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THE FOUR PILLARS OF EDUCATION

The Four Pillars of Education, described in Chapter 4 of Learning: The Treasure Within, are the
basis of the whole report. These four pillars of knowledge cannot be anchored solely in one
phase in a person's life or in a single place. There is a need to re-think when in people's lives
education should be provided, and the fields that such education should cover. The periods and
fields should complement each other and be interrelated in such a way that all people can get the
most out of their own specific educational environment all through their lives.

STATEMENT#1: The four pillars of education (or of learning or of knowledge) are (1) learning
to know; (2) learning to do; (3) learning to be; and (4) learning to live together. The pillars
should anchor the learning not solely in one phase or not solely in a single place of a person’s
life.

STATEMENT #2: Periods and fields complement each other and interrelate in a way for all
people to get most out of their contexts through all their lives.

STATEMENT #3:Student’s educational environments are specific, temporal, spatial, and


contextual.

Learning to Know

This type of learning is concerned less with the acquisition of structured knowledge than with the
mastery of learning tools. It may be regarded as both a means and an end of human existence.

STATEMENT #4: The mastery of learning tools (aka, skills) is more about the construction of
unstructured knowledge

STATEMENT #5: The mastery of the learning tools should at least encompass competency and
proficiency of the learning tools.

Definition of Terms

COMPETENCE conceives the needs for education and training into skills, knowledge, and
attitudes.

EXPERTISE refers to special skill or knowledge.

MASTERY encompasses comprehensive knowledge or skill in a subject or accomplishment.

PROFICIENCY combines observed performance to and the performance measurement.

STRUCTURED KNOWLEDGE is the knowledge with the structural or static elements. For
instance, information in a spreadsheet contains predefined columnar structured knowledge.
UNSTRUCTURED KNOWLEDGE is not arranged in a pre-defined manner. It may contain
dates, numbers, and facts that originate from unstructured form Looking at it as a means, people
have to learn to understand the world around them, at least as much as is necessary for them to
lead their lives with some dignity, develop their occupational skills and communicate with other
people. Regarded as an end, it is underpinned by the pleasure that can be derived from
understanding, knowledge and discovery.

STATEMENT #6: The learning to know pillar prioritizes first the proficiency of skill, second the
construction of knowledge from unstructured data second, and third the construction of
knowledge from structured data

STATEMENT #7: The skill development is both a means and an end

STATEMENT #8. As a means, skill development is a learning process to understand reality. It is


also a learning process to learn to communicate, to interact, and to collaborate with people and to
live with dignity.

Looking at it as a means, people have to learn to understand the world around them, at least as
much as is necessary for them to lead their lives with some dignity, develop their occupational
skills and communicate with other people. Regarded as an end, it is underpinned by the pleasure
that can be derived from understanding, knowledge and discovery.

STATEMENT #9. As an end, skill development results in being proficient with a skill but feeling
satisfied.

STATEMENT #10. The ultimate purpose of learning to know is to derive SELF-ESTEEM by


being proficient with the skill developed and being satisfied with the knowledge constructed That
aspect of learning [which refers to “understanding, knowledge, and discovery”] is typically
enjoyed by researchers, but good teaching can help everyone to enjoy it. Even if study for its own
sake is a dying pursuit with so much emphasis now being put on the acquisition of marketable
skills, the raising of the school leaving age and an increase in leisure time should provide more
and more adults with opportunities for private study.

STATEMENT #11:

Education is the teaching

and learning, more, of

dynamic unstructured

knowledge and, less, of

static structured

knowledge.
STATEMENT #12:

Learning to know and to

construct dynamic

unstructured knowledge

requires being competent

and proficient with the

skill and the knowledge

STATEMENT #13. Good

teaching is a pursuit of

happiness for everyone

engaging in the teaching

and learning

STATEMENT #14. Youth

and adults should have

ample opportunities to

private study.

Definition of

Terms

GOOD TEACHING

facilitates students to

connect their synapses

and neurons and to form

thoughts and to

transform them

ultimately to be better
citizenry (Leblanc, n.d.).

PRIVATE STUDY refers to

the self-disciplined and

empowered approach

where the student does

not have a timetabled

lesson.

