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ABSTRACT

Real time monitoring system of digitized agricultural water supply is a

complex engineering. In this paper, the software and hardware design principal of

real time monitoring and management system in water resources and the integrated

characteristics of structure are introduced. The general planning of real time

monitoring system in integrated system in agriculture water supply is proposed. This

system, which is based on info technology and relies on computer technology,

remote controlling and automatic technology, collects, transports and processes the

water resource and its related info in the managed area in real time. The water

resources are dispatched and distributed using scientific decisive mathematical

model. The whole structure of the system can be divided into three parts: central

management system, wireless communication net and enterprise subnet system.

Some critical problems are discussed and demonstrated fully. This system has

advanced performance and applicable prospect. The great social and economic

benefit has been created by using real time monitoring system of agricultural water

supply in the North area in Shandong province, China. By contrasting the year of

2005, the effect of conventional analysis is that the volume of scarcity of water in

agricultural water supply system reaches 49.16 million m3. While the volume of

scarcity of water is 35.48 million m3 by scientific management, so the volume of

scarcity of water decreases 13.68 million m3. This means that we can save 13.68
million m3 water every year by optimizing the existing water resource. So it is

necessary to dispatch the existing water resource scientifically on time and space,

and the profit is great. The system has opened a new way for agriculture in China.
CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 IOT

The Internet of Things (IoT), sometimes referred to as the Internet of Objects,


will change everything—including ourselves. This may seem like a bold statement,
but consider the impact the Internet already has had on education, communication,
business, science, government, and humanity. Clearly, the Internet is one of the most
important and powerful creations in all of human history. Now consider that IoT
represents the next evolution of the Internet, taking a huge leap in its ability to gather,
analyze, and distribute data that we can turn into information, knowledge, and,
ultimately, wisdom. In this context, IoT becomes immensely important. Already,
IoT projects are under way that promise to close the gap between poor and rich,
improve distribution of the world’s resources to those who need them most, and help
us understand our planet so we can be more proactive and less reactive. Even so,
several barriers exist that threaten to slow IoT development, including the transition
to IPv6, having a common set of standards, and developing energy sources for
millions—even billions—of minute sensors. However, as businesses, governments,
standards bodies, and academia work together to solve these challenges, IoT will
continue to progress. The goal of this paper, therefore, is to educate you in plain and
simple terms so you can be well versed in IoT and understand its potential to change
everything we know to be true today.

1.1.1 IoT as a Network of Networks

Currently, IoT is made up of a loose collection of disparate, purpose-built


networks. Today’s cars, for example, have multiple networks to control engine
function, safety features, communications systems, and so on. Commercial and
residential buildings also have various control systems for heating, venting, and air
conditioning (HVAC); telephone service; security; and lighting. As IoT evolves,
these networks, and many others, will be connected with added security, analytics,
and management capabilities. This will allow IoT to become even more powerful in
what it can help people achieve.

Fig 1.2 Internet as a network of networks

1.1.2 Why Is IoT Important?

Before we can begin to see the importance of IoT, it is first necessary to


understand the differences between the Internet and the World Wide Web (or web)—
terms that are often used interchangeably. The Internet is the physical layer or
network made up of switches, routers, and other equipment. Its primary function is
to transport information from one point to another quickly, reliably, and securely.
The web, on the other hand, is an application layer that operates on top of the
Internet. Its primary role is to provide an interface that makes the information
flowing across the Internet usable.

1.2 SYSTEM OVERVIEW


Agriculture is the base of the Chinese national economy. Among all the factors in
agriculture, the reasonable utilization of water resources has relations with the
sustainable development of agriculture straightly. As a large part in using water,
sustainable water utilization in agriculture determines the sustainable utilization of
water resources in a high degree, especially in arid and semi-arid region. The
sustainable water utilization in agriculture needs innovative research and updated
technique. The north region of Shandong province in the Haihe drainage basin,
which is 29713 km2, is a small river valley of relative closing. It includes all the two
city of Liaocheng and Dezhou and parts of Jinan, Dongying, and Binzhou which are
in the north of yellow river, Total of 29 counties. It is the important area of cotton
production. In this river valley the average rainfall of many years is 528.5mm, and
the runoff deep in many years is 47.1mm, which is the minimum rainfall area in
Shandong province. If deducting the overlapped quantity between earth's surface
water and groundwater, the total amount of water resources in this river valley would
be 39.8 × 108 m3. The quantity of water which can be utilized is 27.11×108 m3 . In
this area the quantity of the earth's surface water resource is 14×108 m3and the
quantity of groundwater resources is 27.9×108m3. The water quantity per capita is
249.6 m3 in this area which belongs to arid and semiarid regions in China.

The region's population totals 11.176 million at the end of 2000, and the
population for agriculture is 8.973 million, the total crop yield 15.5 ×108t. The GDP
is 1453×108 RMB Yuan, which includes the first industries 726.5×108 Yuan, and
the second industries 392.31×108Yuan, the third industries 334.19×108Yuan, The
whole water used in the whole region is 62.9×108 m3, which includes the quantity
of the earth's surface water (including the water from other regions) is 38×108 m3
and the quantity of the groundwater is 24.9×108 m3. At present, the water structure
is: the water used in industry is 15.07×108 m3, the water used in people's life is
11.7×108 m3, both account for 42.5% of the whole water used, and the water used
in environment is 0.9435×108 m3, which accounts for 1.5% of the whole water used.
The water used in agriculture irrigation is 27.7×108 m3, which occupying the whole
water used is 55.94%. In all the crops, the food crop contends about 40%, the average
list produces is 6348 kg/hm2; The forest area in the north of Shandong province is
2.26×105 hm2, and the forest coverage rate is 7.6%. The sewage processing rate in
2000 was 13.7%.

1.2.1 The Performance of Real Time Monitoring System of Agricultural Water


Supply

Water resources are a complex system. Researching its behavior of


removability, restoration and adjustment, the conditions of water resources can be
ameliorated by human interference according to practical situation. There are both
independency and indivisible affiliation between surface-water system and
groundwater system. Under the effect of their feeding conditions, the water quantity
of each system is independent at the facet of asymmetry. However, they are both
part of water cycle, and they can transform each other by the way of feed, current
and drainage. That means that they can put up the affiliation by the course of water
moving.

1.2.2 The Integration Technology of Water Resources Real-Time Monitoring


System

Water resources real-time monitoring system is a huge, complicated,


integrated application system. The system involves many different technologies and
methods including network technology, integrated technology, sensor technology,
database technology, telecommunication technology and information management
method. The system has many subsystems, which are why we adopt the system
integrated technology to effectively organize and coordinate every subsystem. The
function of real time monitoring system includes real time monitoring of water
resources, real time forecasting of water resources, real time dispatching of
agricultural water supply, and real time management of water resources. The system
is composed of four subsystems. They are real time data collecting, management of
synthetic information, comprehensive analysis and supporting planning, and real
time control. All subsystems are connected and operate coordinately. Real time
monitoring system of water resources is an integrated system including hydraulic
technology, computational and communication technology, remote sense
technology, automation, and specialist decision-making.

1.2.3 The Composing of the System and its Main Function

Water resources real-time monitoring system is a complicated, huge,


integrated application system. The system involves many different technologies and
methods including network technology, integration technology, sensor technology,
database technology, telecommunication technology and information management
method. The system has many subsystems, that’s why we adopt the system
integration technology to effectively organize and coordinate every subsystem.

This system, which is based on info technology and relies on computer


technology, remote controlling and automatic technology real time collects,
transports and processes the water resource and its related info in the managed area,
and optimizes arrangement and at tempers the water resource using scientific
decisive mathematical model. The function summary and the whole structure of the
system are showed as fig 1. The whole structure of the system can be divided into
three parts:
 Central management system
 Wireless communication net
 Enterprise subnet system.

1.3 Central Management System


1.3.1 Subsystem of Water Resource Online data collecting

It supplies automatic collection of the monitoring data of the related water


resource and water environment and online analysis of the data reliability. It also
supplies data collecting interface with all kinds of monitors, dynamic collects
monitoring data through interface module, and analyze the validity of data to ensure
the validity, integrity and reliability of the monitoring info saved into the data base.

1.3.2 Subsystem of Water Resource Real Time Monitoring

It manages data of all kinds of water resource and water environment


monitoring projects, has the functions of input, saving, recognizing, inquiring and
transporting monitoring data, integrated manages and processes the monitoring data
of water resource and shows the output in the ways of chart and simulating cartoon.

1.3.3 Subsystem of Water Resource Real Time Dispatching

It can remotely control the pumping water establishment according to the real
time collected local data and the arrangement of resource.

1.3.4 Subsystem of integrated analysis and decision-making supporting

It analyzes processes and disposes the real time data of the system to analyze
and forecasts the trend of the variety of local water resource scientifically using the
scientific mathematical model, and dynamically outputs the result in the way of real
time report.
1.3.5 Data warehouse, model base and repository

Data warehouse is the fundament of the operation of the whole system, and it
saves lots of real time and complex monitoring data. Model base supplies the
processing model used by corresponding analysis and process and routine library of
the computing method. Repository saves info of management knowledge including:
A. the monitoring index of the projects; B. the judging criterion of daily inspection;
C. the limited error the monitoring data; D. index of special rules; E. the knowledge
and experience of experts; F. irrigation laws and regulation, related item of calling
rules and regulation.

