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UNIVERSIDAD DE LA COSTA

FACULTAD DE INGENIERIA
CONCRETE REPAIR AND REHABILITATION

CONCRETO AUTOCOMPACTANTE Y SUS FUNCIONALIDADES SEGÚN SU AGREGADO

AUTORES

GRUPO: AD

Andrés Cervantes, Fabián Padilla Villafañe, Juan José Calvo

ABSTRACT

The self-compacting concrete is a type of concrete that is characterized by having the property of
flowing and filling any part of the formwork only by the action of its own weight, this decreases the
possibility of segregation and exudation. The versatility and efficiency of self-compacting concrete
is such that it can be applied in all segments of the construction with concrete: prefabrication,
architectural finishes, civil works, building and pumped concrete. The purpose of the following
classroom project is to collect all the information obtained from the different sources (web pages,
database, books or magazine articles) about the self-compacting concrete, since this may have
Different variants depending on the aggregates used or the same components of the concrete can
be designed for a specific purpose based on need, The latter was especially reflected in the articles
found in the last five years(2013-2018), since the vast majority were about self-compacting
concrete and its different forms of use.
Keywords
Prefabrication, pumped concrete, segregation and exudation

INTRODUCCION
El concreto autocompactante es un tipo de concreto que se caracteriza por tener la propiedad de
fluir y rellenar cualquier parte del encofrado solamente por la acción de su propio peso, este
disminuye la posibilidad de segregación y exudación. La versatilidad y eficiencia del Concreto
autocompactante es tal que se puede aplicar en todos los segmentos de la construcción con
concreto: Prefabricación, acabados arquitectónicos, obra civil, edificación y concreto bombeado.
En el siguiente proyecto de aula tiene como el fin, recopilar toda la información obtenida de las
distintas fuentes (páginas webs, base de datos, libros o artículos de revista) acerca el concreto
autocompactante (self-compacting concrete), ya que este puede tener diferentes variantes
dependiendo a los agregados utilizados o a los mismos componentes del concreto este puede
diseñarse para un fin en específico con base a la necesidad, esto último especialmente se vio
reflejado en los artículos encontrados de los últimos 5 años(2013-2018), ya que su gran mayoría
fueron acerca el concreto autocompactante y sus distintas formas de uso.

Palabras claves
Prefabricación, concreto bombeado, segregación y exudación
UNIVERSIDAD DE LA COSTA
FACULTAD DE INGENIERIA
CONCRETE REPAIR AND REHABILITATION

MATERIALES CONSTITUYENTES DEL CONCRETO AUTOCOMPACTANTE

La tabla 1 pertenece al estudio de “Evaluación de columnas de hormigón autocompactantes


reforzadas con barras de acero y FRP con diferentes técnicas de refuerzo” realizado por Hassam et
al.

(Ahmed, Fouad, Hala, & Mahmoud, 2018)

(Shiqin, Zhongfeng, Miao, & Hui, 2018) desarrollaron la tabla 2 en el estudio titulado “Estudio
experimental sobre el comportamiento de fluencia del hormigón relleno de rocas y el hormigón
autocompactante”
UNIVERSIDAD DE LA COSTA
FACULTAD DE INGENIERIA
CONCRETE REPAIR AND REHABILITATION

(Ahmed A.M. & Mehmet, 2018) llevaron a cabo la investigación “Comportamiento de flexión del
hormigón ligero y tubos de acero autocompactantes llenos de hormigón” y en la tabla 3 se
encuentra desglosadas las proporciones y propiedades de la mezcla.

(Silva, Mattey, Robayo, & Delvasto, 2014) llevaron a cabo en Colombia la investigación “obtención
de concretos autocompactantes empleando residuos de demolición” y sugieren la dosificación
encontrada en la tabla 4.

LAS PROPIEDADES DEL CONCRETO AUTOCOMPACTANTE EN ESTADO FRESCO

 Obtención de un concreto autocompactante empleando adiciones de escoria de carbón


finamente molida.

