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7 Gas exchange in humans

7.1 The human breathing system (Book 1B, p. 7-3)

Cells carry out (1) _______________ to release energy for cellular activities. To ensure the
supply of (2) _______________ to cells and the removal of (3) _______________
_______________ from cells, gas exchange (氣體交換) takes place continuously between the
cells and the external environment.
In humans, a (4) _______________ _______________ (呼吸系統) is developed for efficient
gas exchange. A (5) _______________ _______________ (運送系統) is also developed to
carry gases between the sites of gas exchange and other body cells.
The human breathing system consists of the (6) _______________ ______________ (呼吸道)
and structures that aid breathing.

nasal cavity (鼻腔) pharynx (咽)

(10) _______________
(7) _______________ (會厭)
(鼻孔)
(11) _______________
(喉)

(8) _______________ (12) _______________


(小支氣管) (氣管)

intercostal muscle (肋間肌)


(13) _______________
(9) _______________ (支氣管)
(肋骨)
air sac (氣囊) lung (肺)

inner pleural membrane


(內胸膜)
outer pleural membrane diaphragm (橫膈膜)
(外胸膜)
pleural cavity (胸膜腔)

▲ The human breathing system

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Structure Feature

Nostril With (14) _______________ to filter larger dust particles from the air

Lined with mucus-secreting cells which secrete (15) ______________ (黏液)


to trap dust particles and bacteria, and moisten the incoming air
Nasal
Lined with ciliated epithelial cells (纖毛上皮細胞) which have
cavity
(16) _______________ (纖毛) to sweep the mucus towards pharynx
Lined with capillaries which carry blood to warm up the incoming air

Pharynx Where the respiratory tract and the alimentary canal meet

Epiglottis Covers the opening of larynx during (17) _____________ to prevent choking

Mainly made of (18) _______________


Larynx
Contains vocal cords (聲帶) which vibrate to produce sound

Supported by (19) _______________ cartilages


Trachea
Lined with mucus-secreting cells, ciliated epithelial cells and capillaries

Supported by circular rings of cartilages


Bronchus
Lined with mucus-secreting cells, ciliated epithelial cells and capillaries

Lung Mainly composed of bronchioles and air sacs

No cartilage
Bronchiole
Larger ones lined with mucus-secreting cells and ciliated epithelial cells

Provides a large respiratory surface (呼吸表面)


Air sac
Surrounded by a network of (20) _______________

Makes up the rib cage (肋骨籃) with (21) _______________ (胸骨) and
Rib
vertebral column (脊柱) to protect the lungs

Intercostal Located between each pair of ribs


muscle Involved in breathing

Pleural Enclose the lungs


membranes Secrete (22) _______________ _______________ (胸膜液)

Pleural Contains pleural fluid which acts as a (23) _______________ to reduce


cavity friction during breathing movement

A sheet of muscle lying at the bottom of the rib cage


Diaphragm
Involved in breathing

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The path of air flowing through the respiratory tract into the lungs:
Nasal cavity → (24) _______________ → larynx → (25) _______________ → bronchus
→ bronchiole (in lungs) → (26) _______________ _______________ (in lungs)

Go to
Practical 7.1 Examination of the mammalian breathing system
(Book 1B, p. 7-4; Practical Workbook for SBA 1B, p. 7-1)
Practical 7.2 Examination of pig lungs
(Book 1B, p. 7-9; Practical Workbook for SBA 1B, p. 7-4)

7.2 Gas exchange in the air sacs (Book 1B, p. 7-10)

A How does gas exchange take place? (Book 1B, p. 7-10)

blood from
pulmonary artery

oxygen
red blood cell carbon dioxide

water film

epithelium
(one-cell thick)

blood to
pulmonary veins

Uptake of oxygen by the blood Removal of carbon dioxide into the air sacs
1 Inhaled air flows into the air sacs. 1 Since the carbon dioxide concentration in
2 Oxygen in the inhaled air the blood is (4) _______________ (lower
(1) _______________ in the water film / higher) than that in the water film lining
lining the air sacs. the air sacs, carbon dioxide diffuses
3 Since the oxygen concentration in the water across the walls of the capillaries and the
film is (2) _______________ (lower / air sacs into the air in the air sacs.
higher) than that in the blood, oxygen 2 Carbon dioxide is removed from the body
(3) ______________ across the walls of the when we exhale.
air sacs and the capillaries into the blood.

