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1. What is a Disaster?

 A disaster can be defined as any occurrence that cause damage,

ecological disruption loss of life, deterioration of health and health
services on a sealed, sufficient to warrant on extraordinary response
from outside the affected community or area.
 A Disaster can be defined as an occurrence either nature or manmade
that causes human suffering and creates human needs that victims
cannot all deviated without assistance.
2. What is Hazaerds?
Changes that affect human adversely are called Hazards’.
 A hazards compares a dangerous condition or event, natural or
manmade, that could cause injury , loss or damage to property , live
hood or environment.
 In other words hazards are defined as phenomena that pose a
threat to people structure or economic assets and which may cause
disaster. They could be either man made or naturally occurring in
our environment.
Definition of Disaster and Hazard.
 According to the geographer Gilbert white which is regarded as the
father of flood management hazards is – “Hazards’ always arises from
the interplay of social and biological and physical system but disaster
are generated as much or more by the human action as physical
 Whitlow (1980) – “ Hazard and disaster are close by related A hazards
is a natural event while the disaster its property – A disaster is the
realization of this hazard “
 According to L.C king – “Hazard is the cause and disaster is the effect
but both depend upon the intensity of human development”.
Types of Disasters-
 Hazards could be caused by nature or man made and are
consequently called natural and manmade.
 A third of hazards are caused both by natural and manmade are
called Socio –natural hazards.
i. Natural Hazards
These are caused by the force of nature and man has no role to
play in such hazards following are the main example of natural
1. Natural hazards:-
 A natural hazards is a natural phenomenon that might
have a negative effect on human or the environment.
Geographical hazards encompass geological and
metrological phenomena such as earth quakes, volcanic
eruption wildfires , cyclonic storms , floods , droughts and
2. Man-made hazard:-
 Man-made disaster human instigated disaster is the
consequence of technological or human hazard.
 For example include stampedes, fires, transport,
accident, industrial accident, spills, nuclear explosions
and nuclear radiation.
 War and deliberate attack may also be put in this
ii. Socio Natural Hazard:-
 These are caused by the combined effect or natural forces nad
misdeed of man for examples
 The frequency and intensity due to floods and droughts may
increase due to indiscriminate felling of trees etc.
A. Planetary hazards disaster :-
 A physical event or phenomena or activity that has the potentially
to cause the loss of life or injury, property, damage, social and
economic description or environmental degradation etc.
 Earth quake, flood, drought, tsunami, Cyclone etc.
 Each hazard is characterized by its location, intensity, frequency
and probability.
B. Extra –Planetary or Extra Terrestrial Hazards/Disasters
 Extra-terrestrial life also called alien life is life that occurs
outside of earth and the extra solar planets so far discovered
range in size from those terrestrial planets similar to Earth’s.
C. Terrestrial or Endogenous hazards:-
 The force that causes these process cum for both above and
beneath the earth’s surface
 Process that are cause by force from within the earth endogenous
 By contrast, exogenous process comes from force on or above the
earth surface.
D. Atmospheric or exogenous hazards:-
 Erosion happens as a result of wind, water, ice, or people, animals,
or plants digging the earth.
 Some other examples of exogenous process are rainfall, snowfall,
hailstorm, erosion, tsunamis, avalanches, winds, wage current etc.
E. Physical Hazards Disasters:-
 A physical hazard is defined as “a factor within the environment
that can harm the body without necessarily touching it”.
 Vibration and noise are examples of physical hazards.
 Physical hazards include but are not limited to electricity,
radiation, pressure, noise, heights and vibration amongst many
F. Chemical Hazards Disasters:-
 A chemical hazards disaster is the unintentional release of one or
more hazardous substances which could harm humban health or
the environment.
 Chemical hazards are systems where chemical accidents could
occur under certain circumstances.
G. Biological Hazards Disasters:-
 Biological hazards UNISDR definition process of organic origin or
those conveyed by biological vectors , including exposure to
pathogenic microorganisms , toxins and bioactive substance ,
which may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage , social
and economic disruption or environmental degradation.
H. Volcanic eruption:-
 A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary mass object,
such as earth, that allows hot Lava volcanic ash and gases to
escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
 Earth’s volcanoes occur because its crust is broken into 17 major
, rigid tectonic plates that float on a hotter , softer layer in its
(I) Landslides:-
 A landslides is defines as the movement of a mass of rock debris ,
or earth down a slop. Earthquake shaking and other factors can
also in duce landslides underwater.
 These landslides are called submarine landslides.
 Sub marine coastal areas.
(J) Release of toxic Chemicals:-
 Each and every second 310kg of toxic chemicals are by industrial
facilities around the worlds.
 This amounts to approximately 10 million tons cover 21 billion
pounds ) of toxic chemicals released into our environment by
industries each year.
(K) Nuclear explosion:-
 A nuclear explosion is an explosion that occurs as a result of the
rapid ridease of energy from a high-speed nuclear reaction.
Nuclear explosion produce radiation and radioactive debris.
(L) Population Explosion:-
 A population Explosion is a sudden increase in the number of
individuals in a particular species.
 The term is typically used in reference to the words human
population, especially the population boom that followed the end
of world war. Due to the combination of an accelerated boirth
rate, decrease in infant mortality, and an increased life
 expectancy.
 Eutrophication:-
Eutrophication is an enrichment of water by nutrient souls that
courses structural changes to the ecosystem such: increased
product on of algae and annuities plants, depletion of fish species,
general deterioration of water quality and other effects that
reduce and preclude use this is one of the first delimitations given
to the atrophic process by the OECP
(N) Epidemics and pandemics:-
 Endemics: a dipease that exists permanently in a particular
region or population. Malania is a constant worry in part of
 Epidemic: An out Brock of disease that attacks many people’s at
about the sometime and may spread through one or several
communities pandemic. When an epidemic spreads through the
(O) Abnormal or Frequents events:-
 Abstract: Uncovering the hideen subtleties and irregularities of
the events in the video sequence fish the kay issue for automatic
video surveillance.
 Notice the fact that the occurrence of abnormal events is rare
while the frequent occurring events become normal in general
human perception.
(P) Cumulative Atmosphere Hazards/ Disasters:-
 Atmospheric hazards. Atmospheric Hazards includes things
such as oxygen deference’s , dusts , ebemical, Vapors, Welding
fumes, fogs and mists that can interfere with the body’s ability
to transport and utilize oxygen , or that have negative to
mycology effects on the human body.
(Q) Lightning:-
 Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs
typically during the under storms.
 These discharge regions of a cloud, between two clouds, or
between a cloud and the ground.
(R) Hailstorms:-
 Hail is a form of solid precipitation it is distinct from ice pellets ,
through the two are often confused.
 If consists of balls or irregular lumps of ice pellets full generally
in cold wither while hail growth is greatly inhibited during cold
(S) Cold wave:-
 A cold wave is a weather phenomenon that is distinguished by a
cooling of the air specifically as used by the U. S. National
service, a cold wave is a rapid fall in temperature within a 24-
hour period requiring substantially increased protection to
agriculture, industry, commerce and social activities.
(T) Heat Wave
 A heat wave is a period of excessively hot weather, which may be
accompanied by high humidity, especially in oceanic climate
(U) Earth Quake:-
 Earth Quake is a vibrant in the earth’s crust, sending out a series
of shock waves in all direction from its place of origin.
 Any sudden disturbance in the earth’s crust may produce
vibrations in the crust which travel in all directions from the
points of disturbances.
 An earth quake constitute one of the lowest natural hazards
which often turn in to disaster easing widespread destruction
and loss to human lives.
 Earth quake magnitude is determined by the use of
seismograph, an instrument which continuously records ground
 It is also measured in the ricer scale.

