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COMPILATION OF THE

TAXATION LAW BAR


EXAMINATIONS
QUESTIONS AND
SUGGESTED ANSWERS
(1994-2017)

*I do not own any of the materials I’ve compiled in this pdf file. It’s all found in the
internet, just have the patience to look for it since it’s scattered. Giving credits to the
authors of these materials. So sharing all of it for free to all my fellow law students. - Bek
MATERIALS COMPILED:

1) 1994-2006 -> Bar Questions and Answers Taxation Law


1994 to 2006 -> https://www.academia.edu/7839128/
Bar_Questions_and_Answers_Taxation_Law_1994_to_2006
2) 2007-2013 -> Taxation Law Philippine Bar Examination
Questions and Suggested Answers (JayArhSals&Ladot) ->
https://www.scribd.com/doc/262151615/2007-2013-
Taxation-Law-Philippine-Bar-Examination-Questions-and-
Suggested-Answers-JayArhSals-Ladot
3) 2014 -> 2014 Bar Exams Suggested Answers -> https://
www.scribd.com/document/354434183/2014-Bar-Exams-
Suggested-Answers
4) 2015 -> TAXATION 2015 BAR SUGGESTED ANSWERS -
> https://edoc.site/taxation-2015-bar-suggested-answers-
pdf-free.html
5) 2016 -> 2016 TAXATION BAR QUESTION With Suggested
Answer -> https://www.scribd.com/document/
351860075/2016-TAXATION-BAR-QUESTION-With-
Suggested-Answer
6) 2017 -> SCANNED COPY OF THE 2017 UPLC BAR
SUGGESTED ANSWERS TO THE BAR EXAMINATIONS IN
TAXATION LAW
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 1 of 73

ANSWERS TO BAR
EXAMINATION QUESTIONS
IN

TAXATION LAW
* ARRANGED BY TOPIC *

(1994 – 2006)

Edited and Arranged by:


ROMUALDO L. SEÑERIS II
Silliman University - College of Law

From the ANSWERS TO BAR EXAMINATION QUESTIONS


by the UP LAW COMPLEX
&
PHILIPPINE ASSOCIATION OF LAW SCHOOLS

June 3, 2007
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 2 of 73

FOREWARD

This work is NOT intended FOR SALE or COMMERCE. This work is a freeware. It may

be freely copied and distributed, nevertheless, PERMISSION TO COPY from the editors

is ADVISABLE to protect the interest of the ORIGINAL SOURCES/REFERENCES of

this material…. It is primarily intended for all those who desire to have a deeper

understanding of the issues commonly touched by the Philippine Bar Examinations and

its trend on specifically on Taxation Laws. It is specifically intended for law students from

the provinces who, very often, are recipients of deliberately distorted notes from other

unscrupulous law schools and students.

I would like to seek the indulgence of the reader for some Bar Questions which are

improperly classified under a topic and for some topics which are improperly or

ignorantly phrased, for the arranger is just a Bar Reviewee who has prepared this work

while reviewing for the 2nd time for the Bar Exams 2007 under time constraints and

within his limited knowledge of the law. I would like to seek the reader’s indulgence also

for a number of typographical errors in this work.