Propiedades en estado fresco

Los resultados obtenidos mediante los ensayos de cono de Abrams, caja en L, y embudo en V se
presentan en la tabla 7, los cuales están acordes con los resultados obtenidos por Guneyisi et ál.
[14], Wang et ál. [15] y Boukendakdji et ál, [16], se pudo observar que la adición de escoria de
carbón en la mezcla de CAC no produjo incrementos en la demanda de agua y en la cantidad de
aditivo super plastificante requerido para lograr las propiedades de diseño en estado fresco y
cumplir con los criterios de conformidad según la EFNARC [17].
UNIVERSIDAD DE LA COSTA
FACULTAD DE INGENIERIA
CONCRETE REPAIR AND REHABILITATION

Se observó que el efecto de la adición de escoria fina sobre el asentamiento de las mezclas fue
positivo, generando aumentos de hasta del 13% en el asentamiento en relación con la mezcla
control, tal como fue el caso de la mezcla M-10%. Este mismo efecto pudo verse reflejado en el
ensayo del embudo en V, en donde esta misma mezcla fue 60% más fluida que la mezcla control, lo
cual indica que la adición de escoria produjo un incremento en la capacidad de fluir de las mezclas
a través de espacios reducidos, con tiempos en un rango entre 8 y 13 segundos. Adicionalmente,
se pudo observar en la prueba de caja en L que la adición de este mineral no generó aumentos en
la relación de bloqueo (H2/H1), indicando que aunque no se redujo el riesgo de bloqueo de los
áridos entre las barras de refuerzo, todas las mezclas cumplieron con la capacidad de paso mínima
para ser considerados como CAC. Algunos autores como Boukendakdji et ál. [18], Valcuende et ál.
[19] y Guneyisi et ál. [20] afirman que la morfología de las partículas de la adición cuando
presentan baja relación de aspecto, distribución granulométrica similar a la del cemento, baja
porosidad y textura superficial lisa son factores que logran mejorar el desempeño en estado fresco
de las mezclas de CAC, debido a la reducción de volumen de espacios vacíos, la fricción entre sus
componentes y su resistencia al flujo.

 Development of high-performance self-compacting concrete using waste recycled


concrete aggregates and rubber granules.

Properties of fresh concrete

The fresh properties of SCC are assessed through the tests specified under the guidelines and SCC
criteria defined by EFNARC (EFNARC, 2002 & 2005). These experimental tests assess the flowability
and passing ability. The slump flow test, T500 and J-ringtest were conducted using an Abrams cone
in accordance with AS1012.3.5 (2015). The slump flow diameter and the time to reach 500 mm
(T500) were measured. In the J-ring test, the diameter and the J-ring height difference is
measured.
UNIVERSIDAD DE LA COSTA
FACULTAD DE INGENIERIA
CONCRETE REPAIR AND REHABILITATION

 Influence of red mud on fresh and hardened properties of self-compacting concrete.

