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02_06-512-Hassan 15/10/07 10:27 am Page 475

Finite Element Study of Shear Behavior


of Spandrel Ledges and Comparison
with PCI Shear Design Provisions

Tarek K. Hassan*
Structural Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

(Received: 31 October 2006; Received revised form: 4 May 2007; Accepted: 20 June 2007)

Abstract: Punching shear failure of spandrel ledges has been observed by many
researchers and heightened concerns have been raised questioning the safety level of
the PCI shear design provisions for beam ledges. This paper presents non-linear finite
element analyses conducted to model the behavior of prestressed L-shaped spandrel
beams. Special emphasis was given to the behavior of the ledge at the end regions of
the spandrel, where punching shear controls the design. The accuracy of the finite
element model is demonstrated by comparing the predicted behavior to the results of
one major test by another researcher. The influence of different parameters included
in the PCI shear design provisions for beam ledges is discussed. The analysis is
extended to illustrate the effect of other parameters including the prestressing level,
hanger reinforcement and the amount of debonded strands at the end regions of the
spandrel beam. Results of the analyses showed that the PCI shear design provisions for
spandrel ledges are dangerously unconservative. The provisions do not account for key
parameters, which affect the punching shear behavior.

Key words: finite element analysis, ledges, punching shear, prestressed concrete.

1. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND not only vertical deflections of the spandrel, but also
Precast concrete spandrels are used in a variety of lateral displacements as well as rotation. Such a
building types and configurations. The most common behavior complicates the analysis and design of these
application is the simple span ledger-type beam, beams. Simplified design provisions for spandrel beams
typically used to support prestressed deck components are provided in details in the PCI Design Handbook
in parking garages. A typical section illustrating (2004). Nevertheless, a considerable number of parking
common dimensions of spandrel beams is shown in structures are currently experiencing various types of
Figure 1. The end connection commonly consists of a problems and distress with spandrel beams. Heightened
bearing to provide vertical support and a pair of lateral concerns have been recently raised by the
connections to provide torsion resisting couple as Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute questioning the
shown in Figure 1. Industry practice and published behavior of spandrel beams and the safety level
procedures vary widely with respect to several provided by code provisions.
fundamental aspects of the design of these beams. The A general procedure for shear/torsion design of
eccentrically applied loading on the beam ledge causes prestressed concrete beams including L-shaped

*Corresponding author. Email address: tarek_k_hassan@yahoo.com; Fax: +1-202-291-6004; Tel: +1-202-734-0557.

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Finite Element Study of Shear Behavior of Spandrel Ledges and Comparison with PCI Shear Design Provisions

Lateral connections
(TYP.)

m)
b ≈9 –15
al span
ypic
bea m (T
n drel
Spa

m)
ams 00 m
T e e be 200–14
ble ≈1
Dou stems
t w e en
h be
cing
(Spa

lpp Bearing
pads

hl bt Concrete column

de

Figure 1. Typical dimensions of spandrel beams

spandrels was originally developed by Zia and McGee or punching shear of the ledge. Lucier et al. (2007)
(1974). The current PCI procedures include a modified presented results of full-scale testing of four precast,
version of the Zia and McGee approach. A further L-shaped, prestressed concrete spandrel beams. None of
refinement of these models was subsequently developed the four beams were reinforced with closed web
by Zia and Hsu (1978, 2004). The concrete contribution reinforcement. Different arrangements of longitudinal
at ultimate stage was calibrated using 394 tests and the bars, welded wire fabric and L-shaped bars were
proposed procedures were used for many years for the designed to resist the shear and torsion induced by
shear/torsion design of spandrel beams. Closed stirrups eccentric loading on the ledge. The study demonstrated
were recommended to resist torsion/shear stresses in the the potential benefits of eliminating closed web
beams. A study by Raths (1984) highlighted many reinforcement from precast slender spandrel beams.
aspects of the design of spandrel beams. It was Recently, Hassan et al. (2007) presented results of non-
determined that lack of torsional equilibrium is the main linear finite element analyses conducted to model the
problem in these types of beams. A design method was shear/torsion behavior of prestressed, L-shaped spandrel
provided to help combat this problem. Klein (1986) beams constructed with open web reinforcement.
investigated the behavior and design of precast Results from the analysis showed that for long-span,
prestressed concrete spandrel beams. The study utilized compact spandrels, open web reinforcement can be used
both finite element modeling and laboratory testing of effectively throughout the beam. However, the finite
full-scale L-shaped spandrel beams. Due to the element analysis was limited to predict flexural failure
complexity of the behavior of spandrel beams under due to crushing of the concrete at mid-span or
combined bending, shear and torsion, the analysis was compression-shear failure at the end regions of the
limited to the linear elastic behavior of the beams prior beams.
to cracking. The study showed that the end regions of While several researchers (Lucier et al. 2007; Hassan
the beams were more susceptible to failure compared to et al. 2007) have focused on the shear/torsion capacity
directly loaded beams. Failure of the tested beams was of prestressed L-shaped spandrel beams, limited
either due to separation of the ledge from the beam web research is available concerning the punching shear

