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Federal TVET Teachers Training Institute

Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Basics of Architectural
Basic Design What is Architecture

 Definition of Architecture
 Elements of architecture
 Space defining elements
 Opening in space defining elements
 Spatial relationship
 Spatial organization
 Primary forms
 Transformation of forms Introduction to Architecture
Basic Design What is Architecture

Definition of Architecture
 Originated from the Greek word Architekton
 Archi – great tekton – builder
 Architecture is the art and science of building
 It is the conscious creation of utilitarian spaces with
the deliberate use of material
 Architecture should be technically efficient and
aesthetically pleasing. Introduction to Architecture
Basic Design What is Architecture

Definition of Architecture
 1. “The art and science of designing and erecting
 2. “A style and method of design and “Buildings and
other large structures”
Basic Design What is Architecture

 Art and science regional identity reflection of place

and time
 Cultural Artifact:
 Gives us insight about the culture that created it.
 “a projection of a society on the ground” Illustrates
cultural values, beliefs and ambitions
Basic Design What is Architecture

 Form – square/rectangle, large/small, solid/open
Function - building type mausoleum, temple or palace
Material – stone, metal, glass, crude or finished
 Material – material determined by resources – shape is
often associated with technology and workforce
 Where – type of settlement; urban, suburban, rural
 Where – climate: arctic/equator, desert/jungle
 Where – site specifics, view, roads, neighboring
Basic Design What is Architecture

Definition by the Roman architect

VITRUVIUS in the 1st century AD

Vitruvius said that architecture was :

 a building that incorporated:
 Utilitas ... Firmitas … Venustas
 Commodity ... Firmness ... Delight
 Utility ... Structure ... Attractive
 Use ... Construction … Appearance
 Function ... Technology ... Aesthetic
Basic Design The difference B/n Architecture &
Any Building ≠ Architecture
Architecture = Design BEFORE Building
Architecture is Design:
 Buildings, Spaces and Environments According to
Human Needs Using Technology and Science, With
Aesthetic Qualities.
 The word ‘design’ as defined in the Longman Dictionary of
Contemporary English (1987) has the following meanings. As a
noun, it means:
 A drawing or pattern showing how something is to be
 The art of making such drawings or patterns;
 The arrangement of parts in any man-made product, such
as a machine or work of art, as this influences the product’s
practical usefulness;
 A decorative pattern, esp. one that is not repeated;
 A plan in the mind.
 The word design is also used as a verb with the following
meanings. To make a drawing or pattern of something that
will be made or built for a certain purpose or use.
Primary Elements
 Point in geometry is a location. It has no size i.e. no
width, no length and no depth. A point is shown by a

 Marks a position in space

 Conceptually, it has no length,
width or depth
 It is static, centralized and
 As the prime element in the
vocabulary of form, it serves to
Primary Elements Point

 To mark a position in space or on the ground plane, a

point must be projected vertically into a linear form




Architectural use of points & dots
Architectural use of points & dots
Primary Elements Line

 Line - is a mark on a surface that describes a shape or outline. It

can create texture and can be thick and thin.

 Vertical – Represents dignity, formality,

stability, and strength
 Horizontal – Represents calm, peace,
and relaxation
 Diagonal – Represents action, activity,
excitement, and movement
 Curved – Represents freedom, the
natural, having the appearance of
softness, and creates a soothing
feeling or mood
Primary Elements Line
 A line is a critical element in the formation of
any visual construction
 It can serve to: join or link other visual
 support visual elements
 surround or intersect other visual elements

A line describe the edges of and give shape to


articulate the surfaces of planes

Primary Elements Line
 The orientation of a line affects its role in a
visual construction
 A vertical line can express a state of
equilibrium with the force of gravity,
symbolize the human condition, or mark a
position in space
 A horizontal line can represent stability, the
ground plane, the horizon, or a body at
 An oblique line may be seen as a vertical
line falling or a horizontal line rising

Vertical elements have been used throughout history to commemorate

significant events and establish particular points in space
Primary Elements Line
 Vertical linear elements can also define a transparent volume of
space, as in the example above, the four minarets outline a
spatial field which the dome of Hagia Sophia rises in splendor

Hagia Sophia,
Primary Elements Line
Primary Elements Line

 Two parallel lines have the ability to visually describe a

 The closer these lines are to each other, the stronger will be
the sense of plane they convey
Primary Elements Line
Patterns and illustration using lines
Primary Elements Line
Use of Lines in Architecture VERTICAL LINES
Primary Elements Line
Use of Lines in Architecture HORIZONTAL LINES
Use of Lines in Architecture DIAGONAL LINES
Use of Lines in Architecture CURVED LINES

Make Different Pattern using Points and Dots

Make Different Pattern using Different lines

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