The Arranger
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 3 of 73

Detailed Table of Contents


GENERAL PRINCIPLES........................................................................................................................... 8
Basic Features: Present Income Tax System (1996).................................................................................................... 8
Basic Stages or Aspects of Taxation (2006)................................................................................................................ 8
Collection of Taxes: Authority; Ordinary Courts (2001)............................................................................................... 8
Collection of Taxes: Prescription (2001) ..................................................................................................................... 8
Direct Tax vs. Indirect Tax (1994)................................................................................................................................ 8
Direct Tax vs. Indirect Tax (2000)................................................................................................................................ 8
Direct Tax vs. Indirect Tax (2001)................................................................................................................................ 8
Direct Tax vs. Indirect Tax (2006)................................................................................................................................ 9
Double Taxation (1997)............................................................................................................................................... 9
Double Taxation: What Constitutes DT? (1996)........................................................................................................... 9
Double Taxation; Indirect Duplicate Taxation (1997) ................................................................................................... 9
Double Taxation; License Fee vs. Local Tax (2004)..................................................................................................... 9
Double Taxation; Methods of Avoiding DT (1997) ....................................................................................................... 9
Imprescriptibility of Tax Laws (1997) .......................................................................................................................... 9
Power of Taxation: Equal Protection of the Law (2000) ............................................................................................ 10
Power of Taxation: Inherent in a Sovereign State (2003) ........................................................................................... 10
Power of Taxation: Legality; Local Gov’t Taxation (2003).......................................................................................... 10
Power of Taxation: Legislative in Nature (1994) ........................................................................................................ 10
Power of Taxation: Limitations of the Congress (2001) ............................................................................................. 10
Power of Taxation: Limitations: Passing of Revenue Bills (1997) .............................................................................. 11
Power of Taxation: Limitations; Power to Destroy (2000) .......................................................................................... 11
Power of Taxation: Revocation of Exempting Statutes (1997) ................................................................................... 11
Power of Taxation; Inherent in a Sovereign State (2005) ........................................................................................... 11
Power of Taxation; Legislative in Nature (1996) ........................................................................................................ 12
Purpose of Taxation; Interpretation (2004)................................................................................................................ 12
Purpose of Taxation; Legislative in Nature (2004) ..................................................................................................... 12
Rule on Set-Off or Compensation of Taxes (1996)..................................................................................................... 12
Rule on Set-Off or Compensation of Taxes (2001)..................................................................................................... 12
Rule on Set-Off or Compensation of Taxes (2005)..................................................................................................... 13
Rule on Set-Off or Compensation on Taxes (2005).................................................................................................... 13
Tax Avoidance vs. Tax Evasion (1996)...................................................................................................................... 13
Tax Avoidance vs. Tax Evasion (2000)...................................................................................................................... 13
Tax Exemptions: Nature & Coverage; Proper Party (2004) ........................................................................................ 13
Tax Laws; BIR Ruling; Non-Retroactivity of Rulings (2004) ....................................................................................... 14
Tax Pyramiding; Definition & Legality (2006) ............................................................................................................ 14
Taxpayer Suit; When Allowed (1996)......................................................................................................................... 14
Uniformity in the Collection of Taxes (1998) ............................................................................................................. 14
INCOME TAXATION................................................................................................................................ 14
Basic: Allowable Deductions vs. Personal Exemptions (2001) .................................................................................. 14
Basic: Meaning of Taxable Income (2000) ................................................................................................................. 15
Basic: Principle of Mobilia Sequuntur Personam (1994)............................................................................................ 15
Basic: Proper Allowance of Depreciation (1998) ....................................................................................................... 15
Basic: Sources of Income: Taxable Income (1998) .................................................................................................... 15
Basic: Tax Benefit Rule (2003) .................................................................................................................................. 15
Basic; Basis of Income Tax (1996) ............................................................................................................................ 16
Basic; Gross Income: Define (1995).......................................................................................................................... 16
Basic; Income vs. Capital (1995)............................................................................................................................... 16
Basic; Schedular Treatment vs. Global Treatment (1994) ......................................................................................... 16
Compensation; Income Tax: Due to Profitable Business Deal (1995) ........................................................................ 16
Corporate: Income: Donor’s tax; Tax Liability (1996) ................................................................................................ 17
Corporate; Income Tax; Reasonableness of the Bonus (2006) .................................................................................. 17
Corporate; Income: Coverage; "Off-Line" Airline (1994)............................................................................................ 17
Corporate; Income: Coverage; "Off-Line" Airline (2005)............................................................................................ 17
Dividends: Disguised dividends (1994) ..................................................................................................................... 18
Dividends; Income Tax; Deductible Gross Income (1999) ......................................................................................... 18
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Effect; Condonation of Loan in Taxation (1995) ........................................................................................................ 18
Fringe Benefit Tax: Covered Employees (2001)......................................................................................................... 18
Fringe Benefit Tax: Employer required to Pay (2003) ................................................................................................ 19
Interest: Deficiency Interest: define (1995 Bar).......................................................................................................... 19
Interest: Delinquency Interest: define (1995)............................................................................................................. 19
ITR: Personal Income; Exempted to File ITR (1997)................................................................................................... 19
ITR; Domestic Corporate Taxation (1997).................................................................................................................. 19
ITR; Domestic Corporate Taxation (2001).................................................................................................................. 20
ITR; Personal Income: Two Employment (2001) ........................................................................................................ 20
ITR; Personal Income; GSIS Pension (2000) ............................................................................................................. 20
ITR; Personal Income; Married Individual (2004) ....................................................................................................... 20
ITR; Taxpayer; Liabilities; Falsified Tax Return (2005) .............................................................................................. 20
Partnership: Income Tax (1995) ................................................................................................................................ 21
Personal; Income Tax: Non-Resident Alien (2000) .................................................................................................... 21
Personal; Income Tax: Non-Resident Citizen (1999).................................................................................................. 21
Personal; Income Tax: Tax-Free Exchange (1997)..................................................................................................... 22
Personal; Income Tax; Contract of Lease (1995) ....................................................................................................... 22
Personal; Income Tax; Married Individual (1997)....................................................................................................... 22
Personal; Income Tax; Retiring Alien Employee (2005) ............................................................................................. 23
Personal; Income Taxation: Non-Resident Citizen (1997) .......................................................................................... 23
Taxable Income: Illegal Income (1995 Bar)................................................................................................................ 23
Taxable or Non-Taxable; Income and Gains (2005) ................................................................................................... 23
Withholding Tax: Non-Resident Alien (2001)............................................................................................................. 24
Withholding Tax: Retirement Benefit (2000).............................................................................................................. 24
Withholding Tax: Retirement Benefit (2000).............................................................................................................. 24
Withholding Tax: Royalty (2002) ............................................................................................................................... 24
Withholding Tax; Coverage (2004) ............................................................................................................................ 25
Withholding Tax; Domestic Corporation; Cash Dividends (2001) .............................................................................. 25
Withholding Tax; Income subject thereto (2001) ....................................................................................................... 25
Withholding Tax; Non-Resident Alien (1994)............................................................................................................. 25
Withholding Tax; Non-Resident Corporation (1994) .................................................................................................. 26
Withholding Tax; Reader's Digest Award (1998)........................................................................................................ 26
Withholding Tax; Time Deposit Interest; GSIS Pension (1994) .................................................................................. 26
DEDUCTIONS, EXEMPTIONS, EXCLUSIONS & INCLUSIONS..................................................... 26
Deduction: Facilitation Fees or "kickback" (1998)..................................................................................................... 26
Deductions: Ordinary Business Expenses (2004) .................................................................................................... 26
Deductions: Amount for Bribe (2001)........................................................................................................................ 27
Deductions: Capital Losses; Prohibitions (2003) ...................................................................................................... 27
Deductions: Deductible Items from Gross Income (1999).......................................................................................... 27
Deductions: Income Tax: Donation: Real Property (2002) ........................................................................................ 27
Deductions: Non-Deductible Items; Gross Income (1999) ......................................................................................... 28
Deductions: Requisites; Deducibility of a Loss (1998) .............................................................................................. 28
