Charge Mix Preparation during Steel Making

 Composition of Charge Mix
Charge

C % Mn

Mix
DRI(GB) 1.2

S%

P%

N.

%

Moist Fem

Fet

Net

Charge Liquid

88.0

93.8

Fem
90.2

Qty
4.500

Metal
4.022

0
82.0

0
92.0

9
87.8

8.500

7.394

0

0

5.50

5.156

0.01

0.04

Mag
1.00

DRI(CB) 0.1

5
0.04

0
0.04

1.00

2
4.0

0.3

0
0.10

0
0.35

1.5

7
94.0

0
CIBoring 3.2

0
0.4

0
0.10

0
0.30

0
1.5

1.50 4.00

2
89.2

1.000

0.890

HMS

0
0.5

0
0.8

0
0.02

0
0.02

0
0.4

1.00

7
97.5

5.000

4.910

Skull

0
0.5

0
0.8

5
0.02

5
0.02

0
0.3

5.00

0
93.6

.0500

0.468

MSTB

0
0.4

0
0.8

5
0.02

5
0.02

0
0.2

1.50 4.00

5
93.6

1.000

0.932

5
Shredded 0.2

0
0.6

5
0.01

5
0.01

5
0.2

4.00

5
95.2

0
3.5

0
0.6

5
0.04

5
0.15

0
1.5

0.10

0
94.3

0

0

0

CI Mold

Pig Iron
Total

%

Si

0

7
26.000 23.772
91.43 %

1

 Main reactions involved in the steel making Carbon reaction [C] + [O] {CO} 12 16 28 Mn reaction [Mn] + [O] 55 16 [MnO] 71 S reaction [S] + (CaO) 32 56 (CaS) 72 + [O] 16 P reaction 2[P] + 5 [O] 62 80 [P2O5] 142 Si reaction [Si] + 2[O] 28 32 [SiO2] 60 2 .

For 4. C = 1.20%.46% FeO. hence.5 Ton we have 45 kg of non Mag 3 .46 = 4. 60 – 70% FeO gets reduced and 30 – 40% FeO remains unreduced and goes into slag.5 Ton X 7.46% X 35% = 0.040%.8 – 88.29% 1% Non Mag is present. P = 0. Mag. So 60% of 7.0%. = 1 – 2% FeO% in DRI = (Fe T – Fe M) X 72 / 56 = (93.49% Fe Total Fe M = 3. Fe M = 88. DRI Gas Based Fe T = 93.49% Fe + 88% Fe M = 91.49% Fe M 4.46% Out of 7.117 Ton unreduced FeO 1.48% FeO will be reduced to Fe = 4. net Fe M = 90.48 X 56 / 72 = 3.015%.2% carbon will escape. S = 0.8%.0) X 72 / 56 = 7. N.

0%. For 8. S = 0. net Fe M = 87.99% Fe M 8.0%. Mag.12% carbon will escape.87% 1% Non Mag is present.99% Fe + 82% Fe M = 87.0 – 82. 60 – 70% FeO gets reduced and 30 – 40% FeO remains unreduced and goes into slag. Fe M = 82. = 1 – 2% FeO% in DRI = (Fe T – Fe M) X 72 / 56 = (92.394T 4 . C = 0. hence.71 X 56 / 72 = 5.87% Fe M = 7.5 Ton X 12.99% Fe Total Fe M = 5.71% FeO will be reduced to Fe = 7.022T  DRI Coal Based Fe T = 92.85% Out of 12.030%. N.12%.85% FeO. So 60% of 12.040%.85% X 35% = 0. P = 0.5 Ton we have 85 kg of non mag Hence total Fe M = (8500 – 85) X 87.382 Ton unreduced FeO 0.29% Fe M = 4.Hence total Fe M = (4500 – 45) X 90.0) X 72 / 56 = 12.85% = 7.

