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1. Reference is the symbolic relationship that a linguistic expression has with the

concrete object or abstraction it represents.

2. Reference is the relationship of one linguistic expression to another, in which

one provides the information necessary to interpret the other.

Types of reference

There are three kinds of reference.

1. Coreference

2. Endophora

3. Exophora

referent in another expression.

Example: - In the following sentence, both you's have the same referent:

either before it or after it. One expression provides the information necessary to

interpret the other. The endophoric relationship is often spoken of as one expression

“referring to” another.

• If you need one, there’s a towel in the top drawer.

Here are also some kinds of endophora. And these are as follows:

1. Anaphora

2. Cataphora

antecedent provides the information necessary for the expression’s interpretation.

This is often understood as an expression “referring” back to the antecedent. The

term anaphora is also sometimes used to include both anaphora, as defined here,

and cataphora. When it is used that way, it becomes synonymous with endophora.

noun phrase a well-dressed man is an example of anaphora:

expression which follows it. The following expression provides the information

necessary for interpretation of the preceding one. This is often understood as an

expression “referring” forward to another expression.

example of cataphora:

referent. The referent does not require another expression for its interpretation.

1. Deixis

2. Homophora

relative to the (usually) extralinguistic context of the utterance, such as

• Who is speaking

• The time or place of speaking

• The gestures of the speaker, or

• The current location in the discourse.

other general knowledge, rather than on specific features of a particular context.

Sample proportion

Suppose we want to know the fraction (or proportion) of individuals in a

population who have a certain quality. We will use the symbol p to denote the

population proportion. Frequently we must use data from a sample to estimate

the population proportion.

Suppose a random sample of size n is obtained from a population in which

each individual either has or does not have a certain characteristic. The sample

proportion, denoted ˆp is

given by

interest. The sample proportion is the statistic that estimates the sample proportion.

Example: -J. In a sample of 60 students, 22 favored the amount budgeted for next

year’s intramural sports competitions. Find the sample proportion of students

favoring the intramural sports budget.

Remark: A different random sample of students may lead to a different sample

proportion.

J. RoberSuppose we take 100 random samples of 60 students in which p = 0.37.

0.35 0.43 0.42 0.38 0.32 0.37 0.40 0.32 0.32 0.47

0.48 0.38 0.45 0.45 0.50 0.30 0.38 0.30 0.38 0.42

0.33 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.33 0.35 0.28 0.27 0.40 0.47

0.42 0.38 0.55 0.32 0.30 0.33 0.37 0.28 0.40 0.37

0.37 0.30 0.43 0.33 0.40 0.35 0.35 0.27 0.58 0.30

0.43 0.45 0.37 0.37 0.32 0.38 0.30 0.30 0.45 0.27

0.37 0.37 0.32 0.30 0.47 0.37 0.42 0.37 0.35 0.30

0.35 0.37 0.38 0.43 0.28 0.37 0.27 0.42 0.42 0.37

0.42 0.38 0.25 0.35 0.33 0.42 0.30 0.35 0.43 0.38

0.43 0.32 0.37 0.43 0.37 0.45 0.27 0.42 0.40 0.30

Sampling Distribution of ˆp

Theorem: - For a simple random sample of size n such that n _ 0.05N (that is, the

sample is less than or equal to 5% of the population), the shape of the sampling

distribution of ˆp is approximately normal provided np(1 − p) _ 10, the mean of the

sampling distribution of ˆp is μˆp = p, The standard deviation of the sampling

distribution of ˆp is

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