Deductions; Income Tax: Allowable Deductions (2001)............................................................................................. 28
Deductions; Vanishing Deduction; Purpose (2006) ................................................................................................... 28
Exclusion & Inclusion; Gross Receipts (2006) .......................................................................................................... 28
Exclusion vs. Deduction from Gross Income (2001).................................................................................................. 28
Exclusions & Inclusions: Benefits on Account of Injury (1995) ................................................................................. 29
Exclusions & Inclusions: Executive Benefits (1995).................................................................................................. 29
Exclusions & Inclusions; Assets; Resident Alien (2005) ........................................................................................... 29
Exclusions & Inclusions; Benefits on Account of Death (1996) ................................................................................. 30
Exclusions & Inclusions; Benefits on Account of Injury (2005) ................................................................................. 30
Exclusions & Inclusions; Compensation for personal injuries or sickness (2003) ..................................................... 30
Exclusions & Inclusions; Facilities or Privileges; Military Camp (1995) ..................................................................... 30
Exclusions & Inclusions; Gifts over and above the Retirement Pay (1995) ................................................................ 31
Exclusions & Inclusions; ITR; 13th month pay and de minimis benefits (2005) ......................................................... 31
Exclusions & Inclusions; ITR; Dividends received by a domestic corporation (2005) ................................................ 31
Exclusions & Inclusions; ITR; Income realized from sale (2005)................................................................................ 31
Exclusions & Inclusions; ITR; Interest on deposits (2005)......................................................................................... 31
Exclusions & Inclusions; ITR; Proceeds of life insurance (2005) ............................................................................... 32
Exclusions & Inclusions; Life Insurance Policy (2003) .............................................................................................. 32
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Exemptions: Charitable Institutions (2000) ............................................................................................................... 32
Exemptions: Charitable Institutions; Churches (1996) .............................................................................................. 32
Exemptions: Educational institution (2004)............................................................................................................... 32
Exemptions: Gifts & Donations (1994) ...................................................................................................................... 32
Exemptions: Head of the Family: (1998)................................................................................................................... 33
Exemptions: Non-Profit Educational Institutions (2000) ............................................................................................ 33
Exemptions: Non-Profit Entity; Ancillary Activity & Incidental Operations (1994) ...................................................... 33
Exemptions: Non-Stock/ Non-Profit Association (2002) ............................................................................................ 34
Exemptions: Prize of Peace Poster Contest (2000).................................................................................................... 34
Exemptions: Prizes & Awards; Athletes (1996) ......................................................................................................... 34
Exemptions: Retirement Benefits: Work Separation (1999) ....................................................................................... 34
Exemptions: Separation Pay (1994) .......................................................................................................................... 35
Exemptions: Separation Pay (1995) .......................................................................................................................... 35
Exemptions: Separation Pay (2005) .......................................................................................................................... 36
Exemptions: Stock Dividends (2003) ........................................................................................................................ 36
Exemptions: Strictly Construed (1996) ..................................................................................................................... 36
Exemptions: Terminal Leave Pay (1996) ................................................................................................................... 36
Exemptions; Charitable Institutions (2006) ............................................................................................................... 36
Exemptions; Educational institution (2004)............................................................................................................... 36
Exemptions; Exemptions are Unilateral in Nature (2004)........................................................................................... 37
Exemptions; Gov’t Bonus, Gifts, & Allowances (1994) .............................................................................................. 37
Exemptions; Personal & Additional Exemption (2006) .............................................................................................. 37
Exemptions; Roman Catholic Church; Limitations (2005) ......................................................................................... 38
CAPITAL GAIN TAX................................................................................................................................ 38
Capital Asset vs. Ordinary Asset (2003).................................................................................................................... 38
Capital Gain Tax; Nature (2001) ................................................................................................................................ 38
Ordinary Sale of a Capital Asset (1994)..................................................................................................................... 38
Sales of Share of Stocks: Capital Gains Tax Return (1999) ....................................................................................... 39
Tax Basis: Capital Gains: Merger of Corporations (1994) .......................................................................................... 39
Tax Basis: Capital Gains: Tax-Free Exchange of Property (1994) .............................................................................. 39
CORPORATION & PARTNERSHIP...................................................................................................... 39
Bad Debts; Factors; Elements thereof (2004)............................................................................................................ 39
Condominium Corp.; Sale of Common Areas (1994) ................................................................................................. 40
Corporation; Sale; Creditable Withholding Tax (1994)............................................................................................... 40
Dividends: Withholding Tax (1999) ........................................................................................................................... 40
Effect: Dissolution; Corporate Existence (2004)........................................................................................................ 41
Minimum Corporate Income Tax (2001)..................................................................................................................... 41
Minimum Corporate Income Tax; Exemption (2001).................................................................................................. 41
ESTATE & DONOR’S TAXES ............................................................................................................... 41
Donor’s Tax: Election Contributions (1998) .............................................................................................................. 41
Donor’s Tax; Basis for Determining Gain (1995) ....................................................................................................... 41
Donor’s Tax; Dacion en Pago; Effect: Taxation (1997) .............................................................................................. 42
Donor’s Tax; Donation to a Sibling (2001)................................................................................................................. 42
Donor’s Tax; Donation to Non-Stock, Non-Profit Private Educational Institutions (2000)........................................... 42
Donor’s Tax; Donation to Political Candidate (2003) ................................................................................................. 43
Donor’s Tax; Donee or Beneficiary; Stranger (2000) ................................................................................................. 43
Donor’s Tax; Sale of shares of Stock & Sale of Real Property (1999)......................................................................... 43
Estate Tax: Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law (1994).......................................................................................... 43
Estate Tax: Donation Mortis Causa (2001) ................................................................................................................ 43
Estate Tax: Donation Mortis Causa vs. Inter Vivos (1994) ......................................................................................... 44
Estate Tax: Gross Estate: Allowable Deduction (2001).............................................................................................. 44
Estate Tax: Gross Estate: Deductions (2000) ............................................................................................................ 44
Estate Tax: Inclusion: Resident Alien (1994) ............................................................................................................. 44
Estate Tax: Payment vs. Probate Proceedings (2004) ............................................................................................... 45
Estate Tax: Situs of Taxation: Non-Resident Decedent (2000) ................................................................................... 45
Estate Tax: Vanishing Deductions (1994).................................................................................................................. 45
Estate Tax; Payment vs. Probate Proceedings (2005) ............................................................................................... 45
BUSINESS TAXES .................................................................................................................................. 45
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VAT: Basis of VAT (1996).......................................................................................................................................... 45
VAT: Characteristics of VAT (1996)........................................................................................................................... 45
VAT: Exempted Transactions (1996)......................................................................................................................... 45
VAT: Liable for Payment (1996) ................................................................................................................................ 46
VAT: Transactions "Deemed Sales” (1997) ............................................................................................................... 46
VAT; Covered Transactions (1998) ........................................................................................................................... 46
VAT; Exemption: Constitutionality (2004) ................................................................................................................. 46
VAT; Non-VAT taxpayer; Claim for Refund (2006) ..................................................................................................... 47
REMEDIES IN INTERNAL REVENUE TAXES ................................................................................... 47
BIR: Assessment: Unregistered Partnership (1997) .................................................................................................. 47
BIR: Collection of Tax Deficiency (1999) ................................................................................................................... 47
BIR: Compromise; Conditions (2000)........................................................................................................................ 48
BIR: Compromise; Extent of Authority (1996) ........................................................................................................... 48
BIR: Compromise; Withholding Agent (1998)............................................................................................................ 48
BIR: Corporation: Distraint & Levy (2002) ................................................................................................................. 48
BIR: Court of Tax Appeals: Collection of Taxes; Grounds for Compromise (1996) .................................................... 49
BIR: Criminal Prosecution: Tax Evasion (1998)......................................................................................................... 49
BIR: Extinction; Criminal Liability of the Taxpayer (2002).......................................................................................... 49
BIR: Fraudulent Return; Prima Facie Evidence (1998)............................................................................................... 50
BIR: Fraudulent Return; Prima Facie Evidence (2002)............................................................................................... 50
BIR: Garnishment: Bank Account of a Taxpayer (1998)............................................................................................. 50
BIR: Pre-Assessment Notice not Necessary (2002) ................................................................................................... 51
BIR: Prescriptive Period: Civil Action (2002) ............................................................................................................. 51