The broader our knowledge, the better we can43

understand the many different aspects of our44

environment. Such study encourages greater45

intellectual curiosity, sharpens the critical faculties

46

and enables people to develop their own

47

independent judgments on the world around them.

48

From that point of view, all children - no matter49

where they live - must have a chance to receive an50

appropriate science education and become friends51

of science throughout their lives.52

53

However, since knowledge is multifarious and

54

capable of virtually infinite development, any


55

attempt to know everything becomes more and

56

more pointless. In fact, after the basic education57

stage, the idea of being a multi-subject specialist is58

simply an illusion. The initial secondary and59

university curricula are therefore partly designed

60

around scientific disciplines with the aim of giving61

students the tools, ideas and reference methods62

which are the product of leading-edge science and

63

the contemporary paradigms.

STATEMENT #15. Skill

development should be

evidence-based and

connected to the

construction of know-

how, know-when, know-

what, and know-why

knowledge

STATEMENT #16. The

construction of know-

why knowledge is

science-based.
STATEMENT #17.

Understanding the

science and perspectives

of reality enables the

construction of broader

knowledge.

STATEMENT #18.

Lifelong learning

curricula should develop

students to be proficient

in interdisciplinary, and

not specialized,

knowledge.

STATEMENT #19. The

curricula should develop

students with the tools,

ideas, and techniques so

that they have awareness

of science and

perspectives of the

reality.

STATEMENT #20. A

capital T is a conception

of good education. Its

horizontal line
represents the broad

general education. Its

vertical line represents a

small number of subjects

studied in-depth.

Such specialization must not exclude general66education - not even for future researchers
who67will work in specialized laboratories. A truly68educated person nowadays needs a broad
general69education and the opportunity to study a small70number of subjects in depth. This two-
pronged71approach should be applied right through72education. The reason is that general
education,73which gives pupils a chance to learn other74languages and become familiar with
other subjects,75first and foremost provides a way of76communicating with other people. If
specialists77rarely set foot outside their own scientific circle,78they are likely to lose interest in
what other79people are doing. Regardless of the circumstances,80they will find working with
others a problem. On81the other hand, general education, which forges82spatial and temporal
links between societies,83tends to make people more receptive to other84branches of knowledge.
While the history of85science is written by historians, scientists find it86useful. By the same
token, lawyers, sociologists87and political scientists increasingly need basic88economics.
Lastly, some breakthroughs in the89advancement of human knowledge occur at the90interface of
different specializations

Definition ofTermsGENERAL EDUCATION inarts and sciencesprovides a wide range ofbasic,


introductory, orfoundation skills andknowledge in areas suchas English, Mathematics,and the
Social Sciences. Itforges temporal andspatial linkages betweenpeople,
organizations,communities, and society.It triggers and motivatesreceptiveness ofbranches of
knowledge.MULTIFARIOUS meanshaving many different orgreatly diverse parts,elements,
forms,activities, etc. .PARADIGM is a set ofpatterns. A pattern is amodel of something; it isa
representation. In aparadigm, the pattern isaccepted by the membersof a group as a
copingmechanism to resolveuncertainty and to satisfyneeds of the group. Aparadigm is about
theexperiences that reflectthe practice.

STATEMENT #21. Goodeducation includesbreakthroughs oradvances


ofinterdisciplinaryknowledge.
Learning to know implies learning how to learn by93developing one's concentration, memory
skills and94ability to think. From infancy, young people must95learn how to concentrate - on
objects and on other96people. This process of improving concentration97skills can take different
forms and can be aided by98the many different learning opportunities that99arise in the course
of people's lives (games, work100experience programmes, travel, practical science101activities,
etc.).102103The development of memory skills is an excellent104tool for countering the
overpowering stream of105instant information put out by the media. It would106be dangerous to
conclude that there is no point in107people's improving their memory skills because of108the
vast amount of information storage and109distribution capacity available. While
some110selectivity is undoubtedly required when choosing111facts to be "learned by heart",
there are numerous112examples of the human memory's ability to113outperform computers
when it comes to114establishing connections between memorized115facts that apparently have
very little to do with116each other. The specifically human ability of117associative
memorization is not something that118can be reduced to an automatic process; it has to119be
carefully cultivated. Furthermore, specialists in120this field agree that memory skills have to
be121developed from infancy and that it is dangerous to122discontinue various traditional
exercises in123schools simply because they are considered to be124boring.125

STATEMENT #22.LEARNING TO KNOW isLEARNING HOW TOLEARN (aka, learning


tolearn). It is developingthe skills to concentrate(and to some extend tomemorize), to think andto
reflect, and to conductself- evaluation.