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Tarek K. Hassan

A Plane of symmetry 203

250 mm (TYP.)

Hanger reinforcement
1836 150

2-No.12M (TYP.)
152
100 No.12M (TYP.)

4-12.7 mm strands
No.12M@300 mm (TYP.) No.10M@300 mm (TYP.) 75 (stress relieved)
356
8 No.12M@200mm 9 No.10M@300mm

SECT. A-A
4236.5 mm
Sideview of the spandrel beam
All dimensions are in mm A
Elevation of the spandrel beam

Figure 2. Reinforcement details

behavior of spandrel ledges. Based on very limited full- beam are shown in Figure 2. Complete details about the
scale laboratory testing, it has been reported (Raths experimental program and test results are reported in
1984; Klein 1986) that the PCI punching shear design Klein (1986).
provisions might be overestimating the punching shear A general purpose non-linear finite element program,
capacity of spandrel beam ledges. However, detailed ANACAP, Version 2.2.3 (2003) was selected to
analysis of spandrel ledges has not been investigated. perform the analysis. The accuracy of the finite element
This paper presents the results of a non-linear finite software to predict punching shear failure has been
element analysis conducted to model the punching extensively validated by several researchers (Hassan et al.
shear behavior of slender L-shaped spandrel beams, 2000; Mufti and Hassan 2005; Seliem et al. 2006).
typically used in parking structures. The finite element Taking advantage of the symmetry of the spandrel
model was calibrated using experimental results to beam, only half of the beam was modeled using 20-node
demonstrate the capability of the finite element program brick elements. Each node has three translational
to describe the observed experimental behavior up to degrees of freedom. The reinforcement was modeled as
failure. The influence of different parameters believed individual sub-elements embedded in the concrete
to affect the punching shear behavior of spandrel ledges elements. The analysis accounted for every single
is presented. The applicability as well as the safety of reinforcing bar within the spandrel beam. Complete bond
the PCI punching shear design provisions for was assumed between the reinforcing bars and the
prestressed ledger beams are demonstrated. concrete elements. The stress and stiffness of the rebar
sub-elements are superimposed on the concrete element
2. PREDICTING THE PUNCHING SHEAR in which the rebar resides. The prestressing losses were
CAPACITY OF SPANDREL LEDGES assumed as 24 percent as outlined by Klein 1986.
A critical review of the available literature on prestressed Detailed information regarding concrete and
concrete spandrels finds only one beam that failed due to reinforcement modeling using ANACAP can be found
punching shear of the ledge (Klein 1986). The beam was elsewhere (Hassan et al. 2007). The prestressing force
originally designed according to the PCI Design was applied gradually at the beam ends to account for
Handbook to fail in shear at the end regions of the beam. the transfer length of the prestressing strands (Hassan
Unexpectedly, failure was controlled by punching shear et al. 2007). The load was applied at each double-T stem
of the ledge at a relatively low load level. This beam was location. The analysis was conducted using an
selected to demonstrate the capability of the finite incremental-iterative solution procedure, in which the
element model to predict punching shear failure of applied load was incrementally increased up to failure.
spandrel ledges. Reinforcement details of the spandrel Boundary conditions were modeled to mimic those used

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Finite Element Study of Shear Behavior of Spandrel Ledges and Comparison with PCI Shear Design Provisions