Application integration systematically connects surface water subsystem,


ground water subsystem, cloud water subsystem, sewer recycle subsystem, water
demands subsystem and all other subsystems. It also diminishes barriers between
subsystems. Application integration adopts message middleware technique and web
service technique to realize asynchronous data transmission between every
subsystem. This connects originally isolated subsystems, making them work
cooperatively. Message middleware listens to service request messages from all
subsystems and stores them into message queues, and then sends them according to
their types to service providers when the providers are available. The messages
trigger relevant services in the service providers to open connections between
demanders (that is to say water demanding system and the like) and service providers
(that’s water supply system and the like).

1.4 Wireless Communication Net

It combines the computer of the managing center and the subnet of enterprise
using water into a main computer data traffic net by FC2201PA type big power data
transmit Broadcasting station. The computer of managing center real time collects
the data of each monitoring unit for the analysis of the system through exchanging
data by net.

To have a better performance of our network, we need adequate bandwidth,


redundant data links in the backbone network (for example, using gigabit fiber-optic
network for backbone network, megabit network to desktop). We also need servers
and switches with powerful processing capability (for instance, using high-capable
network core switches with 64 gigabit bandwidth) at the same time reserving room
for capability extension. We should carefully choose network design to avoid
possible network bottleneck. We should optimize VLAN design in order to
effectively isolate unnecessary broadcasting and rubbish data-stream.

1.5 Subnet System of Project

The area data collecting and controlling net of industry locale is composed by
controlling computer of the project center Control Section center, router of data
traffic centralizer, collection control of locale data, aptitude instrument, second rank
subnet and so on, and it is the locale monitoring and controlling parts of the whole
system, and enforces the missions of the collection, process, communication and
controlling of the former end data. Web services and XML. XML is a cross-platform
information exchange standard. Web service based on XML, hides the service
implementing details and allows the services being used by any programming
language on any hardware or software platform. Web service provides an API which
can be called by programs via Web. Under the conditions of following Web service
standards, any application program or component from any platform, programming
model or developing language can be deployed as Web service. Any other
differently constructed applications or components can access this Web service via
network and establish non-gap connection. Web service makes application
integration faster, easier and cheaper than before.
CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Junyun Yang, Zhigang Chen, Research and application of the data
integration solution based on XML[J], Computer and Information Technology,
No.6, 2002.

Metadata integration is an important issue in metadata management. It


presents a metadata integration strategy based on SOA architecture for data
warehouses. In this strategy, Web Service is adopted as application frame; Metadata
is modeled by CWM and metadata encapsulation is designed in XML. The metadata
from distributed data warehouses has been efficiently integrated and reused. It
focuses on the architecture of the system, the structure design of CWM, as well as
various Web Service methods creation and call. Finally, verify the feasibility,
effectiveness and practicability of this solution by experiment. The metadata is an
important constituted part of data warehouse, is the bond of contacting each part in
the data warehouse, and acts on the each aspect of establishment, maintenance,
management and use in data warehouse. Currently, the metadata management has
become one of important technique in the data warehouse research. The metadata
management of data warehouse mainly includes metadata classification, storage,
maintenance, updating, integration and commutation etc. At present, the researches
on metadata management mainly concentrate on the metadata classification, the
functions and system frameworks of metadata management system etc.; but the
research on metadata integration is relatively less. Reference discussed problem of
metadata integration, and thought the precondition of the metadata integration was
building up a core and unified metadata model. Reference put forward a kind of
Common Warehouse Metamodel (CWM), and analyzed concrete seal and how to
carry on the metadata to save and manage. References studied the problem of
metadata integration and commutation format based on CWM model. Reference
studied the problem of metadata sealing based on the XML. Reference put forward
a kind of FIRA (Federated Interoperable Relational Algebra) used for metadata
integration relation algebra. These researches lay foundation for further research on
the problem of metadata integration. But these researches lack thorough study
towards the problem of metadata integration in the distributing environment data
warehouse currently.

2.2 SJA 1000 DataSheet [Z] . Water Quality Monitoring System Based on IOT

Water pollution is one of the biggest fears for the green globalization. In order
to ensure the safe supply of the drinking water the quality needs to be monitor in real
time. In this paper we present a design and development of a low cost system for
real time monitoring of the water quality in IOT(internet of things).The system
consist of several sensors is used to measuring physical and chemical parameters of
the water. The parameters such as temperature, PH, turbidity, flow sensor of the
water can be measured. The measured values from the sensors can be processed by
the core controller. The Arduino model can be used as a core controller. Finally, the
sensor data can be viewed on internet using WI-FI system. In the 21st century, there
were lots of inventions, but at the same time were pollutions, global warming and so
on are being formed, because of this there is no safe drinking water for the world’s
pollution. Nowadays, water quality monitoring in real time faces challenges because
of global warming limited water resources, growing population, etc. Hence there is
need of developing better methodologies to monitor the water quality parameters in
real time. The water quality parameters pH measures the concentration of hydrogen
ions. It shows the water is acidic or alkaline. Pure water has 7pH value, less than
7pH has acidic, more than 7pH has alkaline.
2.3 Ram, V., H. Vishal, S. Dhanalakshmi, and P. MeenakshiVidya. "Regulation
of water in agriculture field using Internet of Things." In Technological
Innovation in ICT for Agriculture and Rural Development (TIAR), pp.
112115.1EEE, 2015

Indian agriculture is diverse; ranging from impoverished farm villages to


developed farms utilizing modern agricultural technologies. Facility agriculture area
in China is expanding, and is leading the world. However, its ecosystem control
technology and system is still immature, with low level of intelligence. Promoting
application of modern information technology in agriculture will solve a series of
problems facing by farmers. Lack of exact information and communication leads to
the loss in production. Our paper is designed to overcome these problems. This
regulator provides an intelligent monitoring platform framework and system
structure for facility agriculture ecosystem based on IOT. This will be a catalyst for
the transition from traditional farming to modern farming. This also provides
opportunity for creating new technology and service development in IOT (internet
of things) farming application. The Internet of Things makes everything connected.
Over 50 years since independence, India has made immense progress towards food
productivity. The Indian population has tripled, but food grain production more than
quadrupled: there has thus been a substantial increase in available food grain per ca-
pita. Modern agriculture practices have a great promise for the economic
development of a nation. So we have brought-in an innovative project for the welfare
of farmers and also for the farms. There are no day or night restrictions. This is
helpful at any time.

2.4 Shaoyou Guo, Web Service and Integration of Information Systems of


Enterprises[J], Information Science, Vol. 21 No.3, Mar.3 2000.
With the vigorous development of web technology, Enterprise information system
has from the traditional closed, independent model into a more flexible open,
cooperation model. Enterprise information system integration is also from pure
procedure of integration, gradually transition between enterprise range and the
different between applications across the enterprise integration. This paper discusses
how to use XML based Web Service technology enterprise to realize the integration
of information, make each systems work together smoothly, greatly improving
enterprise benefit. Along with the computer and network technology development,
the enterprise informatization and digital gradually become reality. With the
development of informatization and enterprise increasingly wide information
requirement, the enterprise internal operation of the application system, the function
demand will increase, however these existing enterprise information system mostly
independent operation, the connection degree between systems is very low, which
result in different system of basic material repeated enter into, information resources
sharing, primary applications department can use warm is not high, this needs in
carrying out the information system integration, the information unified,
standardized treatment.

2.5 Yu Lin, Hong Lin, Real time automation of agricultural environment [J],
Programmer, No.5, 2004

The paper, “Real time automation of agricultural environment”, using


PIC16F877A and GSM SIM300 modem is focused on automating the irrigation
system for social welfare of Indian agricultural system. This system will be useful
for monitoring the soil moisture condition of the farm as well as controlling the soil
moisture by monitoring the level of water in the water source and accordingly
switching the motor ON/OFF for irrigation purposes. The system proposes a soil
moisture sensor at each place where the moisture has to be monitored. Once the
moisture reaches a particular level, the system takes appropriate steps to regulate or
even stop the water flow. The circuit also monitors the water in the water source so
that if the water level becomes very low, it switches off the motor to prevent damage
to the motor due to dry run. The system also consists of a GSM modem through
which the farmer can easily be notified about the critical conditions occurring during
irrigation process.

2.6 Rodolfo J. Aguilar Wireless sensor based control system in agriculture


field:, Inc. Englewood Cliffs. New Jersey 1973.

In an advanced agriculture the consumption of water is very high. Due to the


developments in technology, efforts are being channeled into automation of
irrigation systems to facilitate remote control of the irrigation to optimize crop
production and cost effectiveness. In agriculture field, the current agricultural
practices need to intensify the rate of food crop production for the rate of population
growth with available resources. This proposed work describes the automated
system to make effective utilization of water resources for agriculture and crop
growth monitoring using GSM. The effective utilization of drip irrigation process is
improved by using the signals obtained from soil moisture sensor. The output signals
of the sensors are coordinated by the microcontroller and transmitted to the user with
the help of GSM Modem. Irrigation is the process of artificially supplying water to
land where crops are cultivated. Traditionally hand pumps; canal water and rainfall
were a major source of water supply for irrigation. This method has led to severe
drawbacks like under irrigation, over-irrigation which in turn causes leaching and
loss of nutrient content of soil. The optimized water use for an agriculture crops has
been achieved successfully by this system. The system that can report data to the
cultivator remotely and allows to control the process effectively with GSM.
2.7 Wei quan etc., Operation and management of drinking water supply project
in rural regions of loess plateau Beijing, Hydroelectric press.1988.

