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of Spandrel Ledges and Comparison

with PCI Shear Design Provisions

Tarek K. Hassan*

Structural Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

(Received: 31 October 2006; Received revised form: 4 May 2007; Accepted: 20 June 2007)

Abstract: Punching shear failure of spandrel ledges has been observed by many

researchers and heightened concerns have been raised questioning the safety level of

the PCI shear design provisions for beam ledges. This paper presents non-linear finite

element analyses conducted to model the behavior of prestressed L-shaped spandrel

beams. Special emphasis was given to the behavior of the ledge at the end regions of

the spandrel, where punching shear controls the design. The accuracy of the finite

element model is demonstrated by comparing the predicted behavior to the results of

one major test by another researcher. The influence of different parameters included

in the PCI shear design provisions for beam ledges is discussed. The analysis is

extended to illustrate the effect of other parameters including the prestressing level,

hanger reinforcement and the amount of debonded strands at the end regions of the

spandrel beam. Results of the analyses showed that the PCI shear design provisions for

spandrel ledges are dangerously unconservative. The provisions do not account for key

parameters, which affect the punching shear behavior.

Key words: finite element analysis, ledges, punching shear, prestressed concrete.

1. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND not only vertical deflections of the spandrel, but also

Precast concrete spandrels are used in a variety of lateral displacements as well as rotation. Such a

building types and configurations. The most common behavior complicates the analysis and design of these

application is the simple span ledger-type beam, beams. Simplified design provisions for spandrel beams

typically used to support prestressed deck components are provided in details in the PCI Design Handbook

in parking garages. A typical section illustrating (2004). Nevertheless, a considerable number of parking

common dimensions of spandrel beams is shown in structures are currently experiencing various types of

Figure 1. The end connection commonly consists of a problems and distress with spandrel beams. Heightened

bearing to provide vertical support and a pair of lateral concerns have been recently raised by the

connections to provide torsion resisting couple as Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute questioning the

shown in Figure 1. Industry practice and published behavior of spandrel beams and the safety level

procedures vary widely with respect to several provided by code provisions.

fundamental aspects of the design of these beams. The A general procedure for shear/torsion design of

eccentrically applied loading on the beam ledge causes prestressed concrete beams including L-shaped

02_06-512-Hassan 15/10/07 10:27 am Page 476

Finite Element Study of Shear Behavior of Spandrel Ledges and Comparison with PCI Shear Design Provisions

Lateral connections

(TYP.)

m)

b ≈9 –15

al span

ypic

bea m (T

n drel

Spa

m)

ams 00 m

T e e be 200–14

ble ≈1

Dou stems

t w e en

h be

cing

(Spa

lpp Bearing

pads

hl bt Concrete column

de

spandrels was originally developed by Zia and McGee or punching shear of the ledge. Lucier et al. (2007)

(1974). The current PCI procedures include a modified presented results of full-scale testing of four precast,

version of the Zia and McGee approach. A further L-shaped, prestressed concrete spandrel beams. None of

refinement of these models was subsequently developed the four beams were reinforced with closed web

by Zia and Hsu (1978, 2004). The concrete contribution reinforcement. Different arrangements of longitudinal

at ultimate stage was calibrated using 394 tests and the bars, welded wire fabric and L-shaped bars were

proposed procedures were used for many years for the designed to resist the shear and torsion induced by

shear/torsion design of spandrel beams. Closed stirrups eccentric loading on the ledge. The study demonstrated

were recommended to resist torsion/shear stresses in the the potential benefits of eliminating closed web

beams. A study by Raths (1984) highlighted many reinforcement from precast slender spandrel beams.

aspects of the design of spandrel beams. It was Recently, Hassan et al. (2007) presented results of non-

determined that lack of torsional equilibrium is the main linear finite element analyses conducted to model the

problem in these types of beams. A design method was shear/torsion behavior of prestressed, L-shaped spandrel

provided to help combat this problem. Klein (1986) beams constructed with open web reinforcement.

investigated the behavior and design of precast Results from the analysis showed that for long-span,

prestressed concrete spandrel beams. The study utilized compact spandrels, open web reinforcement can be used

both finite element modeling and laboratory testing of effectively throughout the beam. However, the finite

full-scale L-shaped spandrel beams. Due to the element analysis was limited to predict flexural failure

complexity of the behavior of spandrel beams under due to crushing of the concrete at mid-span or

combined bending, shear and torsion, the analysis was compression-shear failure at the end regions of the

limited to the linear elastic behavior of the beams prior beams.

to cracking. The study showed that the end regions of While several researchers (Lucier et al. 2007; Hassan

the beams were more susceptible to failure compared to et al. 2007) have focused on the shear/torsion capacity

directly loaded beams. Failure of the tested beams was of prestressed L-shaped spandrel beams, limited

either due to separation of the ledge from the beam web research is available concerning the punching shear

02_06-512-Hassan 15/10/07 10:27 am Page 477

Tarek K. Hassan

250 mm (TYP.)