A Plane of symmetry
Lateral restraints (TYP.) 203

18×102 18×102

Z
152
Z

Support X Y
95 (web of spandrel beam, TYP.)
95 95 47.5 356
6×90 11×102 11×102 7×160
4236.5 mm Section A-A
All dimensions are in mm A
Elevation of the spandrel beam Sideview of the spandrel beam

Figure 3. Mesh dimensions used in the finite element model of the spandrel beam

Table 1. Materials properties used in finite element analysis

Spandrel beam tested


Property by Klein (1986)
Specified concrete compressive strength, f_c (MPa) 40
Elastic modulus of the concrete (GPa) 30
Yield strength of 10M reinforcing bars (MPa) 544
Yield strength of 12M reinforcing bars (MPa) 85
Yield strength of 16M reinforcing bars (MPa) 443
Yield strength of 19M reinforcing bars (MPa) 443
Yield strength of pretressing strands (MPa) 1675
Prestressing losses 24%

*Modulus of elasticity of all conventional and prestressing steel is 200 GPa.

in the laboratory (Klein 1986). Mesh dimensions used in reaction of 240 kN. As the load increased, the cracks
modeling the spandrel beam is shown in Figure 3. started to propagate along the length of the spandrel and
Material properties of the concrete and steel turned into shear cracks as shown in Figure 5. Prior to
reinforcement used in the finite element analysis are failure, a well-developed pattern of inclined and
given in Table 1. rainbow-type cracks developed on the front face of the
spandrel beam as shown in Figure 5. It should be noted
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION that diagonal tension cracks were dominant on the front
The predicted rotations at the mid-span of the spandrel face of the spandrel due to the combined shear and
beam compared to the measured values are shown in torsion stresses. Flexural cracks were first predicted on
Figure 4. Linear behavior was observed up to initiation the back face of the spandrel at a load level of 350 kN
of the first flexural crack at mid-span followed by a non- due to out of plane bending behavior of the beam. The
linear behavior. The predicted rotations compared well same crack pattern was observed during testing as
the measured values up to failure. The predicted reported by Klein (1986).
ultimate rotation of the spandrel overestimated the Failure in the analytical model was due to punching
measured value by less than one degree. Cracks were shear of the ledge at an end reaction of 605 kN, which is
first initiated at the ledge/web junction at an end 9 percent less than the measured value. The analysis was

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Tarek K. Hassan

1400

1200
End reaction of spandrel (kN)

Mid-span
1000 PCI design handbook prediction
section

800

600

Experimental
400
FEA

200

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5
285 kN
Mid-span rotation (degrees)

Figure 4. Predicted versus measured rotations at mid-span of the


spandrel beam

terminated when the principal compressive strains along


the diagonal compressive strut in the ledge exceeded
0.002. Such a limiting value has been recommended by
several researchers for shear failure along the diagonal
350 kN
compressive strut (Vecchio and Collins 1982; Collins
and Mitchell 1997). Figure 6(a) shows contours of the
principal compressive strains at failure. The figure
clearly shows that the principal compressive strains at
the punching cone exceeded the limiting value of 0.002.
The analysis indicates that punching shear failure took
place at the first and last double-T stems, which
matched the observed failure mode during testing as
shown in Figure 6(b).
410 kN
According to the PCI Design Handbook (2004), the
nominal shear strength of beam ledges supporting Figure 5. Crack pattern at different loading stages
concentrated loads, Vn, is expressed by the lesser of
Eqns 1 and 2: spandrel ledges as will be discussed in the following
section.
Vn = 0.249 f 'c hl  2l p + bt + hl  ( N, mm ) (1)
4. PARAMETRIC STUDY
Vn = 0.083 f c hl  2l p + bt + hl + 2de  ( N, mm ) (2)
' The analysis was extended to investigate the influence
of concrete compressive strength, ledge dimensions,
prestressing level, percentage of debonded strands as
where fc′ is the concrete compressive strength in MPa well as the amount of hanger reinforcement. A total of
and hl, lp, bt, de are the dimensions of the spandrel beam 14 different cases were analyzed using the calibrated
as shown in Figure 1. The analysis indicated that the finite element model as given in Table 2. In the
predicted end reaction of the spandrel using the PCI following discussion, the spandrel beam tested by Klein
Design Handbook dangerously overestimated the shear (1986) and presented in the previous section was used as
strength of the ledge by 50 percent. Such a phenomenon a basis of comparison. One parameter was varied in
necessitates detailed investigation of the different each case, while other parameters were kept the same as
parameters believed to affect the punching shear of the those used in modeling the basic spandrel beam.