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B What are the adaptive features of air sacs for gas exchange?
(Book 1B, p. 7-11)

Feature Adaptation
Large in number Provides a very large (5) _______________
_______________ for the diffusion of gases

Thin walls ((6) _______________ thick) Reduces the diffusion distance

(7) _______________ inner surface Allows gases to dissolve before diffusing across
the walls of the air sacs

Richly supplied with capillaries Allows rapid transport of gases, which helps
maintain a steep (8) _______________ gradient
of gases between the air sacs and the blood

Lying close to the capillaries Reduces the diffusion (9) _______________

C What is the difference in composition between inhaled air and


exhaled air? (Book 1B, p. 7-12)

Inhaled Exhaled
Reason for the difference
air air
Oxygen in inhaled air diffuses from the air sacs
Oxygen 21% 16% into the blood during gas exchange. It is then
used by the body cells for (10) _____________.

Carbon dioxide produced by body cells during


Carbon dioxide 0.03% 4% respiration diffuses from the blood into the air
sacs during gas exchange.

(11) ______________ 78% 78% It is not used or produced by body cells.

Air is moistened by the (12) _______________


Water vapour Variable Saturated lining the respiratory tract and the water film
lining the air sacs.

Other gases 1% 1% They are not used or produced by body cells.

Exhaled air is warmer than inhaled air because exhaled air is warmed by the blood in the
(13) _______________.

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Go to
Practical 7.3 Examination of mammalian air sacs
(Book 1B, p. 7-12; Practical Workbook for SBA 1B, p. 7-8)
Practical 7.4 Comparison of the oxygen content of inhaled air and exhaled air
(Book 1B, p. 7-12; Practical Workbook for SBA 1B, p. 7-10)
Practical 7.5 Comparison of the carbon dioxide content of inhaled air and exhaled air
(Book 1B, p. 7-13; Practical Workbook for SBA 1B, p. 7-12)

7.3 Transport of respiratory gases (Book 1B, p. 7-16)

A How is oxygen transported? (Book 1B, p. 7-16)

Oxygen is mainly transported by (1) ______________ _______________ _______________


in the blood.

▲ Computer artwork of red blood cells

Adaptive features of red blood cells for carrying oxygen:


Feature Adaptation
I Fully packed with a Provides a short distance for oxygen to reach and
haemoglobin (血紅蛋白) leave the haemoglobin in the red blood cells rapidly
II Biconcave disc shape b Provides more room for holding haemoglobin
(雙凹圓盤狀) c Provides a large surface area to volume ratio for
III No nucleus when mature the diffusion of oxygen
d Allows the red blood cells to carry a large amount of
oxygen

I: (2) ____________ II: (3) ____________ & (4) ____________ III: (5) ___________

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Uptake of oxygen from air sacs

inhaled air

air sac
oxygen

haemoglobin + oxygen oxyhaemoglobin capillary

red blood cell blood flow direction

1 The oxygen concentration in the air sacs is (6) _______________ (low / high) due to the
continuous replacement of air from the external environment.
2 Oxygen in the air sacs diffuses into red blood cells.
3 Oxygen combines with haemoglobin to form (7) _______________ (氧合血紅蛋白), which
gives the blood a bright red colour.

haemoglobin + oxygen → oxyhaemoglobin

4 The red blood cells containing oxyhaemoglobin are then carried to the body tissue.

Release of oxygen to body tissue

body cell

oxyhaemoglobin haemoglobin + oxygen capillary

red blood cell blood flow direction

1 The oxygen concentration in the body tissue is (8) _______________ (low / high) because
the body cells in the tissue consume oxygen for respiration.
2 Oxyhaemoglobin in the red blood cells breaks down into haemoglobin and oxygen.

oxyhaemoglobin → haemoglobin + oxygen

3 The oxygen diffuses into the body cells and the blood becomes purplish red.

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B How is carbon dioxide transported? (Book 1B, p. 7-18)

Uptake of carbon dioxide from body tissue

body cell

enzyme + – –
CO2 + H2O H + HCO3 HCO3 capillary
plasma
red blood cell blood flow direction
1 The carbon dioxide concentration in the body tissue is (9) _______________ (low / high)
because carbon dioxide is continuously produced by body cells through respiration.
2 Most carbon dioxide diffuses into red blood cells and reacts with (10) _______________
to form (11) _______________ _______________ (碳酸氫鹽離子).
enzyme
carbon dioxide + water hydrogen ion (H+) + hydrogencarbonate ion (HCO3–)

3 The hydrogencarbonate ions diffuse out of the red blood cells and are carried by the
(12) _______________ to the air sacs.