Hanger reinforcement

1836 150

2-No.12M (TYP.)

152

100 No.12M (TYP.)

4-12.7 mm strands

No.12M@300 mm (TYP.) No.10M@300 mm (TYP.) 75 (stress relieved)

356

8 No.12M@200mm 9 No.10M@300mm

SECT. A-A

4236.5 mm

Sideview of the spandrel beam

All dimensions are in mm A

Elevation of the spandrel beam

behavior of spandrel ledges. Based on very limited full- beam are shown in Figure 2. Complete details about the

scale laboratory testing, it has been reported (Raths experimental program and test results are reported in

1984; Klein 1986) that the PCI punching shear design Klein (1986).

provisions might be overestimating the punching shear A general purpose non-linear finite element program,

capacity of spandrel beam ledges. However, detailed ANACAP, Version 2.2.3 (2003) was selected to

analysis of spandrel ledges has not been investigated. perform the analysis. The accuracy of the finite element

This paper presents the results of a non-linear finite software to predict punching shear failure has been

element analysis conducted to model the punching extensively validated by several researchers (Hassan et al.

shear behavior of slender L-shaped spandrel beams, 2000; Mufti and Hassan 2005; Seliem et al. 2006).

typically used in parking structures. The finite element Taking advantage of the symmetry of the spandrel

model was calibrated using experimental results to beam, only half of the beam was modeled using 20-node

demonstrate the capability of the finite element program brick elements. Each node has three translational

to describe the observed experimental behavior up to degrees of freedom. The reinforcement was modeled as

failure. The influence of different parameters believed individual sub-elements embedded in the concrete

to affect the punching shear behavior of spandrel ledges elements. The analysis accounted for every single

is presented. The applicability as well as the safety of reinforcing bar within the spandrel beam. Complete bond

the PCI punching shear design provisions for was assumed between the reinforcing bars and the

prestressed ledger beams are demonstrated. concrete elements. The stress and stiffness of the rebar

sub-elements are superimposed on the concrete element

2. PREDICTING THE PUNCHING SHEAR in which the rebar resides. The prestressing losses were

CAPACITY OF SPANDREL LEDGES assumed as 24 percent as outlined by Klein 1986.

A critical review of the available literature on prestressed Detailed information regarding concrete and

concrete spandrels finds only one beam that failed due to reinforcement modeling using ANACAP can be found

punching shear of the ledge (Klein 1986). The beam was elsewhere (Hassan et al. 2007). The prestressing force

originally designed according to the PCI Design was applied gradually at the beam ends to account for

Handbook to fail in shear at the end regions of the beam. the transfer length of the prestressing strands (Hassan

Unexpectedly, failure was controlled by punching shear et al. 2007). The load was applied at each double-T stem

of the ledge at a relatively low load level. This beam was location. The analysis was conducted using an

selected to demonstrate the capability of the finite incremental-iterative solution procedure, in which the

element model to predict punching shear failure of applied load was incrementally increased up to failure.

spandrel ledges. Reinforcement details of the spandrel Boundary conditions were modeled to mimic those used

02_06-512-Hassan 15/10/07 10:27 am Page 478

Finite Element Study of Shear Behavior of Spandrel Ledges and Comparison with PCI Shear Design Provisions

A Plane of symmetry

Lateral restraints (TYP.) 203

18×102 18×102

Z

152

Z

Support X Y

95 (web of spandrel beam, TYP.)