STATEMENT #23.LEARNING TO LEARNrequires thedevelopment of memoryskills throughout


the life.This aspect of learningshould not be equatedwith rote learning.

Definition ofTermsCRITICAL THINKINGfocuses toward desirableoutcomes (Halpern,


1996)REFLECTIVETHINKING is a part ofcritical thinking. It focuseson the process of
makingjudgments about whathas happened. It is anactive, persistent, andcareful consideration
ofbeliefs, grounds thatunderlie the knowledge,and conclusions to whichthe thinking leads.ROTE
LEARNING islearning by repetition.THINKING includesthinking aboutgenerating
practicalsolution, solving problem,abstracting, reflecting,and chaining of(deductive and
inductive)reasons.

Thinking is something children learn first from127their parents and then from their teachers.
The128process should encompass both practical problem-129solving and abstract thought. Both
education and130research should therefore combine deductive and131inductive reasoning,
which are often claimed to be132opposing processes. While one form of reasoning133may be
more appropriate than the other,134depending on the subjects being taught, it is135generally
impossible to pursue a logical train of136thought without combining the two.137138The process
of learning to think is a lifelong one139and can be enhanced by every kind of
human140experience. In this respect, as people's work141becomes less routine, they will find
that their142thinking skills are increasingly being challenged at143their place of work

Definition ofTermsDEDUCTIVEREASONING deduces thatif something is true of aclass of


things, it is alsotrue for all members ofthat class.INDUCTIVEREASONING starts withspecific
observation tomake broadergeneralization.STATEMENT #24. Learningto know develops
thinkingskills to generate solutionsto improve works,especially the non-
routineworks.STATEMENT #25. Learningto know is not only learningto learn. It is also
learningto think throughout the lifein order to enhance everyaspect of human
experience.STATEMENT #26. Thinkingskills are increasinglyimportant to face the lesscertain
and more uncertainchallenge of the work place.

Learning to Do147This question is closely associated with the issue148of occupational training:
how do we adapt149education so that it can equip people to do the150types of work needed in
the future? Here we151should draw a distinction between industrial152economies, where most
people are wage-earners,153and other economies where self-employment or154casual work are
still the norm.155156In societies where most people are in paid157employment, which have
developed throughout158the Twentieth century based on the industrial159model, automation is
making this model160increasingly "intangible". It emphasizes the161knowledge component of
tasks, even in industry,162as well as the importance of services in the163economy. The future of
these economies hinges on164their ability to turn advances in knowledge into165innovations
that will generate new businesses and166new jobs. "Learning to do" can no longer
mean167what it did when people were trained to perform a168very specific physical task in a
manufacturing169process. Skill training therefore has to evolve and170become more than just a
means of imparting the171knowledge needed to do a more or less routine job.

Definition ofTermsADAPT is the process ofchanging to suit differentconditions.ADOPT is the act


ofaccepting or beginning touse.INNOVATION issomething that isperceived new

STATEMENT #27. Theindustrial model of 20thcentury emphasizesservices over products.Also, it


emphasizesknow-how and intangibleknowledge. Theemphases hinge on theability to turn
advancesof the knowledge intoinnovations in order togenerate new businessenterprises and new
jobs.

STATEMENT #28.Developing skill is morethan just imparting theknow-how knowledge todo a


job. It is developingmotivation to conductactive engagement.

STATEMENT #29. A taskpractitioner is not adivided-labor element ofTaylor model but a


teammember in the Japanese model

From certified skills to personal competence174The major part played by knowledge