Fresh concrete properties

The results of slump flow, T500 and J-ring tests are shown in Fig. 7. The initial slump flow diameters
ranged between 490 mm and 593 mm. There was no segregation and bleeding during the slump
flow and J-ring tests. According to the slump test results, the control mix (RMC0) and RMC12.5
were classified as SF1, while RMC25 and RMC50 were out of the range of 550 mm and 850 mm.
Although more superplasticiser was added in red mud mixes compared to that of the control mix,
the slump flow still decreased, demonstrating that the addition of red mud resulted in a
considerable loss of flowability. Then, additional slump flow and J-ring tests were performed on
RMC25 and RMC50 with increased superplasticizer contents. As shown in Table 2, in order to meet
the SCC requirement, the addition of superplasticiser was increased with the content of red mud
to achieve the slump flow value in the range of 550 mm and 850 mm. This is mainly associated
with the porous nature of red mud which would absorb more water and decrease the flowability.
According to the new slump test results as shown in Fig. 7, RMC25 and RMC50 with increased
superplasticiser content could be classified as SF1. The flowability of red mud mixes increased with
the increase of superplasticiser content. It is worth noting that the total amount of superplasticizer
added into red mud mixes was still within the supplier’s recommended dosage, and no segregate
and bleeding occurred. The average T500 results ranged from 2.3 s to 5.15 s. All red mud concrete
samples except RMC0 were in the range 2–5 s. The T500 results present the decrease of viscosity
with increasing red mud levels as the time required to reach the 500 mm ring decreased with the
increase of red mud content. However, the low viscosity observed may be mainly due to the higher
superplasticizer content in red mud mixtures, compared to the control mix. According to
the additional fresh concrete tests, the T500 results observed for RMC25 and RMC50 tended to
decrease with the increase of super-plasticizer (see Fig. 7). In this case, the low viscosity observed
is mainly due to the higher superplasticizer added into the red mud mixtures. For J-ring tests, the
change in spread of RMC0, RMC25 and RMC50 were in the range of 25 mm–50 mm, while that of
RMC12.5 was out of that range. Nevertheless, the trend of J-ring results was similar to that of the
slump flow test results. From the fresh concrete tests, it was concluded that the superplasticiser
required to achieve SCC requirements increased with increasing red mud content as the flowability
decreased with increasing red mud content. Red mud therefore had slightly negative effects on the
fresh properties of SCC mixtures.
UNIVERSIDAD DE LA COSTA
FACULTAD DE INGENIERIA
CONCRETE REPAIR AND REHABILITATION

 OBTENCIÓN DE CONCRETOS AUTOCOMPACTANTES EMPLEANDO RESIDUOS DE


DEMOLICIÓN.

Propiedades del concreto en estado fresco

Las propiedades de auto-compactabilidad se determinaron mediante los ensayos de flujo de


asentamiento con cono de Abrams, tiempo T50, Tiempo de flujo en el embudo en V y relación de
bloqueo de la Caja en L. Con el fin de reducir el efecto de pérdida de trabajabilidad en la
variabilidad de los resultados de prueba, las propiedades en estado fresco de las mezclas se
determinaron dentro de un período no mayor a 12 min después del vaciado de la mezcla. El orden
de las pruebas fue:

1. Ensayo de flujo de asentamiento con cono


Abrams y medición del T50.

2. Caja en L.

 The influence of recycled aggregates from precast elements on the mechanical


properties of structural self-compacting concrete

In-fresh properties of concrete

The characteristics and requirements of the EFNARC SCC guidelines [46] are shown in Table 6. The
requirements for concretes manufactured in this work must as a minimum be as follows: slump-
flow SF1, viscosity class VS2 or VF2, passing ability in L- box class PA1, without segregation or
exudation.
The control of consistency was studied with the concrete Abrams slump cone test according to EN
12350-2 [47] and the spread slump-flow test according to UNE EN 12350-8 [47], and those results
are shown in Table 5 for all the mixtures. It can be observed that in all the cases the slump cone
reached the diameter >550 mm. The slump cone decreased as the degree of substitution
increased. In general, mixtures RAC-100 corresponded with the slump-flow class SF1. The slump
flow differences between CC- mixtures and RAC-20 mixtures were small.
The viscosity was measured through the time necessary to reach a slump cone diameter of 500
mm (T500 slump flow). In all the cases this time was higher than 2 s (viscosity class VS2).
A more exhaustive study of the SSC in-fresh properties, with the viscosity V-funnel test according
UNE-83364 [47] and including passing ability with L-box test, was carried out on the intermediate
dosage, RAC-37.5. Those results are shown in Table 7. The viscosity by V-Funnel test was also
satisfactory, with VF1 class for mixtures CC-37.5 and RAC-37.5-20%, and VF2 class for mixtures
RAC-37.5- 50% and 100%. The passing ability L-box test (2 rebars) classified all the mixes as PA1.
Although the workability was slightly worst in the mixtures with greater percentage of RA, the SSC
manufactured in this study fulfilled all the requirements established in EFNARC SCC guidelines [46].
Furthermore, along the in-fresh tests, a good distribution of the coarse aggregates in the mass was
verified, as well as an absence of segregation or exudation.
UNIVERSIDAD DE LA COSTA
FACULTAD DE INGENIERIA
CONCRETE REPAIR AND REHABILITATION