95 95 47.5 356

6×90 11×102 11×102 7×160

4236.5 mm Section A-A

All dimensions are in mm A

Elevation of the spandrel beam Sideview of the spandrel beam

Figure 3. Mesh dimensions used in the finite element model of the spandrel beam

Property by Klein (1986)

Specified concrete compressive strength, f_c (MPa) 40

Elastic modulus of the concrete (GPa) 30

Yield strength of 10M reinforcing bars (MPa) 544

Yield strength of 12M reinforcing bars (MPa) 85

Yield strength of 16M reinforcing bars (MPa) 443

Yield strength of 19M reinforcing bars (MPa) 443

Yield strength of pretressing strands (MPa) 1675

Prestressing losses 24%

in the laboratory (Klein 1986). Mesh dimensions used in reaction of 240 kN. As the load increased, the cracks

modeling the spandrel beam is shown in Figure 3. started to propagate along the length of the spandrel and

Material properties of the concrete and steel turned into shear cracks as shown in Figure 5. Prior to

reinforcement used in the finite element analysis are failure, a well-developed pattern of inclined and

given in Table 1. rainbow-type cracks developed on the front face of the

spandrel beam as shown in Figure 5. It should be noted

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION that diagonal tension cracks were dominant on the front

The predicted rotations at the mid-span of the spandrel face of the spandrel due to the combined shear and

beam compared to the measured values are shown in torsion stresses. Flexural cracks were first predicted on

Figure 4. Linear behavior was observed up to initiation the back face of the spandrel at a load level of 350 kN

of the first flexural crack at mid-span followed by a non- due to out of plane bending behavior of the beam. The

linear behavior. The predicted rotations compared well same crack pattern was observed during testing as

the measured values up to failure. The predicted reported by Klein (1986).

ultimate rotation of the spandrel overestimated the Failure in the analytical model was due to punching

measured value by less than one degree. Cracks were shear of the ledge at an end reaction of 605 kN, which is

first initiated at the ledge/web junction at an end 9 percent less than the measured value. The analysis was

02_06-512-Hassan 15/10/07 10:27 am Page 479

Tarek K. Hassan

1400

1200

End reaction of spandrel (kN)

Mid-span

1000 PCI design handbook prediction

section

800

600

Experimental

400

FEA

200

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5

285 kN

Mid-span rotation (degrees)

spandrel beam

the diagonal compressive strut in the ledge exceeded

0.002. Such a limiting value has been recommended by

several researchers for shear failure along the diagonal

350 kN

compressive strut (Vecchio and Collins 1982; Collins

and Mitchell 1997). Figure 6(a) shows contours of the

principal compressive strains at failure. The figure

clearly shows that the principal compressive strains at

the punching cone exceeded the limiting value of 0.002.

The analysis indicates that punching shear failure took

place at the first and last double-T stems, which

matched the observed failure mode during testing as

shown in Figure 6(b).

410 kN

According to the PCI Design Handbook (2004), the

nominal shear strength of beam ledges supporting Figure 5. Crack pattern at different loading stages

concentrated loads, Vn, is expressed by the lesser of

Eqns 1 and 2: spandrel ledges as will be discussed in the following

section.

Vn = 0.249 f 'c hl 2l p + bt + hl ( N, mm ) (1)

4. PARAMETRIC STUDY

Vn = 0.083 f c hl 2l p + bt + hl + 2de ( N, mm ) (2)

' The analysis was extended to investigate the influence

of concrete compressive strength, ledge dimensions,

prestressing level, percentage of debonded strands as

where fc′ is the concrete compressive strength in MPa well as the amount of hanger reinforcement. A total of

and hl, lp, bt, de are the dimensions of the spandrel beam 14 different cases were analyzed using the calibrated

as shown in Figure 1. The analysis indicated that the finite element model as given in Table 2. In the

predicted end reaction of the spandrel using the PCI following discussion, the spandrel beam tested by Klein

Design Handbook dangerously overestimated the shear (1986) and presented in the previous section was used as

strength of the ledge by 50 percent. Such a phenomenon a basis of comparison. One parameter was varied in

necessitates detailed investigation of the different each case, while other parameters were kept the same as

parameters believed to affect the punching shear of the those used in modeling the basic spandrel beam.