and175information in manufacturing industry renders176obsolete the notion of specialist skills
on the part177of the workforce. The key concept now is one of178"personal competence".
Technological progress179inevitably changes the job skills required by the180new production
processes. Purely physical tasks181are being replaced by tasks with a greater182intellectual or
cerebral content such as the183operation, maintenance and monitoring of184machines and
design and organizational tasks, as185the machines themselves become more
intelligent.186There are several reasons for this increase in skill187requirements at all levels.
Instead of being188organized to perform specified tasks in189juxtaposition in accordance with
Taylor's190principles of scientific labour organization,191manufacturing workers are often
divided into192work teams or project groups on the Japanese193model. This approach
represents a departure from194the idea of dividing labour into similar physical195tasks which
are essentially learned by repetition.196197Furthermore, the idea of personalized tasks
is198taking over from that of employee199interchangeability. There is a growing
trend200among employers to evaluate potential employees201in terms of their personal
competence rather than202certified skills which they see as merely203demonstrating the ability
to perform specific204physical tasks. This personal competence is205assessed by looking at a
mix of skills and talents,206combining certified skills acquired through207technical and
vocational training, social behaviour,208personal initiative and a willingness to take risks .

Definition ofTermsPERSONALCOMPETENCE is thetraditional notion ofcompetence and


MORE.First, the competence isabout conditions, needs(for skills andknowledge), andattitudes.
Essentiallyabout skills, knowledge,and attitudes, thecompetence is the mix ofskills including
certifiedskills, knowledge, socialbehaviors, talents, traitssuch as the willingness totake risks, and
personalinitiatives, andmotivators. Second, thecompetence requiresgreater
intelligence,intuitiveness (commonsense), trustworthiness,credibility, interpersonalskill,
communication skill,and decision-making skill.Third, the competencefurther requiresawareness
of broad interdisciplines andproficiency to relevantskills set. The notion ofproficiency is
theperformance of theintended learningoutcomes) andassessment (preferably,self-assessment).
Thenotion of proficiencydoes not require greaterspecialist skills. Fourth,the competence
shouldinclude a personalcommitment for change.

If we add a demand for personal commitment on211the part of employees in their role as
change212agents, it is clear that this kind of personal213competence involves highly subjective
innate or214acquired qualities, often referred to as "people215skills" or "interpersonal skills"
by employers,216combined with knowledge and other job skills. Of217these qualities,
communication, team and218problem-solving skills are assuming greater219importance. The
growth of the service industries220has resulted in an increase in this trend.221222The shift
away from physical work - the223service industries224In advanced economies there is a shift
away from225physical work. The implications of this trend for226education are even clearer if
we look at the227development of the service industries in both228quantitative and qualitative
terms. Most of the229active population (60-80 per cent) of the230industrialized countries is
employed in the service231sector. The main defining characteristic of this232extremely broad
category is that it covers233activities which are neither industrial nor234agricultural and
which, despite their diversity, do235not involve any tangible product.236237Many services are
defined primarily in terms of238the interpersonal relationship involved. Examples239of this are
found both in the rapidly expanding240private service sector which is benefiting from
the241growing complexity of economies (every kind of242expertise imaginable, security services
or high-243tech consultancy services, financial, accounting244and management services) and in
the more245traditional public sector (social services, health246and education services,
etc.).247248In both these cases, information and249communication play a vital role. The key
aspect250here is the personalized acquisition and251processing of specific data for a clearly
defined252project. In this type of service, both the provider253and the user influence the quality
of the254relationship between them. Clearly, people can no255longer be trained for this sort of
work in the same256way as they learned how to plough the land or257make a sheet of steel.
These new jobs are about 12interpersonal relationships; workers'259relationships with the
materials and processes260they are using are secondary. The growing service261sector needs
people with good social and262communication skills - skills that are not263necessarily taught at
school or university.

Lastly, in the ultra high-tech organizations of the266future, where relational inadequacies might
cause267serious dysfunctions, new types of skills will be268required, with an interpersonal
rather than269intellectual basis. This may provide an opportunity270for people with few or no
formal educational271qualifications. Intuition, common sense,272judgement and leadership
skills are not confined273to highly qualified people. How and where are274these more or less
innate skills to be taught? The275problem is akin to that raised by the idea of276vocational
training in developing countries.277Educational content simply cannot be inferred278from a
statement of the skills or abilities required279for specific tasks.

Definition ofTermsCHANGE AGENTembodies a personalcommitment for changedue to the


growingcomplexity of economies.The change agencyinvolves highly subjective(innate or
acquired)qualities and combineswith solution generating,problem solving, andinterpersonal
skills andknowledge.PRACTITIONER issomeone who engages ina task with the
personalcompetence

STATEMENT #30. Thenew form of personalcompetence embodiespractices and theoriescoupled


with personaldynamics, good solution-generating, problem-solving, decision-making,innovative,
and teamskills

STATEMENT #31. Thetrend in the twenty-firstcentury includes a shift,away from physical work
,toward service-sectoractivities which areneither industrial noragricultural, which arecomplex
and diversified,and which do notnecessarily involvetangible product.

