Application of The Finite Volume Method to Upset Forging of Cylinders

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Application of The Finite Volume Method to Upset Forging of Cylinders

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Manufacturing Division Method to Upset Forging of

MSC.Software Corporation

Cylinders.

arjaan.buijk@mscsoftware.com

The Finite Volume Method has been applied to Cylinder

Presented at:

upsetting. The predicted shape and die loads are

Forging Fair 2000

April 13, 2000 compared to experimental results. The simulations

Columbus, Ohio are performed with MSC.SuperForge 2000

Introduction

For several years now, the Finite Volume Method has been successfully used to predict the metal

flow during the forging of complex 3D and Axissymmetric products. It has been shown that the Finite

Volume Method is correctly predicting material flow, die fill, the extend of flash, and folds [1-2]. It has also

been shown that the Finite Volume Method is a very fast and robust solution method, making it possible to

use 3D simulations in a production environment.

The simulations performed in [1-2] are all based on a 1st order implementation of the Finite

Volume Method. With the release of MSC.SuperForge 2000 (due in may 2000), a 2nd order implementation

of the Finite Volume Method will become available.

In this paper, results of cylinder upsetting will be presented, using both the 1st order as 2nd order

implementation. The results will be compared to experimental data.

Nomenclature

U = material velocity

dUi/dXj = material velocity gradient

τ = friction shear stress, τ = α⋅σY

α = plastic shear friction coefficient

σY = yield stress

m = α*√3 (Friction coefficient as defined in [3] )

V0 = upset velocity

_

ε = effective plastic strain

S = Minimum Yield Stress

C = Yield Constant

N = Strain Hardening Exponent

Metal Flow in Upset Forging

Extensive theoretical and experimental work has been done in upset forging of rings and cylinders

[3-8]. Because of its simple geometry and its experimental repeatability, it is possible to study the effects of

different parameters on the forging process. A significant difference was found between the behavior at

room temperature (cold forging) and at elevated temperature (hot forging). This difference is mainly caused

by the difference in material behavior and the effects of die chilling.

At room temperatures, most metals are not dependent on the strain-rate with which it deforms,

and thus the type of equipment used does not significantly influence the metal flow. At elevated

temperatures however, most metals are dependent on the strain-rate, which results in different behavior at

different die velocities.

It has also been shown [5] that at high deformation velocities, both non-uniform heat generation

and inertia forces have an important influence on the metal flow.

Due to the characteristics of metal flow in upset forging, as described in the previous section, the

following aspects of the forming process need to be taken into account by the simulation program:

Cold Hot

Elastic-Plastic material behavior X X

Yield stress dependent on strain X X

Yield stress dependent on temperature X X

Yield stress dependent on strain-rate X

Die Velocity and the die velocity profile X

Non-Uniform heat generation X

Inertia Forces X

Die Chilling X

Most theoretical analysis methods are not well suited to solve the more complex hot forging

process. Mostly, inertia forces are ignored, and often the strain-rate dependency of the material is difficult

to capture, or leads to difficulties in reaching a solution. (The analysis method might not reach a solution).

The Finite Volume Method, implemented in MSC.SuperForge uses an explicit time integration

scheme, and takes all the above mentioned aspects into account. It does not suffer from convergence

problems, even when strain-rate dependency or inertia forces play a dominant role. It is thus well suited to

simulate the metal flow in both Cold and Hot Forging, which has been shown in [1-3].

Apart from metal flow, a second important aspect of the forging process is the force required to

form a product. This force is commonly referred to as the ‘die load’. The prediction of die load is important

in a production environment to decide if a product can be formed on a certain press, or to decide if multiple

stages are required.

Numerical Procedures of MSC.SuperForge

MSC.SuperForge was developed based on finite volume rather than finite element technology.

Unlike a traditional finite element mesh which distorts while attempting to follow the deformation of

material, the mesh is a fixed frame of reference and material simply flows through the finite volume mesh.

This unique distinction makes MSC.SuperForge particularly suited for simulating the gross material

deformations inherent in forging operations, and at the same time completely eliminates the need for

volume remeshing techniques.

MSC.SuperForge has both a 1st and 2nd order acoustic-advection solver. Evolution of stress and

impulse waves is done by the acoustic part and evolution of material is provided by the advection part. The

face values of the finite volume elements are solved from the Riemann problem posed at the element faces.