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Finite Element Study of Shear Behavior of Spandrel Ledges and Comparison with PCI Shear Design Provisions

–0.0395

(a) –0.0020 (b)

–0.0017

–0.0014

Mid-span –0.0011

section –0.0009

–0.0006

–0.0003

0.0000

0.0004

exceed 0.002 at the punching

failure cone 605 kN

Figure 6. (a) Principal compressive strain distribution at failure. (b) Typical punching shear failure as observed by Klein (1986)

4.1. Concrete Compressive Strength illustrated in Figure 8. The analysis was conducted using

Two different spandrel beams with concrete different values of lp that ranged from 150 to 250 mm.

compressive strengths of 25 and 60 MPa were analyzed The load was applied as a uniform pressure acting along

using the calibrated finite element model. The predicted the width of the ledge, lp so that the resultant of the

rotations at mid-span of different spandrels are shown in applied load is located at a distance of lp /2 from the face

Figure 7. Predictably, increasing the concrete compressive of the web. The figure clearly shows that the predicted

strength, increased the punching shear capacity of the rotations at mid-span are strongly influenced by the

ledge. However, the increase in capacity is not horizontal projection of the ledge. After flexural

proportional to that predicted using the PCI Design cracking, the predicted rotations using lp=250 mm were

Handook (2004). In the PCI design expressions, the almost double those predicted using lp=150 mm.

effect of concrete compressive strength on the punching According to the PCI design expressions, given in Eqns

shear capacity of spandrel ledges is represented using 1 and 2, increasing the horizontal projection of the beam

the square root of the compressive strength, f ′c . ledge, increases the punching shear capacity as a result

According to the PCI Design Handbook, increasing f ′c of the corresponding increase in the punching surface

from 40 to 60 MPa results in 22 percent increase in area of the ledge. It should be highlighted that the PCI

punching shear capacity. The predicted increase in expressions do not account for the effect of eccentricity

capacity using finite element analysis as a result of between the applied load and the centroid of the critical

increasing f ′c is only 13 percent, which matches the section, which could significantly reduce the punching

corresponding increase in capacity using f ′c1/4. It should shear capacity of the ledge. Increasing the horizontal

be highlighted that the 1/2 power currently used by the projection of the ledge increased concrete cracking

PCI Design Handbook represents the tensile strength of along the ledge/web junction and accelerates punching

the concrete as a function of the compressive strength. shear failure. The analysis indicated that increasing lp

Zuo and Darwin (2000) have also observed that the f ′c1/4 from 150 mm to 250 mm (66 percent increase), reduced

can better represent the concrete contribution in tension the punching shear capacity by 10 percent. Conversely,

for lapped-spliced beams. Based on the results of the a corresponding increase in punching capacity by 11

analysis, it should be emphasized that the PCI shear was predicted using the PCI design expressions.

design provisions for concrete ledges provided less Figures 9 and 10 show the influence of the height of

safety factors for high strength concrete. the ledge, hl, and the width of the bearing area, bt, on the

punching shear behavior of the ledge. The punching

shear capacity was significantly improved by increasing

4.2. Ledge Dimensions the depth of the ledge. The increase in punching shear

The effect of the width of the horizontal projection of capacity was directly proportional to the increase in the

the ledge, lp, on the punching shear behavior is height as predicted by the PCI expressions. The analysis

02_06-512-Hassan

Tarek K. Hassan

15/10/07

10:27 am

Ultimate capacity

f’c lp hl bt Hanger % of Debonded (kN) P FEA /

Page 481

Case # (MPa) (mm) (mm) (mm) PJacking reinforcement strands PFEA PPCI P FEA/P PCI P Proposed

1 (Control) 40 150 300 95 0.7 fu 12M @ 200 0% 605 993 0.61 1.05

2 25 150 300 95 0.7 fu 12M @ 200 0% 560 788 0.71 1.25

3 60 150 300 95 0.7 fu 12M @ 200 0% 658 1243 0.53 0.92

4 40 200 300 95 0.7 fu 12M @ 200 0% 578 1047 0.55 0.95

5 40 250 300 95 0.7 fu 12M @ 200 0% 542 1102 0.49 0.85

6 40 150 250 95 0.7 fu 12M @ 200 0% 569 798 0.71 1.23

7 40 150 350 95 0.7 fu 12M @ 200 0% 640 1197 0.53 0.92

8 40 150 300 75 0.7 fu 12M @ 200 0% 596 982 0.50 1.05

9 40 150 300 115 0.7 fu 12M @ 200 0% 623 1003 0.51 1.07

10 40 150 300 95 0.3 fu 12M @ 200 0% 524 993 0.53 0.91

11 40 150 300 95 0.5 fu 12M @ 200 0% 560 993 0.56 0.97

12 40 150 300 95 0.7 fu 10M @ 200 0% 498 993 0.50 0.86

13 40 150 300 95 0.7 fu 16M @ 200 0% 694 993 0.70 1.2

14 40 150 300 95 0.7 fu 12M @ 200 50% 587 993 0.59 1.02

481

02_06-512-Hassan 15/10/07 10:27 am Page 482

1400 1400

1200 1200

End reaction of spandrel (kN)