(V) Cyclone:
 Circulatory winds in the lower part of the atmosphere are
generally termed as cyclone.
 They originate over the warm ocean water off tropical and
temperature regions.
 A Cyclone occurs when a low pressure region is surrounded by
high pressure.
 Thus the winds below at a very high speed near the center.
 these winds are accompanied by heavy rains
 The areas prone to cyclones are Andhra Pradesh odisha, west
Bengal, Tamilnadu . Maharasthra.
 Cyclones are observed and studied by Indian metrological
Department which sends warring reports through radio,
television etc.
(2) Causes of Cyclone:-
i. Very low atmospheric pressure.
ii. High tidal surges of 5 to 10m or more.
iii. Unusual rise in sea water due to strong gusty winds on the sea
iv. When stormy cyclonic winds sward around the eye. I a clam area
in the centre of the storm and bring rain fall, warm moist air is
made to rise over a mass of cold air easing cyclone to occur.
 Flood occurs when a large amount of water covers an area.
 It also occurs due to heavy rainfall.
 Flood also occurs when a river overflows its water due to
heavy rainfall.
 A flood dangerous and it causes damage to life and
 Flood water submerges everything when it enters an area.
 India withes numerous floods in a year.
 The reason behind this flood is the rain season between
June and September.
(6) Level of Disaster Management:-
Disaster management is nothing but the efficient use of resource
to co-ordinary the processes of reflect , recovery and reconstruction.
(a) Natural Disaster Management at international Level
 Natural disasters are global phenomena and strike regardless of
any national boundaries or socio-economic status of the region.
 This has led to a strong international fraternity defined at the
highest level by several UN bodies.
 Interestingly, the united declared the decade from 1990 till 2000
as the international decade for Natural Disaster Reduction.
 The objective of the IDNDR is to reduce through concerted
international action, especially in the developing countries, the
loss of life, property damage and social and economic dissipation
caused by natural disaster.
 As per the plan of the IDNDR, the by the year 2000 all countries
should have.
 Comprehensive national assessments of risks from natural
hazards, with these assessment plans.
 Mitigation plant at national and local levels, involving long-tom
prevention and preparedness and community awareness.
 Ready access to global, regional, national and local warning
systems and broad dissemination of warnings.