STATEMENT #32.Another trend is theimportance ofinformation andcommunication


STATEMENT #33. Theabove two trends in thetwenty first centurytrigger needs
forpersonalized acquisitionand processing of specificdata for a clearly definetask or
project. Thequality to satisfy the needrelies on the quality ofthe relationship betweenthe
service provider andthe user of the serviceand data

STATEMENT #34. Thequality of the relationshipbetween the serviceprovider and the user
of theservice and data reliesmore on the trust andcredibility developed whilethey interact
with eachother and less on theinteractions betweenpeople and materials orbetween people
andprocesses

STATEMENT #35. Peoplewith high personalcompetence are highlyqualified people. They


canbe people with few or noformal educationalqualifications.

STATEMENT #36. Goodassessment or certificationof skills developed andknowledge


acquired shouldinclude adequate evidenceand statements of the skillsand abilities required
forspecific tasks.

Work in the informal economy282The nature of work is very different in the283economies


of developing countries where most284people are not wage-earners. In many sub-
Saharan285African countries and some Latin American and286Asian countries, only a
small proportion of the287population is in paid employment. The vast288majority works
in the traditional subsistence289economy, where specific job qualifications are
not290required and where know-how is the fruit of tacit291knowledge. For this reason,
education cannot292simply be modelled on the types of education that293seem to fit the
bill in post-industrial societies.294Besides, the function of learning is not confined
to295work; it should meet the wider aim of achieving296formal or informal participation
in development.297This often involves social skills as much as298occupational
skills.299300In other developing countries, a thriving unofficial301modern economy based
on trade and finance may302exist alongside a small official economic sector
and303agriculture. This parallel economy indicates the304existence of business
communities capable of305meeting local requirements.306307In both these cases, there is
no point in providing308the population with high-cost training (since the309teachers and
the educational resources have to310come from abroad) either in
conventional311industrial skills or in advanced technology. On the312contrary, education
should be brought into313endogenous development by strengthening local314potential
and the spirit of empowerment.315316We then have to address a question that applies
to317both developed and developing countries: how do318people learn to act
appropriately in an uncertain319situation, how do they become involved in shaping320the
future?

STATEMENT #37. Goodcurriculum design shouldfit the economies of thecountry ; should


not simplybe copied from othereconomies; should meet therequirements of thecommunity;
and shouldmeet the wider aim ofachieving formal andinformal participation
indevelopment. The skills tobe developed shouldinvolve both social skillsand occupational
skills.

STATEMENT #38. Goodcurriculum design shouldinspire students to learn toact


appropriately in anuncertain situation.Moreover it should inspirestudents to
becomeinvolved in shaping thefuture

STATEMENT #39. The goodcurriculum design shouldembrace endogenousdevelopment,


strengthenlocal potential, empowerand inspire active learning.

Definition ofTermsENDOGENOUS is a termin economics to describesomething that is inside


aparticular system.

How can people be prepared to innovate?323This question is being asked in developing


and324developed countries. It basically comes down to325knowing how to develop
personal initiative.326Paradoxically, the richest countries are sometimes327restrained in
this respect by the excessively coded328and formal way they are organized, particularly
as329regards their educational systems, and by a certain330fear of risk-taking which may
be engendered by331the rationalization of their economic model.332Undoubtedly, sport,
club membership and artistic333and cultural activities are more successful than
the334traditional school systems at providing this kind of335training. The discovery of
other societies through336study and travel may encourage such behaviour.337From this
point of view in particular, a great deal338may be learned by observing the economies
of339developing countries.340341In all countries, lastly, the growing importance
of342small groups, networking and partnerships343highlights the likelihood that
excellent344interpersonal skills will be an essential job345requirement from now on.
What is more, the new346working patterns, whether in industry or in the347service
sector, will call for the intensive348application of information, knowledge
and349creativity. All things considered, the new forms of350personal competence are
based on a body of351theoretical and practical knowledge combined352with personal
dynamism and good problem-353solving, decision-making, innovative and team354skills

