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SLP 5 : Nutritional requirements

1. Nutritional requirements are defined as the level of intake of essential nutrients that are
judged by the Food and Nutrition Board to be adequate,on the basis of scientific knowledge
to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy persons
2. Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) : daily intake corresponding to RDA, which meets the
nutrient requirements of almost all (97.5%) apparently healthy individuals.

Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) : refers to a set of 4 nutrient base reference values

Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) : the median intake value that is estimated to meet
the requirement, as defined by specified indicator of adequacy, in half of the individuals in a
life-stage or gender group. At the level of intake, the other half of a specified group will not
have its nutritional need met. EAR used for calculate RDA.

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) : Average daily dietary intake level that is sufficient
to meet the requirement of nearly all healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender
group. If the distribution of requirement of the group is assumed to be normal, then RDA is
the value that exceeds requirement of 97 to 98 percent of the individuals in the group. The
RDA is intended for use primarily as a goal for usual intake of individual.

Adequate Intake (AI) : It is based on experimentally derived intake levels or approximations

of observed mean nutrient intakes by a group (or groups) of apparently healthy people who
are maintaining a defined nutritional state or criterion of adequacy.

Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) : Highest level of continuing daily nutrient intake that is
likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects in almost all individual in the specified life
stage group.
3. Macronutrient
4. Food Pyramid is described as an outline for the intake of our daily food.It act as a guide that
let us choose a more healthy diet and for a better wellbeing . The food pyramid shows that
eating varieties of food to obtain the needed nutrients and at the right amount of calories
intake are important to maintain or improve our weight and health. There are 4 main classes
of food that are in the pyramid and it emphasizes the quantity that should be taken for the 4
main class of food,mainly Fat,Proteins,Vegetables and Fruits, and lastly Carbohydrates.
5. 3 common deficiencies of micronutrients .
 Vitamin A (Retinoids & Carotenoids)
o Can cause night-blindness (Nyctalopia)
o Keratin accumulation and thickening of epithelium in the conjunctiva
o Infertiity
o Growth retardation
 Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid & Folate)
o Can cause megaloblastic anaemia (enlargement of RBCs) due to ineffective
o Spina bifida and Anencephaly of babies due to neural birth defects
 Vitamin D
o Can cause rickets due to poor absorption of calcium (during digestion)
o Osteomalacia (softening bone) due to demineralization of bone
o May lead to osteoporosis