International Cooperation:-

 The ministry of agriculture, organized a workshop for the SAARC

countries in the marten 1994, and this was attuned by senior
level government officials and disaster manages of SAARC
countries .
 This was the first attempt to generate awareness and
commitment for regional cooperation in natural reduction.
 Major emphasis was given on preparedness as it is the key to
reduce the impact of natural disaster.
Natural Disaster Management in India:-
 India is a country of parliamentary democracy with a federal
 An integrated disaster management mechanism exists within
government frame work.
 The essential responsibility of disaster management lies with
the state government where the disaster has occurred.
 In the event of disaster which spread over several states and
assume uncontrolled proportions the central government may
be required to supplement appropriate measures in the field of
rescue, relief and preparedness.
 As the central level, National criticism management committee
(NCMC) oversees all disaster related efforts them.
 The NCMC comprises the nodal ministry and other support
ministries. For natural disaster the nodal ministry in ministry
of agriculture.
 Absence of an integrated policy at national level has led to
overlooking of some of the vital aspects of disaster
 As such, prance of policy helps clarify define the governments
basic on a continuing basic.
 It provides for an appropriate legislation associated regulations
in this regard, besides providing an overall national competence
and self reliance vis a vis international initiatives.
(B) Administrative structure at central level:-
 The central government, with its resources, physical and
financial does provide the need help and assistance to buttress
relief efforts in the wake of major natural disaster.
 The dimension of the response at the level of control
government are determined in accordance with the existing
policy of financing the relief expenditure and keeping in view the
factors, like (i) The gravity of a natural calamity (ii) The scale of
the relief operations necessary (iii) The requirements of central
assistance for augmenting the financial resources at the disposal
of the state government.
Agriculture ministry- The Nodal Agency:-
 The apartment of Agriculture and cooperation (DAC) in the
Agriculture ministry is the nodal department for all matters
concerning natural disasters relief at the centre.
 The National contingency Action plan (CAP) facilititates
launching of relief and risqué operation without delay.
 In the DACD the relief commissioner functions as the nodal
officer to coordinate relief operation for all natural disaster.
 The central relief commissioner receives information relating to
forecast of the natural calamity from the director, general Indian
meteorological department and from the central water
commission on a continuing basis.
 Agriculture department monitors the developments taking place
and provides the necessary inputs through the agriculture
secretary to the agriculture minister, prime minister and the