Water is the basic element for human survival and development, and access to safe
drinking water has been an important national goal in rural areas of China. In loess
plateau regions of China, however, due to the drought climate, scarce water
resources, backward economy and simple technology, the problem of drinking water
safety has been seriously endangered the health of the people, and hindered the
development of the local socio-economic. Therefore, a lot of rural drinking water
projects were constructed in northwest China to improve the living standard for the
peasants, which is also the base of building a new socialist countryside. Most of this
rural drinking water projects are small-scale centralized works with wide coverage,
dispersed water-consumption points and lack of professional technical personnel,
this made it supply water for the local residents inefficiently. Through years of
exploration and practice, lots of problems has come out, some even influence the
project benign running and their long term benefits. Thus this paper aims to propose
an effective pattern for rural drinking water operation and management. In fact, these
projects operation is not a piece of cake though they are small works, of which the
water conveyance distance is long, the water pressure difference of pipe net is large,
the temporal variation of water demand is greatly, and the short-term total water
demand is far less than the long-term design volume. This paper proposed a practical
supply mode for recent running, which is consist of district water supply, elevate
reservoirs skillful utlization, spare pump flexible usage and remote intelligent
monitor. According to management conditions of Yangchuan Drinking Water
Projects, one of the effective management models is established. The management
system consists of two components. The Water Management Station and the Branch
Station are specialized agencies, while supported by the Township Water
Committees and Village Water Users Associations. Their responsibilities include
monitoring the project operation daily, maintaining regularly, repairing timely and
punishment strictly and so on. Before the government launched the drinking water
project in the countryside, many rural areas in loess plateau of China had been
suffering from severe water shortage, and in years of drought, some residents in
outlying areas would have to carry water from several kilometers away. In some
areas, the arsenic, fluorine and saline content in water was above the healthy
standards set by the Ministry of Health.

2.8 Cho Zin Myint “Reconfigurable smart water quality monitoring system in
IoT environment” Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering,
Curtin University in 24-26 May 2017

Since the effective and efficient system of water quality monitoring (WQM)
are critical implementation for the issue of polluted water globally, with increasing
in the development of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technology in the Internet
of Things (IoT) environment, real time water quality monitoring is remotely
monitored by means of real-time data acquisition, transmission and processing. This
paper presents a reconfigurable smart sensor interface device for water quality
monitoring system in an IoT environment. The smart WQM system consists of Field
Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) design board, sensors, Zigbee based wireless
communication module and personal computer (PC). The FPGA board is the core
component of the proposed system and it is programmed in very high speed
integrated circuit hardware description language (VHDL) and C programming
language using Quartus II software and Qsys tool. The proposed WQM system
collects the five parameters of water data such as water pH, water level, turbidity,
carbon dioxide (CO2) on the surface of water and water temperature in parallel and
in real time basis with high speed from multiple different sensor nodes. The Wireless
Sensor Network (WSN) and wireless communication technologies have been
increasingly developed for assisting human's personal and professional daily tasks.
The applications of wireless technologies have been developed for the data
acquisition, building control, environmental monitoring systems and automation of
manufacturing processes in recent years. Today's state-of-the-art WSNs have more
advantages such as low costs for both installation and maintenance, and longer
operating time. The remote sensor network can be used for stationary or mobile
sensor networks. The remote sensor network is commonly used for different
purposes such as surveying the development of city infrastructure, environmental
monitoring, telemedicine or remote health care, research in agriculture, fishing
surveillance, farming, border security, traffic management, forestry management,
and disaster prevention. A WSN consists of compactly dispersed sensor nodes for
sensing, signal processing, embedded computing, and connectivity. This system
enables the interaction between persons or computers and the surrounding
environment through wireless link. Although the WSNs were used in military and
heavy industrial applications originally, today's WSN applications are used for
different purposes from the light industrial to heavy industrial systems.

2.9 Rajendra Akhil Kumar Crop Monitoring using Visual Sensors and IOT
SSRG International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering
(SSRG-IJECE) – Volume 4 Issue 4 – April 2017

The trending and future technologies like IOT, digital image processing
alongside sensor networks has demonstrated their evitable accomplishment in
different applications individually, but the combination of these is so far non-
existent. The idea of work manages combining these advancements in agricultural
sector which requires present day mechanical impressions. The principle objective
required for product development (crop) is information, that is the data about the
climatic, soil and water conditions. All the information about the dynamic ecological
conditions are detected utilizing wireless sensors. While the monitoring of the field
is done by capturing the crop at regular intervals using camera these pictures undergo
image processing to perform histogram analysis in the MATLAB software. Results
of above processes are shared using IoT to Client through Cloud. Agriculture is the
science or practice of farming with cultivation of soil for growing of crops and other
products. India owns agrarian economy with 70% of population depending upon
agriculture directly or in – directly. In such a developing country where digitization
is given high priority, technology is showing its optimization in various fields
whereas it still requires footprints into agriculture so modern smart move in the field
is greatly recommended. The problem with current agricultural system are
(a)Scarcity in water and electricity actually required for plant growth (b)Traditional
methods of farming are followed requiring-much man-power (c)Nonremunerative
for the farmer as the cost of production is increased (d)Prices are fixed diminishing
farmers profit margin.

2.10 Li, Sanbo. "Application of the Internet of Things Technology in Precision


Agriculture Irrigation Systems." In Computer Science & Service System
(CSSS), 2012 International Conference on, pp. 1009-1013. IEEE, 2012.

Our country is one of the scarce water resources in 13 countries in the world,
shortage of water resources as well as the low utilization of water resources restricts
our country economy developing sustainably. In order to effectively reduce the
impact of inadequate water resources on China's economy, from modern agricultural
cultivation and management perspective, according to the basic principles of
Internet, with wireless sensor technology, this article proposes precision agriculture
irrigation systems based on the internet of things (IOT) technology, and focuses on
the hardware architecture, network architecture and software process control of the
precision irrigation system. Preliminary tests showed this system. is rational and
practical. Our country is one of the scarce water resources in 13 countries in the
world, hortage of water resources as well as the low utilization of water resources
restricts our country economy sustainable development. According to statistics, the
current agricultural water use is about 80% of total water consumption in China, of
which about 90% is for crop irrigation, crop irrigation area is up to 500 billion M3(Of
which: canal irrigation area is approximately 390 billion cubic meters, well irrigation
area is 110 billion cubic meters). But the utilization of water is only 0.35(Of
which:the utilization of drainage water irrigation is 0.3, and well water irrigation is
0.05), it is only 50 percent of the developed countries(the utilization of water in
developed countries is 0.7 to 0.9). In order to effectively reduce With the maturity
and popularity of Internet technology, Internet applications have developed rapidly
in the modem agriculture development. Precision agricultural irrigation based on
Internet technology is based on crop water requirement rules, using Internet
technology and wireless sensor network technology to control water-saving
irrigation of farmland and to maximize the scientific use of water, not only can
greatly improve the utilization of water, and can increase water productivity.
CHAPTER 3

EXISTING SYSTEM

In this system, focusing on continuous and real time monitoring of water


supply in IOT platform. Water supply with continuous monitoring makes a proper
distribution so that, we can have a record of available amount of water in tanks, flow
rate, abnormality in distribution line. Internet of things is nothing but the network of
physical objects embedded with electronics, sensors, software, and network
connectivity. Monitoring can be done from anywhere as central office. Using
thingspeak as free server data continuously pushed on cloud so we can see data in
real time operation. Using different sensors with controller and raspberry pi as
Minicomputer can monitor data and also control operation from cloud with efficient
client server communication. A large quantity of water is necessary for producing
crops such as rice and wheat, as well as vegetables or fruits. 3 times give water
supply for each year. Valves controlled by former. Ground water is used. Supplied
water partially shared for lands

3.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT

For the purpose of monitoring the water supply in real time, we go for a
sophisticated method of Water Supply Chain System for Agriculture Using Real
Time IoT Network. Today, India ranks second in the world in farm output 64% of
cultivated land dependent on monsoons. Irrigation accounts for 55-75% of water
usage in India. Nearly 60% of the water used in irrigation is wasted. We conserve
water by using soil moisture sensors, thereby reducing wastage of water used for
irrigation.
In the case of traditional irrigation system water saving is not considered.
Since, the water is irrigated directly in the land, plants under go high stress from
variation in soil moisture, therefore plant appearance is reduced. The absence of
automatic controlling of the system result in improper water control system. The
major reason for these limitations is the growth of population which is increasing at
a faster rate.

At present there is emerging global water crisis where managing scarcity of


water has become a serious job. This growth can be seen in countries which have
shortage of water resources and are economically poor. So, this is the serious
problem in agriculture area. So, we want to design an Smart Irrigation System which
is based on software programming using Arduino microcontroller that operate
automatically by sensing the moisture content of the soil and turn ON/OFF the pump
using relay without the intervention of farmer and hence save water.