Concreto autocompactante en estado fresco


Pruebas de ensayos / Test methods
 Concreto autocompactante método del lodo rojo / Red mud test
Materials
The binder content for the SCC mixes examined herein consisted of general purpose cement (GPC),
fly ash (FA) and red mud (RM) as shown in Fig. 3. The GPC used was Boral Blue Circle General
Purpose Cement in accordance with Australian Standard AS 3972-2010 [19]. The FA was Boral’s
Blue Circle Fly Ash and the untreated wet RM was sourced by the Global Centre for Environmental
Remediation, University of Newcastle, and came from one source in Queensland. The RM powder
was treated from wet red mud by a series of simple and inexpensive steps including drying,
crushing and sieving. The red mud was crushed until it passed through a 300 lm sieve. Both FA and
RM were used in accordance with Australian Standard AS 3582.1-2016 [20]. The sand was beach
sand from Stockton Beach and the aggregates were 10 mm granite. The superplasticiser was
Domcrete High Range Water Reducer which was recommended suitable for SCC mixes.
Appropriate amount of superplasticiser (up to 2% of cement weight) was added to maintain the
fluidity of the mixes.
UNIVERSIDAD DE LA COSTA
FACULTAD DE INGENIERIA
CONCRETE REPAIR AND REHABILITATION

Fresh concrete tests


The three tests used to investigate the fresh properties of the SCCs were the slump flow, J-Ring and
T500 tests, as shown in Fig. 4. The slump flow test and t500 time were used to evaluate the flow
ability and viscosity of a SCC in the absence of any obstruction whereas the J-Ring was used to
measure the passing ability with an obstruction such as reinforcement. Visual inspection of slump
flow and J-ring tests was carried out to observe any segregation and bleeding of SCC. The slump
flow diameter is a requirement for all SCC mixes in accordance with EFNARC and AS1012.3.5-2015.
EFNARC states that the SCC should have a slump flow value of between 550 mm and 850 mm in
SF1 (550–650 mm), SF2 (660–750 mm) and SF3 (660–750 mm) classifications. For the T500 time,
the NSW RMS NB80 states that the time it takes to reach the outside ring should be 2–5 s. For J-
Ring tests, the diameter of the flow was measured when the J-Ring apparatus was in place, which
can be compared to the diameter when there was no J-Ring to prevent flow. The passing ability
according to the RMS B80 Specification, states that the change in spread between measurements
should be within 25–50 mm. (Tang, 2017)
UNIVERSIDAD DE LA COSTA
FACULTAD DE INGENIERIA
CONCRETE REPAIR AND REHABILITATION

Resultados
The results of slump flow, T500 and J-ring tests are shown in Fig. 7. The initial slump flow
diameters ranged between 490 mm and 593 mm. There was no segregation and bleeding during
the slump flow and J-ring tests. According to the slump test results, the control mix (RMC0) and
RMC12.5 were classified as SF1, while RMC25 and RMC50 were out of the range of 550 mm and
850 mm. Although more superplasticiser was added in red mud mixes compared to that of the
control mix, the slump flow still decreased, demonstrating that the addition of red mud resulted in
a considerable loss of flowability. Then, additional slump flow and J-ring tests were performed on
RMC25 and RMC50 with increased superplasticizer contents. As shown in Table 2, in order to meet
the SCC requirement, the addition of superplasticiser was increased with the content of red mud
to achieve the slump flow value in the range of 550 mm and 850 mm. This is mainly associated
with the porous nature of red mud which would absorb more water and decrease the flowability.
According to the new slump test results as shown in Fig. 7, RMC25 and RMC50 with increased
superplasticiser content could be classified as SF1. The flowability of red mud mixes increased with
the increase of superplasticiser content. It is

