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Physics Handout

Motion
Grade VIII Junior High School
By: Tyas Ajeng Puspitasari, S.Pd

Name:
Class/Absent No:

Junior High School 1 Malang


Junior High School 1
MOTION Malang

2010
A. Motion
What comes to your mind when you hear the word motion?
 In physics, motion is a change in location or position of an object with
respect to time

 The moving object is identified by its change position from a point of


reference

 Motion is always observed and measured relative to a frame of reference.

B. Distance and Displacement


 Distance is the total path travelled by the body without considering
the direction of its motion.
 Displacement is the change of position of body from the initial point
, or the shortest distance from one point to another.
 Distance is scalar quantity, which has magnitude but no direction.
 Displacement is a vector quantity, which has magnitude and direction.
 The SI unit of distance and displacement is the meter [m].

Exercise 1.
Distance and
Displacement
1. What is the distance and the displacement covered by a toy car if it travels
4m north and then 3 m east?
ANSWER:

2. Every day Rahim walks from his house to the junction which is
1.5 km from his house. Then he turns back and stops at warung
Pak Din which is 0.5 km from his house.
a. What the total distance traveled by Rahim?
b. What is Rahim’s total displacement from his house?
ANSWER:

3. A man walks 5 m to the east, 3 m south, 5 m west, and finally 3 m north.


a. What the total distance traveled by that man?
b. What is his displacement?
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ANSWER:

C. Speed
 Speed is defined as the distance travelled by the object per unit time.
 The speed of a body tells us how quickly or slowly a body is moving

 Speed is measured in the SI unit of meter per second (m/s). Another


commonly unit is kilometer per hour (km/hour) and mile per hour (mph)

 Speed is scalar quantity, has only numerical value (magnitude).

Instantaneous Speed and Average Speed


 For most journeys, speed is not constant.

 Instantaneous Speed - the speed at any given instant in time. This is


measured using a speedometer

 Average Speed - the average of all instantaneous speeds.

D. Velocity
 Velocity is distance travelled per unit time in a stated direction

 Velocity is speed in a specific direction

 The SI unit for velocity is meter per second (m/s). Other commonly
unit is kilometer/hour (km/hour)

 Velocity is vector quantity, has a direction and a numerical value


(magnitude).

Exercise 2.
Speed and Velocity
1. If we travel 320 km in 4 hours, what is our average speed? If we drive at this
average speed for 5 hours, how far will we go?

ANSWER:

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2. Thunder traveled in the air at a speed of 330 m/s. If the lighting source was
3.3 km away from where you were standing, how long did it take for the
sound to be heard from your position?

ANSWER:

3. A runner covers one lap of a circular track 28 m in diameter for 44 s.

a) What is his distance ?

b) What is displacement?

c) What is his speed?

d) What is his velocity?

ANSWER:

4. A train on a straight track traveled 120 km to the East for 2 h, stopped for
15 min, then traveled 100 km to the west for 45 min.

a) What is the train distance?

b) What is the train displacement?

c) What is average speed for the whole trip

d) What is average velocity for the whole trip?

ANSWER:

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E. Acceleration
Acceleration is defined as the rate of change of velocity

Where,
a = acceleration (m/s2)
∆v = change in velocity (m/s)
vt = final velocity (m/s)
V0 = initial velocity (m/s)
t = time taken for the change (s)

Positive and negative acceleration


 Positive acceleration ( a = +)

The direction of the acceleration is in the same direction as the


velocity since the speed is increasing.

 Negative acceleration / deceleration (a = - )

The direction of the acceleration is in the opposite direction to the


direction of the velocity since the speed is decreasing

F. Uniformly Linear Motion


 Motion of a body in straight line with a constant velocity

 v is constant ---> ∆v = 0

 a=0

G. Uniformly Accelerated Motion


 Motion of a body if its acceleration remains constant throughout its
motion.

 v is changes

 a = constant

Formula for uniformly accelerated motion


1 5
vt = v0 + at s = v0t + at 2
2
2 2
vt = v0 + 2as
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Note:

vt = final velocity (m/s) s = displacement (m)

v0= initial velocity (m/s) t = time (s)

a = acceleration (m/s2)

Exercise 3.
Uniformly Linear Motion and Uniformly
Accelerated Motion

1. A car increases its velocity steadily from 72 km/h to 108 km/h in 5 s.


What is its acceleration in m/s2?

