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# SESSION TOPICS

Session 1 G BM

KM
B 1. Definitions
K
CL
2. Stability Reference Points
3. Stability Triangle
Introduction to Stability 4. Conditions of Stability
G 5. Stability Curve
B
6. IMO Stability Criteria
7. Draft Diagram and Cross Curves
DISPLACEMENT

## DEFINITIONS LAWS OF BUOYANCY

• A FLOATING OBJECT HAS THE PROPERTY OF
STABILITY - THE TENDENCY OF A SHIP TO BUOYANCY
ROTATE ONE WAY OR THE OTHER (TO RIGHT
ITSELF OR OVERTURN)
• A FLOATING BODY DISPLACES A VOLUME
INITIAL STABILITY - THE STABILITY OF A OF WATER EQUAL IN WEIGHT TO THE
SHIP IN THE RANGE FROM 0° TO 7°/10° WEIGHT OF THE BODY.

## OVERALL STABILITY - A GENERAL MEASURE OF

A SHIP'S ABILITY TO RESIST CAPSIZING IN A

## DYNAMIC STABILITY - THE WORK DONE IN

HEELING A SHIP TO A GIVEN ANGLE OF HEEL

LAWS OF BUOYANCY
• A FLOATING OBJECT HAS THE PROPERTY
OF BUOYANCY
• A FLOATING BODY DISPLACES A VOLUME
OF WATER EQUAL IN WEIGHT TO THE
WEIGHT OF THE BODY.
G
B • A BODY IMMERSED (OR FLOATING) IN
WATER WILL BE BUOYED UP BY A FORCE
EQUAL TO THE WEIGHT OF THE WATER
DISPLACED.

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DISPLACEMENT

1
FORCE: A PUSH OR A PULL. IT TENDS TO
DISPLACEMENT PRODUCE MOTION OR A CHANGE
IN MOTION.
• THE WEIGHT OF THE VOLUME OF WATER
THAT THE SHIP'S HULL IS DISPLACING UNITS: NEWTONS, TONNES, ETC.
• UNITS OF WEIGHT:
PARALLEL FORCES MAY BE COMBINED INTO
METRIC TON = TONNE = METRIC TONNE ONE FORCE EQUAL TO THE SUM OF ALL
METRIC TON = 1000 KILOGRAMS FORCES ACTING IN THE SAME DIRECTION AND
METRIC TON = 2204.72 LBS SO LOCATED TO PRODUCE THE SAME EFFECT.
5T
5T 15T
5T

## VOLUME - NUMBER OF CUBIC UNITS

IN AN OBJECT
WEIGHT: GRAVITATIONAL FORCE.
DIRECTION TOWARD CENTER OF EARTH UNITS: CUBIC METER
UNITS: NEWTONS, TONNES, etc CUBIC CENTIMETER
V=LxBxD
MOMENT: THE TENDENCY OF A FORCE TO
PRODUCE ROTATION ABOUT AN AXIS V = 30 m x 20 m x 6 m
V = 3600 m3

d
a F
6m

MOMENT = F x d

## DENSITY- MASS PER UNIT VOLUME

SESSION TOPICS
UNITS: TONNE PER CUBIC METER
1. Definitions
SW = 1.025 Tonne/m3 2. Stability Reference Points
FW = 1.000 Tonne/m3
3. Stability Triangle
4. Conditions of Stability
WT = VOLUME x
SP. WT 5. Stability Curve
V = 3600 m3
WT = 3600 m3 x
1 TONNE/m3 6. IMO Stability Criteria
6m
7. Draft Diagram and Cross Curves
WT = 3600 TONNES