BIR: Prescriptive Period; Assessment & Collection (1999)........................................................................................ 51
BIR: Prescriptive Period; Criminal Action (2002)....................................................................................................... 51
BIR: Secrecy of Bank Deposits Law (1998) ............................................................................................................... 52
BIR: Summary Remedy: Estate Tax Deficiencies (1998) ............................................................................................ 52
BIR: Unpaid Taxes vs. Claims for Unpaid Wages (1995)............................................................................................ 53
BIR; Assessment; Criminal Complaint (2005)............................................................................................................ 53
BIR; Authority; Refund or Credit of Taxes (2005) ...................................................................................................... 53
BIR; Compromise (2004)........................................................................................................................................... 53
BIR; Compromise (2005)........................................................................................................................................... 54
BIR; Deficiency Tax Assessment vs. Tax Refund / Tax Credit (2005) ......................................................................... 54
BIR; Distraint; Prescription of the Action (2002)........................................................................................................ 54
BIR; False vs. Fraudulent Return (1996).................................................................................................................... 55
BIR; Jurisdiction; Review Rulings of the Commissioner (2006)................................................................................. 55
BIR; Prescriptive Period; Assessment; Fraudulent Return (2002).............................................................................. 55
BIR; Prescriptive Period; Criminal Action (2006)....................................................................................................... 55
BIR; Taxpayer: Civil Action & Criminal Action (2002) ................................................................................................ 55
Custom: Violation of Tax & Custom Duties (2002)..................................................................................................... 56
Customs; Basis; Automatic Review (2002)................................................................................................................ 56
Delinquent Tax Return (1998) ................................................................................................................................... 57
Jurisdiction: Customs vs. CTA (2000)...................................................................................................................... 57
LGU: Collection of Taxes, Fees & Charges (1997) ..................................................................................................... 57
Tax Amnesty vs. Tax Exemption (2001) .................................................................................................................... 57
Taxpayer: Administrative & Judicial Remedies (2000)............................................................................................... 57
Taxpayer: Assessment: Protest: Claims for refund (2000)......................................................................................... 58
Taxpayer: Assessment; Injunction (2004) ................................................................................................................. 58
Taxpayer: BIR Audit or Investigation (1999).............................................................................................................. 58
Taxpayer: City Board of Assessment Decision; Where to appeal (1999).................................................................... 59
Taxpayer: Claim for Refund; Procedure (2002).......................................................................................................... 59
Taxpayer: Deficiency Income Tax (1995)................................................................................................................... 59
Taxpayer: Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies (1997)......................................................................................... 60
Taxpayer: Failure to Withheld & Remit Tax (2000)..................................................................................................... 60
Taxpayer: NIRC vs. TCC Remedies (1996)................................................................................................................. 60
Taxpayer: Overwitholding Claim for Refund (1999) ................................................................................................... 61
Taxpayer: Prescriptive Period: Suspended (2000)..................................................................................................... 61
Taxpayer: Prescriptive Period; Claim for Refund (1997) ............................................................................................ 61
Taxpayer: Prescriptive Period; Claims for Refund (1994) .......................................................................................... 61
Taxpayer: Prescriptive Period; Claims for Refund (2004) .......................................................................................... 62
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Taxpayer: Protest against Assessment (1998) .......................................................................................................... 62
Taxpayer: Protest against Assessment (1999) .......................................................................................................... 62
Taxpayer: Protest against Assessment (1999) .......................................................................................................... 62
Taxpayer: Protest; Claim of Refund (1996)................................................................................................................ 63
Taxpayer; Appeal to the Court of Tax Appeals (2005)................................................................................................ 63
Taxpayer; Claim for Tax Credits (2006) ..................................................................................................................... 63
Taxpayer; Compromise after Criminal Action (1998) ................................................................................................. 63
Taxpayer; Protest against Assessment; Donor’s Tax (1995) ..................................................................................... 64
Taxpayer; Withholding Agent; Claim of Tax Refund (2005) ....................................................................................... 64
LOCAL & REAL PROPERTY TAXES .................................................................................................. 64
Local Taxation: Actual Use of Property (2002) .......................................................................................................... 64
Local Taxation: Coverage (2002)............................................................................................................................... 64
Local Taxation: Exemption; Real Property Taxes (2002) ........................................................................................... 65
Local Taxation: Imposition of Ad Valorem Tax (2000) ............................................................................................... 65
Local Taxation: Legality/ Constitutionality; Tax Ordinance (2003) ............................................................................. 65
Local Taxation: Legality; Imposition of Real Property Tax Rate (2002) ...................................................................... 65
Local Taxation: Power to Impose (2003) ................................................................................................................... 65
Local Taxation: Remission/Condonation of Taxes (2004).......................................................................................... 66
Local Taxation: Rule of Uniformity and Equality (2003)............................................................................................. 66
Local Taxation; Situs of Professional Taxes (2005)................................................................................................... 66
Local Taxation; Special Levy on Idle Lands (2005).................................................................................................... 66
Real Property Tax: Underground Gasoline Tanks (2003)........................................................................................... 67
Real Property Tax; Requirements; Auction Sales of Property for Tax Delinquency (2006) ......................................... 67
Real Property Taxation: Capital Asset vs. Ordinary Asset (1995) .............................................................................. 67
Real Property Taxation: Capital Gains vs. Ordinary Gains (1998) .............................................................................. 67
Real Property Taxation: Coverage of Ordinary Income (1998) ................................................................................... 67
Real Property Taxation: Exchange of Lot; Capital Gain Tax (1997)............................................................................ 68
Real Property Taxation: Exemption/Deductions; Donor’s Tax (1998)......................................................................... 68
Real Property Taxation: Exemption: Acquiring New Principal Residence (2000) ....................................................... 68
Real Property Taxation: Fundamental Principles (1997) ............................................................................................ 69
Real Property Taxation: Principles & Limitations: LGU (2000)................................................................................... 69
Real Property Taxation: Property Sold is an Ordinary Asset (1998)........................................................................... 69
Real Property Taxation: Underground Gasoline Tanks (2001) ................................................................................... 69
Real Property Taxation; Exempted Properties (2006) ................................................................................................ 69
TARIFF AND CUSTOMS DUTIES ........................................................................................................ 70
Customs: “Flexible Tariff Clause” (2001) .................................................................................................................. 70
Customs: Administrative vs. Judicial Remedies (1997) ............................................................................................ 70
Customs: Importation (1995) .................................................................................................................................... 70
Customs: Jurisdiction; Seizure & Forfeiture Proceedings (1996) ............................................................................. 70
Customs: Kinds of Custom Duties (1995) ................................................................................................................. 70
Customs: Kinds of Custom Duties (1997) ................................................................................................................. 71
Customs: Remedies of an Importer (1996) ................................................................................................................ 71
Customs: Returning Residents: Tourist/Travelers (2003) .......................................................................................... 71
Customs: Seizure & Forfeiture: Effects (1994) .......................................................................................................... 71
Customs: Steps involving Protest Cases (1994)........................................................................................................ 72
Customs; Basis of Dutiable Value; Imported Article (2005) ....................................................................................... 72
Customs; Countervailing Duty vs. Dumping Duty (2005)........................................................................................... 72
Customs; Taxability; Personal Effects (2005)............................................................................................................ 72
OTHER RELATED MATTERS............................................................................................................... 73
BIR: Bank Deposits Secrecy Violation (2000)............................................................................................................ 73
BIR: Secrecy of Bank Deposit Law (2003) ................................................................................................................. 73
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GENERAL PRINCIPLES
Basic Features: Present Income Tax System (1996) Collection of Taxes: Authority; Ordinary Courts (2001)
What are the basic features of the present income tax May the courts enjoin the collection of revenue taxes?
system"? Explain your answer. (2%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Our present income tax system can be said to have the As a general rule, the courts have no authority to enjoin
following basic features: the collection of revenue taxes. (Sec. 218, NIRC).
(a) It has adopted a COMPREHENSIVE TAX However, the Court of Tax Appeals is empowered to
SITUS by using the nationality, residence, and enjoin the collection of taxes through administrative
source rules. This makes citizens and resident aliens remedies when collection could jeopardize the interest of
taxable on their income derived from all sources the government or taxpayer. (Section 11, RA 1125).
while non-resident aliens are taxed only on their
income derived from within the Philippines. Collection of Taxes: Prescription (2001)
Domestic corporations are also taxed on universal May the collection of taxes be barred by prescription?
income while foreign corporations are taxed only on Explain your answer. (3%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
income from within. Yes. The collection of taxes may be barred by
prescription. The prescriptive periods for collection of
(b) The individual income tax system is mainly taxes are governed by the tax law imposing the tax.
PROGRESSIVE IN NATURE in that it provides However, if the tax law does not provide for prescription,
a graduated rates of income tax. Corporations in the right of the government to collect taxes becomes
general are taxed at a flat rate of thirty five percent imprescriptible.
(35%) of net income.