The 1st order solver is based on the so-called simple Riemann solution whereas the 2nd order solver is based

on the generalised Riemann problem. In brief, the latter includes gradients for both internal material

velocities and material surface velocities. In the 2nd order solver the advection equations are solved with 2nd

order upwind scheme using MUSCL [9].

The updated velocity field is used in the advection solver. Monotonicity is preserved by the

nonlinear limiting function Superbee. A more comprehensive description of the technology can be found in

[1] and [2].

Cylinder Upsetting

In [3] the experimental results are presented for cylinder samples being upset between hardened,

flat, parallel steel plates, under a 200,000-lb Instron testing machine at 0.2in/min (8.5e-5 m/s) ram speed.

The material of the specimens is a strain-hardening material, 1100 F aluminum alloy. The specimens are

machined from bars that were annealed at 850 F for 1.5 hr and furnace cooled. The material data used in

the simulation is given by:

Poisson’s Ratio = 0.33

Density = 2699 kg/m3

_N

Yield Stress = max(S, C*ε ) (COLDMAT-Form 2)

Minimum Yield Stress (S) = 5.5e7 N/m2

Yield Constant (C) = 1.5e8 N/m2

Strain Hardening Exponent (N) = 0.245

Environmental Temperature = 293 K

Heat Transfer/Conduction not included in the model.

In [3] two frictional situations were tested, dry and with MoS2 spray. However, since the results of the dry

and lubricated case were practically identical, only the dry case will be evaluated, with a plastic shear

friction coefficient given by:

The cylinders have a 1.5-in diameter, and a 2.25-in height (see Figure 1).

1.5-in

2.25-in

Because of the symmetry, only right upper half of the sample is analyzed.

The analysis is done with a Finite Volume element size of 0.002 m (=0.078-in).

1st Order 42 sec

2nd Order 193 sec

The simulations are performed on a laptop computer with a

450 Mhz, Intel pentium III processor.

0.6

0.5

0.4

Experiment

H/2 (in)

MSC.SuperForge - 2nd Order

0.2

0.1

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2

Radius (in)

Figure 2: Bulge profile of cylinder upsetting

(dry, α=0.577)

100000

90000

80000 E x p e rim e n t

M S C .S u p e rF o rg e - 1 s t O rd e r

70000 M S C .S u p e rF o rg e - 2 n d O rd e r

60000

Force (lbf)

50000

40000

30000

20000

10000

0

0 0 .2 0 .4 0 .6 0 .8 1 1 .2 1 .4

S tro k e (in )

(dry, α=0.577)

Conclusion

Results have been presented of cylinder upset forging, using both a 1st order and a 2nd order

implementation of the Finite Volume Method. Comparisons have been made with experimental data for the

die loads and for the final shape. It has been shown that both methods accurately predict the metal flow

and the die load. The 2nd order method is slightly more accurate, but requires more CPU time.

References

“Advances in Three Dimensional Forging Process Modeling.”

Proceedings of the 15th National Conference on Manufacturing Research, pp73-78,1999

2. Slagter W.

“3-D forging simulation using an Eulerian approach.”

Proceedings of the 5th U.S. National Congress on Computational Mechanics, 1999

3. Lee C., Altan T.

“Influence of Flow Stress and Friction Upon Metal Flow in Upset Forging of Rings and Cylinders.”

ASME paper no. 71-WA/Prod-9, 1971

4. Kulkarni K., Kalpakjian S.

“A Study of Barreling as an Example of Free Deformation in Plastic Working.”

ASME paper No. 68-Wa/Prod-6, 1968

5. Metzler H.

“The Influence of Tool Velocity Upon Metal Flow in Upsetting.”(German)

Industrie-Anzeiger, Vol. 92, No. 57, p. 1373, 1970

6. Buhler H., Bobbert D.

“The Strain Distribution in Upsetting.”(German)

Industrie-Anzeiger, Vol. 88, No. 100, p. 2175, 1966

7. Kobayashi S.

“Deformation Characteristics and Ductile Fracture of 1040 Steel in Simple Upsetting of Solid Cylinders and Rings.”

Journal of Engineering for Industry, Trans. ASME, Series B, Vol. 92, No. 2, p. 391,1970

8. Avitzur B.

“Analysis of Central Bursting Defects in Extrusion or Wire Drawing.”

Journal of Engineering for Industry, Trans. ASME, Series B, Vol. 92, No. 2, p. 391,1970

9. Aalburg C, Van Leer B

“Experiments in minimizing numerical diffusion across a material boundary”

University of Michigan, 1996

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