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Main Applications and Selection

of Gate Driver Optocouplers

Application Note 1335

Introduction Advantages of Using Optocouplers as Gate Drivers for IGBT/MOSFET


IGBTs are now commonly used as switching components in • Low system solution cost
both inverter and converter circuits used in power control • High reliability and long life
and motor drive applications. A typical power control and • Variable speed/frequency capability
motor drive system, as shown in Figure 1, requires isolation • Ease and simplicity of design
between the high voltage devices (IGBT/MOSFET) and • Small size and footprint area
the low voltage devices (micro-controller). In addition to • Low power dissipation
meeting the severe requirements for the isolation function, • Safe optical isolation (galvanic isolation)
Avago Technologies’ optocouplers provide customized • Regulatory and safety agency approvals
functionality such as direct gate drive for IGBTs or power
MOSFETs. This application note focuses on the use of Avago
Technologies’ Gate Drive Optocouplers.

+HV

GATE GATE GATE CURRENT


DRIVE DRIVE DRIVE SENSE
U+ V+ W+
A

3-PHASE
OUTPUT

VOLTAGE
GATE GATE GATE
SENSE
DRIVE DRIVE DRIVE
C U- V- W-
B

CURRENT
SENSE
-HV
U+, U-, V+, V-,
W+, W- A, B, C
ANALOG
ISOLATION
MICRO-
MOTOR SPEED POSITION
CONTROLLER

Figure 1. Isolation Circuits for Power Control – System Overview

6315-01 AN 1335
Block Diagrams of Main Applications of Gate Drive Optocouplers

GATE GATE GATE


DRIVER DRIVER DRIVER

GATE GATE GATE


DRIVER DRIVER DRIVER

Figure 2. VVVF Inverter (PWM)

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GATE
DRIVER GATE GATE GATE
DRIVER DRIVER DRIVER

GATE GATE GATE


DRIVER DRIVER DRIVER

Figure 3. VVVF Inverter (PAM)

6315-03 AN 1335

GATE GATE GATE


DRIVER DRIVER DRIVER

GATE GATE GATE


DRIVER DRIVER DRIVER

Figure 4. CVCF Inverter (UPS)

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6315-04 AN 1335
GATE GATE
DRIVER DRIVER

GATE GATE
DRIVER DRIVER

Figure 5. Low Power CVCF Inverter (UPS)

6315-05 AN 1335

GATE GATE
DRIVER DRIVER

GATE GATE GATE


DRIVER DRIVER DRIVER

Figure 6. DC Servo

6315-06 AN 1335

MM

GATE
DRIVER

Figure 7. Switched Reluctance Drive

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6315-07 AN 1335
M LOAD
IRON POT

+
DC

GATE
DRIVER

GATE
Figure 8. DC Chopper DRIVER

6315-08 AN 1335

Figure 9. Induction Cooker

GATE
DRIVER
LOAD
IRON POT

GATE
DRIVER

Figure 10. Series Resonant Induction Cooker


6315-09 AN 1335

GATE GATE
DRIVER DRIVER

GATE GATE
DRIVER
6315-10 AN 1335
DRIVER

Figure 11. Welder

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6315-11 AN 1335
Calculation of Minimum Output Current (IOL)
to Drive IGBT / MOSFET
The key requirement for any IGBT/ The gate capacitance of the
MOSFET gate drive optocoupler is IGBT / MOSFET determines how
for it to supply the Minimum Output much current is required from the
Current (IOL) needed to switch the driver for basic switching:
IGBT/MOSFET to the low-impedance
state. A common misunderstanding
in selecting a gate drive optocoupler VB
Cgc
is looking at the Maximum Peak V XC
VC(GE) =
1