Cabinet committee:

 The cabinet may set up a committee for effective

implementation of relief measure in the wake of natural disaster.
 The secretary in the ministry of agriculture acts as the secretary
of this committee
 In the absence of such committee, all matters related to the relief
shall be reported to the cabinet secretary.
National crisis management committee

 NMS with the chairmanship of cabinet secretary, has been

constituted in the cabinet secretariat.
 The other members of this committee include the secretary to
prime Minister, secretaries of ministry of home affairs,
 Rescore and analysis wing, and agriculture and cooperation
along with director in telling bureau and a officer of cabinet
Crisis management group CMG

 A group under the chairmanship of the center relief

commissioner , comprising senior officer and drawn various
ministries and other concerned department, reviews every year
contingency plan formulated by central ministries department
Financial arrangements:-

 The center plays a major role as the mobilization of financial

resources is concerned
 The policy and arrangement for financing state governments to
provide relief and rehabilitation measure in areas affected by
natural calamities are governed by the recommendation of the
finance commissions on the subject mode from time to time
D. Administrative structure at state level.

 The chief out earlier, the central government only supplement

the effort of the state government.
 The chief secretary is the head of the state administration.
 The state head quarters have in addition, department handling
specific subject under the overall supervision and coordination
of the chief rotary.
State crisis management group:-

 There is a state crisis management group under the

chairmanship of the chief secretary relief commissioner.
 This group comprises of revenue relief, home civil supplies,
power irrigation, water supply, panchayat, agriculture, forests ,
rural development, health planning , public work and finance .
Administrative structure at district level:-

 State is further divided into district, each headed by the districts

collection, which is the focal point at the district level for
directing for disaster and for preparation of district level plans.
 A district is subdivision into subdivision and abases or talukas.
 The head of a subdivision is called the subdivision officer while
the head of the sail is the tahasildar.
Contingency plans:-

 At the district level, the disaster relief plans are prepared which
provide for specific tasks and agencies for their implementation
in respect of areas in relating to different types of disaster.
District relief committee:-

 The relief measure is revised by the district level committee

constricting of official and non official member, including local
registration and members of parliament.
District control room:-

