and job safety training. During this time, the American Society for Training and Development
was formed.
By the end of World War II most companies and organizations realized the importance of training and
development as a fundamental organizational tool. Training program that originally were developed in
response to national crises had become established corporate activities with long-term strategies
working toward improving employee performance. In the mid 1950s gaming simulations gained
popularity. Trainers began giving serious consideration to the efficacy of their training programs and
interest in the evaluation of training programs grew.

The 1960s witnessed an explosion of training methods as the number of corporations using assessment
centers increased from one to 100 by the end of the decade. Government programs to train young men
for industrial jobs, such as the job development program 1965 and the job corps, were initiated to
improve the conditions of the economically disadvantaged. New methods included training laboratories,
sensitivity training, programmed instruction, performance appraisal and evaluation, needs assessments,
management training, and organizational development.

By the 1970 a new sense of professionalism emerged in the training community. Training programs grew
dramatically and the ASTD produced the Professional Development Manual for Trainers. Government
programs were aimed increasingly at minorities as a group and required corporations to increase their
efforts to recruit minorities. With the rise of organizational development, the focus of training shifted
away from the individual and toward the organization as a whole. Technological advances in training
programs included the use of videotapes, satellite and computers.

The 1980s and early 1990s saw important social, economic and political changes that have had a
profound effect on the way corporation do business, resulting in an ever increasing need for effective
training. In a time of economic constraints coupled with increasing international competition, training
and development programs needed to respond more quickly and effectively to technological change.
Increasing governmental regulations also require a greater breathe of training programs to reflect the
greater diversity of employees.

Furthermore, computers became an integral part of business and industry in the 1980s and 1990s,
making knowledge of computer use essential for many workers. As a consequence, companies launched
computer training and development programs to ensure that their employees possessed the needed
computer skills. In addition, companies used computers as a training method known as computer-based
training, relying on specially designed computer programs to impart knowledge and skills needed for a
host of tasks.

Importance of Training

An organization which aspires to grow must be in tune with the changing needs of the society. Training
is an organized activity for increasing the knowledge and skills of people for a definite purpose. It
involves systematic procedures for transferring technical know-how to the employees so as to increase
their knowledge and skills or doing specific jobs with proficiency. In training, the trainees acquire
technical knowledge, skills and problem solving ability by undergoing the training programme.
Through training an individual can gain the competencies that help to cope with day-to-day problems of
living and manage interpersonal relations, improving their interpersonal effectiveness. Training imparts
the ability to defect and correct error. Furthermore, it provides skills and abilities that may be called on
in the future to satisfy the organizations human resources needs. Training is a means of reducing
obsolescence among the employees and to keep pace with the technological and social changes which
are rapidly taking place. In order to build up a strong, efficient, effective, motivated and dedicated
managerial cadre, continuing management training is required.

Training enriches knowledge, skill and ability of the employees. It contributes in keeping people dynamic
and provides an opportunity to the employees to develop the better understanding of what they do
apart from enriching their capability individually. Training as a developmental activity induces every
employee to act physically and mentally. It is one of the best tools to motivate and change the behavior
of the employees.

Need for Training

As the knowledge, skill and attitude of the work force has a direct bearing on the quality of the output,
training occupies a pivotal position in the organizational context. None is perfect at the time of
recruitment. Some sort of training and development is required for better fit of the employees into the
job and organization. In addition to it the employees who are assigned new roles need the imparting of
the required knowledge and skill to perform the new tasks effectively and efficiently.

When employees are recruited, they lack practical skills though they possess enough theoretical
knowledge. There is a n urgent need to reorient the methods of T&D so that the employees become
performance-oriented and not merely bookish-knowledge-oriented.

Training and development needs = Standard Performance – Actual performance

Training as Strategy

In a hectic workplace environment, employees face numerous challenges like new technology, global
competition, the responsibilities of home and a career, burnout and depression are becoming common.
In such situation it is quite natural employees desire to work for caring employees desire to work for
caring employers who are looking out for their interests as well as those o the company. By investing in
employee training shows how much the company values those employees.

The purpose of human resource training in the work situation is to develop the abilities of the individual
and satisfy the current and future human resource needs of the organization. Training employees
creates a more positive corporate culture by adding value to its key resources. By continuous support
and development employees can face the challenges easily, and also it creates a more competent
workforce, increased productivity, profits and employee loyalty.