τ = tsw
ig(τ)•dτ Ig1 IG1 = B GC
Output Currents [IOH(PEAK)/IOL(PEAK)] tsw
Cge τ=0
in the Absolute Maximum Rating Ig = Ig1 + Ig2
Section of the data sheet. Though
Maximum Peak Output Currents are 1 VC(GE) X CGE
no less important, they are meant VC(GE) = • Ig • tsw IG2 =
Cge Ig2 tsw
to define the maximum permissible
operational condition that could Cge
result in the destruction of the where,
device, if exceeded.
Cgc - gate-to-collector capacitor
To determine the suitability of a gate Cge - gate-to-emitter capacitor
drive optocoupler, it is necessary VC(GE) - Voltage across gate-to-emitter capacitor
to look at the Minimum Output Ig - total gate current flows into gate
Currents (IOH / IOL) of the gate VCC - VEE - VOL VB
Ig1 R- gate
= current flows into C gc Cgc
drive optocoupler in the Electrical g VB X CGC
1 IOLPEAK
τ = tsw IG1 =
Specifications Section of the data Ig2 - gate
VC(GE) = current • flows into Cge
ig(τ)•dτ Ig1 tsw
Cge τ = 0
sheet. Particularly important, the VB - bus voltage Ig = Ig1 + Ig2
IOL needs to be specified at the tsw - switching time
condition when VO is low, that is 1 VC(GE) X CGE
when the gate drive optocoupler is VC(GE) = C • Ig • tsw IG2 =
tsw
Figure 11. IGBT ge
/ MOSFET Parasitic Capacitances (Cge and Cgc) Ig2
at the charging state. This is because
under this condition the load Cge
draws the highest output current.
Avago Technologies specifies IOL A gate resistor, Rg , must be selected
at VO = VCC – 10 V. Similarly for such that the maximum peak
IOH, it is important to specify the output current rating, IOL(PEAK), is
condition when VO is high, that is not exceeded,
when the gate drive optocoupler
is discharging. Avago Technologies VCC - VEE - VOL
specifies IOH at VO = VEE + 10 V. Rg =
I OLPEAK

This Minimum Output Current where,


(IOL) required to switch IGBT/
VCC - Positive supply voltage of gate drive optocoupler
MOSFET to the low-impedance
state can be easily calculated using VEE - Negative supply voltage of gate drive optocoupler
the gate capacitance charging VOL - Low level output voltage of gate drive optocoupler
equations. Gate capacitance of IOL(PEAK) - Maximum peak output current of gate6315-11.EQUA AN 1335
drive optocoupler
IGBT /MOSFET can be obtained
from the data sheet. After
calculating the Minimum Output
Current required to drive the IGBT/
MOSFET, the suitable gate drive
optocouplers can be selected from
Avago Technologies’ Gate Drive
Optocoupler Selection Guide.

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Other Key Parameters in Selecting a Gate Selection Guideline for IGBT Class and AC
Drive Optocoupler Motor Rating
Other key parameters in selecting Different sizes of IGBT need different
a gate driver optocoupler are gate drive optocouplers with
propagation delay and common different output driving currents.
mode rejection ratio. For typical Tables 1 and 2 below list basic
motor control applications, high selection guides based on operating
speed gate drive optocouplers line voltage, IGBT ratings, AC motor
with propagation delays, tPLH, power ratings, and the appropriate
tPHL ≤ 0.8 µs and common mode gate drive optocouplers.
rejection ratio, CMR ≥ 10 kV /µs @
VCM = 1000 V are recommended. References
Avago Technologies’ gate drive 1. Khan, J. N. “Optocouplers for
optocouplers meet all these basic Variable Speed Motor Control
requirements. Electronics in Consumer Home
Appliances.” Avago Technologies’
Publication Number 5980-1297
(5/00).