(c) It has retained MORE SCHEDULAR THAN Direct Tax vs. Indirect Tax (1994)
GLOBAL FEATURES with respect to individual Distinguish a direct from an indirect tax.
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
taxpayers but has maintained a more global
A DIRECT TAX is one in which the taxpayer who pays
treatment on corporations.
the tax is directly liable therefor, that is, the burden of
Note: The following might also be cited by the bar candidates as
paying the tax falls directly on the person paying the tax.
features of the income tax system:
a. Individual compensation income earners are taxed
An INDIRECT TAX is one paid by a person who is not
on modified Gross Income (Gross compensation
directly liable therefor, and who may therefore shift or
income less personal exemptions). Self-employed
pass on the tax to another person or entity, which
and professionals are taxed on net income with
ultimately assumes the tax burden. (Maceda v. Macaraig,
deductions limited to seven items or in lieu thereof 197 SCRA 771)
the forty percent (40%) maximum deduction plus the
personal exemptions. Corporations are generally
Direct Tax vs. Indirect Tax (2000)
taxed on net income except for non-resident foreign Among the taxes imposed by the Bureau of Internal
corporations which are taxed on gross income. Revenue are income tax, estate and donor's tax, value-
added tax, excise tax, other percentage taxes, and
b. The income tax is generally imposed via the self- documentary stamp tax. Classify these taxes into direct
assessment system or pay-as-you-file concept of and indirect taxes, and differentiate direct from Indirect
imposing the tax although certain incomes. Including taxes. (5%)
income of non-residents, are taxed on the pay-as- SUGGESTED ANSWER:
you-earn concept or the so called withholding tax. Income tax, estate and donor's tax are considered as direct
taxes. On the other hand, value-added tax, excise tax,
c. The corporate income tax is a one-layer tax in that other percentage taxes, and documentary stamp tax are
distribution of profits to stockholders (except to non- indirect taxes.
residents) are not subject to income tax.
DIRECT TAXES are demanded from the very person
Basic Stages or Aspects of Taxation (2006) who, as intended, should pay the tax which he cannot
Enumerate the 3 stages or aspects of taxation. Explain shift to another; while an INDIRECT TAX is demanded
each. (5%) in the first instance from one person with the expectation
SUGGESTED ANSWER: that he can shift the burden to someone else, not as a tax
The aspects of taxation are: but as a part of the purchase price.
(1) LEVYING — the act of the legislature in choosing
the persons, properties, rights or privileges to be
Direct Tax vs. Indirect Tax (2001)
subjected to taxation. Distinguish direct taxes from indirect taxes, and give an
(2) ASSESSMENT and COLLECTION — This is the example for each one. (2%)
act of executing the law through the administrative SUGGESTED ANSWER:
agencies of government. DIRECT TAXES are taxes wherein both the incidence
(3) PAYMENT — the act of the taxpayer in settling his (or liability for the payment of the tax) as well as the
tax obligations. impact or burden of the tax falls on the same person. An
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 9 of 73
example of this tax is income tax where the person subject There is no double taxation. DOUBLE
to tax cannot shift the burden of the tax to another TAXATION means taxing for the same tax period the
person. same thing or activity twice, when it should be taxed but
once, by the same taxing authority for the same purpose
INDIRECT TAXES, on the other hand, are taxes and with the same kind or character of tax. The REAL
wherein the incidence of or the liability for the payment of ESTATE TAX is a tax on property; the REAL ESTATE
the tax falls on one person but the burden thereof can be DEALER'S TAX is a tax on the privilege to engage in
shifted or passed on to another person. Example of this business; while the INCOME TAX is a tax on the
tax is the value-added tax. privilege to earn an income. These taxes are imposed by
different taxing authorities and are essentially of different
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: kind and character (Villanueva vs. City of Iloilo, 26 SCRA
A direct tax is a tax which is demanded from the person 578).
who also shoulders the burden of the tax. Example:
corporate and individual income tax. Double Taxation; Indirect Duplicate Taxation (1997)
When an item of income is taxed in the Philippines and
An indirect tax is a tax which is demanded from one the same income is taxed in another country, is there a
person in the expectation and intention that he shall case of double taxation?
indemnify himself at the expense of another, and the SUGGESTED ANSWER:
burden finally resting on the ultimate purchaser or Yes, but it is only a case of indirect duplicate taxation
consumer. Example: value added tax. which is not legally prohibited because the taxes are
imposed by different taxing authorities.
Direct Tax vs. Indirect Tax (2006)
Distinguish "direct taxes" from "indirect taxes." Give Double Taxation; License Fee vs. Local Tax (2004)
examples. (5%) A municipality, BB, has an ordinance which requires that
SUGGESTED ANSWER: all stores, restaurants, and other establishments selling
DIRECT TAXES are demanded from the very person liquor should pay a fixed annual fee of P20.000.
who should pay the tax and which he can not shift to Subsequently, the municipal board proposed an ordinance
another. An INDIRECT TAX is demanded from one imposing a sales tax equivalent to 5% of the amount paid
person with the expectation that he can shift the burden for the purchase or consumption of liquor in stores,
to someone else, not as a tax but as part of the purchase restaurants and other establishments. The municipal
price. Examples of direct taxes are the income tax, the mayor, CC, refused to sign the ordinance on the ground
estate tax and the donor's tax. Examples of indirect taxes that it would constitute double taxation. Is the refusal of
are the value-added tax, the percentage tax and the excise the mayor justified? Reason briefly. (5%)
tax on exciseable articles. SUGGESTED ANSWER:
No. The refusal of the mayor is not justified. The
Double Taxation (1997) impositions are of different nature and character. The
Is double taxation a valid defense against the legality of a fixed annual fee is in the nature of a license fee imposed
tax measure? through the exercise of police power while the 5% tax on
SUGGESTED ANSWER: purchase or consumption is a local tax imposed through
No, double taxation standing alone and not being the exercise of taxing powers. Both a license fee and a tax
forbidden by our fundamental law is not a valid defense may be imposed on the same business or occupation, or
against the legality of a tax measure (Pepsi Cola v. for selling the same article and this is not in violation of
Tanawan, 69 SCRA 460). However, if double taxation the rule against double taxation {Campania General de
amounts to a direct duplicate taxation, Tabacos de Filipinos v. City of Manila, 8 SCRA 367
1. in that the same subject is taxed twice when it should [1963]).
be taxed but once,
2. in a fashion that both taxes are imposed for the same Double Taxation; Methods of Avoiding DT (1997)
purpose What are the usual methods of avoiding the occurrence of
3. by the same taxing authority, within the same double taxation?
jurisdiction or taxing district, SUGGESTED ANSWER:
4. for the same taxable period and The usual methods of avoiding the occurrence of double
5. for the same kind or character of a tax taxation are:
1. Allowing reciprocal exemption either by law or by
then it becomes legally objectionable for being treaty;
oppressive and inequitable. 2. Allowance of tax credit for foreign taxes paid;
3. Allowance of deduction for foreign taxes paid; and
Double Taxation: What Constitutes DT? (1996) 4. Reduction of the Philippine tax rate.
X, a lessor of a property, pays real estate tax on the Note: Any three of the methods shall be given full credit.
premises, a real estate dealer's tax based on rental receipts
and income tax on the rentals. X claims that this is double Imprescriptibility of Tax Laws (1997)
taxation? Decide. Taxes were generally imprescriptible; statutes, however,
SUGGESTED ANSWER: may provide otherwise. State the rules that have been
adopted on this score by -
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 10 of 73
(a) The National Internal Revenue Code; There are substantial differences between big
(b) The Tariff and Customs Code; and investors being enticed to the "secured area" and the
(c) The Local Government Code Answer: business operators outside that are in accord with the
SUGGESTED ANSWERS: equal protection clause that does not require territorial
The rules that have been adopted on prescription are as uniformity of laws. The classification applies equally to all
follows: the resident individuals and businesses within the "secured
(a) National Internal Revenue Code - The statute of area". The residents, being in like circumstances to
limitation for assessment of tax if a return is filed is contributing directly to the achievement of the end
within three (3) years from the last day prescribed by purpose of the law, are not categorized further. Instead,
law for the filing of the return or if filed after the last they are similarly treated, both in privileges granted and
day, within three years from date of actual filing. If obligations required. (Tiu, et al, v. Court of 4npeals, et al, G.R.
no return is filed or the return filed is false or No. 127410, January 20, 1999)
fraudulent, the period to assess is within TEN
YEARS from discovery of the omission, fraud or Power of Taxation: Inherent in a Sovereign State (2003)
falsity. Why is the power to tax considered inherent in a
sovereign State? (4%)
The period to collect the tax is within THREE SUGGESTED ANSWER:
YEARS from date of assessment. In the case, It is considered inherent in a sovereign State because it is a
however, of omission to file or if the return filed is necessary attribute of sovereignty. Without this power no