STATEMENT #40. Goodcurriculum design shouldultimately develop personalcompetence


which includesdevelopment of personalinitiative skill andintegrates near-authentic(sport,
club membership,artistic, cultural, and studyand travel) activitiesthrough small
groups,networking , collaborations,and intensive applicationsof information,
knowledge,and creativity
Learning to be358At its very first meeting, the Commission359powerfully re-asserted a
fundamental principle:360education should contribute to every person's361complete
development - mind and body,362intelligence, sensitivity, aesthetic appreciation
and363spirituality. All people should receive in their364childhood and youth an education
that equips365them to develop their own independent, critical366way of thinking and
judgement so that they can367make up their own minds on the best courses of368action in
the different circumstances in their lives.369370In this respect, the Commission embraces
one of371the basic assumptions stated in the372report Learning to Be: ‘the aim of
development is373the complete fulfilment of man, in all the richness374of his personality,
the complexity of his forms of375expression and his various commitments -
as376individual, member of a family and of a community,377citizen and producer, [change
agent,] inventor of378techniques and creative dreamer.'379380This human development,
which begins at birth381and continues all through a person's life, is a382dialectic process
which is based both on self-383knowledge and on relationships with other people.384It
also presupposes successful personal experience.385As a means of personality training,
education386should be a highly individualized process and at387the same time an
interactive social experience.

Definition ofTermsCOMPLETE HUMANDEVELOPMENT consistsboth of self-knowledgeand


on relationships withpeople. It refers to thetotality of mind, body,intelligence,
sensitivity,aesthetic appreciationand spirituality fromchildhood and onward.The
development coversthe person’s ownindependent and criticalway of thinking andjudgment
to be able tomake up own minds onthe best courses of actionin the differentcircumstances
in life

15357Learning to be358At its very first meeting, the Commission359powerfully re-


asserted a fundamental principle:360education should contribute to every
person's361complete development - mind and body,362intelligence, sensitivity, aesthetic
appreciation and363spirituality. All people should receive in their364childhood and youth
an education that equips365them to develop their own independent, critical366way of
thinking and judgement so that they can367make up their own minds on the best courses
of368action in the different circumstances in their lives.369370In this respect, the
Commission embraces one of371the basic assumptions stated in the372report Learning to
Be: ‘the aim of development is373the complete fulfilment of man, in all the richness374of
his personality, the complexity of his forms of375expression and his various commitments
- as376individual, member of a family and of a community,377citizen and producer,
[change agent,] inventor of378techniques and creative dreamer.'379380This human
development, which begins at birth381and continues all through a person's life, is
a382dialectic process which is based both on self-383knowledge and on relationships with
other people.384It also presupposes successful personal experience.385As a means of
personality training, education386should be a highly individualized process and at387the
same time an interactive social experience.388389STATEMENT #41. Goodcurriculum
design shouldensure that the educationcontribute to everyperson’s complete
humandevelopment.

STATEMENT #42. Goodcurriculum design shouldmake the education ahighly


individualizedprocess; shouldmaximize interactivesocial experience; shoulddevelop the
imperative ofowning responsibilities;and should enhancesolution- generating,
anddecision-making skills.

16In its Preamble, the report Learning to Be (1972)390expressed the fear of


dehumanization of the world,391associated with technical progress and one of its392main
messages was that education should enable393each person ‘to be able to solve his own
problems,394make his own decisions and shoulder his own395responsibilities.' Since then,
all progress in396different societies, particularly the staggering397increase in media
power, has intensified those398fears and made the imperative that they underpin399even
more legitimate. This dehumanization may400increase in the twenty-first century. Rather
than401educating children for a given society, the402challenge will be to ensure that
everyone always403has the personal resources and intellectual tools404needed to
understand the world and behave as a405fair-minded, responsible human being. More
than406ever before, the essential task of education seems407to be to make sure that all
people enjoy the408freedom of thought, judgement, feeling and409imagination to develop
their talents and keep410control of as much of their lives as they can.411412This is not
simply a cry for individualism. Recent413experience has shown that what could
appear414merely as a personal defence mechanism against415an alienating system or a
system perceived to be416hostile, also offered the best opportunity for417making social
progress. Personality differences,418independence and personal initiative or even
a419task for upsetting the established order are the420best guarantees of creativity and
innovation. The421rejection of imported high-tech models, the422harnessing of traditional
implied forms of423knowledge and empowerment are effective factors424in endogenous
development. New methods have425evolved from experiments at local
community426level. Their effectiveness in reducing violence or427combating various
social problems is widely428recognized.