05 Mn %) – (0.050 S %) – (0. % .25 – 0.10 C %) – (0.100 – 0.0 Dust % = 100 – 0.0 Moisture % = 89.15 Si % – 4.1 C % .45 Si % = 94.60 – 0.05 Mn %) – (0. 100 – (0.05 S % .275 % Fe M  H.55 Mn % .4.0 Non Mag % = 100 – 0.50 – 0.0 – 0.10 C %) – (0. Mould 100 – (4.1. I.0.100 – 0.025 P %) – (1.20 – 0.275 P % .0.5 Non Mag % 4.5 Non Mag % . 100 – (0.0 Moisture % = 100 – 0.05 Mn %) – (0.050 S %) – (0.35 Si % .45 – 0.1.2 – 0.1.10 C % . I. T.05 Si %) – 1.9 C % .80 – 0. C.50 – 0.25 % Fe M  Shreaded 100 – (0.75 Mn % .50 % Fe M  M.35 C % .05 Si %) – 4. B.0 Moisture % = 93.0.1 Non Mag.20 – 0.4.05 Mn %) – (0. % = 97.0.4 – 0.50 – 0.325 P % .5 Non Mag.025 P %) – (1.35 Mn % .25 Mn % .40 C % .45 Si % .0.0.05 Si %) – 1.05 S % .0.0.05 Si %) – 1.0.0.30 – 0.05 Mn %) – (0.5 Non Mag. % .0.0.30 – 0.05 Si %) = 100 – 3.20 % Fe M 5 . Boring 100 – (3.S.350 – 0.02 % Fe M  C.M.10 C %) – (0. S.80 – 0.75 Mn % .10 C %) – (0.20 Si % .1.40 – 0.0 Moisture % = 100 – 3.0 Dust % = 95.10 C %) – (0.4.

10 0.05 Si %) – 0.60 – 0.000 Ton Lime = 1.04 0.093 Ton.100 Ton R.409 Ton C% C% C% C% C% 0.004 Ton (0.772 out of scrap charged 26.772 Ton Slag Weight = 4.09 0.69 1. 6 . % = 94.5 Ton slag comes out while injection. F.2 Kg / T) Total Input = 27. FeO loss i. Fe loss does not remain same. F. Slag volume having 10 % FeO (Average of different stages) = 0.400 Ton SOF = 0. A.55 Mn % .0 18.50 20.05 Mn %) – (0.e.1.88 i.M. C % at the time of injection contributes Fe loss as per grades to be made.5 – 0.093 Ton Liquid Metal produced 23.4 C % .1 Non Mag.45 Si % .15 – 0. 91.08 0.97 0.10 Non Mag % = 100 – 3.(1.10 C %) – (0.865 Ton Liquid Metal = 23. To Billet  Slag volume in E.0. Mass = 0.33 Fe 408 349 262 233 213 % 1.37 % Fe M Yield from L.125 P % .0. Pig Iron 100 – (3. • Out of 4.12 FeO % 35 30 22.e.025 P %) .45 1. A.161 Ton (7 Kg / T) E.0.e.43 % and Net Slag Produced = 4.05 0.000 Ton i. Brick = 0.5 – 0.200 Ton DPX = 0.093 Ton • At the time of injection (CPC) in different grades. Approximately 1. Scrap = 26.

30 2.020 Si = 1.21 92.81 %.454 out of 26.56 .50 % ST.50 (0. Loss 90.318 = 23.097 = 602 Kgs.50 % ST.10) C = 0.19 % 89.21 % 16MnCr5 / 20MnCr5 En-8DCr / C-45Cr Spring Steel C = 0.772 – 0.60 – 0.28 Si = 0.68 % This stands 24.75 Cr = 1. 2.60 % 3.454 MT = 90.25 Cr = 0.2.093 Ton slag will contain FeO = 409 Kgs or Fe = 409 X 0.35 % +90.35 (0.56 %. loss of 24.097 of 26 Ton charge.16 – 0.10 (0. is 92.48 % 1.10 Mn = 0.31 % 91.10) Mn = 1. Al2O3 % present with the help of Volumetric Methods of Titration with different reagents like Potassium Dichromate and EDTA.21 % Yield in Different Grades Net Liquid Metal = 23. Cao %. SiO2 %. MnO %.69 91.69 %.  Slag analysis of samples taken from EAF / LRF / VD is done to know the Feo %.06) C = 0.Assuming 10 % FeO in slag (average of different stages) 4.5 % ST.000 Ton = 90.2.45 – 0. 7 .50 % ST.21 +90.06 % Average of 92. Loss .00 Cr = 0.81 93. MgO %.777 = 318 Kgs Net Liquid Metal = 23.80 Mn = 0. 93.80 Si = 0.21 +90. Loss .2. 91.