Botswana’s agricultural sector be highly affected by climatic variations


because of increased temperatures, reduced rainfall and the frequent occurrence of
drought. Horticulture industry is mainly constrained by water shortage due to the
dependence on seasonal unreliable rainfall and poor farm management practices.
These challenges threaten food security of the country since it heavily relies of
imported foods products. Climate change will reduce the quality and quantity of
exported goods due to reduced agricultural surplus. Agricultural purposes uses 85%
of available fresh water, the demand for food and water consumption will continue
to increase as long as population increases.

Major part of the country remains unproductive mainly due to poor sandy soil
and deeper aquifers of the Kalahari Desert. Despite having abundance of sunlight,
the source of energy remains untapped. In addition, high power/fuel cost and long
distances to the market have increased the cost production. Despite the challenges
of water shortages, over-irrigation is a problem attributed to inadequate irrigation
scheduling and moisture content monitoring. Poor traditional practices of irrigation
like low frequency and high volumes irrigation usually results in inefficient water
use. Improved irrigation efficiency can make the vegetable industry more
competitive and sustainable as a result the production cost will be low. The irrigation
management practices are designed to avoid moisture stress with little water while
maximizing yield. Increased labor costs, stricter Ecofriendly regulations and
increased competition for water resources from urban areas is a wakeup call to
provide more efficient Irrigation system.

3.2 PROBLEM ANALYSIS

In order to overcome these challenges, farmers need to be equipped and


updated with new improved production practices through research and extension
services strategies that are climate smart. Solar energy remains the most reliable,
renewable environmental friendly source of energy, which needs to be integrated
into modern day farming technologies. Automated drip irrigation system has proven
to be water efficient in optimizing agricultural production. Fertigation process
allows fertilizer to be applied at the root zone in the right proportion through the
irrigation system. Irrigation and fertigation management is one of the main
determining factors of quality and productivity in agribusiness. The advancement of
technology has allowed development of various methodologies for monitoring soil
moisture status automatically to irrigate without human intervention. This research
proposes a system has great capacity in water savings compared to traditional
methods of irrigation scheduling and fertilization.
Intelligent smart farming system is such that pH control, nutrient supply and
plant water requirement supply is monitored and adjusted automatically through use
of sensors and closed-loop feedback system. Further work by Rahali et al. supports
this claim that electronic system achieves the control and remote monitoring of
greenhouse solutions, in particular drip irrigation stations. This system uses a
preprogrammed setup to collect real time data in the environment through sensors.
Modern irrigation incorporates the use of Micro controller mechanism, which gives
the farmer real time update on irrigation activities. This automation technology has
closed-loop feedback mechanism were soil pH, fertigation and soil moisture content
are controlled, monitored and adjusted accordingly.

3.3 DISADVANTAGES IN EXISTING SYSTEM


 The quality & quantity of the water supplied is not subject to any debate.
 Extensive knowledge regarding crop patterns required.
 Based mainly on trial & error method.
 The water is not reused for irrigation.
CHAPTER 4

PROPOSED SYSTEM

This project proposes a research on the experimentation and development of


a fully automated moisture-based irrigation system, nutrient solution application and
monitoring of pH using a computerized feedback loop system in open field. There
is need to measure the efficiencies of calibrate sensors, tensiometers, and dielectric
probe in monitoring soil moisture efficiently and effectively. The irrigation will be
carried out according to the moisture content deficit and compare the yields per unit
area for the different devices. The core reason for irrigating according to moisture
content deficit is to maintain the optimum amount of moisture the plant requires and
still retain the same or increase yield while cutting costs of production.

This project powered is by sustainable, renewable solar power system, which


offers sufficient and effective energy for farmers at low cost. The system will use
microcontroller, for the interface connected to a PC for monitoring and GSM (Global
System for Mobile communication) for remote communication with the system
which is convenient for farmers through text SMS. The setup is selected for its real
time, user friendliness, flexibility and availability at low cost. Moisture sensors
which are considered to be the most efficient instruments for their real time moisture
monitoring will be incorporated. The technology allows users uses smart mobile to
control farm field activities through wireless network. The main aim of this project
is to demonstrate the economic feasibility of advanced computerized production
technologies.

4.1 The Address Coding and Communication Protocols


4.1.1 Address encoding method
For the nodes within backbone network, use systematic code and sub-address
code. Within every segment, a data concentration router manages each node. The
data concentration router of lower level is the node of upper level. The way to encode
the node address is to use its address code and the address code of the concentrator
it belongs to.

4.1.2 Wireless communication protocol

The Digital Audio Broadcasting is based on the addressing communication


using the communication methods known as “one to many “and “principal and
subordinate”.

Sending frame: Frame starts + destination address code + data length + frame
sequence number + data block + check code

Frame starts: the header identification bytes specifically fixed by the


broadcasting stations.

Destination address code: the address of the destination code of


communication.

Data length: the bytes of the data transferred + 1.

Frame sequence number: sequence number for the data block transmission,
for single frame or the last frame, it is 0FFH.

Data block: the data transported.

Check code: the complement of the check sum of data length, frame sequence
number and data block

Receiving frame: frame flag + source address code + data length + frame
sequence number + data block + check number
The frames should be sent at the same time except that the address code
transferred equals to the source address code.

4.1.3 CAN bus communication protocol

The protocol of data link layer and physical layer of CAN: completed by
PHILIPS SJA 1000 CAN controller and PCA82C250 CAN controller interface. The
application layer protocol use command protocol according to the CAN 2. 0A
standard:

Node address + type length + command-string / data types + address of


sending source + data block

The nodes perform the command and exchange data by command-string / data
types and the contents of corresponding data block.

4.1.4 The reliability design of the system

(1) Electrical source cleanse

In order to prevent the electrical source pollution such as high voltage, high
frequency humorous wave, surge yielded by spot complex electric environment such
as high voltage equipment, frequency conversion timing and ensure the stability of
the system, the system adopts lots of electrical source cleanse measures: adopting
AC purge electrical source, low voltage electrical source parts, filtering, stabilizing
voltage, anti-surge, protection of excess voltage and current and so on.

(2) Signal insulation

The system analogy and figure input and output and CAN bus adopt the way
of light and electricity insulation. The insulating electrical source adopts efficient
DC2DC transforming module to prevent the system from the disturbing of locale.
(3) Preventing lightning strike (surge)

Thunder is extremely disastrous; besides, the surge voltage and excessive


current can also do great harm to the system. There are two kinds of preventing
measure: the first one is using thunder avoiding equipment. Wireless communication
system, especially weather reflection system, is subject to lightning strike. So
lightning rod is essential to the antenna, and lightning arrester must be installed
between reflecting line and broadcasting station; the second one is earthing credibly,
reducing the earthing impedance to the least, the AC input end of electrical source
module and CAN bus interface use the high-power TVS diode to absorb thunder
surge.

(4) Watchdog timing resetting circuit

The system adopts watchdog timing resetting circuit, when the system dies
for certain failure, the resetting circuit forces the system to reset. The resetting time
determined by the demanding of real time response is from the range of 200ms to 1
sec.

(5) The processing of the software error

All of the system software adopts real time multitask operating system except
the management center, which could not only real time process emergency but also
will not engross CPU for a long time. The error processing function module of the
system can process the exceeding limit dying circle task to ensure the stability and
reliability of the system.

4.2 Technology

This system, is based on info technology. It relies on computer technology,


remote controlling and automatic technology. It collects, transports and processes
the water resource and its related info in the managed area in real time. The water
resources are dispatched and distributed using scientific decisive mathematical
model.

4.3 Advantages
 Cost effective method
 Optimize water use
 Sustain high-yielding
 High quality crop production

4.4 Module split-up


 Farmer Module
 Sensor Module
 IOT Module
 Agriculture Authority Module
 Feedback Module

4.4.1 Farmer Module

A farmer is a person engaged in agriculture, raising living organisms for food


or raw materials. The term usually applies to people who do some combination of
raising field crops, orchards, vineyards, poultry, or other livestock. Farmer has to
register to the water authority during the registration time they will collect the whole
information such as Location, Land properties (area, soil type, climate condition
etc.), Crop details.

 Registration form
 Login form
 Submit data about land detail and required water

4.4.2 Sensor Module

A sensor is a device, module, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events


or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics,
frequently a computer processor. A sensor is always used with other electronics,
whether as simple as a light or as complex as a computer. The sensor module detects
the moisture level in the soil, the amount of water to be pumped out, etc.

 Moisture sensor device


 Solar panel with battery
 Electronics circuits for connection and hardware control
 Pump control with relay

4.4.3 IOT Module

IOT is short for Internet of Things. The IOT is inter-networking of physical


devices. This system has ability to transfer data over a network without requiring
human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction. They will update details to the
controlling station and water supply process will started.

 IOT network
 IP address
 MQTT protocol
 Store data to database
 Remote access
4.4.4 Agriculture Authority Module

The Authority is the successor of former regulatory institutions in the sector


that were merged into Directorates under the Authority, with the commencement of
Crops Act, 2013 on 1st August 2014. From the collected data the water authority
will calculate the amount of water required for the particular user

 The Ministry of Agriculture Welfare a branch of the Government of India,


is the apex body for formulation and administration of the rules and
regulations and laws related to agriculture in India.
 LOGIN
 Data submit model
 Data insert to database

4.4.5 Feedback Module

The information about reactions to a product, a person's performance of a task,


etc. which is used as a basis for improvement. Water authority will collect the
feedback from the farmer for future enhancement.