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Finite Element Study of Shear Behavior of Spandrel Ledges and Comparison with PCI Shear Design Provisions

–0.0395
(a) –0.0020 (b)
–0.0017
–0.0014
Mid-span –0.0011
section –0.0009
–0.0006
–0.0003
0.0000
0.0004

Principal compressive strains


exceed 0.002 at the punching
failure cone 605 kN

Figure 6. (a) Principal compressive strain distribution at failure. (b) Typical punching shear failure as observed by Klein (1986)

4.1. Concrete Compressive Strength illustrated in Figure 8. The analysis was conducted using
Two different spandrel beams with concrete different values of lp that ranged from 150 to 250 mm.
compressive strengths of 25 and 60 MPa were analyzed The load was applied as a uniform pressure acting along
using the calibrated finite element model. The predicted the width of the ledge, lp so that the resultant of the
rotations at mid-span of different spandrels are shown in applied load is located at a distance of lp /2 from the face
Figure 7. Predictably, increasing the concrete compressive of the web. The figure clearly shows that the predicted
strength, increased the punching shear capacity of the rotations at mid-span are strongly influenced by the
ledge. However, the increase in capacity is not horizontal projection of the ledge. After flexural
proportional to that predicted using the PCI Design cracking, the predicted rotations using lp=250 mm were
Handook (2004). In the PCI design expressions, the almost double those predicted using lp=150 mm.
effect of concrete compressive strength on the punching According to the PCI design expressions, given in Eqns
shear capacity of spandrel ledges is represented using 1 and 2, increasing the horizontal projection of the beam
the square root of the compressive strength, f ′c . ledge, increases the punching shear capacity as a result
According to the PCI Design Handbook, increasing f ′c of the corresponding increase in the punching surface
from 40 to 60 MPa results in 22 percent increase in area of the ledge. It should be highlighted that the PCI
punching shear capacity. The predicted increase in expressions do not account for the effect of eccentricity
capacity using finite element analysis as a result of between the applied load and the centroid of the critical
increasing f ′c is only 13 percent, which matches the section, which could significantly reduce the punching
corresponding increase in capacity using f ′c1/4. It should shear capacity of the ledge. Increasing the horizontal
be highlighted that the 1/2 power currently used by the projection of the ledge increased concrete cracking
PCI Design Handbook represents the tensile strength of along the ledge/web junction and accelerates punching
the concrete as a function of the compressive strength. shear failure. The analysis indicated that increasing lp
Zuo and Darwin (2000) have also observed that the f ′c1/4 from 150 mm to 250 mm (66 percent increase), reduced
can better represent the concrete contribution in tension the punching shear capacity by 10 percent. Conversely,
for lapped-spliced beams. Based on the results of the a corresponding increase in punching capacity by 11
analysis, it should be emphasized that the PCI shear was predicted using the PCI design expressions.
design provisions for concrete ledges provided less Figures 9 and 10 show the influence of the height of
safety factors for high strength concrete. the ledge, hl, and the width of the bearing area, bt, on the
punching shear behavior of the ledge. The punching
shear capacity was significantly improved by increasing
4.2. Ledge Dimensions the depth of the ledge. The increase in punching shear
The effect of the width of the horizontal projection of capacity was directly proportional to the increase in the
the ledge, lp, on the punching shear behavior is height as predicted by the PCI expressions. The analysis

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Tarek K. Hassan
15/10/07
10:27 am

Table 2. Results of the finite element analysis

Ultimate capacity
f’c lp hl bt Hanger % of Debonded (kN) P FEA /
Page 481

Case # (MPa) (mm) (mm) (mm) PJacking reinforcement strands PFEA PPCI P FEA/P PCI P Proposed