false or fraudulent, the period to collect is within sovereign State can exist or endure. The power to tax proceeds upon
TEN YEARS from discovery without need of an the theory that the existence of a government is a necessity and this
assessment. power is an essential and inherent attribute of sovereignty, belonging
as a matter of right to every independent state or government. No
(b) Tariff and Customs Code - It does not express any sovereign state can continue to exist without the means to
general statute of limitation; it provided, however, pay its expenses; and that for those means, it has the right
that "when articles have entered and passed free of to compel all citizens and property within its limits to
duty or final adjustment of duties made, with contribute, hence, the emergence of the power to tax. (51
subsequent delivery, such entry and passage free of Am. Jur.,Taxation 40).
duty or settlement of duties will, after the expiration
of ONE (1) YEAR, from the date of the final Power of Taxation: Legality; Local Gov’t Taxation (2003)
payment of duties, in the absence of fraud or protest, May Congress, under the 1987 Constitution, abolish the
be final and conclusive upon all parties, unless the power to tax of local governments? (4%)
liquidation of Import entry was merely tentative" (Sec SUGGESTED ANSWER:
1603, TCC). No. Congress cannot abolish what is expressly granted by
the fundamental law. The only authority conferred to
(c) Local Government Code - Local taxes, fees, or Congress is to provide the guidelines and limitations on
charges shall be assessed within FIVE (5) YEARS the local government's exercise of the power to tax (Sec.
from the date they became due. In case of fraud or 5, Art. X, 1987 Constitution).
intent to evade the payment of taxes, fees or charges
the same maybe assessed within TEN YEARS from Power of Taxation: Legislative in Nature (1994)
discovery of the fraud or intent to evade payment. The Secretary of Finance, upon recommendation of the
They shall also be collected either by administrative Commissioner of Internal Revenue, issued a Revenue
or judicial action within FIVE (5) YEARS from date Regulation using gross income as the tax base for
of assessment (Sec. 194, LGC). corporations doing business in the Philippines. Is the
Revenue Regulation valid?
Power of Taxation: Equal Protection of the Law (2000) SUGGESTED ANSWER:
An Executive Order was issued pursuant to law, granting The regulation establishing gross income as the tax base
tax and duty incentives only to businesses and residents for corporations doing business in the Philippines
within the "secured area" of the Subic Economic Special (domestic as well as resident foreign) is not valid. This is
Zone, and denying said incentives to those who live no longer implementation of the law but actually it
within the Zone but outside such "secured area". Is the constitutes legislation because among the powers that are
constitutional right to equal protection of the law violated exclusively within the legislative authority to tax is the
by the Executive Order? Explain. (3%) power to determine -the amount of the tax. (See 1 Cooley
SUGGESTED ANSWER: 176-184). Certainly, if the tax is limited to gross income
No. Equal protection of the law clause is subject to without deductions of these corporations, this is changing
reasonable classification. Classification, to be valid, must the amount of the tax as said amount ultimately depends
(1) rest on substantial distinctions, (2) be germane to the on the taxable base.
purpose of the law, (3) not be limited to existing
conditions only, (4) apply equally to all members of the Power of Taxation: Limitations of the Congress (2001)
same class. Congress, after much public hearing and consultations
with various sectors of society, came to the conclusion
that it will be good for the country to have only one
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 11 of 73
system of taxation by centralizing the imposition and broadest scope of all the powers of government
collection of all taxes in the national government. because in the absence of limitations, it is considered as
Accordingly, it is thinking of passing a law that would unlimited, plenary, comprehensive and supreme. The two
abolish the taxing power of all local government units. In limitations on the power of taxation are the inherent and
your opinion, would such a law be valid under the present constitutional limitations which are intended to prevent
Constitution? Explain your answer. (5%) abuse on the exercise of the otherwise plenary and
SUGGESTED ANSWER: unlimited power. It is the Court's role to see to it that the
No. The law centralizing the imposition and collection of exercise of the power does not transgress these
all taxes in the national government would contravene the limitations.
Constitution which mandates that: . . . "Each local
government unit shall have the power to create their own Power of Taxation: Revocation of Exempting Statutes
sources of revenue and to levy taxes, fees, and charges (1997)
subject to such guidelines and limitations as Congress may "X" Corporation was the recipient in 1990 of two tax
provide consistent with the basic policy of local exemptions both from Congress, one law exempting the
autonomy." It is clear that Congress can only give the company's bond issues from taxes and the other
guidelines and limitations on the exercise by the local exempting the company from taxes in the operation of its
governments of the power to tax but what was granted by public utilities. The two laws extending the tax
the fundamental law cannot be withdrawn by Congress. exemptions were revoked by Congress before their expiry
dates. Were the revocations constitutional?
Power of Taxation: Limitations: Passing of Revenue Bills SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(1997) Yes. The exempting statutes are both granted unilaterally
The House of Representatives introduced HB 7000 which by Congress in the exercise of taxing powers. Since
envisioned to levy a tax on various transactions. After the taxation is the rule and tax exemption, the exception, any
bill was approved by the House, the bill was sent to the tax exemption unilaterally granted can be withdrawn at the
Senate as so required by the Constitution. In the upper pleasure of the taxing authority without violating the
house, instead of a deliberation on the House Bill, the Constitution (Mactan Cebu International Airport
Senate introduced SB 8000 which was its own version of Authority v, Marcos, G.R No. 120082, September 11,
the same tax. The Senate deliberated on this Senate Bill 1996).
and approved the same. The House Bill and the Senate
Bill were then consolidated in the Bicameral Committee. Neither of these were issued by the taxing authority in a
Eventually, the consolidated bill was approved and sent to contract lawfully entered by it so that their revocation
the President who signed the same. The private sectors would not constitute an impairment of the obligations of
affected by the new law questioned the validity of the contracts.
enactment on the ground that the constitutional provision ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
requiring that all revenue bills should originate from the No. The withdrawal of the tax exemption amounts to a
House of Representatives had been violated. Resolve the deprivation of property without due process of law, hence
issue. unconstitutional.
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
There is no violation of the constitutional requirement Power of Taxation; Inherent in a Sovereign State (2005)
that all revenue bills should originate from the House of Describe the power of taxation. May a legislative body
Representatives. What is prohibited is for the Senate to enact laws to raise revenues in the absence of a
enact revenue measures on its own without a bill constitutional provision granting said body the power to
originating from the House. But once the revenue bill was tax? Explain.
passed by the House and sent to the Senate, the latter can SUGGESTED ANSWER:
pass its own version on the same subject matter Yes, the legislative body may enact laws even in the
consonant with the latter's power to propose or concur absence of a constitutional provision because the power
with amendments. This follows from the co-equality of to tax is inherent in the government and not merely a
the two chambers of Congress (Tolentino v. Secretary constitutional grant. The power of taxation is an essential
of Finance, GR No. 115455, Oct. 30, 1995). and inherent attribute of sovereignty belonging as a matter
of right to every independent government without being
expressly granted by the people. (Pepsi-Cola Bottling
Power of Taxation: Limitations; Power to Destroy (2000)
Company of the Philippines, Inc. v. Municipality of
Justice Holmes once said: The power to tax is not the power to Tanauan, Leyte, G.R. No. L-31156, February 27,1976)
destroy while this Court (the Supreme Court) sits." Describe the
power to tax and its limitations. (5%) Taxation is the inherent power of a State to collect
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
The power to tax is an inherent power of the sovereign enforced proportional contribution to support the
which is exercised through the legislature, to impose expenses of government. Taxation is the power vested in
burdens upon subjects and objects within its Jurisdiction the legislature to impose burdens or charges upon persons
for the purpose of raising revenues to carry out the and property in order to raise revenue for public
legitimate objects of government. The underlying basis for purposes.
its exercise is governmental necessity for without it no
government can exist nor endure. Accordingly, it has the The power to tax is so unlimited in force and so searching
in extent that courts scarcely venture to declare it is
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 12 of 73
subject to any restrictions whatever, except such as rest in may now be untenable" may lead the
the discretion of the authority which exercises it. (Tio v. examinee to choose a proposition which is untenable
Videogram Regulatory Board, G.R. No. L-75697, June 18, on the basis of the new law despite the cut-off date