(Tang, 2017)
worth noting that the total amount of superplasticizer added into red mud mixes was still within the
supplier’s recommended dosage, and no segregate and bleeding occurred. The average T500 results
ranged from 2.3 s to 5.15 s. All red mud concrete samples except RMC0 were in the range 2–5 s. The
T500 results present the decrease of viscosity with increasing red mud levels as the time required to
reach the 500 mm ring decreased with the increase of red mud content. However, the low
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FACULTAD DE INGENIERIA
CONCRETE REPAIR AND REHABILITATION

viscosity observed may be mainly due to the higher superplasticizer content in red mud mixtures,
compared to the control mix. According to the additional fresh concrete tests, the T500 results
observed for RMC25 and RMC50 tended to decrease with the increase of superplasticizer (see Fig.
7). In this case, the low viscosity observed is mainly due to the higher superplasticizer added into
the red mud mixtures. For J-ring tests, the change in spread of RMC0, RMC25 and RMC50 were in
the range of 25 mm–50 mm, while that of RMC12.5 was out of that range. Nevertheless, the trend
of J-ring results was similar to that of the slump flow test results. From the fresh concrete tests, it
was concluded that the superplasticiser required to achieve SCC requirements increased with
increasing red mud content as the flowability decreased with increasing red mud content. Red mud
therefore had slightly negative effects on the fresh properties of SCC mixtures. (Tang, 2017)

 ENSAYO DE ESTABILIDAD
Ensayo de extensibilidad: El ensayo de extensibilidad, mide el comportamiento del concreto
autocompactante sin la presencia de obstáculos. Este es el ensayo más común utilizado tanto por su
sencillez como por el equipo que se requiere, para efectos de la tesis se ha realizado esta prueba en el
laboratorio de Unicon y en Obra arrojando datos que detallaremos más adelante. Otro punto
importante que se puede verificar con este ensayo es si ha ocurrido segregación y/o exudación y nos da
una medida indirecta de la tensión umbral de flujo (Ester, 2009). Para realizar esta prueba solo se
necesita del cono de Abrams y una placa de acero cuadrada, tal como se pudo observar en los ensayos
realizados. El ensayo para este método en obra o en campo se realiza de la siguiente manera: Una vez
obtenido el CAC se coloca el cono de Abrams en la parte central de la plancha metálica, tal como se
puede apreciar en la ilustración 7, de posición invertida a como normalmente se coloca para realizar la
medición del slump en concretos convencionales, luego se llena el cono sin chusear hasta que quede
enrasado (lleno) y por último se levanta el cono de manera rápida y se mide el diámetro de la
circunferencia en ambos sentidos (ver Ilustración 7) que se forma luego de que el concreto se termine
de expandir, en la fotografía 8 y 9 se puede apreciar la prueba en obra.

(Fuente: Ester, 2009)


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FACULTAD DE INGENIERIA
CONCRETE REPAIR AND REHABILITATION

Resultados
Tabla 6: Ensayo de extensibilidad (Laboratorio).

Resultado de campo
Tabla 7: Ensayo de extensibilidad (Obra).

A pesar de que el resultado obtenido en obra no fue lo esperado o tan bueno como los obtenidos
en laboratorio, la prueba realizada en campo si tuvo éxito. El resultado obtenido en obra, se cree
que se debió a la alta temperatura que se tenía en el ambiente y a la demora del mixer en llegar a
la obra.
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FACULTAD DE INGENIERIA
CONCRETE REPAIR AND REHABILITATION

 ENSAYO DE CAJA EN L
El ensayo de la caja en L, mide la capacidad de paso del concreto autocompactante a través de
unas barras que simulan el acero corrugado en obra. Y con esto conocer la fluidez del concreto y si
existe o no bloqueo del concreto con la concentración de acero. Para la realización del ensayo se
utiliza un encofrado pequeño en forma de L cuyas dimensiones comunes se muestran en la
ilustración 8 donde se puede observar que la caja puede tener 2 ó 3 barras dependiendo del
tamaño máximo del agregado grueso
Metodología
El ensayo se realiza del siguiente modo: Se llena de una sola vez y sin compactar la parte vertical de
la caja, con la compuerta cerrada. Una vez llena, se enrasa el concreto y se abre la compuerta.
Cuando para el movimiento del concreto, se determinan las alturas del concreto en el lado de la
compuerta (interiormente) y en el extremo horizontal de la caja, H1 y H2 respectivamente (ver
ilustración 9).