STATEMENT #43. Goodcurriculum design shouldenhance the realizationthat “everyone


alwayshas the personalresources and intellectualtools needed tounderstand the worldand
behave as a fair-minded responsibleperson.”

STATEMENT #44. Goodcurriculum design shouldalso ensure everyone theopportunity to


enjoy thefreedom of thought,judgment, feeling, andimagination; to develophis or her
talents; and tokeep control of as muchof his or her life aspossible
STATEMENT #45.Individualism is good. Itoffers the bestopportunity for socialprogress.
Personaldifference, personalinitiative, independence,and non-conformance ofestablished
order are thebest guarantee ofcreativity and innovation

In a highly unstable world where one of the main431driving forces seems to be economic
and social432innovation, imagination and creativity must433undoubtedly be accorded a
special place. As the434clearest expressions of human freedom, they may435be threatened
by the establishment of a certain436degree of uniformity in individual behaviour.
The437twenty-first century will need a varied range of438talents and personalities even
more than439exceptionally gifted individuals, who are equally440essential in any society.
Both children and young441persons should be offered every opportunity for442aesthetic,
artistic, scientific, cultural and social443discovery and experimentation, which
will444complete the attractive presentation of the445achievements of previous
generations or their446contemporaries in these fields. At school, art and447poetry should
take a much more important place448than they are given in many countries by
an449education that has become more utilitarian than450cultural. Concern with
developing the imagination451and creativity should also restore the value of
oral452culture and knowledge drawn from children's or453adults' experiences

STATEMENT #46. Goodcurriculum design shouldfoster empowermentand freedom


ofexpression, throughinnovation, imaginationand creativity, to theextend of disconformity

STATEMENT #47. Goodcurriculum design shouldoffer every opportunityfor aesthetic,


artistic,scientific, socialdiscovery andexperimentation.

Learning to live together457Violence all too often dominates life in the458contemporary


world, forming a depressing459contrast with the hope which some people have460been
able to place in human progress. Human461history has constantly been scarred by
conflicts,462but the risk is heightened by two new elements.463Firstly, there is the
extraordinary potential for464self-destruction created by humans in the465twentieth
century. Then, we have the ability of the466new media to provide the entire world
with467information and unverifiable reports on ongoing468conflicts. Public opinion
becomes a helpless469observer or even a hostage of those who initiate or470keep up the
conflicts. Until now education has471been unable to do much to mitigate this
situation.472Can we do better? Can we educate ourselves to473avoid conflict or peacefully
resolve it?474475While the idea of teaching non-violence in schools476is certainly
praiseworthy, it seems quite477inadequate if we look at what is really involved.478The
challenge is a difficult one since people have a479natural tendency to overestimate their
own480abilities or those of the group to which they belong481and to entertain prejudices
against other people.482Moreover, the general climate of competition that483prevails in
both domestic and international484economies tends to turn competitiveness
and485personal success into modern values. In fact, this486competitiveness is nowadays
translated into a487relentless economic war and a tension between488rich and poor that
breaks apart nations and the489world and exacerbates historic rivalries.490Regrettably,
with its incorrect interpretation of491what is meant by competition,
education492sometimes helps to sustain this state of affairs

STATEMENT #47. Goodcurriculum design shouldoffer every opportunityfor students to


reflect onquestions, such as: Howcan we do better? Howcan we educate ourselvesto avoid
conflict or toresolve it peacefully?

STATEMENT #48. Goodcurriculum design shouldoffer every opportunityfor students to


constructthe positive perspectiveof competition andcompetitiveness tosustain state,
societal,community-based,organizational, orindividual affair.