Advances in Structural Engineering Vol. 10 No. 5 2007


1 (Control) 40 150 300 95 0.7 fu 12M @ 200 0% 605 993 0.61 1.05
2 25 150 300 95 0.7 fu 12M @ 200 0% 560 788 0.71 1.25
3 60 150 300 95 0.7 fu 12M @ 200 0% 658 1243 0.53 0.92
4 40 200 300 95 0.7 fu 12M @ 200 0% 578 1047 0.55 0.95
5 40 250 300 95 0.7 fu 12M @ 200 0% 542 1102 0.49 0.85
6 40 150 250 95 0.7 fu 12M @ 200 0% 569 798 0.71 1.23
7 40 150 350 95 0.7 fu 12M @ 200 0% 640 1197 0.53 0.92
8 40 150 300 75 0.7 fu 12M @ 200 0% 596 982 0.50 1.05
9 40 150 300 115 0.7 fu 12M @ 200 0% 623 1003 0.51 1.07
10 40 150 300 95 0.3 fu 12M @ 200 0% 524 993 0.53 0.91
11 40 150 300 95 0.5 fu 12M @ 200 0% 560 993 0.56 0.97
12 40 150 300 95 0.7 fu 10M @ 200 0% 498 993 0.50 0.86
13 40 150 300 95 0.7 fu 16M @ 200 0% 694 993 0.70 1.2
14 40 150 300 95 0.7 fu 12M @ 200 50% 587 993 0.59 1.02

481
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Finite Element Study of Shear Behavior of Spandrel Ledges and Comparison with PCI Shear Design Provisions

1400 1400

PCI design handbook for f'c = 60 MPa


1200 1200
End reaction of spandrel (kN)

End reaction of spandrel (kN)


1000 PCI design handbook for f'c = 40 MPa 1000 PCI design handbook prediction

800 PCI design handbook for f'c = 25 MPa 800

600 600

400 f'c = 25 MPa 400


Jacking stress = 0.3fu
f'c = 40 MPa
f'c = 60 MPa Jacking stress = 0.5fu
200 200
Jacking stress = 0.7fu
0 0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5
Mid-span rotation (degrees) Mid-span rotation (degrees)

Figure 7. Influence of concrete compressive strength on punching Figure 9. Influence of ledge’s height on punching shear capacity
shear capacity

1400 1400

1200 1200
bt = 115 mm
lp = 250 mm bt = 95 mm
End reaction of spandrel (kN)

End reaction of spandrel (kN)

lp = 200 mm
1000 lp = 150 mm 1000
bt = 75 mm
800 800

600 600

400 400
Width of ledge = 150 mm Width of DT stem = 75 mm

200 Width of ledge = 200 mm Width of DT stem = 95 mm


200
Width of ledge = 250 mm Width of DT stem = 115 mm
0 0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5
Mid-span rotation (degrees) Mid-span rotation (degrees)

Figure 8. Influence of ledge’s width on punching shear capacity Figure 10. Influence of width of bearing area on punching shear
capacity

indicated that the width of the bearing area has a 0.7fu, where fu is the ultimate tensile strength of the
negligible effect on the punching shear behavior of the prestressing strands. The predicted rotations for
ledge. Increasing the width of bearing area by 53 different cases are plotted in Figure 11 versus the end
percent increased the punching shear capacity by less reaction of the spandrel. The analysis indicated that
than 5 percent. The same effect was also predicted using punching shear failure was always preceded by
the PCI design expressions. Failure of all the analyzed significant cracking along the ledge/web junction.
spandrels was due to punching shear failure of the ledge Increasing the prestressing level, limits concrete
as described in the previous section. cracking along the ledge/web junction and thus,
improves the punching shear capacity. Results of the
4.3. Prestressing Level and Strands Debonding analysis showed a 15 percent increase in punching
Three spandrel beams were analyzed assuming shear capacity in consequence of increasing the jacking
different jacking stress levels for the prestressing stress from 0.3fu to 0.7fu.
strands. The jacking stress was varied from 0.3fu to Debonding of the prestressing strands has a less

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Tarek K. Hassan

1400 1400

1200 1200
End reaction of spandrel (kN)

End reaction of spandrel (kN)