Figura 8. Configuración caja en L

(Fuente: ACHE, 2008)


a) Pista general del molde
b) Planta
c) Disposición de las barras para un tamaño máximo de árido ≤ 20 mm
d) Disposición de las barras para un tamaño máximo de árido > 20 mm
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FACULTAD DE INGENIERIA
CONCRETE REPAIR AND REHABILITATION

Los parámetros que se obtienen H1 yH2 que es la altura del concreto en la compuerta y en la punta
de la L. Los resultados obtenidos en el laboratorio de Unicon (ver tabla 8) indican que las tres
tandas que se realizaron tienen las mismas propiedades de mismo resultado, lo que indica que
tienen la misma capacidad de paso.

 ENSAYO DEL EMBUDO EN V

El ensayo del embudo en V, mide la capacidad del CAC de relleno y la capacidad de paso por
aberturas estrechas (ACHE, 2008). Para la realización del ensayo se emplea un embudo cuyas
dimensiones se muestran en la ilustración 10. Para iniciar con el ensayo, hay que colocar el
embudo sobre un soporte con un balde debajo que reciba el concreto. Se coloca el concreto en el
embudo de una sola vez sin chucear, se enrasa hasta el borde y se abre la compuerta inferior
rápidamente. Luego de abrir la compuerta inferior se mide el tiempo que tarda en salir todo el
concreto del recipiente.

Los resultados obtenidos en laboratorio son los que se indican en la tabla 9:


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FACULTAD DE INGENIERIA
CONCRETE REPAIR AND REHABILITATION

 ENSAYO DEL EMBUDO EN U


El ensayo de caja en U, también (ensayo en L) evalúa la resistencia al bloqueo del concreto
autocompactante en donde las condiciones de flujo son por vasos comunicantes para medir el
confinado y su comportamiento contra la gravedad. El ensayo se realiza en un recipiente en forma
de U, que tiene dos compartimientos en la parte superior (Ver ilustración 11). El ensayo se realiza
de la siguiente manera: Con la puerta central cerrada, se llena la primera mitad (lado A). Luego del
llenado se procede a abrir la compuerta, dejando que el concreto fluya del compartimento A al B
(ver Ver ilustración 12). Luego de esto se procede a medir las alturas del concreto en ambos
compartimentos.
Ilustración 11: Configuración de la caja en U: a) vista general del molde, y b) vista de uno de los
laterales con el lado descubierto.

(Ache, 2008)
Ilustración 12: Ensayo de la Caja en U
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FACULTAD DE INGENIERIA
CONCRETE REPAIR AND REHABILITATION

Tabla 10: Prueba de la caja en U

(De los Ríos Quijada & Tolmos Bustamante, 2008-2018)

LAS PROPIEDADES DEL CONCRETO AUTOCOMPACTANTE EN ESTADO ENDURECIDO

 OBTENCIÓN DE CONCRETOS AUTOCOMPACTANTES EMPLEANDO RESIDUOS DE


DEMOLICIÓN

RESISTENCIA EN ESTADO ENDURECIDO

La resistencia a la compresión de diversas mezclas con porcentajes diferentes de sustitución de cemento Portland
en peso por RM, que van desde 0% a 50% a diferentes edades de curado (3, 7, 28 y 60 días), se observan en las
Figura 6. Los resultados muestran que la resistencia a la compresión delas diferentes mezclas depende del
contenido de RM en la mezcla, aunque a edades tempranas no hay una diferencia
significativa en los CAC adicionadas con el 10% y 20% de RM respecto al concreto de Control. Por
otra parte las mezclas con mayor porcentaje de remplazo, 30% y 50% para los concretos
autocompatantes, mostraron una reducción considerable respecto al concreto de control.
La resistencia a la tracción indirecta es una de las propiedades fundamentales del concreto que se puede relacionar
con la resistencia a la compresión, aunque esto depende de múltiples factores tales como, el tipo de agregado
y la distribución del tamaño de partícula, la edad del concreto, el contenido de aire y el proceso de curado [29]. Los
CAC con mayores porcentajes de sustitución presentaron la menor resistencia a la tracción
indirecta. La más alta resistencia a la tracción indirecta a los 28 días se obtuvo con la mezcla de
referencia seguida de la CAC-20%, como se puede observar en la Figura 7.

(PDF) OBTENCIÓN DE CONCRETOS AUTOCOMPACTANTES EMPLEANDO RESIDUOS DE DEMOLICIÓN. Available


from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/264962560_OBTENCION_DE_CONCRETOS_AUTOCOMPACTANTES
_EMPLEANDO_RESIDUOS_DE_DEMOLICION[accessed Oct 24 2018].
 DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE USING WASTE
RECYCLED CONCRETE AGGREGATES AND RUBBER GRANULES.

HARDENED PROPERTIES
Compressive strength
Compressive strength test results of all three series after 7 and28 days of curing are
presented in Table 8, and Fig. 7. Series I recorded the highest compressive strengths of all
three series and at all RA replacements. Results agree with past literature that as the
content of RA increases in SCC mixtures, the compressive strength reduces (Kou et al.,
2009; Carro-Lopez et al., 2015; Gesoglu et al. 2015). However, the addition of RA did not
significantly compromise its mechanical strength. The 28-day compressive strength results
for Series I ranged from 47.74 MPa at 10% to 43.82 MPa at 40% replacement.
Generally, the quality of RA are less than those of NA due to the crushing processes
experienced (Gesoglu et al., 2015). The type of original aggregate, the adhered mortar
quality, and the amount of mortar of the original concrete found in the RA determines the
strength of the resulting mixture (Tuyan et al., 2013). There are two weak layers of
interfacial transition zones (ITZ) in concrete containing RA; one that exists from the old
concrete found in the RA aggregate itself and a new ITZ between the RA and the new sur-
rounding mixture (Poon et al., 2004). The poor quality of RA which experienced crushing
creates a weaker ITZ within the concrete and thus resulting in a lower compressive
strength than the parent concrete (Corinaldesi and Moriconi, 2011; Gesoglu et al., 2015).
SCRC mixtures in Series II produced the lowest compressive strengths of all three series.
This is in correlation with previous literature which indicate that CR aggregates contribute
to a loss of compressive strength (Dong et al., 2013; Eldin and Senouci, 1993).
Aslani (2013) discussed that the weak bond between the rubber aggregates and
surrounding cement matrix develops into a weak interfacial transition zone which causes
the rubber particles to act as voids and thus reducing its compressive strength.
All Series II mixtures containing RA showed higher strength results compared to the SCRC
control mix and could possibly be accounted by a better quality RFA as opposed to the
minus 4 mm NFA and sand. The RFA aggregates used in this experimental study could
possibly have originated from a higher strength parent concrete than the control mixture.
This increase in strength is also observed in Series III when only RFA are introduced as
opposed to the replacement of both RFA and RCA in Series I. Tuyan et al., 2014 also
observed an increase in compressive strength as the percentage replacement of RA is
increased up to 40% and concluded that the higher surface roughness of RA creates a
stronger ITZ with the new surrounding cement matrix. Furthermore, the rougher and
angular RA in replacement of sand can lead to a better particle grading and interlocking of
aggregates for the given mixture composition proposed in this study. Fakitsas et al. (2011)
attributed the increase of compressive strength of RA experienced at later ages
resulting from the internal curing due to the water absorption and retention of RA.
The addition of RA in LWSCC (Series III) did not significantly affect its compressive strength,
but marginal increases in strength were obtained as more RA is introduced similar to
results from Series II. Series III produced 28-day compressive strength test results ranging
from 38.36 MPa at 10% replacement to 40.68 MPa at 40% RA replacement. The marginal
increases obtained in Series III can be attributed to the same reasoning to that of Series II.

 INFLUENCE OF RED MUD ON FRESH AND HARDENED PROPERTIES OF SELF-COMPACTING


CONCRETE.

HARDENED CONCRETE PROPERTIES

← Compression test results



The compression test results are presented in Fig. 8, in which the horizontal lines are the values of
control mix. It can be observed that the strength development between the different mixes was very
similar. RMC0 had the lowest strength in every stage against every mix except for RMC12.5 at 56 days.
The general trend for 56-day compressive strength was increasing with the increase of red mud
content. Similar results were found by Liu and Poon [14] that the strength increased with the addition
of red mud in the longer curing ages (56 and 90 days) due to the internal curing of red mud.
Table 3 demonstrates the increasing and decreasing percentages of strength in comparison to the
control mix. It can be seen that the major differences arose in the 7 day strength gains with
differences up to 13% for the 12.5% and 50% replacement levels. The main reason is probably due to
the presence of a large amount of hatrurite in the cement matrix which is discussed later. At 56 days,
the compressive strength slightly increased by increasing red mud content, and the maximum
difference was less than 4%. Therefore, it can be suggested that the influence of red mud content on
compressive strength is not significant, but the compressive strength values of red mud SCC mixes in
general were higher than that of the control concrete.

 THE INFLUENCE OF RECYCLED AGGREGATES FROM PRECAST ELEMENTS ON THE


MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STRUCTURAL SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE
HARDENED PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE
The specimens were cured in a climatic test chamber with a moisture level of 95 ± 5 C and 20 ± 2 C over
28 days. EN 123907 [47] was applied for the determination of the hardened densities of prismatic
specimens measuring 150x150x300 mm. Absorption and porosity were determined in accordance with
ASTM C-642 [48] using 100x100x100 mm cubes. EN 12390–3 [47] for the determination of compressive
strength [47] and EN 12390-6 [47] for the determination of splitting tensile strength on cylindrical speci-
mens with diameters of 150 mm and a height of 300 mm were both applied. Flexural strength tests were
also performed according to EN 12390-5 [47] with prismatic specimens of 100 100 400 mm. The static
modulus of elasticity was determined in accor-
dance with EN-UNE-83316 [47], using cylindrical specimens of 150x300 mm. Three specimens were
prepared for each test, taking their arithmetical mean. The modulus of dynamic elasticity was
determined by measur-
ing the propagation speed of the ultrasonic waves, in accordance with EN 12504-4 [47], on cylindrical
specimens of 150 300 mm. Two measurements were taken in the direction of the directrix of the
specimen. Having obtained the propagation speeds from. Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity test (UPV), Eq. (1) was
applied:
 PHYSICO-MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MULTI-RECYCLED SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE
PREPARED WITH PRECAST CONCRETE REJECTS

Hardened SCC properties

Density and water absorption

The bulk SSD density, bulk dry density and water absorption test results are presented in Figs. 3
and 4 for the different concrete mixes, control and recycled alike. According to the results shown
in Fig. 3 the recycled concretes have lower dry densities than control concrete; this is a
consequence of using recycled aggregates which have lower density than natural aggregates.
The dry density decreases by 0.3% in the RC1, 1.9% in the RC2 and, finally, 3.6% in the RC3. In
relation to SSD density the differences are less noticeable than in the dry densities; even the RC1
has a slightly higher SSD density than control concrete (+0.3%), whilst in the RC2 the reduction is
0.95% and in the RC3, is 2.1%; this SSD density difference was due to a greater water absorption
capacity in the recycled concretes, which causes them to be heavier.