 In the wake of natural disaster, a control room is set up in the

district for day today monitoring of the reduce and relief
operation on a continuing basis.
(F) Coordination:
 The collector maintains close liaison with the central
government Authorities in the districts namely, army, air foree
and Navy ministry of water recourses etc.
(7) The Role of government in disaster management
(a) State govt.
 In the context of federal set-up of India, the responsibility to
formulate the government response to a natural calamity is
essentially that of concerned state Government.
 Most of the states have relief commissioner under the
department of disaster management, who are in charge of the
relief measures in the wake of natural disaster.
 At the state level, the state relief commissioner supervises and
controls relief operations through collector’s or deputy
commissioner, who are the main functionaries to coordinate the
relief operation at district level.
(8) Role of Non- Government:-
 For large relief agencies & NGOS, the main response is to provide
materials relief & risqué operation during times of disaster
including medical relief.
 This is followed by a longer period of reconstruction activities of
the physical infrastructure like roads, houses, community
buildings, drinking water facilities etc. & continuation of medical
 For small & localized NGOs initial response is in the form of
risqué and materials relief.
 Most a larger India agencies stay back in disaster prone areas for
disaster mitigation , long tern development of the people of area
& especially for disaster preparedness before next disaster
 Local NGO, Who also participate in relief & reconstruction
activities during times of disaster of disaster, revert back to their
usual pre-disaster activities after initial phase.
(9) Public Awareness programme in Disaster management:-
 Public awareness and public education for disaster education seek
to turn available human knowledge into specific local action to
reduce disaster risks.
 Hazards awareness alone does not lead directly to people adopting
risk reduction measures.
 Rehearses have found that people take action only when:-
i. They know that specific actions can be taken to reduce their risks –
(ii) They are convened that these actions whole be effective.
(iii) They believe in their own ability to carry out the tasks.
(A) Basics:-
 Public awareness and education programmes can be started
modesty and tailored to meet the needs of specific population,
risks and target groups.
 They can build on and support existing voluntary mobilization
and peer-to peer communications.
 To support this you will need strong and unified disaster
reduction messages and clear and target information, education
and communication materials.
i. Planning: Questions to Ask:-
 Answers questions such as why who for if- identified public
awareness and education both as a specific planned
intervention and for integration into pre-existing activities.
ii. Four key approaches:-
 How to carry out each of the four major approaches
campaigns, participatory learning, informal education and
formal school based efforts.
iii. Principles for effective implementation:-
 The underlying principles on which the strategy frames
work and the approaches rest legitimacy and credibility,
consistency, scalability and sustainability.
iv. Tools:-
 The wide range of tools in use to implements these
approaches, including publication games and completions,
and social media and explains the advantage and
disadvantage of each.
v. Ensuring Quality:-
 key issues to consider in order to ensure that initiatives are
high quality , focusing on well –crafted message , powerful,
images an engaging and completing tone , and adapted ,
localized content.
vi. Knowledge Management:-
 Addresses some of the challenging raised by the growing
area of knowledge management.
 It provides some Initial direction for designing future
interventions in order to improve existing processes,
monitoring and valuation knowledge sharing and capacity
10. Different govt. Policy of mitigation of Disaster:-
Disaster managements consist of three major components
of relief, rehabitation and reconstruction.
A. Relief:-
 Relief measures are the immediate need in the post disaster
scenario, when an unknown number of victims are affected
and even their location is not cleanly known.
i. Search and rescue , often known by the acronym SAR is the
process of identifying the location of disaster victims who may be
trapped or isolated , and bringing them to safety and providing
them with medical attention.
ii. Shelter for victims: - When the settlement is completely destroyed
or sub merged the population may have to be moved to a new
location where temporary relief camps may be established.
Relief camps may provide for essential services like food water
supply, health services etc.
iii. Livestock relief:-
 Live stock relief plays an importance role in rural society , it is
important to protect livestock in disaster situations
- Construction of live stock shearers.
- Maintenance of requisite stocks for folder, vaccines etc.
- Community training for animal protection.
- Stranded and affected livestock in the disaster area safer places
- Removal of dead animals and disposal of dead bodies should be
given priority.
iv. Clearance of Debris and disposal of the Dead:-
- Clearance of debris is a prime requirement in post disaster
scenario so that trapped survivors may be the dead needs to
be done on an emergency basis, so that decomposition of
bodies and spread of disease can be stopped.
v. Damage Assessment:-
 Damage Assessment is a pre-requisite for all disaster
management practices.