Release of carbon dioxide to air sacs

exhaled

air sac
CO2

– – + enzyme capillary
HCO3 HCO3 + H CO2 + H2O
plasma
red blood cell blood flow direction

1 The carbon dioxide concentration in the air sacs is (13) _______________ (low / high)
because carbon dioxide is continuously removed through exhalation.
2 Hydrogencarbonate ions in the plasma enter the red blood cells and break down into carbon
dioxide and water.
enzyme
hydrogen ion (H+) + hydrogencarbonate ion (HCO3–) carbon dioxide + water

3 The carbon dioxide diffuses into the plasma and then into the air sacs, and is finally exhaled.

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7.4 Ventilation (Book 1B, p. 7-20)

Ventilation (換氣) is necessary to bring fresh air to the lungs to maintain a high
(1) _______________ content in the air sacs and to remove (2) _______________
_______________ from the lungs.
It includes (3) _______________ (吸氣) and (4) _______________ (呼氣).
Mechanism of inhalation and exhalation:

Inhalation Exhalation

air flow air flow

movement movement
of rib cage of rib cage

movement of movement of
diaphragm diaphragm

Intercostal muscles (5) _______________ (13) _______________


(Contract / Relax) (Contract / Relax)

Rib cage Moves (6) _______________ Moves (14) _______________


(upwards / downwards) and (upwards / downwards) and
(7) _______________ (15) _______________
(inwards / outwards) (inwards / outwards)

Diaphragm (8) _______________ (16) _______________


muscles (Contract / Relax) (Contract / Relax)

Diaphragm (9) _______________ (Recoils to (17) _______________ (Recoils


dome shape / Flattens) to dome shape / Flattens)

Volume of thoracic (10) _______________ (18) _______________


cavity (Increases / Decreases) (Increases / Decreases)

Volume of lungs (11) _______________ (19) _______________


(Increases / Decreases) (Increases / Decreases)

Air pressure in the Becomes (12) _______________ Becomes (20) _______________


lungs (lower / higher) than the (lower / higher) than the
atmospheric pressure atmospheric pressure

Air flow Into the lungs Out of the lungs

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The volume of lungs and the air pressure in the lungs change periodically as we breathe.
The change in volume of lungs during inhalation and exhalation:

(21) _______________ (inhalation / exhalation)

(22) _______________ (inhalation / exhalation)


volume of lungs

0 2 4 6 time (s)

The change in air pressure in the lungs during inhalation and exhalation:

(23) _______________ (inhalation / exhalation)

(24) _______________ (inhalation / exhalation)


air pressure in
lungs

atmospheric
pressure

0 2 4 6 time (s)

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A (25) _______________ model can be used to illustrate the movement of the ribs during
inhalation and exhalation.
In the model, the vertical rods represent the vertebral column and the (26) _______________.
The horizontal rods represent the (27) _______________. The rubber band represents the
(28) _______________ _______________.
Inhalation Exhalation

2 Ribs move upwards


and outwards.
2 Ribs move downwards
and inwards.

1 Intercostal
muscles 3 Volumes of the 3 Volumes of the
contract. thoracic cavity thoracic cavity
and lungs and lungs
1 Intercostal
increase. decrease.
muscles
relax.

A (29) _______________ model can be used to show how the movement of the diaphragm
brings about inhalation and exhalation.
In the model, the rubber sheet represents the (30) _______________. The wall of the bell jar
represents the (31) _______________ _______________. The balloons represent the
(32) _______________.
Inhalation Exhalation

4 Air rushes into the 4 Air is forced out.


lungs.

3 Volume of the 3 Volume of the


lungs lungs
increases. decreases.

2 Volume of the 2 Volume of the


thoracic cavity thoracic cavity
increases. The 1 Diaphragm is decreases. The
air pressure pushed air pressure
1 Diaphragm is inside upwards. inside
pulled down. decreases. increases.

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Answers
Ch 7 Gas exchange in humans

7.1

1 respiration 2 oxygen 3 carbon dioxide 4 breathing system 5 transport system


6 respiratory tract 7 nostril 8 bronchiole 9 rib 10 epiglottis
11 larynx 12 trachea 13 bronchus 14 hairs 15 mucus
16 cilia 17 swallowing 18 cartilage 19 C-shaped 20 capillaries
21 sternum 22 pleural fluid 23 lubricant 24 pharynx 25 trachea
26 air sac

7.2

1 dissolves 2 higher 3 diffuses 4 higher 5 surface area


6 one-cell 7 Moist 8 concentration 9 distance 10 respiration
11 Nitrogen 12 mucus 13 capillaries

7.3

1 red blood cells 2 d 3 a/c 4 c/a 5 b


6 high 7 oxyhaemoglobin 8 low 9 high 10 water
11 hydrogencarbonate ions 12 plasma 13 low

7.4

1 oxygen 2 carbon dioxide 3 inhalation 4 exhalation 5 Contract


6 upwards 7 outwards 8 Contract 9 Flattens 10 Increases
11 Increases 12 lower 13 Relax 14 downwards 15 inwards
16 Relax 17 Recoils to dome shape 18 Decreases 19 Decreases
20 higher 21 inhalation 22 exhalation 23 inhalation 24 exhalation
25 rib-cage 26 sternum 27 ribs 28 intercostal muscles
29 bell-jar 30 diaphragm 31 thoracic wall 32 lungs

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