1987) So potent is the power to tax that it was once opined adopted by the Bar Examination Committee. R.A. No.
that "the power to tax involves the power to destroy." 9282 was passed on March 30, 2004.
(C.J. Marshall in McCulloch v. Maryland, 4 Wheat, 316 4 L.
Ed. 579, 607) Purpose of Taxation; Legislative in Nature (2004)
Taxes are assessed for the purpose of generating revenue
Power of Taxation; Legislative in Nature (1996) to be used for public needs. Taxation itself is the power
What is the nature of the power of taxation? by which the State raises revenue to defray the expenses
SUGGESTED ANSWER: of government. A jurist said that a tax is what we pay for
The POWER TO TAX is an attribute of sovereignty and civilization.In our jurisdiction, which of the following
is inherent in the State. It is a power emanating from statements may be erroneous:
necessity because it imposes a necessary burden to 1) Taxes are pecuniary in nature.
preserve the State's sovereignty (Phil Guarantee Co. vs. 2) Taxes are enforced charges and contributions.
Commissioner, L-22074, April 30, 1965). It is inherently 3) Taxes are imposed on persons and property within
legislative in nature and character in that the power of the territorial jurisdiction of a State.
taxation can only be exercised through the enactment of 4) Taxes are levied by the executive branch of the
law. government.
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: 5) Taxes are assessed according to a reasonable rule of
The nature of the power of taxation refers to its own apportionment.
limitations such as the requirement that it should be for a Justify your answer or choice briefly. (5%)
public purpose, that it be legislative, that it is territorial SUGGESTED ANSWER:
and that it should be subject to international comity. A. 4. Taxes are levied by the executive branch of government.
This statement is erroneous because levy refers to the act
Purpose of Taxation; Interpretation (2004) of imposition by the legislature which is done through the
Which of the following propositions may now be enactment of a tax law. Levy is an exercise of the power to
untenable: tax which is exclusively legislative in nature and character.
1) The court should construe a law granting tax Clearly, taxes are not levied by the executive branch of
exemption strictly against the taxpayer. government. (JVPC v. Albay, 186 SCRA 198 [1990]).
2) The court should construe a law granting a municipal
corporation the power to tax most strictly. Rule on Set-Off or Compensation of Taxes (1996)
3) The Court of Tax Appeals has jurisdiction over X is the owner of a residential lot situated at Quirino
decisions of the Customs Commissioner in cases Avenue, Pasay City. The lot has an area of 300 square
involving liability for customs duties. meters. On June 1, 1994, 100 square meters of said lot
4) The Court of Appeals has jurisdiction to review owned by X was expropriated by the government to be
decisions of the Court of Tax Appeals. used in the widening of Quirino Avenue, for P300.000.00
5) The Supreme Court has jurisdiction to review representing the estimated assessed value of said portion.
decisions of the Court of Appeals. From 1991 to 1995, X, who is a businessman, has not
Justify your answer or choice briefly. (5%) been paying his income taxes. X is now being assessed for
SUGGESTED ANSWER: the unpaid income taxes in the total amount of
2. The court should construe a law granting a municipal corporation P150,000.00. X claims his income tax liability has already
the power to tax most strictly. been compensated by the amount of P300.000.00 which
This proposition is now untenable. The basic rationale for the government owes him for the expropriation of his
the grant of tax power to local government units is to property. Decide.
safeguard their viability and self-sufficiency by directly SUGGESTED ANSWER:
granting them general and broad tax powers (Manila The income tax liability of X can not be compensated
Electric Company v. Province of Laguna et. al., 306 SCRA with the amount owed by the Government as
750 [1999]). Considering that inasmuch as the power to tax compensation for his property expropriated, taxes are of
may be exercised by local legislative bodies, no longer by distinct kind, essence and nature than ordinary
valid congressional delegation but by direct authority obligations. Taxes and debts cannot be the subject of
conferred by the Constitution, in interpreting statutory compensation because the Government and X are not
provisions on municipal fiscal powers, doubts will, mutually creditors and debtors of each other and a claim
therefore, have to be resolved in favor of municipal for taxes is not a debt, demand, contract, or Judgment as
corporations (City Government of San Pablo, Laguna v. is allowable to be set off. (Francia vs. IAC. G.R 76749, June
Reyes, 305 SCRA 353 [1999]). This means that the court 28. 1988)
must adopt a liberal construction of a law granting a
municipal corporation the power to tax. Rule on Set-Off or Compensation of Taxes (2001)
Note: If the examinee chose proposition no. 4 as his May a taxpayer who has pending claims for VAT input
answer, it should be given full credit considering that credit or refund, set-off said claims against his other tax
the present CTA Act (R.A. No. 9282) has made the
CTA a coequal judicial body of the Court of Appeals.
liabilities? Explain your answer. (5%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
The question "Which of the following propositions
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 13 of 73
No. Set-off is available only if both obligations are referring to Republic of the Philippines v.
liquidated and demandable. Liquidated debts are those Mambulao Lumber Co., G.R. No. L-17725, February 28,
where the exact amounts have already been determined. 1962; and Francia v. Intermediate Appellate Court, G.R.
In the instant case, the claim of the taxpayer for VAT No. L-67649, June 28,1998.
refund is still pending and the amount has still to be
determined. A fortiori, the liquidated obligation of the There is, however, legal basis to state that an assessment
taxpayer to the government can not, therefore, be set-off for a local tax may be the subject of set-off or
against the unliquidated claim which the taxpayer compensation against a final judgment for a sum of
conceived to exist in his favor. (Philex Mining Corp. v. money obtained by the taxpayer against the local
CIR, GR No. 125704, August 29, 1998). government by operation of law where the local
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: government and the taxpayer are in their own right
No. Taxes and claims for refund cannot be the subject of reciprocally debtors and creditors of each other, and that
set-off for the simple reason that the government and the the debts are both due and demandable. This is consistent
taxpayer are not creditors and debtors of each other. with the ruling in Domingo v. Garlitos, G.R. No. L-18994,
There is a material distinction between a tax and a claim June 29,1963, relying upon Arts. 1278 and 1279 of the Civil
for refund. Claims for refunds just like debts are due from Code, where these provisions were applied in relation to
the government in its corporate capacity, while taxes are the national tax, and should therefore be applicable to a
due to the government in its sovereign capacity. (Philex local tax.
Mining Corp. v. CIR, GR No. 125704, August 29,
1998). Tax Avoidance vs. Tax Evasion (1996)
Distinguish tax evasion from tax avoidance.
Rule on Set-Off or Compensation of Taxes (2005) SUGGESTED ANSWER:
May taxes be the subject of set-off or compensation? Tax evasion is a scheme used outside of those lawful
Explain. means to escape tax liability and, when availed of, it
SUGGESTED ANSWER. usually subjects the taxpayer to further or additional civil
No, taxes cannot be the subject of set-off or or criminal liabilities. Tax avoidance, on the other hand, is
compensation for the following reasons: a tax saving device within the means sanctioned by law,
1) The lifeblood theory requires that there should be no hence legal.
unnecessary impediments to the collection of taxes to
make available to the government the wherewithal to meet Tax Avoidance vs. Tax Evasion (2000)
its legitimate objectives; and Mr. Pascual's income from leasing his property reaches
the maximum rate of tax under the law. He donated one-
2) The payment of taxes is not a contractual obligation but half of his said property to a non-stock, non-profit
arises out of a duty to pay, and in respect of the positive educational institution whose income and assets are
acts of government, regarding the making and enforcing actually, directly and exclusively used for educational
of taxes, the personal consent of the individual taxpayer is purposes, and therefore qualified for tax exemption under
not required. (Republic v. Mambulao Lumber Co., G.R. Article XIV, Section 4 (3) of the Constitution and Section
No. L-17725, February 28, 1962; Caltex v. Commission on 30 (h) of the Tax Code. Having thus transferred a portion
Audit, G.R. No. 92585, May 8, 1992; and Philex v. of his said asset, Mr. Pascual succeeded in paying a lesser
Commissioner of Internal Revenue, G.R. No. 125704, tax on the rental income derived from his property. Is
August 28, 1998) there tax avoidance or tax evasion? Explain. (2%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
However, there is a possibility that set-off may arise, if the There is tax avoidance. Mr. Pascual has exploited a fully
claims against the government have been recognized and permissive alternative method to reduce his income tax by
an amount has already been appropriated for that transferring part of his rental income to a tax exempt
purpose. Where both claims have already become overdue entity through a donation of one-half of the income
and demandable as well as fully liquidated. Compensation producing property. The donation is likewise exempt from
takes place by operation of law under Art. 1200 in relation the donor's tax. The donation is the legal means employed
to Articles 1279 and 1290 of the New Civil Code. to transfer the incidence of income tax on the rental
(Domingo v. Garlitos, G.R. No. L-18994, June 29, 1963) income.