1000 PCI design handbook for f'c = 40 MPa 1000 PCI design handbook prediction

600 600

Jacking stress = 0.3fu

f'c = 40 MPa

f'c = 60 MPa Jacking stress = 0.5fu

200 200

Jacking stress = 0.7fu

0 0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5

Mid-span rotation (degrees) Mid-span rotation (degrees)

Figure 7. Influence of concrete compressive strength on punching Figure 9. Influence of ledge’s height on punching shear capacity

shear capacity

1400 1400

1200 1200

bt = 115 mm

lp = 250 mm bt = 95 mm

End reaction of spandrel (kN)

lp = 200 mm

1000 lp = 150 mm 1000

bt = 75 mm

800 800

600 600

400 400

Width of ledge = 150 mm Width of DT stem = 75 mm

200

Width of ledge = 250 mm Width of DT stem = 115 mm

0 0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5

Mid-span rotation (degrees) Mid-span rotation (degrees)

Figure 8. Influence of ledge’s width on punching shear capacity Figure 10. Influence of width of bearing area on punching shear

capacity

indicated that the width of the bearing area has a 0.7fu, where fu is the ultimate tensile strength of the

negligible effect on the punching shear behavior of the prestressing strands. The predicted rotations for

ledge. Increasing the width of bearing area by 53 different cases are plotted in Figure 11 versus the end

percent increased the punching shear capacity by less reaction of the spandrel. The analysis indicated that

than 5 percent. The same effect was also predicted using punching shear failure was always preceded by

the PCI design expressions. Failure of all the analyzed significant cracking along the ledge/web junction.

spandrels was due to punching shear failure of the ledge Increasing the prestressing level, limits concrete

as described in the previous section. cracking along the ledge/web junction and thus,

improves the punching shear capacity. Results of the

4.3. Prestressing Level and Strands Debonding analysis showed a 15 percent increase in punching

Three spandrel beams were analyzed assuming shear capacity in consequence of increasing the jacking

different jacking stress levels for the prestressing stress from 0.3fu to 0.7fu.

strands. The jacking stress was varied from 0.3fu to Debonding of the prestressing strands has a less

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Tarek K. Hassan

1400 1400

1200 1200

End reaction of spandrel (kN)

1000 PCI design handbook prediction 1000 PCI design handbook prediction

Crack opening is

800 800 restrained by additional

hanger reinforcement

600 600

400 400

Jacking stress = 0.3fu Stirrups: 10M@200 mm

Jacking stress = 0.5fu Stirrups: 12M@200 mm

200 200

Jacking stress = 0.7fu Stirrups: 16M@200 mm

0 0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5

Mid-span rotation (degrees) Mid-span rotation (degrees)

Figure 11. Influence of prestressing level on punching shear Figure 13. Influence of hanger reinforcement on the punching

behavior of spandrel ledges shear behavior of spandrel ledges

1400

shown in Figure 13 for different cases. Results showed

1200

that use of hanger reinforcement significantly improves

the punching shear capacity of spandrel ledges.

End reaction of spandrel (kN)

1000

Increasing the hanger reinforcement ratio provided

PCI design handbook prediction additional constraints to crack propagation through the

800

web and delayed punching shear failure as shown in

Figure 13. The punching shear capacity of the spandrel

600

beam with hanger reinforcement ratio of 0.18 percent

(No.10M@200mm) was 498 kN. The analysis indicated

400 that increasing the hanger reinforcement ratio by 77

All strands are fully bonded percent (No.12M@200mm) and 177 percent

200 50% of strands are debonded (No.16M@200mm), increased the punching shear

capacity by 21 and 40 percent, respectively. It should be

0 noted that the PCI shear design expressions are

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 independent on the hanger reinforcement ratio.

Mid-span rotation (degrees)

5. PROPOSED EXPRESSIONS

behavior of spandrel ledges

Results of the finite element analysis and PCI

predictions are summarized in Table 2 for different

pronounced effect compared to the prestressing level. cases. The calculated capacities using PCI shear design

The analysis indicated that debonding 50 percent of the provisions overestimated those predicted using finite

prestressing strands for a distance of 1200 mm from the element analysis by an average of 60 percent. Proposing

beam ends, reduced the punching shear capacity by 3 different design expressions to account for all the key

percent as shown in Figure 12. It should be noted that parameters affecting the punching shear behavior of

the PCI shear design expressions for beam ledges do not prestressed spandrel ledges requires additional

account for the effect of the prestressing level nor the computational work, further verification models and

percentage of debonded strands. compilation of more experimental data. However, based

on the results of the finite element analysis, it is

4.4. Hanger Reinforcement suggested to use a reduction factor for the PCI design

Three different hanger reinforcement ratios were expressions of 0.60 to ensure that punching shear failure

investigated, 0.18, 0.32, and 0.5 percent, respectively. will not govern the design of typical spandrel ledges.

Comparison of the predicted rotations at mid-span is The proposed design expressions can be expressed by

02_06-512-Hassan 15/10/07 10:27 am Page 484

the lesser of Eqns 3 and 4: PCI design expressions of 0.60 to ensure that

punching shear failure will not govern the

design of typical spandrel ledges.

Vn = 0.15 f ′ c hl 2l p + bt + hl ( N, mm ) (3)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Vn = 0.05 f ′ c hl 2l p + bt + hl + 2de ( N, mm ) (4) This work was part of a research project funded by the

Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental

where f_c is the concrete compressive strength in MPa Engineering at North Carolina State University,

and hl, lp, bt, de are the dimensions of the spandrel beam Raleigh, NC, USA. The author would like to

as shown in Figure 1. The ratio of the calculated end acknowledge the sincere support provided by Dr. Sami

reaction using the proposed punching capacity of the H. Rizkalla during the research period.

ledge compared well with the results of the finite

element analysis as demonstrated in Table 2.

REFERENCES

6. CONCLUSIONS ANATECH Corporation (2003). ANACAP Version 2.2.3 Reference

Based on the findings of this investigation, the Manuals.

following conclusions can be drawn: Collins, M.P. and Mitchell, D. (1997). Prestressed Concrete

1. Punching shear behavior of spandrel ledges can Structures, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 766 pp.

be predicted using non-linear finite element Hassan, T., Abdelrahman, A., Tadros, G. and Rizkalla, S. (2000).

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failure and ultimate load carrying capacity with pp. 839–849.

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ledges are dangerously unconservative. The Prestressed Concrete Institute (PCI) Journal, Vol. 52, No. 2,

provisions do not account for key parameters, pp. 78–92.

which affect the punching shear behavior including Klein, G.J. (1986). Design of Spandrel Beams, PCI Specially Funded

the prestressing level, hanger reinforcement and R and D Program Research, Project No. 5 (PCISFRAD#5),

percentage of debonded strands. Prestressed Concrete Institute, Chicago, IL, 95 pp.

3. The effect of concrete compressive strength on Lucier, G., Rizkalla, S., Zia, P. and Klein, G.J. (2007). “Precast

the punching shear capacity of spandrel ledges concrete, L-shaped spandrels revisited: full-scale tests”,

can be better represented using f ′c1/4. Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute (PCI) Journal, Vol. 52,

4. The effect of eccentricity between the applied No. 2, pp. 62–76.

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shaped spandrel beams could significantly theoretical study of punching shear strength of concrete bridge

reduce the punching shear capacity of the ledge decks”, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 32, No. 2,

and should be accounted for in the PCI shear pp. 449–453.

design provisions for spandrel ledges. PCI Design Handbook (2004). Precast Prestressed Concrete,

5. Increasing the prestressing level, limits concrete Prestressed Concrete Institute, Chicago, IL, 614 pp.

cracking along the ledge/web junction and thus, Raths, C.H. (1984). “Spandrel beam behavior and design”, PCI

improves the punching shear capacity. Results Journal, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 62–131.

of the analysis showed a 15 percent increase in Seliem, H, Lucier, G., Rizkalla, S. and Zia, P. (2006). “Behavior of

punching shear capacity in consequence of bridge decks reinforced with MMFX steel”, Proceedings of the

increasing the jacking stress from 0.3fu to 0.7fu. 7th International Conference on Short and Medium Span

6. Hanger reinforcement significantly improves the Bridges, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, CD-ROM.

punching shear capacity of spandrel ledges by Vecchio, F.J. and Collins, M.P. (1982). The Response of Reinforced

providing additional restraints to crack propagation Concrete to In-Plane Shear and Normal Stresses, Department of

through the web of the spandrel beam. Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, Publication No. 82-03,

7. It is suggested to use a reduction factor for the ISBN 0-7727-7029-8, 332 pp.

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