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STABILITY REFERENCE POINTS RESERVE BUOYANCY
WATERLINE

Metacenter B

Gravity

BUOYANCY
B1

K eel B

CL

## RESERVE BUOYANCY, FREEBOARD, DRAFT CENTER OF BUOYANCY

AND DEPTH OF HULL

RESERVE BUOYANCY
WATERLINE
WL

BB BBB

CENTER OF BUOYANCY
G1

THE CENTER OF
G

GRAVITY
KG1
KGo

G1
G

B
B
B
B
B
KGo
KG1
B
B

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CENTER OF GRAVITY MOVEMENTS IN THE
CENTER OF GRAVITY
• POINT AT WHICH ALL WEIGHTS COULD
BE CONCENTRATED.
• G MOVES TOWARDS A WEIGHT ADDITION

## • CENTER OF GRAVITY OF A SYSTEM OF

WEIGHTS IS FOUND BY TAKING
OF GRAVITY, MOMENTS ARE SUMMED
AND DIVIDED BY THE TOTAL WEIGHT
OF THE SYSTEM.

MOVEMENTS IN THE
CENTER OF GRAVITY

## • G MOVES AWAY FROM A WEIGHT REMOVAL

G1

KG1
KGo

MOVEMENTS IN THE
CENTER OF GRAVITY
G1
G • G MOVES TOWARDS A WEIGHT ADDITION
G
G
G
G
G
• G MOVES AWAY FROM A WEIGHT REMOVAL
G

KG1
KGo
• G MOVES IN THE DIRECTION OF A WEIGHT
SHIFT

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THE
METACENTER

METACENTER
G G2

B
B1 B2

M20
M45

M70 M
B

B20 B70
B45

METACENTER METACENTER

BBB
BBBB
B
B SHIFTS

0o-7/10o
M20

M M

B B20
B

CL

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M20
M45 M20
M M45
M
M70

B B

## B20 B45 B20 B70

B45

MOVEMENTS OF THE
METACENTER
THE METACENTER WILL CHANGE
M45 M20
POSITIONS IN THE VERTICAL PLANE WHEN
M70
B THE SHIP'S DISPLACEMENT CHANGES
CL

M
M90
B20
B45
B90 THE METACENTER MOVES IN ACCORDANCE
B70 WITH THESE TWO RULES:
1. WHEN B MOVES UP M MOVES DOWN.
2. WHEN B MOVES DOWN M MOVES UP.

LINEAR MEASUREMENTS IN
STABILITY
M1
M
M
M1
M
M M
M M
M11
GM
G
G BM
G
G G
G
B1
KM
B
B
B
B KG B
B
KB

K
CL

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SESSION TOPICS M M

1. Definitions G

## 2. Stability Reference Points

B

3. Stability Triangle
K

4. Conditions of Stability
CL

## 5. Stability Curve THE STABILITY

6. IMO Stability Criteria TRIANGLE G Z
7. Draft Diagram and Cross Curves

## Sin θ = opp / hyp M

Where:
MMMM
M
opposite = GZ
hypotenuse = GM
G
GG
G Z
θ
Sin θ = GZ / GM
B BB
B BB1B1B1 1 GZ = GM x Sin θ
i.e.,
K KK G Z
KK GZ α GM

CL

AS GM DECREASES M
RIGHTING ARM
M
ALSO DECREASES
G1
G

B
G1 Z1

K G Z

CL

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M
M
INITIAL
STABILITY
G

OVERALL
STABILITY
B
G Z

B B1

0 - 7°

CL RM = GZ x D
CL

SESSION TOPICS M
THE THREE CONDITIONS
G
OF STABILITY
1. Definitions
Z
B1

## 2. Stability Reference Points POSITIVE

3. Stability Triangle G M

4. Conditions of Stability
B
5. Stability Curve
B1

B1

NEGATIVE

## POSITIVE STABILITY POSITIVE STABILITY

M M

G G Z

B B
B1

K K

CL

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NEUTRAL STABILITY NEUTRAL STABILITY

M G M G

B B
B1

K K

CL

G G
M M

B B
B1

K K

CL

## RIGHTING ARM CURVE

SESSION TOPICS
RIGHTING ARMS (m)

GZ = GMInitial
1. Definitions = 57.3O

## 2. Stability Reference Points

3. Stability Triangle
4. Conditions of Stability
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
ANGLE OF HEEL (DEGREES)
5. Stability Curve
60°