 Water supply requirements


 Complaints
 Suggestions
4.5 CROP WATER NEEDED

Crops Water

Beans 300 - 500

Citrus 900 - 1200

Cotton 700 - 1300

Groundnut 500 - 700

Maize 500 - 800

Sorghum/millet 450 - 650

Soybean 450 - 700

Sunflower 600 - 1000


4.6 BLOCK DIAGRAM

Power Supply

Moisture ESP 8266


Sensor Arduino Module

Fig 4.1: Block Diagram


4.7 OVERALL ARCHITECTURE

Fig 4.2: Overall Architecture

It is implemented by using an Arduino microcontroller which is programmed


in C programming language. In simulation process we are using four components
namely Arduino microcontroller, Simple DC motor, Switch, Standard resistor of 10
kilo ohm. Three components are interface with Arduino microcontroller in such a
way that DC motor connected at pin2 and switch and resistor connected at pin3. All
these are connected as an input pin. Sensing arrangement is made by inserting two
stiff metallic rods into the field at some distance. An op-amp is used as a comparator
that interfaces microcontroller and the sensing arrangement. On receiving the signal,
the microcontroller produces an output that the drive a relay and operates the water
pump. Also, LCD is used which is interfaced with microcontroller for displaying the
moisture content of the soil and water pump status.

Sensor circuit senses the condition of soil and compares the voltage with the
reference voltage i.e. 5V. If the condition of soil is less than the reference voltage
i.e. dry, then the high signal goes to the microcontroller [“logic 1”], this will turn
ON the motor and make motor to pump water to the field. Once the microcontroller
gets the data from the sensing material – it compares the data as programmed in a
way, which generates output signals and activates the relays for operating the
submersible pump. The sensing arrangement is done with the help of two stiff
metallic rods that are inserted into the agricultural field at some distance. The
required connections from these metallic rods are interfaced to the control unit for
controlling the operations of the pump according to the soil moisture content.

When the soil is wet, the voltage is greater than the reference voltage then low
signal goes to the microcontroller which will turn OFF the motor and stop pumping
water to the field. The condition of soil and motor are display in the LCD screen.
4.8 DATA FLOW DIAGRAM

Fig 4.3: DFD for Admin


Fig 4.4: DFD for User
CHAPTER 5

HARDWARE USED

5.1 ARDUINO UNO


5.1.1 OVERVIEW

The Arduino Uno is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328 . It has


14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog
inputs, a 16 MHz ceramic resonator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP
header, and a reset button. It contains everything needed to support the
microcontroller; simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with
a AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started. The Uno differs from all preceding
boards in that it does not use the FTDI USB-to-serial driver chip. Instead, it features
the Atmega16U2 (Atmega8U2 up to version R2) programmed as a USB-to-serial
converter. Board has the following new features:

Atmega 16U2 replace the 8U2. "Uno" means one in Italian and is named to
mark the upcoming release of Arduino 1.0. The Uno and version 1.0 will be the
reference versions of Arduino, moving forward. The Uno is the latest in a series of
USB Arduino boards, and the reference model for the Arduino platform; for a
comparison with previous version 2.2 Schematic & Reference Design The Arduino
reference design can use an Atmega8, 168, or 328, Current models use an
ATmega328, but an Atmega8 is shown in the schematic for reference. The pin
configuration is identical on all three processors. 2.3 Summary Microcontroller -
ATmega328 Operating Voltage - 5V Input Voltage - 7-12V (Recommended) Input
Voltage (limits) - 6-20V Digital I/O Pins - 14 (of which 6 provide PWM output)
Analog Input Pins - 6 DC Current per I/O Pin - 40 mA DC Current for 3.3V Pin - 50
mA Flash Memory - 32 KB (ATmega328) of which 0.5 KB used by bootloader
SRAM - 2 KB (ATmega328) EEPROM - 1 KB (ATmega328) Clock Speed - 16
MHz 2.4 Power The Arduino Uno can be powered via the USB connection or with
an external power supply. The power source is selected automatically. External
(non-USB) power can come either from an AC-to-DC adapter (wall-wart) or battery.
The adapter can be connected by plugging a 2.1mm center-positive plug into the
board's power jack. Leads from a battery can be inserted in the Gnd and Vin pin
headers of the POWER connector. The board can operate on an external supply of 6
to 20 volts. If supplied with less than 7V, however, the 5V pin may supply less than
five volts and the board may be unstable. If using more than 12V, the voltage
regulator may overheat and damage the board. The recommended range is 7 to 12
volts.

Fig 5.1 Arduino Uno

5.1.2 PIN DESCRIPTION

Each of the 14 digital pins on the Uno can be used as an input or output, using
pinMode(), digitalWrite(), and digitalRead() functions. They operate at 5 volts. Each
pin can provide or receive a maximum of 40 mA and has an internal pull-up resistor
(disconnected by default) of 20-50 kOhms. In addition, some pins have specialized
functions:

Input and Output

Each of the 14 digital pins on the Arduino Uno can be used as an input or output,
using pinMode(), digitalWrite(), and digitalRead() functions. They operate at 5 volts.
Each pin can provide or receive a maximum of 40 mA and has an internal pull-up
resistor (disconnected by default) of 20-50 kOhms.

In addition, some pins have specialized functions:

Serial: pins 0 (RX) and 1 (TX). Used to receive (RX) and transmit (TX) TTL serial
data. These pins are connected to the corresponding pins of the ATmega8U2 USB-
to-TTL Serial chip.

External interrupt: pins 2 and 3. These pins can be configured to trigger an


interrupt on a low value, a rising or falling edge, or a change in value. See the attach
Interrupt() function for details.

PWM: 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, and 11. Provide 8-bit PWM output with the analogWrite()
function.

SPI: 10 (SS), 11 (MOSI), 12 (MISO), 13 (SCK). These pins support SPI


communication using the SPI library.

LED: 13. There is a built-in LED connected to digital pin 13. When the pin is HIGH
value, the LED is on, when the pin is LOW, it’s off.

The Uno has 6 analog inputs, labelled A0 through A5, each of which provide 10 bits
of resolutio n (i.e. 1024 different values). By default they measure from ground to 5
volts, though is it possible to change the upper end of their range using the AREF
pin and the analogReference() functio n.
Additionally, some pins have specialized functionality:

TWI: A4 or SDA pin and A5 or SCL pin. Support TWI communication using the
Wire library.

There are a couple of other pins on the board:

AREF. Reference voltage for the analog inputs. Used with analogReference().

Reset. Bring this line LOW to reset the microcontroller. Typically used to add a reset
button to shields which block the one on the board.

5.2 ESP 8266 IOT device

The ESP8266 is a low-cost Wi-Fi microchip with full TCP/IP stack and
microcontroller capability produced by Shanghai-based Chinese manufacturer,
Espressif Systems. The chip first came to the attention of western makers in August
2014 with the ESP-01 module, made by a third-party manufacturer, Ai-Thinker. This
small module allows microcontrollers to connect to a Wi-Fi network and make
simple TCP/IP connections using Hayes-style commands. However, at the time there
was almost no English-language documentation on the chip and the commands it
accepted. The very low price and the fact that there were very few external
components on the module which suggested that it could eventually be very
inexpensive in volume, attracted many hackers to explore the module, chip, and the
software on it, as well as to translate the Chinese documentation. The ESP8285 is an
ESP8266 with 1 MiB of built-in flash, allowing for single-chip devices capable of
connecting to Wi-Fi. The successor to these microcontroller chips is the ESP32.
Fig 5.2 ESP 8266

5.2.1 Features
 ESP-01 wireframe.
 Processor: L106 32-bit RISC microprocessor core based on the Tensilica
Xtensa Diamond Standard 106Micro running at 80 MHz†
 Memory:
o 32 KiB instruction RAM
o 32 KiB instruction cache RAM
o 80 KiB user data RAM
o 16 KiB ETS system data RAM
 External QSPI flash: up to 16 MiB is supported (512 KiB to 4 MiB typically
included)
 IEEE 802.11 b/g/n Wi-Fi
 Integrated TR switch, balun, LNA, power amplifier and matching network
 WEP or WPA/WPA2 authentication, or open networks
 16 GPIO pins
 SPI
 I²C (software implementation)[5]
 I²S interfaces with DMA (sharing pins with GPIO)
 UART on dedicated pins, plus a transmit-only UART can be enabled on
GPIO2
 10-bit ADC (successive approximation ADC)

Both the CPU and flash clock speeds can be doubled by overclocking on some
devices. CPU can be run at 160 MHz and flash can be sped up from 40 MHz to 80
MHz.

5.3 Power supply

A power supply is an electrical device that supplies electric power to an


electrical load. The primary function of a power supply is to convert electric current
from a source to the correct voltage, current, and frequency to power the load. As a
result, power supplies are sometimes referred to as electric power converters.