ANSWER:

2. An object moves with initial velocity of 4 m/s then it is accelerated


with acceleration of 3 m/s2 for 5 seconds. What is final velocity of the
object?

ANSWER:

3. A car is accelerated at 6 m.s-2 from an initial velocity of 2 m.s-1 for 10


seconds. What is the final velocity and the distance moved?

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ANSWER:

4. An object moves from rest with a uniform acceleration of 2 m/s2. What


is the velocity of the object after 30s?

ANSWER:

5. Andri drive a motorcycle with initial velocity of 20 m/s. When he’s


near to his house, he brake his motorcycle for 5 seconds until the
motorcycle stop in front of his house precisely. What is the deceleration of
Andri’s motorcycle?

ANSWER:

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H. Ticker tape chart


Motion of an object can be investigated by ticker timer.
Object with uniform linear motion will produce dots with the same
distance for several times.

Object with uniform acceleration motion will produce dots with the
distance is increasing linear with time.

In the opposite, if the distance of dots is decreasing, it means the object is


move with uniform decelerated motion.

I. Graph of Motion
• Distance vs. Time graph
 A distance-graph is obtained by plotting the distance (s)
travelled by an object
The Slope against the
of distance corresponding
vs. time graph= timethe
taken (t)

average speed
Rise
Slope =
Run
∆y
=
∆x 8
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a. Car at rest Distance (m)

Time (s) 0 1 2 3 4 5
Distance 2 20 2 2 2 2
(m) 0 0 0 0 0

Slope =
0
Time (s)
Average Speed =

b. Car moving with Distance (m)

uniform linear
motion
Time (s) 0 1 2 3 4 5
Distance 0 10 2 3 4 5
(m) 0 0 0 0

Slope =
0
Time (s)
Average Speed =

c. Car moving with Distance (m)

uniform linear
motion
Time (s) 0 1 2 3 4
Distance 0 20 4 6 8
(m) 0 0 0

Slope =

Average Speed =
0
Time (s)
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Compare the slope of graph b


and c. The stepper the slope,
the greater the speed.

• Speed vs. Time graph


 A speed vs. time graph is obtained by plotting speed (m/s) of an object
against the corresponding time taken (t)
The Slope of speed vs. time = instantaneous
acceleration
 Since the area under velocity vs. time graph is given by velocity x time, its
value is equal
Thetoarea
the distance
undertravelled.
a speed vs. time = the distance
travelled

a.Car with uniform Speed (m/s)

linear motion
Time (s) 0 1 2 3 4 5
speed(m/s 3 30 3 3 3 3
) 0 0 0 0 0

Slope =
0
Time (s)
Acceleration =

b.Car moving with Speed (m/s)

uniform
accelerated motion
Time (s) 0 1 2 3 4 5
Speed 0 10 2 3 4 5
(m/s) 0 0 0 0

Slope =
0
Time (s)
Acceleration =
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c.Car moving with Speed (m/s)

uniform
decelerated motion
Time (s) 0 1 2 3 4 5
speed(m/s 5 40 3 2 1 0
) 0 0 0 0

Slope =

Deceleration =
0
Time (s)

Exercise 4.
Graph of Motion

1. The Distance
distance-time graph of a moving object is shown below.
(m)
a) What is the velocity of object
18 during time interval 0s -3s?
b) What is the velocity of object for
the next 3s?
3 6 time (s)

ANSWER:

2. The speed-time graph of an object moving in a straight line is shown below.


velocity a) Calculate its acceleration of
(m/s) the object during the first 10
seconds.
20 b) Calculate the distance
travelled by the object for the first
40 seconds.

10 40 time (s) 11
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c) Calculate the average speed


of the object

ANSWER:

3. The speed-time graph of an object moving in a straight line is shown below


Speed (m/s) Calculate:
a) Its acceleration during the
first 5 seconds
15 b) Its deceleration during the
last 2 seconds
c)The total distance travelled
d) The average speed of the
object for the whole journey.
0 5 20 22 time (s)

ANSWER:

4. The speed-time graph of a car is shown below.

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a) What is the total


Speed (m/s) distance of the car
b) What is its average
speed for the whole journey?
NOTE:
20
The negative area shown the
distance travelled in the
opposite direction.

0 5 20 25 30 40 50
time (s)

-
10

ANSWER:

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