1000 PCI design handbook prediction 1000 PCI design handbook prediction

Crack opening is
800 800 restrained by additional
hanger reinforcement

600 600

400 400
Jacking stress = 0.3fu Stirrups: 10M@200 mm
Jacking stress = 0.5fu Stirrups: 12M@200 mm
200 200
Jacking stress = 0.7fu Stirrups: 16M@200 mm
0 0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5
Mid-span rotation (degrees) Mid-span rotation (degrees)

Figure 11. Influence of prestressing level on punching shear Figure 13. Influence of hanger reinforcement on the punching
behavior of spandrel ledges shear behavior of spandrel ledges

1400
shown in Figure 13 for different cases. Results showed
1200
that use of hanger reinforcement significantly improves
the punching shear capacity of spandrel ledges.
End reaction of spandrel (kN)

1000
Increasing the hanger reinforcement ratio provided
PCI design handbook prediction additional constraints to crack propagation through the
800
web and delayed punching shear failure as shown in
Figure 13. The punching shear capacity of the spandrel
600
beam with hanger reinforcement ratio of 0.18 percent
(No.10M@200mm) was 498 kN. The analysis indicated
400 that increasing the hanger reinforcement ratio by 77
All strands are fully bonded percent (No.12M@200mm) and 177 percent
200 50% of strands are debonded (No.16M@200mm), increased the punching shear
capacity by 21 and 40 percent, respectively. It should be
0 noted that the PCI shear design expressions are
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 independent on the hanger reinforcement ratio.
Mid-span rotation (degrees)

Figure 12. Influence of strands debonding on the punching shear


5. PROPOSED EXPRESSIONS
behavior of spandrel ledges
Results of the finite element analysis and PCI
predictions are summarized in Table 2 for different
pronounced effect compared to the prestressing level. cases. The calculated capacities using PCI shear design
The analysis indicated that debonding 50 percent of the provisions overestimated those predicted using finite
prestressing strands for a distance of 1200 mm from the element analysis by an average of 60 percent. Proposing
beam ends, reduced the punching shear capacity by 3 different design expressions to account for all the key
percent as shown in Figure 12. It should be noted that parameters affecting the punching shear behavior of
the PCI shear design expressions for beam ledges do not prestressed spandrel ledges requires additional
account for the effect of the prestressing level nor the computational work, further verification models and
percentage of debonded strands. compilation of more experimental data. However, based
on the results of the finite element analysis, it is
4.4. Hanger Reinforcement suggested to use a reduction factor for the PCI design
Three different hanger reinforcement ratios were expressions of 0.60 to ensure that punching shear failure
investigated, 0.18, 0.32, and 0.5 percent, respectively. will not govern the design of typical spandrel ledges.
Comparison of the predicted rotations at mid-span is The proposed design expressions can be expressed by

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Finite Element Study of Shear Behavior of Spandrel Ledges and Comparison with PCI Shear Design Provisions

the lesser of Eqns 3 and 4: PCI design expressions of 0.60 to ensure that
punching shear failure will not govern the
design of typical spandrel ledges.
Vn = 0.15 f ′ c hl  2l p + bt + hl  ( N, mm ) (3)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Vn = 0.05 f ′ c hl  2l p + bt + hl + 2de  ( N, mm ) (4) This work was part of a research project funded by the
Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental
where f_c is the concrete compressive strength in MPa Engineering at North Carolina State University,
and hl, lp, bt, de are the dimensions of the spandrel beam Raleigh, NC, USA. The author would like to
as shown in Figure 1. The ratio of the calculated end acknowledge the sincere support provided by Dr. Sami
reaction using the proposed punching capacity of the H. Rizkalla during the research period.
ledge compared well with the results of the finite
element analysis as demonstrated in Table 2.
REFERENCES
6. CONCLUSIONS ANATECH Corporation (2003). ANACAP Version 2.2.3 Reference
Based on the findings of this investigation, the Manuals.
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be predicted using non-linear finite element Hassan, T., Abdelrahman, A., Tadros, G. and Rizkalla, S. (2000).
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shaped spandrel beams could significantly theoretical study of punching shear strength of concrete bridge
reduce the punching shear capacity of the ledge decks”, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 32, No. 2,
and should be accounted for in the PCI shear pp. 449–453.
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5. Increasing the prestressing level, limits concrete Prestressed Concrete Institute, Chicago, IL, 614 pp.
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