 Assessment level of damage is required at two basic level of
B. Rehabilitation:-
 The most important aspects of any post disaster stage in the
rehabilitation of the affected communities.
 The rehabitation package should be aimed at a total
reconstruction of damaged physical and social infrastructure
as well as the economic and social rehabilitations of the people
in the affected region.
 The rehabilitation package offered may be classified into the
following categories.
i. Housing and infrastructural Redevelopment:-
 The housing and infrastructural part should cover the
requirements and other necessary details pertaining to
housing , civil amentias , roads , bridges , electric power
supply network , communication network, water supply
scheme irrigation and related structures , public buildings
ii. Social Rehabitation programme:-
 The social rehabilitation package e may include the
following components.
(i) Strengthening of equipping health facilities fies and
(ii) Resurrection of Education activities in the disaster
affected region.
(iii) Rehabitation of women and children affected by the
iii. Economic Rehabilitation Programme:-
The Economic rehabilitation programme affected by area may
include the following components.
Agricultural Rehabitation of disaster affected areas.
(a) Short-term measures for agriculture rehabitation include the
sowing of the next crop after the disaster, provision of seeds ,
fertilizers and pesticides to the farmers free of cost in the affected
(b) Long term measures for agricultural rehabilitation include
misattribution of farm implement kits to the farmers providing
them bullocks and rehabilitation and repairing of irrigation wiles
and pump sets emergency basic.
iv. Rehabilitation of live stock affected due to disaster.
(i) Replacement of milcheattle to the affected farmers.
(ii) Tree cattle feed for about 2 to 3 months.
(iii) Preventive medication for entire live stock to check the
spread of any disease among the serving cattle.
(C) Reconstruction:-
 the areas where in spite of best mitigation efforts disaster do
strike and cause serious damages may also be viewed as area
where opportunities the entire polio economic as well as
physical structures to match new standard.
(i) Social Reconstruction:-
The consequences of disasters are particularly devastating on
certain sections of venerable groups such as people below
poverty levels with poor perception of risk and no
institutional support
(ii) Economic Reconstruction:-
Economic reconstruction generally comprises of the following
(a) Replacement of farm implements and Equipments
(b) Replacement of cattle stock.
(c) Promotion of skilled workers and small business persons as to
create job opportunities.
(d) Repair or reconstruction of dug wells, to be wells and irrigation
(iii) Afford station:-
Forests play a crucial role in maintaining environmental
equilibrium apart from providing food, fuel fodder and timber for
sustenance of human kinds.
(Iv) Agriculture and irrigation:-
a. Alternate cropping pattern
b. watershed management
c. .water harvesting in small catchments
d. Canal irrigation.
e. Development of pasture lands, livestock farm forestry and other
relief schemes.
(v) Housing:
The housing in rural in India verities considerably according to
verging. Climate factors and environment const rains of catch,
equines and floods
(B) Components of Disaster Management
- The relief rehabilitation and reconstruction are all post disaster
- The current thus is on planning, preparedness and mitigation.
1. Planning –
 The word planning generally covers two entirely different
 One is that of land use or physical palming the other is
advocacy planning.
 In this approach the planning those acts as copacetic agents,
presenting choice to various organizations like local self
government nongovernmental organizations.
Initial Steps in Program Planning:
i.Setting Policies.
iii.Goal setting
iv.The determination of strategies and approaches.
Methods for preparing plan:-
(1) Short term plan:-
(i) The amount of resource required to be mobilized as relief may be
based on the statistics on the intensity and spread of various disasters
in the area in the post ten year period.
(ii) Certain areas are prone to disaster and each time relief is provided
a number of short comings come to light, these become lessons to
serve as inputs for futures planning of relief and rescue exercise.
2. Long-term plan:-
(i) The foremost requirement for the preparation of a long term plan is
establishing its need in the area.
(ii) Long-term plans are resource intensive, many of the intervention
decided there in should be based on resources available.

2) Preparedness:-

in disaster management , oppoetunities oris where you make them ,

and the best way to make opportunities through disaster preparedness

Elements of Preraredness:-

i. the prior determination of the objectives to be met in each affected

ii.Development of an implementing instrument in the form of a plan.
iii.The strategies and approaches necessary to accomplies in these
objective and are determination.
Issues in Preparedness:-
i. Srok Piling
ii. Community Shelters.
iii. Centralization versus decentralizations
iv. Use of the Military and civil defence.
v. technical Assistance.
vi. Planning the political elem,ents.
 Disaster mitigation involved measures to rescue that can be
taken impact of a disaster that can be taken prior to its
occurrence including preparedness and long term risk reduction
Aims of Disaster Mitigation:-
i. Creating awareness of risk at community level
ii. To promote Local actions through community participating to
reduce such risk.



Plan Formulation


Plan Formulation