40°
20°
G Z G Z G Z

## 7. Draft Diagram and Cross Curves B B B

GZ = 1.4 m GZ = 2.0 m GZ = 1 m

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MAXIMUM RIGHTING
ANGLE OF
MAXIMUM SESSION TOPICS
RIGHTING ARMS (m)

ARM
RIGHTING
ARM
ANGLE OF 1. Definitions
VANISHING
2. Stability Reference Points
DANGER
ANGLE STABILITY

3. Stability Triangle
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
4. Conditions of Stability
RANGE OF STABILITY = 73O
5. Stability Curve
20°
40°
60°
6. IMO Stability Criteria
7. Draft Diagram and Cross Curves
G Z G Z G Z
B B B

GZ = 1.4 m GZ = 2.0 m GZ = 1 m

## IMO Stability Criteria IMO Stability Criteria

1. The area under the Righting Arm
The IMO defines how stable the curve up to 30o should be at least
ship has to be by investigating the 3.15 m.degrees (0.055 m.radians).
properties of the area under the
Righting Arm curve. 2. The area under the Righting Arm
curve up to 40o or angle of
downflooding whichever is lesser
should be at least 5.16 m.degrees

## IMO Stability Criteria IMO Stability Criteria

3. The difference between items (1)
5. The maximum Righting Arm
and (2) should be at least 1.72
should occur at an angle of heel
preferably exceeding 30o but not
less than 25o.
4. The Righting Arm shall be at
least 0.2 m at an angle of heel
6. The initial GM should not be less
equal to or greater than 30o.
than 0.15 m (0.35 m for fishing
vessels).

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DRAFT DIAGRAM AND FUNCTIONS OF FORM
SESSION TOPICS
AFTER FORWARD
DRAFT MOMENT TO TRANSERSE
TONS LONGITUDINAL DRAFT
MARKS ALTER TRIM METACENTER MARKS
ABOVE BOTTOM PER CENTER OF
(FT) ONE INCH OF KEEL INCH BUOYANCY (FT)
(FOOT-TONS) DISPLACEMENT
(TONS) (FT) (TONS/IN) (FEET)
17 17

16 33
4000 4
15 22.3 3 15

## 2. Stability Reference Points

22.4 2
750 3500 32 1
14 22.5 14
700 31 1

3. Stability Triangle
13 3000 22.6 2 13
650 30 3
22.7 4
12 600 29 5 12
2550 22.8

4. Conditions of Stability
550 28 11
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CURVE OF CENTER OF FLOTATION

5. Stability Curve
30 20 10

## 7. Draft Diagram and Cross Curves

DRAFT FWD = 14 FT 6 IN KM = 22.28 FT
DRAFT AFT = 16 FT 3 IN TPI = 32.7 TONS/IN
Wo = 3850 TONS LCB = 3.5 FT AFT
MT1" = 778 FT-TONS/IN LCF = 24 FT AFT

## STATICAL STABILITY CURVE PLOTTING SHEET

10o = .55 m
CROSS CURVES OF STABILITY 15o = .85 m
CENTER OF GRAVITY ASSUMED 20o = 1.1 m
30o = 1.73 m 5
9.0 m ABOVE THE BASELINE
40o = 2.35 m
RIGHTING ARMS (FT)

## 3.0 45o = 2.55 m

10o = 0.55 m 50o = 2.6 m 4
55o = 2.5 m
2.5 50 15o = 0.85 m 60o = 2.3 m
45 55 20o = 1.10 m 3
40 60
30o = 1.73 m X X X
RIGHTING ARMS (m)

2.0
X X
40o = 2.35 m 2
X
1.5 30 45o = 2.55 m
50o = 2.60 m 1 X
X
1.0 20
55o = 2.50 m X
15
60o = 2.30 m 90
0X 57.3
0.5 10 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
ANGLE OF INCLINATION - DEGREES
3000 3500 4000 4500

DISPLACEMENT (TONNES)

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