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Unit-1

Introduction
PREPARED BY:
PROF. SHRADDHA MOD I
DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING
GOVERNMENT ENGINEERING COLLEGE, PA TAN
Introduction to WWW
• Idea was Invented by Tim-Berners-Lee in 1980,

• For the purpose of, how computers could store information


with random link.

• In 1989 he proposed the idea of a global hypertext space,


• In which any network-accessible information could be referred to by
a single “Universal Document Identifier (UDI)”.

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• This idea was expanded in 1990 with a program called “World
Wide Web (WWW)”.
• In 1994, “World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)” formed, which
acted as a neutral forum for a new common protocols.
• Then after development led to:
• Browser,
• Web server,
• Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML),
• Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP).

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The INTERNET and The WWW

• The Internet, linking your computer to other computers


around the world, is a way of transporting content. The Web is
software that lets you use that content.

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The INTERNET and The WWW

• The INTERENT works by defining an address for each


RESOURCE attached to it.
• In the case of attached computers and some devices, this
address is known as Internet Protocol (IP) address.
• Without IP address, no link could be formed between
computers, resource or system.

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• Example of an IP address is : 168.212.226.204
• Generally we use names in place of numbers to find resources
and machine. Mapping done by ????.

Email
Web DNS 192.168.1.2 192.168.1.3 192.168.1.4
Server

Internet Service CompA. CompB. CompC.


Provider

81.155.1.1 Local
Ethernet
Router/Gateway
192.168.1.1

Fig: How computers link to the Internet

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OSI Level Stack Layer Protocol
Model 7 Application HTTP, SMTP, SNMP, FTP, Telnet, SSH, Scp, NFS, RTSP
6 Presentation XDR, ASN.1, SMB, AFP
5 Session TLS, SSH, RPC, NetBIOS, ASP
4 Transport TCP, UDP, RTP, SCTP, SPX, ATP
3 Network IP, ICMP, IGMP, X.25,ARP, RARP, BGP, OSFP, RIP, IPX, DDP
2 Data Link Ethernet, Token Ring, PPP, HDLC, Frame Relay, ATM, FDDI
1 Physical Electrical, Radio, laser.

TCP/IP Level Stack Layer Protocol


Model 7 Application HTTP, SMTP, SNMP, FTP, Telnet, SSH, Scp, NFS, RTSP
4 Transport TCP, UDP, RTP, SCTP, SPX, ATP
3 Network IP, ICMP, IGMP, X.25, CLNP, ARP, RARP, BGP, OSFP, RIP, IPX, DDP
2 Data Link Ethernet, Token Ring, PPP, HDLC, Frame Relay, ISDN,
ATM, 802.11 Wi-Fi, FDDI
1 Physical Electrical, Radio, laser.

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The INTERNET and The WWW
Checkpoint:
• Initial was need for information exchange between systems.
• Networks require common convention (agreement or bond)
for dialogue or discussion (protocol).
• Each resource in a network needs a unique identifier (IP address).
• An IP address can be associated with a name using DNS.
• A stack of protocols exist, providing services and
communication between the various levels in a system.
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Protocols And Programs
• Where the communication take place
• How it take place?
• The rules and conventions involved.
• Different way of communications:
• File (FTP/FTPS/SFTP, LS, GET, PUT, MKDIR, CD ),
• Email (Mail User Agent(MUA), SMTP, MTA, POP3),
• Instant Messaging (Internet Raly Chat(IRC), Secure Socket Layes (SSL)),
• Remote Machine Access (Telnet),
• Web Pages (HTTP/HTTPS).

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HTTP Protocol

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GET /docs/index.html HTTP/1.1
Host: www.test101.com
Accept: image/gif, image/jpeg, */*
Accept-Language: en-us
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
User-Agent: Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 6.0; Windows NT 5.1)

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THE WEB BROWSER

The URN Defines An Item’s

Identity, While The URL Provides

A Method For Finding It.

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Example

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