How can we do better? Experience shows that it is495not enough to set up contacts and
communication496between people who are liable to come into497conflict to reduce this
risk (for example, in inter-498racial or inter-denominational schools). If the499different
groups are rivals or if they do not have500the same status in the same geographical
area,501such contact may have the opposite effect to that502desired - it may bring out
hidden tensions and503degenerate into an opportunity for conflict. If, on504the other
hand, this kind of contact is organized in505an egalitarian setting and common aims
and506projects are pursued, the prejudices and latent507hostility may give way to a more
relaxed form of508co-operation, or even friendship.509510The conclusion would seem to
be that education511should adopt two complementary approaches.512From early
childhood, it should focus on the513discovery of other people in the first stage
of514education. In the second stage of education and in515lifelong education, it should
encourage516involvement in common projects. This seems to be517an effective way of
avoiding conflict or resolving518latent conflicts.519

Discovering other people521One of education's tasks is both to teach pupils522and


students about human diversity and to instil523in them an awareness of the similarities
and524interdependence of all people. From early525childhood, the school should seize
every526opportunity to pursue this two-pronged approach.527Some subjects lend
themselves to this - human528geography in basic education, foreign languages529and
literature later on.530531Moreover, whether education is provided by the532family, the
community or the school, children533should be taught to understand other
people's534reactions by looking at things from their point of535view. Where this spirit of
empathy is encouraged536in schools, it has a positive effect on young537persons' social
behaviour for the rest of their lives.538For example, teaching youngsters to look at
the539world through the eyes of other ethnic or religious540groups is a way of avoiding
some of the541misunderstandings that give rise to hatred and violence among adults.
Thus, teaching the history543of religions or customs can provide a useful544reference tool
for moulding future behaviour.545546Lastly, recognition of the rights of other
people547should not be jeopardized by the way children and548young people are taught.
Teachers who are so549dogmatic that they stifle curiosity or healthy550criticism instead
of teaching their pupils how to551engage in lively debate can do more harm than552good.
Forgetting that they are putting themselves553across as models, they may, because of
their554attitude, inflict lifelong harm on their pupils in555terms of the latter's openness to
other people and556their ability to face up to the inevitable tensions557between
individuals, groups and nations. One of558the essential tools for education in the twenty-
first559century will be a suitable forum for dialogue and560discussion.561

STATEMENT #49. Goodearly childhoodcurriculum design shouldoffer every opportunityfor


students on thediscovery of other people;the realization of theinterdependence ofpeople
regardless of theaspects of similaritiesand differences; theawareness to
understandpeople’s reactions andtheir perspectives; andthe emphasis ofgeography,
foreignlanguages, and foreignliterature

21Towards common goals563When people work together on exciting projects564which


involve them in unaccustomed forms of565action, differences and even conflicts
between566individuals tend to pale and sometimes disappear.567A new form of identity is
created by these projects568which enable people to transcend the routines of569their
personal lives and attach value to what they570have in common as against what divides
them. In571sport, for example, the tensions between social572classes or nationalities can
eventually be welded573into a spirit of solidarity by the commitment to a574common
cause. In the world of work, too, so many575achievements would not have been possible
if576people had not successfully moved beyond the577conflicts that generally arise in
hierarchical578organizations through their involvement in a579common
project.580581Formal education should therefore set aside582sufficient time and
opportunity in its curricula to583introduce young people to collaborative projects584from
an early age as part of their sports or cultural585activities. But this approach should also
get them586involved in social activities: the renovation of slum587areas, help for
disadvantaged people,588humanitarian action, senior citizen help schemes589and so on.
Other educational organizations should590take over these activities from the
schools.591Another point is that, in everyday school life, the592involvement of teachers
and pupils in common593projects can help to teach a method for resolving594conflicts and
provide a valuable source of595reference for pupils in later life.

STATEMENT #50. Goodsecondary and post-secondary curriculumdesign should


encourageinvolvement incollaborative projectsand social activities, in“unaccustomed
forms ofaction, differences andeven conflicts betweenindividuals,” and enablestudents “to
transcendthe routines of theirpersonal lives and [to]attach value to what theyhave in
common asagainst what dividesthem.”

References598Halpern, D. F. (1996). Thought and Knowledge: An599Introduction to


Critical Thinking (3rd ed.).600Mahwah, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates.601Leblanc, R. (n.d.).
Good teaching: The top ten602requirements. Retrieved 8 October 2013,603from
http://www.biz.colostate.edu/mti/tips604/pages/GoodTeaching.aspx605The Nielson
Group. (n.d.). List of competencies.

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