Fig 5.3 Power Supply

Some power supplies are separate standalone pieces of equipment, while


others are built into the load appliances that they power. Examples of the latter
include power supplies found in desktop computers and consumer electronics
devices. Other functions that power supplies may perform include limiting the
current drawn by the load to safe levels, shutting off the current in the event of an
electrical fault, power conditioning to prevent electronic noise or voltage surges on
the input from reaching the load, power-factor correction, and storing energy so it
can continue to power the load in the event of a temporary interruption in the source
power (uninterruptible power supply). All power supplies have a power input
connection, which receives energy in the form of electric current from a source, and
one or more power output connections that deliver current to the load. The source
power may come from the electric power grid, such as an electrical outlet, energy
storage devices such as batteries or fuel cells, generators or alternators, solar power
converters, or another power supply. The input and output are usually hardwired
circuit connections, though some power supplies employ wireless energy transfer to
power their loads without wired connections. Some power supplies have other types
of inputs and outputs as well, for functions such as external monitoring and control.

5.3.1 Functional

Power supplies are categorized in various ways, including by functional


features. For example, a regulated power supply is one that maintains constant output
voltage or current despite variations in load current or input voltage. Conversely, the
output of an unregulated power supply can change significantly when its input
voltage or load current changes. Adjustable power supplies allow the output voltage
or current to be programmed by mechanical controls (e.g., knobs on the power
supply front panel), or by means of a control input, or both. An adjustable regulated
power supply is one that is both adjustable and regulated. An isolated power supply
has a power output that is electrically independent of its power input; this is in
contrast to other power supplies that share a common connection between power
input and output.
5.3.2 Power conversion method

Power supplies can be broadly divided into linear and switching types. Linear
power converters process the input power directly, with all active power conversion
components operating in their linear operating regions. In switching power
converters, the input power is converted to AC or to DC pulses before processing,
by components that operate predominantly in non-linear modes (e.g., transistors that
spend most of their time in cutoff or saturation). Power is "lost" (converted to heat)
when components operate in their linear regions and, consequently, switching
converters are usually more efficient than linear converters because their
components spend less time in linear operating regions.

5.4 Moisture sensor

Moisture sensors measure the volumetric water content in soil. Since the
direct gravimetric measurement of free soil moisture requires removing, drying, and
weighting of a sample, soil moisture sensors measure the volumetric water content
indirectly by using some other property of the soil, such as electrical resistance,
dielectric constant, or interaction with neutrons, as a proxy for the moisture content.

The relation between the measured property and soil moisture must be
calibrated and may vary depending on environmental factors such as soil type,
temperature, or electric conductivity. Reflected microwave radiation is affected by
the soil moisture and is used for remote sensing in hydrology and agriculture.
Portable probe instruments can be used by farmers or gardeners.
Fig 5.4 Moisture Sensor

Soil moisture sensors typically refer to sensors that estimate volumetric water
content. Another class of sensors measure another property of moisture in soils
called water potential; these sensors are usually referred to as soil water potential
sensors and include tensiometers and gypsum blocks.

Relatively cheap and simple devices that do not require a power source are
available for checking whether plants have sufficient moisture to thrive. After
inserting a probe into the soil for approximately 60 seconds, a meter indicates if the
soil is too dry, moist or wet for plants.

5.5 Jumper wire

A jump wire (also known as jumper, jumper wire, jumper cable, DuPont wire,
or DuPont cable – named for one manufacturer of them) is an electrical wire or group
of them in a cable with a connector or pin at each end (or sometimes without them –
simply "tinned"), which is normally used to interconnect the components of a
breadboard or other prototype or test circuit, internally or with other equipment or
components, without soldering. Individual jump wires are fitted by inserting their
"end connectors" into the slots provided in a breadboard, the header connector of a
circuit board, or a piece of test equipment.

Fig 5.5 Jumper Wire

5.5.1 Types

Jump wires at the end of a multi-colored ribbon cable are used to connect the
pin header at the left side of a blue USB2Serial board to a white breadboard below.
Another jumper cable ending in a USB micro male connector mates to the right side
of the USB2Serial board. Red and black tinned jump wires can be seen on the
breadboard.

There are different types of jumper wires. Some have the same type of
electrical connector at both ends, while others have different connectors. Some
common connectors are:

Solid tips – are used to connect on/with a breadboard or female header


connector. The arrangement of the elements and ease of insertion on a breadboard
allows increasing the mounting density of both components and jump wires without
fear of short-circuits. The jump wires vary in size and colour to distinguish the
different working signals.
Crocodile clips – are used, among other applications, to temporarily bridge
sensors, buttons and other elements of prototypes with components or equipment
that have arbitrary connectors, wires, screw terminals, etc.

Banana connectors – are commonly used on test equipment for DC and low-
frequency AC signals.

Registered jack (RJnn) – are commonly used in telephone (RJ11) and


computer networking (RJ45).

RCA connectors – are often used for audio, low-resolution composite video
signals, or other low-frequency applications requiring a shielded cable.

RF connectors – are used to carry radio frequency signals between circuits,


test equipment, and antennas.
CHAPTER 6

SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION

6.1 OPERATING SYSTEM


6.1.1 Platform: Windows

Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all


of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft. Each family caters to a
certain sector of the computing industry. Active Windows families include Windows
NT and Windows Embedded; these may encompass subfamilies, e.g. Windows
Embedded Compact (Windows CE) or Windows Server. Defunct Windows families
include Windows 9x, Windows Mobile and Windows Phone.

Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November


20, 1985, as a graphical operating system shell for MS-DOS in response to the
growing interest in graphical user interfaces (GUIs). Microsoft Windows came to
dominate the world's personal computer (PC) market with over 90% market share,
overtaking Mac OS, which had been introduced in 1984. Apple came to see
Windows as an unfair encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as
implemented on products such as the Lisa and Macintosh (eventually settled in court
in Microsoft's favor in 1993). On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating
system. However, in 2014, Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall
operating system market to Android, because of the massive growth in sales of
Android smartphones. In 2014, the number of Windows devices sold was less than
25% that of Android devices sold. This comparison however may not be fully
relevant, as the two operating systems traditionally target different platforms. Still,
numbers for server use of Windows (that are comparable to competitors) show one
third market share, similar to for end user use.
Microsoft, the developer of Windows, has registered several trademarks each of
which denote a family of Windows operating systems that target a specific sector of
the computing industry. As of 2014, the following Windows families are being
actively developed:

Windows NT: Started as a family of operating system with Windows NT 3.1, an


operating system for server computers and workstations. It now consists of three
operating system subfamilies that are released almost at the same time and share the
same kernel. It is almost impossible for someone unfamiliar with the subject to
identify the members of this family by name because they do not adhere to any
specific rule; e.g. Windows 7 and Windows 8.1 are members of this family but
Windows 3.1 is not.

Windows: The operating system for mainstream personal computers, tablets and
smartphones. The latest version is Windows 10. The main competitor of this family
is macOS by Apple Inc. for personal computers and Android for mobile devices (c.f.
Usage share of operating systems § Market share by category).

Windows Server: The operating system for server computers. The latest version
is Windows Server 2016. Unlike its clients sibling, it has adopted a strong naming
scheme. The main competitor of this family is Linux. (c.f. Usage share of operating
systems § Market share by category)

Windows PE: A lightweight version of its Windows sibling meant to operate as


a live operating system, used for installing Windows on bare-metal computers
(especially on many computers at once), recovery or troubleshooting purposes. The
latest version is Windows PE 10.

Windows Embedded: Initially, Microsoft developed Windows CE as a general-


purpose operating system for every device that was too resource-limited to be called
a full-fledged computer. Eventually, however, Windows CE was renamed Windows
Embedded Compact and was folded under Windows Compact trademark which also
consists of Windows Embedded Industry, Windows Embedded Professional,
Windows Embedded Standard, Windows Embedded Handheld and Windows
Embedded Automotive.

The following Windows families are no longer being developed:

 Windows 9x: An operating system that targeted consumers market.


Discontinued because of suboptimal performance. (PC World called its last
version, Windows ME, one of the worst products of all times.)[ Microsoft now
caters to the consumers market with Windows NT.
 Windows Mobile: The predecessor to Windows Phone, it was a mobile phone
operating system. The first version was called Pocket PC 2000; the third
version, Windows Mobile 2003 is the first version to adopt the Windows
Mobile trademark. The last version is Windows Mobile 6.5.
 Windows Phone: An operating system sold only to manufacturers of
smartphones. The first version was Windows Phone 7, followed by Windows
Phone 8, and the last version Windows Phone 8.1. It was succeeded by
Windows 10 Mobile.

6.1.2 Multilingual support

Multilingual support is built into Windows. The language for both the keyboard
and the interface can be changed through the Region and Language Control Panel.
Components for all supported input languages, such as Input Method Editors, are
automatically installed during Windows installation (in Windows XP and earlier,
files for East Asian languages, such as Chinese, and right-to-left scripts, such as
Arabic, may need to be installed separately, also from the said Control Panel). Third-
party IMEs may also be installed if a user feels that the provided one is insufficient
for their needs.

Interface languages for the operating system are free for download, but some
languages are limited to certain editions of Windows. Language Interface Packs
(LIPs) are redistributable and may be downloaded from Microsoft's Download
Center and installed for any edition of Windows (XP or later) – they translate most,
but not all, of the Windows interface, and require a certain base language (the
language which Windows originally shipped with). This is used for most languages
in emerging markets. Full Language Packs, which translates the complete operating
system, are only available for specific editions of Windows (Ultimate and Enterprise
editions of Windows Vista and 7, and all editions of Windows 8, 8.1 and RT except
Single Language). They do not require a specific base language, and are commonly
used for more popular languages such as French or Chinese. These languages cannot
be downloaded through the Download Center, but available as optional updates
through the Windows Update service (except Windows 8).

The interface language of installed applications are not affected by changes in


the Windows interface language. Availability of languages depends on the
application developers themselves.

Windows 8 and Windows Server 2012 introduces a new Language Control


Panel where both the interface and input languages can be simultaneously changed,
and language packs, regardless of type, can be downloaded from a central location.
The PC Settings app in Windows 8.1 and Windows Server 2012 R2 also includes a
counterpart settings page for this. Changing the interface language also changes the
language of preinstalled Windows Store apps (such as Mail, Maps and News) and
certain other Microsoft-developed apps (such as Remote Desktop). The above
limitations for language packs are however still in effect, except that full language
packs can be installed for any edition except Single Language, which caters to
emerging markets.

6.1.3 Security

Consumer versions of Windows were originally designed for ease-of-use on a


single-user PC without a network connection, and did not have security features built
in from the outset. However, Windows NT and its successors are designed for
security (including on a network) and multi-user PCs, but were not initially designed
with Internet security in mind as much, since, when it was first developed in the
early 1990s, Internet use was less prevalent.

These design issues combined with programming errors (e.g. buffer overflows)
and the popularity of Windows means that it is a frequent target of computer worm
and virus writers. In June 2005, Bruce Schneier's Counterpane Internet Security
reported that it had seen over 1,000 new viruses and worms in the previous six
months. In 2005, Kaspersky Lab found around 11,000 malicious programs—viruses,
Trojans, back-doors, and exploits written for Windows.

Microsoft releases security patches through its Windows Update service


approximately once a month (usually the second Tuesday of the month), although
critical updates are made available at shorter intervals when necessary. In versions
of Windows after and including Windows 2000 SP3 and Windows XP, updates can
be automatically downloaded and installed if the user selects to do so. As a result,
Service Pack 2 for Windows XP, as well as Service Pack 1 for Windows Server
2003, were installed by users more quickly than it otherwise might have been.

While the Windows 9x series offered the option of having profiles for multiple
users, they had no concept of access privileges, and did not allow concurrent access;
and so were not true multi-user operating systems. In addition, they implemented
only partial memory protection. They were accordingly widely criticized for lack of
security.

The Windows NT series of operating systems, by contrast, are true multi-user,


and implement absolute memory protection. However, a lot of the advantages of
being a true multi-user operating system were nullified by the fact that, prior to
Windows Vista, the first user account created during the setup process was an
administrator account, which was also the default for new accounts. Though
Windows XP did have limited accounts, the majority of home users did not change
to an account type with fewer rights – partially due to the number of programs which
unnecessarily required administrator rights – and so most home users ran as
administrator all the time.

Windows Vista changes this by introducing a privilege elevation system called


User Account Control. When logging in as a standard user, a logon session is created
and a token containing only the most basic privileges is assigned. In this way, the
new logon session is incapable of making changes that would affect the entire
system. When logging in as a user in the Administrators group, two separate tokens
are assigned. The first token contains all privileges typically awarded to an
administrator, and the second is a restricted token similar to what a standard user
would receive. User applications, including the Windows shell, are then started with
the restricted token, resulting in a reduced privilege environment even under an
Administrator account. When an application requests higher privileges or "Run as
administrator" is clicked, UAC will prompt for confirmation and, if consent is given
(including administrator credentials if the account requesting the elevation is not a
member of the administrators group), start the process using the unrestricted token.
6.2 Front End: PHP

Hypertext Preprocessor (or simply PHP) is a server-side scripting language


designed for web development but also used as a general-purpose programming
language. It was originally created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994, the PHP reference
implementation is now produced by The PHP Group. PHP originally stood for
Personal Home Page, but it now stands for the recursive acronym PHP: Hypertext
Preprocessor.

PHP code may be embedded into HTML code, or it can be used in


combination with various web template systems, web content management systems,
and web frameworks. PHP code is usually processed by a PHP interpreter
implemented as a module in the web server or as a Common Gateway Interface
(CGI) executable. The web server combines the results of the interpreted and
executed PHP code, which may be any type of data, including images, with the
generated web page. PHP code may also be executed with a command-line interface
(CLI) and can be used to implement standalone graphical applications.

The standard PHP interpreter, powered by the Zend Engine, is free software
released under the PHP License. PHP has been widely ported and can be deployed
on most web servers on almost every operating system and platform, free of charge.

The PHP language evolved without a written formal specification or standard


until 2014, leaving the canonical PHP interpreter as a de facto standard. Since 2014
work has gone on to create a formal PHP specification.

During the 2010s there have been increased efforts towards standardization
and code sharing in PHP applications by projects such as PHP-FIG in the form of
PSR-initiatives as well as Composer dependency manager and the Packagist
repository. PHP hosts a diverse array of web frameworks requiring framework-
specific knowledge, with Laravel recently emerging as a popular option by
incorporating ideas made popular from other competing non-PHP web frameworks,
like Ruby on Rails.

6.2.1 Data types

PHP stores integers in a platform-dependent range, either a 64-bit or 32-bit


signed integer equivalent to the C-language long type. Unsigned integers are
converted to signed values in certain situations; this behavior is different from other
programming languages. Integer variables can be assigned using decimal (positive
and negative), octal, hexadecimal, and binary notations.

Floating point numbers are also stored in a platform-specific range. They can
be specified using floating point notation, or two forms of scientific notation. PHP
has a native Boolean type that is similar to the native Boolean types in Java and C++.
Using the Boolean type conversion rules, non-zero values are interpreted as true and
zero as false, as in Perl and C++.

The null data type represents a variable that has no value; NULL is the only
allowed value for this data type.

Variables of the "resource" type represent references to resources from


external sources. These are typically created by functions from a particular extension
and can only be processed by functions from the same extension; examples include
file, image, and database resources.

Arrays can contain elements of any type that PHP can handle, including
resources, objects, and even other arrays. Order is preserved in lists of values and in
hashes with both keys and values, and the two can be intermingled. PHP also
supports strings, which can be used with single quotes, double quotes, nowdoc or
heredoc syntax.
The Standard PHP Library (SPL) attempts to solve standard problems and
implements efficient data access interfaces and classes.

6.2.2 PHP Objects

Basic object-oriented programming functionality was added in PHP 3 and


improved in PHP 4. This allowed for PHP to gain further abstraction, making
creative tasks easier for programmers using the language. Object handling was
completely rewritten for PHP 5, expanding the feature set and enhancing
performance. In previous versions of PHP, objects were handled like value types.
The drawback of this method was that code had to make heavy use of PHP's
"reference" variables if it wanted to modify an object it was passed rather than
creating a copy of it. In the new approach, objects are referenced by handle, and not
by value.

PHP 5 introduced private and protected member variables and methods, along
with abstract classes, final classes, abstract methods, and final methods. It also
introduced a standard way of declaring constructors and destructors, similar to that
of other object-oriented languages such as C++, and a standard exception handling
model. Furthermore, PHP 5 added interfaces and allowed for multiple interfaces to
be implemented. There are special interfaces that allow objects to interact with the
runtime system. Objects implementing ArrayAccess can be used with array syntax
and objects implementing Iterator or IteratorAggregate can be used with the foreach
language construct. There is no virtual table feature in the engine, so static variables
are bound with a name instead of a reference at compile time.

If the developer creates a copy of an object using the reserved word clone, the
Zend engine will check whether a __clone() method has been defined. If not, it will
call a default __clone() which will copy the object's properties. If a __clone() method
is defined, then it will be responsible for setting the necessary properties in the
created object. For convenience, the engine will supply a function that imports the
properties of the source object, so the programmer can start with a by-value replica
of the source object and only override properties that need to be changed.

6.2.3 Implementations

The original, only complete and most widely used PHP implementation is
powered by the Zend Engine and known simply as PHP. To disambiguate it from
other implementations, it is sometimes unofficially referred to as "Zend PHP". The
Zend Engine compiles PHP source code on-the-fly into an internal format that it can
execute, thus it works as an interpreter. It is also the "reference implementation" of
PHP, as PHP has no formal specification, and so the semantics of Zend PHP define
the semantics of PHP itself. Due to the complex and nuanced semantics of PHP,
defined by how Zend works, it is difficult for competing implementations to offer
complete compatibility.

PHP's single-request-per-script-execution model, and the fact the Zend


Engine is an interpreter, leads to inefficiency; as a result, various products have been
developed to help improve PHP performance. In order to speed up execution time
and not have to compile the PHP source code every time the web page is accessed,
PHP scripts can also be deployed in the PHP engine's internal format by using an
opcode cache, which works by caching the compiled form of a PHP script (opcodes)
in shared memory to avoid the overhead of parsing and compiling the code every
time the script runs. An opcode cache, Zend Opcache, is built into PHP since version
5.5. Another example of a widely used opcode cache is the Alternative PHP Cache
(APC), which is available as a PECL extension.
While Zend PHP is still the most popular implementation, several other
implementations have been developed. Some of these are compilers or support JIT
compilation, and hence offer performance benefits over Zend PHP at the expense of
lacking full PHP compatibility.