1% - 94.5Kg 15Kg 40Kg 0.2Kg - 3.50 T 4% MSTB 1.025% 0.72T DRICB 0.00T 4.5% 0.625Kg 42Kg 105Kg MSTB 0.00% - 87.6% 0.2 122 8.025% 0.80% 0.25% 1.50% 10.25Kg 0.Mag Moist.47T HMS 0. 5T 34 % DRI 8.5Kg 84Kg 2.12% - 0.45% 0.87% 8.5Kg 75Kg 5 Kg - 4. Calculation of Flux addition needed for 25 T Scrap Mix Break up of the 25 T charge mix 20 % P.4 Kg - 85 Kg - 7.5% 0.28 13.65% 1.37% 5Ton 175Kg 30Kg 2Kg 7.04% 0.5 210 Kg 40Kg 23.50 T 42 % HMS 10.93T Total 242.8% 0.00 T Total 100 % Scrap C 25.4 Kg 3.025% 0.78Kg 119. I.5 Kg 8Kg 0.5% 0. I. 3.625Kg 2.5% 4% 93.4% 1.15% 1.025% 0.25Kg 2.36 25 T Kg Kg Kg Kg 10.04% - 1.04% 0.5T 10.5T 52.28T Kg 8 . Net Fe M Type P.00% - 97.00 T Mn S P Si N.

78 Kg And (P2O5) formed = 31.Carbon reaction [C] + [O] {CO} 12 16 28 For 242. [O] needed = 35.13 % of 25 T scrap mix Si reaction [Si] + 2[O] 28 32 [SiO2] 60 9 .13 Kg i.49 Kg And [O] liberated = 4. (Cao) Consumed = 14.49 Kg i.56 Kg i.26 % of 25 T scrap mix Mn reaction [Mn] + [O] 55 [MnO] 16 71 For 122 Kg of Mn.49 Kg And forms (MnO) = 157.28 Kg S. [O] needed = 323Kg And forms {CO} = 565.20 Kg of C. 0. 0.e.63 % of 25 T scrap mix S reaction [S] + (CaO) 32 (CaS) 56 + 72 [O] 16 For 8.78 Kg P.e. 2.e. [O] needed = 17.14 Kg P reaction 2[P] + 5 [O] 62 80 [P2O5] 142 For 13.

5 Taking Basicity = (%CaO + %MgO) / (%SiO2 + % P2O5) 2.5 = (%CaO + %MgO) / 1.5 Kg Si.88 % = 720 kg for 25 T 10 . [O] needed = 136.e. basicity always taken more than 2 Basicity = all basic oxides / all acidic oxides = (%CaO + %MgO ) / (%Al2O3 +% SiO2 + %P2O5) In practice Basicity is taken as = (%CaO + %MgO) / (%SiO2 + % P2O5) Or = %CaO / (%SiO2 + % P2O5) Or = % Cao / % SiO2 Assuming Basicity = 2.57 Kg And SiO2 formed = 256. The ability of a slag to retain oxides is generally expressed as the ratio of basic to acid oxides & is represented as: V ratio = %CaO / % SiO2 Modified V ratio is given by = CaO% / (SiO2% + P2O5% + Al2O3%)  Basicity is generally defined as ratio of all basic oxides upon all acidic oxides.15 % = 2. For effective refining under basic steel making.13 % or (%CaO + %MgO) = 2.02% of 25 T scrap mix  %CaO / %Sio2 this ratio is known as V – ratio. 1.For 119.02 % + 0.07 Kg i.5 X 1.

84% for the 25 T charge) in calculation of Basicity or lime needed then we have Basicity = (%CaO + %MgO) / (%SiO2 + % P2O5 + % N.71 / 32 X 22.13 + 0.88 / 1. Hence when we consider the N.57 – 4. Mag) material s that are present along the charge materials also have to be considered as acidic oxide.5 = (%CaO + %MgO) / (1.99 Or (%CaO + %MgO) = 4.7 at NTP = 360. 11 .0.71 Kg Volume of O2 needed = 508.78 + 136.82 *Non Magnetic (N.02 + .86 Nm3 V ratio = % CaO / % SiO2 = 2.02 = 2. Mag) Or 2.5 X 1.5 + 17.84) Or (%CaO + %MgO) = 2. Mag material (0.In available Metallurgical Lime we have CaO % = 85 % and MgO % = 4 % If we consider only the effect of CaO The amount of metallurgical lime needed = 847kg If we consider effect of both CaO and MgO The amount of metallurgical lime needed = 809 Kg Total amount of O2 gas needed per charge mix = 323 + 35.14 = 508.9 % for 25 T charge = 1225 Kg Now Met Lime contains 89 % (CaO + MgO) Then total Met Lime needed = 1400 Kg Generally the amount of flux needed always kept 100 Kg to 200 Kg more than the minimum required amount to compensate losses during charging.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful