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Structure of Discussion Section (Dudley-Evans, 1994)

Move Sample (Brett, 1979)


1 Statement of aims The aim of this research was to study The main objective of this study was
the viability behaviour of cocoa seeds, to investigate the correlation among
and to apply any knowledge gained to classroom procedure, EL interaction
devising possible methods for long- and ESL anxiety to understand
term storage of the material for the whether the classroom environment
purposes of genetic conservation. and lecturers themselves can
contribute to their students’ anxiety
while learning English language and
to recommend methods to alleviate
students’ anxiety.
2 Work carried out Various aspects were examined, with Many research conducted in the past
particular emphasis on the factors have identified classroom procedure
known to prolong viability in orthodox (Gkonou, 2013; Yildirim, 2007;
seeds, namely reductions in moisture Pianta, Hamre & Allen, 2012) and EL
content and temperature (Roberts 1960 interaction (Al-Saraj, 2009; Toth,
and 1961; Roberts and Abdalla 1968; 2009; Al-Mesri, 2012) as the
Harrington 1973) and oxygen levels contributing factors for students’
(Roberts 1961; Roberts and Abdalla discomfort while learning English
1968; Villiers 1973) and on the language.
possibilities of storage of seeds fully
imbibed (Villiers 1973 and 1975;
Villiers and Edgcumbe 1975).
3 Finding Firstly, an examination of the reaction
For the fourth research question, a
of the seeds to drying revealed that correlation conducted between the
they may be reduced to a lower influence of gender and EL
moisture content than previously interaction revealed that the
reported, and still survive. correlations between two aspects are
weak.
4 Reference to previous research Hunter (1959) and Ashiru (1970) both This is supported by Hallinan (1986)
(comparison) reported that seeds with or without which has stated that the magnitude of
testas could not be reduced below male-female differences in interaction
50%+2% moisture, without serious between students or lecturers is small.
loss of viability. Since Hunter (1959)
also reported that his seeds without
testas had an initial, unreduced
moisture content of 50.02%, then this
implied that seeds without testas could
not be dried at all without adverse
effects.
5 Statement of result In this study, seeds after removal of Next, the finding of the fifth research
testas were found to have initial question disclosed that gender also
moisture contents of between 37.94 has a weak influence on classroom
and 44.57%, for different seed batches. procedures.
6 Explanation This range may have been due to the This discovery may have been due to
fact that various amounts of the fact that gender differences are a
desiccation occurred during transport reflection of students’ personality
of the seeds to Britain, since some which intervenes most with any
pods were only in transit for two days, activities they experienced in the
while others took up to seven days to language classroom. According to
arrive. Gargalianou, Muehlfeld, Urbig &
Witteloostuijn (2015), students who
possess high level of emotion while
dealing with perceived tense situation
caused by any classroom activities
will experience high level of ESL
anxiety.
7 Reference to previous research This initial moisture level is also lower An example of classroom activity,
(comparison) than that of Hunter (1959) impromptu speaking activities will
contribute to high level of anxiety
among female students as compared
to male students (Mohtasham &
Farnia, 2017)
8 Explanation and this may be because of differences and this may be due to the interaction
in the cocoa genotype or clone used. nature of male students who are prone
to be humorous and giving positive
feedback to their lecturers (Rashidi &
Naderi, 2012)
9 Information move Hunter does not state the details of his The finding from Mohtasham &
material in this respect, but he may Farnia’s study is only looking at how
have used pods of a different clone different gender will react to speaking
from that used in this study, and it is activities. Hence, the study of gender
possible that the initial moisture with other activities from different
content varies with different types. skills (i.e. listening, reading and
writing) has yet to be discovered.
10 Statement of result It was found that seeds may lose The sixth research question was
moisture down to a threshold value of aiming to see the relationship between
between 17 and 20%, before suffering the two factors that can contribute to
damage due to desiccation. Desiccation ESL anxiety which are classroom
damage occurred in both the procedure and EL interaction. It was
cotyledons and the embryonic axis. found that there is a moderate,
Cell contents pulled away from the cell positive correlation between the two
walls, and condensed in the centre of factors.
the cells, and the pith region of the axis
broke down completely at very low
moisture.
11 Reference to previous research Little attempt has been made in the This correlation can be explained with
past to explain why some seeds are the idea mentioned Sinclair,
recalcitrant, and non-tolerant of drying, Christenson, Lehr & Anderson (2003)
while others are orthodox, and may be where the affective component of
reduced in moisture content to very students’ engagement will indicate how
low levels, without adverse effect. the students will feel about the language
classroom which related closely to the
sense of belonging, safety and the feeling
of attachment to their lecturer.
12 Claim It is possible that the cell reaction seen The quantitative finding of this study
here, in which the contents condense relates EL interaction to two main
and leave the cell walls, may be a aspects, which are: (1) the fear of
characteristic of recalcitrant seeds making mistakes as staunchly avoided
generally, while the cells of orthodox by the students and (2) fear of not
seeds may show a more generalized understanding correction provided by
decrease in size, without such damage their language lecturer while
to the contents. qualitative finding also emphasized
on EL interaction from the view of
lecturer’s personality in classroom.
Therefore, all the three aspects
obtained from this study are all falls
under the notion of EL interaction that
later decrease students’ engagement
in language classroom.
13 Recommendations This hypothesis requires further
investigation.
14 Reference to previous research The fact that in this study the moisture Hence, in order to increase students’
(comparison) level of cocoa seeds could be engagement in the classroom,
substantially reduced without adverse Williams & Williams (2011)
effect, is contrary to the findings of proposed five key ingredients that can
previous workers, and could be a motivate them in language learning,
reflection of the drying method used. namely: (1) the students themselves,
Hunter (1959) dried his seed samples (2) the role of instructor, (3) the
by suspending them over various language content, (4) the language
concentrations of sulphuric acid in teaching method, and (5) the language
glass jars, while Ashiru (1970) passed classroom environment.
a current of dried air over the seeds.
15 Explanation This study used silica gel as the This study concluded that the level of
desiccant and it is possible that this students’ ESL anxiety and motivation
was less harsh as a drying agent, and in second language acquisition are
therefore that the previous workers affected greatly by the interpersonal
may also have obtained a reduction in dynamics between lecturer and
moisture level while still maintaining students.
viability, had other drying methods
been attempted.
16 Statement of result An important point noticed when the
seeds were dried was that the
embryonic axes of seeds always
appeared to have dried more than the
cotyledons. Therefore while the overall
moisture of the seed at the threshold
desiccation level was found to be 17–
20%, it is possible that the axes were
actually at a lower moisture level.
17 Claim If the moisture content was in the
region of 10–17%, there are
possibilities here for the storage of the
embryonic axis at very low
temperatures, possibly as low as -196
C, in liquid nitrogen, since if the axis
contains little moisture then little
damage would be caused as a result of
the formation of ice crystals.
18 Reference to previous research (support) Roberts (1975) states that 15%
moisture is the critical value in this
respect. Grout (unpublished) working
on tomato, and Grout and Mumford
(unpublished)
working on Citrus species, have
recently shown that seeds can survive
even with a moisture content of up to
20%,
19 Limitation of (claim) provided that freezing is performed
carefully, and with the use of suitable
cryoprotectants. The success of such
storage with cocoa would be dependent
not only on a low moisture level in the
axis, but also on the ability of the cell
contents to withstand low
temperatures.