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1.

2 Lipids

EXTRA!
Are there
good fats?
1.2 Lipids
What are lipids?
 Lipids are made up of the following elements :

Carbon Hydrogen

Oxygen
Recall
What is the general formula for
carbohydrates?

Cx(H2O)y

number of hydrogen atoms =


twice the number of oxygen atoms
1.2 Lipids

NO GENERAL FORMULA
• Contains much less oxygen as compared
to hydrogen.

Tristearin has the formula C57H110O6

• Insoluble in water, but soluble in organic


solvents such as ethanol, ether and
trichloromethane (chloroform).
1.2 Lipids
Fats vs Oil

In general, lipids that are in the solid state at


20C
Whatare known
is the as “fats”
difference while those
between fats that exist
inand
theoils?
liquid state at 20C are known as “oils”.
Close
1.2 Lipids
How do we classify Lipids?
 Lipids can be divided into two groups:

Simple Lipids

Compound Lipids
1.2 Lipids  Classification

Lipids

Compound
Simple Lipids Lipids
(esters of fatty acids) (lipid + non-lipid
component)

Fats Waxes
(fatty acids + glycerol) (fatty acids + alcohol)
1.2 Lipids  Classification
What are Simple Lipids?
 A simple lipid is formed by joining fatty acids to
an alcohol (eg glycerol) by ester linkages.
 There are two types of simple lipids, namely fats
Fats are formed by joining fatty acids to a glycerol
and waxes .
molecule.
Fatty
Fats acid + Glycerol →
WaxesFat
fatty acid

glycerol
Examples of fats include monoglyceride, fatty acid
diglyceride and triglyceride. fatty acid
1.2 Lipids  Structure
What is the structure of Glycerol?
What is the structure of Fatty Acid?

carboxyl group Hydrocarbon chain

Fatty Acid
1.2 Lipids  Structure
Types of Fatty Acids
1. saturated 2. unsaturated
1.2 Lipids  Structure
What is the structure of Fat?
How is it formed?

Fatty Acid

H2O

Condensation
Reaction
1.2 Lipids  Structure

3 fatty acids + 1 glycerol = triglyceride (fat)

Ester linkage
1.2 Lipids  Functions
Energy Storage
 As a storage form of energy, triglyceride has
several advantages over starch or glycogen.

Mechanical
Energy value
protection

Metabolic Long-term
water store

Thermal
Buoyancy
insulation
1.2 Lipids  Functions
Important components of cell
membranes
 Cholesterol, glycolipids and phospholipids are
important components of cell membranes.

Cholesterol

Glycolipids

Phospholipids
1.2 Lipids  Functions
Electrical insulation
 Lipids are components of myelin sheath of nerve
cells (neurones). Here, they act as electrical
insulator, allowing rapid transmission of impulses
along myelinated neurones.
1.2 Lipids  Functions
Signalling
 Most lipid hormones
are steroid
hormones. They are
derived from
cholesterol.
 Steroid homrones
(ends with ‘–ol’ or
‘-one’) includes
testosterone,
aldosterone and
cortisol.