Training and Development in IT Industry

The need to continuously keep abreast of changes in technology and have a workforce with marketable
skills has made training a key focus area in the IT industry. In reality however, training levels in the
industry were perhaps lower than desirable due to the pressure of meeting deadlines and the
tremendous stresses attached with high growth. Most companies had induction training and had
periodic skill up graduation training which was entirely linked to projects. A structured approach to
training was undertaken by very few companies. The focus of training was on technical training.
Technical training was typically focused on product training or application areas. Over the years training
on languages has diminished since most employees had the requisite knowledge or often picked up on
their own. Quality process training is another important area that may companies have focused on.

Behavioral training has gained in importance in the last three years as companies recognized its
importance. Team building programs and inter personal skills training were the major areas.
Communication and culture sensitivity training were also emphasized especially or staff required to
spend time on site.

Technical training was generally conducted by in house trainers and was generally not in the purview of
the HR function. Getting internal managers to spend time in training is a major issue for several
companies and is often considered as a factor in individual evaluation. Behavioral training was however
largely outsourced.

Training schools to develop an internal cadre of professional is a major activity undertaken by most of
the major companies. His has enabled them to develop training resources besides developing captive
manpower sources.

The information technology sector is by now recognized as the sunrise industry worldwide and is
generally growing at a rate around 25-30 per cent every year. A growth rate of this dimension needs a
very robust and flexible support in the learning and development function so as to lead.

Training and development Function in IT Industry should meet the Objectives

Scalability: The training process should be able to meet the accelerating growth of an organization. So
organizations continuously maintain the necessary talent pool to seize opportunities for expansion and

Reusability: The human resources should be dynamically updated and converted for reuse and
customization where necessary, as it takes enormous time to create learning assets.

Multi- Modal Requirements: The learning and development function happens at three levels in IT sector
i.e., technical, functional and behavioral dimensions. Apart from this at the middle and senior levels
learning process cater to leadership development and succession planning.

Virtual Modes: Organizations in the IT sector operate across geographic and time zones. Therefore, a
major part of learning and development needs to be delivered in the virtual mode.

Types of Training
Technical Training: Technical training at the basic level equips the associates to meet the immediate
project or client requirements. This training generally has a high rate of obsolescence and thus needs
continuous enhancements. It addresses basic technical knowledge followed by domain knowledge and
thereafter, migrates to the basic tenets of project and program management. This training spans up to
five to eight years in the work life of a software professional.

Functional Skills: Every professional needs to gain functional expertise like sales, marketing,
infrastructure management, information security management, finance and accounts as well as legal
and statutory compliance, to manage teams and interfaces both within and outside the organization.

Behavioral Skills: The IT Industry recognizes a small team as the most important brick for performance.
Most of the behavioral skills training revolves around team-building competencies and skills like
emotional intelligence, empowerment and management of social interfaces. These skills are imparted
through role- plays, experiential learning and out bound training.

Responses of the Respondents to the Statements on Training and Development

With this background, to collect the options on various aspects of the training and development activity
prevailing in IT industries, fourteen statements/ questions have been framed. Responses have been
structured on a five point scale. The responses have been analyzed, statement-wise, by three variables
namely educational qualification, gender and designation.

The responses have been structured on a five point scale and weighs have been assigned in the
following manner.

Responses Weights
Highly Satisfied/Strongly Agree 5
Satisfied/Agree 4
Undecided/Neutral 3
Dissatisfied/Disagree 2
Highly Dissatisfied/Strongly Disagree 1

The least score assigned is 1, which indicates “strongly disagree”, whereas maximum score is 5 which
represents “highly satisfied/ strongly agree”. Thus weighted average score will be between 1 and 5. The
calculated weighted average score (WAS) is interpreted as follows. WAS 1.00- 1.99 indicates “very low
level of satisfaction or agreement, WAS 2.00- 2.99 indicates “low level of satisfaction or agreement”,
WAS 3.00- 3.99 indicates “high level of satisfaction or agreement”, WAS 4.00- 4.99 indicates “very high
level of satisfaction or agreement”.