Table 1. Gate Drive Optocouplers Selection Guide for 220 Vac Operating Motor

IGBT IGBT AC Motor Rating


VCES (V ) IC (A) kW HP Recommended Gate Drive Optocouplers

15 0.4 0.5 HCPL-0314/ 3140/J314/314J, HCPL-3150/ 315J


20 1.5 2 HCPL-0314/ 3140/J314/314J, HCPL-3150/ 315J
30 2.2 3 HCPL-0314/ 3140/J314/314J, HCPL-3150/ 315J
50 3.7 5 HCPL-0314/ 3140/J314/314J, HCPL-3150/ 315J
600 V 75 7.5 10 HCPL-0314/ 3140 /J314/ 314J, HCPL-3150/ 315J
100 11 15 HCPL-3120/J312, HCNW3120, HCPL-316J
150 15 20 HCPL-3120/J312, HCNW3120, HCPL-316J
200 22 30 HCPL-3120/J312, HCNW3120, HCPL-316J
300 30 40 HCPL-3120/J312, HCNW3120, HCPL-316J
400 45 60 Gate Drive Optocoupler + Buffer
600 55 75 Gate Drive Optocoupler + Buffer

Note: The actual application depends on ventilation, power dissipation, heat sinking and other applications conditions.
VCES - Collector-Emitter Breakdown Voltage
IC - Collector Current

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Table 2. Gate Drive Optocouplers Selection Guide for 440 Vac Operating Motor

IGBT IGBT AC Motor Rating


VCES (V ) IC (A) kW HP Recommended Gate Drive Optocouplers

15 1.5 2 HCPL-0314/ 3140/ J314/ 314J, HCPL-3150 /315J


20 2.2 3 HCPL-0314/ 3140/ J314/ 314J, HCPL-3150 /315J
30 3.7 5 HCPL-0314/ 3140/ J314/ 314J, HCPL-3150 /315J
50 7.5 10 HCPL-3120/ J312, HCNW3120, HCPL-316J
75 11 15 HCPL-3120/ J312, HCNW3120, HCPL-316J
1200 V 100 15 20 HCPL-3120/ J312, HCNW3120, HCPL-316J
150 22 30 Gate Drive Optocoupler + Buffer
200 37 50 Gate Drive Optocoupler + Buffer
300 55 75 Gate Drive Optocoupler + Buffer
400 75 100 Gate Drive Optocoupler + Buffer
600 110 150 Gate Drive Optocoupler + Buffer

Note: The actual application depends on ventilation, power dissipation, heat sinking and other applications conditions.
VCES - Collector-Emitter Breakdown Voltage
IC - Collector Current

FEATURES
GATE DRIVE
UVLO HCPL-316J OPTOCOUPLER
DESAT +BUFFER

HCPL-3150 HCPL-3120 GATE DRIVE


UVLO HCPL-315J** HCPL-J312 OPTOCOUPLER
HCNW3120 +BUFFER

HCPL-0314
HCPL-3140
NO HCPL-J314 GATE DRIVE
G! HCPL-314J** OPTOCOUPLER
UVLO IN
DESAT COM +BUFFER
HCPL-3020

0 15 30 50 75 100 150 200


600 V Ic(A)
IGBT
0 0.4 2.2 3.7 7.5 11 15 22
MOTOR RATING (kW)

1200 V 0 15 20 30 50 75 100
IGBT Ic(A)

0 1.5 2.2 3.7 7.5 11 15


MOTOR RATING (kW)

* ESTIMATION, ACTUAL APPLICATION DEPENDS ON VENTILATION, HEAT SINKING AND OTHER


APPLICATION CONDITIONS.
** INDICATE DUAL CHANNEL DEVICE.

6315-13 AN 1335
Figure 13. Driving Capability of Gate Drive Optocouplers

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For product information and a complete list of distributors, please go to our web site: www.avagotech.com

Avago, Avago Technologies, and the A logo are trademarks of Avago Technologies, Pte. in the United States and other countries.
Data subject to change. Copyright © 2006-2010 Avago Technologies Pte. All rights reserved. Obsoletes 5988-8560EN
5988-9009EN May 12, 2010