6.3 Back End: MySQL

MySQL is an open-source relational database management system (RDBMS).


Its name is a combination of "My", the name of co-founder Michael Widenius's
daughter and "SQL", the abbreviation for Structured Query Language. The MySQL
development project has made its source code available under the terms of the GNU
General Public License, as well as under a variety of proprietary agreements.
MySQL was owned and sponsored by a single for-profit firm, the Swedish company
MySQL AB, now owned by Oracle Corporation. For proprietary use, several paid
editions are available, and offer additional functionality.

MySQL is a central component of the LAMP open-source web application


software stack (and other "AMP" stacks). LAMP is an acronym for "Linux, Apache,
MySQL, Perl/PHP/Python". Applications that use the MySQL database include:
TYPO3, MODx, Joomla, WordPress, Simple Machines Forum, phpBB, MyBB, and
Drupal. MySQL is also used in many high-profile, large-scale websites, including
Google (though not for searches), Facebook, Twitter, Flickr, and YouTube.

6.3.1 Overview

MySQL is written in C and C++. Its SQL parser is written in yacc, but it uses
a home-brewed lexical analyzer. MySQL works on many system platforms,
including AIX, BSDi, FreeBSD, HP-UX, eComStation, i5/OS, IRIX, Linux,
macOS, Microsoft Windows, NetBSD, Novell NetWare, OpenBSD, OpenSolaris,
OS/2 Warp, QNX, Oracle Solaris, Symbian, SunOS, SCO OpenServer, SCO
UnixWare, Sanos and Tru64. A port of MySQL to OpenVMS also exists.

The MySQL server software itself and the client libraries use dual-licensing
distribution. They are offered under GPL version 2, beginning from 28 June 2000
(which in 2009 has been extended with a FLOSS License Exception) or to use a
proprietary license.

Support can be obtained from the official manual. Free support additionally is
available in different IRC channels and forums. Oracle offers paid support via its
MySQL Enterprise products. They differ in the scope of services and in price.
Additionally, a number of third party organisations exist to provide support and
services, including MariaDB and Percona.

MySQL has received positive reviews, and reviewers noticed it "performs


extremely well in the average case" and that the "developer interfaces are there, and
the documentation (not to mention feedback in the real world via Web sites and the
like) is very, very good". It has also been tested to be a "fast, stable and true multi-
user, multi-threaded sql database server".

6.3.2 Features

MySQL is offered under two different editions: the open source MySQL
Community Server and the proprietary Enterprise Server. MySQL Enterprise Server
is differentiated by a series of proprietary extensions which install as server plugins,
but otherwise shares the version numbering system and is built from the same code
base.

Major features as available in MySQL 5.6:

 A broad subset of ANSI SQL 99, as well as extensions


 Cross-platform support
 Stored procedures, using a procedural language that closely adheres to
SQL/PSM
 Triggers
 Cursors
 Updatable views
 Online DDL when using the InnoDB Storage Engine.
 Information schema
 Performance Schema that collects and aggregates statistics about server
execution and query performance for monitoring purposes.
 A set of SQL Mode options to control runtime behavior, including a strict
mode to better adhere to SQL standards.
 X/Open XA distributed transaction processing (DTP) support; two phase
commit as part of this, using the default InnoDB storage engine
 Transactions with savepoints when using the default InnoDB Storage Engine.
The NDB Cluster Storage Engine also supports transactions.
 ACID compliance when using InnoDB and NDB Cluster Storage Engines.
 SSL support
 Query caching
 Sub-SELECTs (i.e. nested SELECTs)
 Built-in replication support (i.e., master-master replication and master-slave
replication) with one master per slave, many slaves per master. Multi-master
replication is provided in MySQL Cluster, and multi-master support can be
added to unclustered configurations using Galera Cluster.
 Full-text indexing and searching
 Embedded database library
 Unicode support
 Partitioned tables with pruning of partitions in optimizer
 Shared-nothing clustering through MySQL Cluster
 Multiple storage engines, allowing one to choose the one that is most effective
for each table in the application.
 Native storage engines InnoDB, MyISAM, Merge, Memory (heap),
Federated, Archive, CSV, Blackhole, NDB Cluster.
 Commit grouping, gathering multiple transactions from multiple connections
together to increase the number of commits per second.
 The developers release minor updates of the MySQL Server approximately
every two months. The sources can be obtained from MySQL's website or
from MySQL's GitHub repository, both under the GPL license.
6.3.3 Limitations

When using some storage engines other than the default of InnoDB, MySQL
does not comply with the full SQL standard for some of the implemented
functionality, including foreign key references and check constraints.

Up until MySQL 5.7, triggers are limited to one per action / timing, meaning
that at most one trigger can be defined to be executed after an INSERT operation,
and one before INSERT on the same table. No triggers can be defined on views.

MySQL database's inbuilt functions like UNIX_TIMESTAMP() will return 0


after 03:14:07 UTC on 19 January 2038. Recently, there had been an attempt to solve
the problem which had been assigned to the internal queue.

6.3.4 Deployment

MySQL can be built and installed manually from source code, but it is more
commonly installed from a binary package unless special customizations are
required. On most Linux distributions, the package management system can
download and install MySQL with minimal effort, though further configuration is
often required to adjust security and optimization settings.

Though MySQL began as a low-end alternative to more powerful proprietary


databases, it has gradually evolved to support higher-scale needs as well. It is still
most commonly used in small to medium scale single-server deployments, either as
a component in a LAMP-based web application or as a standalone database server.
Much of MySQL's appeal originates in its relative simplicity and ease of use, which
is enabled by an ecosystem of open source tools such as phpMyAdmin. In the
medium range, MySQL can be scaled by deploying it on more powerful hardware,
such as a multi-processor server with gigabytes of memory.

There are, however, limits to how far performance can scale on a single server
('scaling up'), so on larger scales, multi-server MySQL ('scaling out') deployments
are required to provide improved performance and reliability. A typical high-end
configuration can include a powerful master database which handles data write
operations and is replicated to multiple slaves that handle all read operations. The
master server continually pushes binlog events to connected slaves so in the event
of failure a slave can be promoted to become the new master, minimizing downtime.
Further improvements in performance can be achieved by caching the results from
database queries in memory using memcached or breaking down a database into
smaller chunks called shards which can be spread across a number of distributed
server clusters.
CHAPTER 7

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Fig 7.1: Home Page

This is the home page of our project, where the user sign-up and sign-in is
available.
Fig 7.2: Our Product

In this page, the details of our system and about agriculture is provided.
Fig 7.3 User Registration

Here the user has to register with their Full name, Valid E-mail ID and Phone
number.
Fig 7.4: Dashboard

This is the dashboard of our project, where the total datas are listed.
Fig 7.5: Data Collection

In this page, the collected datas are listed for view


Fig 7.6: Feedback Page

In this page, the user can communicate the dealers by returning a feedback.
Fig 7.7: User Feedback

In this page, the feedbacks given by the users have been listed with their Name
and corresponding Mail-ID.
Fig 7.8: Admin Database

This is the Admin database, where the details of the Admin are stored.
Fig 7.9: User Database

This is the User database, where the details of the User are stored.
Fig 7.10: Details of Seeds

Here, the details of the seeds and their requirements are provided.
Fig 7.11: User Feedback Database

This the User Feedback database, where the feedbacks given by the user are
stored.
CHAPTER 8

CONCLUSION

The computational technology, network technology, automation technology


are used in this system in the management of agricultural water resource, so the
automotive management of agricultural water resource is realized. In practical
performance, the system runs stably and reliably. It possesses perfect applicable
prospects. The great social and economic benefit has been created by using real time
monitoring system of agricultural water supply. By contrasting the year of 2005, the
effect of conventional analysis is that the volume of scarcity of water in agricultural
water supply system reaches 49.16 million m3. While the volume of scarcity of water
is 35.48 million m3 by scientific management, so the volume of scarcity of water
decreases 13.68 million m3. This means that we can save 13.68 million m3 water
every year by optimizing the existing water resource. So it is necessary to dispatch
the existing water resource scientifically on time and space, and the profit is great.
CHAPTER 9

FUTURE ENHANCEMENT

Of course, there are many factors affecting the adoption of agricultural


products supply chain of the Internet of things. There is still a long run for the
internet of things to enter into the practical stage of agricultural supply chain. There
are also many problems for the internet of things to solve, which include how to
reduce costs, carry on the R&D of core technology, develop industry standards,
protect the privacy and so on. IOT is closely related to cloud computing in a way
that IOT obtains powerful computing tools through cloud computing and cloud
computing finds the best practicing channel based on IOT. Agricultural information
cloud is constructed based on cloud computing and smart agriculture is constructed
with combination of IOT and RFID. Hardware resources in agricultural information
network are integrated into resource pool by using vitalization technology, achieving
dynamic distribution of resource and balance of load, significantly improve
efficiency of resource using. Large amount of data obtained by using radio frequency
identification, wireless communication, automatic control, information sensing
techniques of IOT are handled with agricultural information cloud, truly realizing
smart agriculture.
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