Rule on Set-Off or Compensation on Taxes (2005) Tax Exemptions: Nature & Coverage; Proper Party (2004)
Can an assessment for a local tax be the subject of set-off As an incentive for investors, a law was passed giving
or compensation against a final judgment for a sum of newly established companies in certain economic zone
money obtained by the taxpayer against the local exemption from all taxes, duties, fees, imposts and other
government that made the assessment? Explain. charges for a period of three years. ABC Corp. was
SUGGESTED ANSWER: organized and was granted such incentive. In the course
No, taxes cannot be the subject of set-off even when of business, ABC Corp. purchased mechanical equipment
there is a final judgment for a sum of money against the from XYZ Inc. Normally, the sale is subject to a sales tax.
local government making the assessment. The
government and the taxpayer are not the "mutual XYZ Inc. claims, however, that since it sold the
creditors and debtors" of each other who can avail of the equipment to ABC Corp. which is tax exempt, XYZ
remedy of compensation which Art. 1278 (Civil Code) is
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 14 of 73
should not be liable to pay the sales tax. Is this claim sale, thus, shifting the tax burden to the ultimate
tenable? (5%) consumer.
SUGGESTED ANSWER: (NOTABENE: This concept pertains to the VAT law which is
A. No. Exemption from taxes is personal in nature and excluded from the bar coverage, Guidelines for 2006 Bar Examinations,
covers only taxes for which the taxpayer-grantee is directly June 15, 2006)
liable. The sales tax is a tax on the seller who is not
exempt from taxes. Since XYZ Inc. is directly liable for Taxpayer Suit; When Allowed (1996)
the sales tax and no tax exemption privilege is ever given When may a taxpayer's suit be allowed?
to him, therefore, its claim that the sale is tax exempt is SUGGESTED ANSWER:
not tenable. A tax exemption is construed in strictissimi juris A taxpayer's suit may only be allowed when an act
and it can not be permitted to exist upon vague complained of, which may include a legislative enactment,
implications (Asiatic Petroleum Co., Ltd. V. Llanes, 49 Phil directly involves the illegal disbursement of public funds
466 [1926]). derived from taxation (Pascual vs. Secretary of Public
Works, 110 Phil. 331).
Assume arguendo that XYZ had to and did pay the sales
tax. ABC Corp. later found out, however, that XYZ Uniformity in the Collection of Taxes (1998)
merely shifted or passed on to ABC the amount of the Explain the requirement of uniformity as a limitation in
sales tax by increasing the purchase price. ABC Corp. now the imposition and/or collection of taxes. (5%|
claims for a refund from the Bureau of Internal Revenue SUGGESTED ANSWER:
in an amount corresponding to the tax passed on to it Uniformity in the imposition and/or collection of taxes
since it is tax exempt. Is the claim of ABC Corp. means that all taxable articles, or kinds of property of the
meritorious? (5%) same class shall be taxed at the same rate. The
SUGGESTED ANSWER; requirement of uniformity is complied with when the tax
B. No. The claim of ABC Corp. is not meritorious. operates with the same force and effect in every place
Although the tax was shifted to ABC Corp. by the seller, where the subject of it is found (Churchill & Tail v.
what is paid by it is not a tax but part of the cost it has Conception, 34 Phil. 969). It does not mean that lands,
assumed. Hence, since ABC Corp. is not a taxpayer, it has chattels, securities, income, occupations, franchises,
no capacity to file a claim for refund. The taxpayer who privileges, necessities and luxuries shall be assessed at the
can file a claim for refund is the person statutorily liable same rate. Different articles maybe taxed at different
for the payment of the tax. amounts provided that the rate is uniform on the same
class everywhere with all people at all times. Accordingly,
Tax Laws; BIR Ruling; Non-Retroactivity of Rulings (2004) singling out one particular class for taxation purposes
Due to an uncertainty whether or not a new tax law is does not infringe the requirement of uniformity.
applicable to printing companies, DEF Printers submitted FIRST ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
a legal query to the Bureau of Internal Revenue on that The criteria is met when the tax laws operate equally and
issue. The BIR issued a ruling that printing companies are uniformly on all persons under similar circumstances. All
not covered by the new law. Relying on this ruling, DEF persons are treated in the same manner, the conditions
Printers did not pay said tax. not being different, both in privileges conferred and
liabilities imposed. Uniformity in taxation also refers to
Subsequently, however, the BIR reversed the ruling and geographical uniformity. Favoritism and preference is not
issued a new one stating that the tax covers printing allowed.
companies. Could the BIR now assess DEF Printers for SECOND ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
back taxes corresponding to the years before the new A tax is deemed to have satisfied the uniformity rule when
ruling? Reason briefly. (5%) it operates with the same force and effect in every place
SUGGESTED ANSWER: where the subject maybe found. (Phil. Trust & Co. v.
No. Reversal of a ruling shall not be given a retroactive Yatco, 69 Phil. 420).
application if said reversal will be prejudicial to the
taxpayer. Therefore, the BIR can not assess DEF printers
for back taxes because it would be violative of the
principle of non-retroactivity of rulings and doing so
would result in grave injustice to the taxpayer who relied
INCOME TAXATION
on the first ruling in good faith (Section 246, NIRC; CIR v. Basic: Allowable Deductions vs. Personal Exemptions
Burroughs, Inc., 142 SCRA 324[1986]). (2001)
Distinguish Allowable Deductions from Personal
Tax Pyramiding; Definition & Legality (2006) Exemptions. Give an example of an allowable deduction
What is tax pyramiding? What is its basis in law? (5%) and another example for personal exemption. (5%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Tax Pyramiding is the imposition of a tax upon another The distinction between allowable deductions and
tax. It has no basis in fact or in law (People v. personal exemptions are as follows:
Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 152532, August 16, 2005). There is a. As to amount — Allowable deductions generally
also tax pyramiding when sales taxes are incorrectly refer to actual expenses incurred in the pursuit of
applied to goods several times from production to final trade, business or practice of profession while
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personal exemptions are arbitrary amounts allowed The facts given in the problem are sufficient to
by law. compute the annual depreciation either under the declining-
b. As to nature — Allowable deductions constitute balance method or sum-of-years-digit method. Any answer
business expenses while personal exemptions arrived at by using any of the recognized methods should be
given full credit. It is suggested that no question requiring
pertain to personal expenses. computation should be given in future bar examinations.
c. As to purpose — Deductions are allowed to
enable the taxpayer to recoup his cost of doing
Basic: Sources of Income: Taxable Income (1998)
business while personal exemptions are allowed to From what sources of income are the following
cover personal, family and living expenses. persons/corporations taxable by the Philippine
d. As to claimants — Allowable deductions can be government?
claimed by all taxpayers, corporate or otherwise, 2) Citizen of the Philippines residing therein; [1%]
while personal exemptions can be claimed only by 3) Non-resident citizen; [1%1
individual taxpayers. 4) An individual citizen of the Philippines who is
working and deriving income from abroad as an
Basic: Meaning of Taxable Income (2000) overseas contract worker; [1%]
What is meant by taxable income? (2%) 5) An alien individual, whether a resident or not of the
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
TAXABLE INCOME means the pertinent items of gross Philippines; [1%]
income specified in the Tax Code, less the deductions 6) A domestic corporation; [1%]
SUGGESTED ANSWER: (Section 23, NIRC of 1997)
and/or personal and additional exemptions, if any,
authorized for such types of income by the Tax Code or 1) A citizen of the Philippines residing therein is
other special laws. (Sec. 31, NIRC of 1997) taxable on all income derived from sources within
and without the Philippines.
2) A nonresident citizen is taxable only on income
Basic: Principle of Mobilia Sequuntur Personam (1994)
What is the principle of mobilia sequuntur personam in derived from sources within the Philippines.
income taxation? 3) An individual citizen of the Philippines who is
SUGGESTED ANSWER: working and deriving income from abroad as an
Principle of Mobilia Sequuntur Personam in income taxation overseas contract worker is taxable only on income
refers to the principle that taxation follows the property or from sources within the Philippines.
person who shall be subject to the tax. 4) An alien individual, whether a resident or not of the
Philippines, is taxable only on income derived from
Basic: Proper Allowance of Depreciation (1998) sources within the Philippines.
2. What is the proper allowance for depreciation of any 5) A domestic corporation is taxable on all income
property used in trade or business? [3%) derived from sources within and without the
3. What is the annual depreciation of a depreciable fixed Philippines.
asset with a cost of P100,000 and an estimated useful
life of 20 years and salvage value of P 10,000 after its Basic: Tax Benefit Rule (2003)
useful life? (a) What is meant by the "tax benefit rule"?
SUGGESTED ANSWER: SUGGESTED ANSWER:
1. The proper allowance of depreciation of any (a) TAX BENEFIT RULE states that the taxpayer is
property used in trade or business refers to the reason- obliged to declare as taxable income subsequent recovery
able allowance for the exhaustion, wear and tear (includ- of bad debts in the year they were collected to the extent
ing reasonable allowance for obsolescence) of said property. of the tax benefit enjoyed by the taxpayer when the bad
The reasonable allowance shall include, but not limited debts were written-off and claimed as a deduction from
to, an allowance computed under any of the following income. It also applies to taxes previously deducted from
methods: gross income but which were subsequently refunded or
(a) straight-line method; credited. The taxpayer is also required to report as taxable
(b) declining-balance method; income the subsequent tax refund or tax credit granted to
(c) sum-of-years-digit method; and the extent of the tax benefit the taxpayer enjoyed when
(d) any other method which may be prescribed such taxes were previously claimed as deduction from
by the Secretary of Finance upon income.
recommendation of the Commissioner of
Internal Revenue (Sec. 34(F). NIRC). (b) Give an illustration of the application of the tax
benefit rule.
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
2. The annual depreciation of the depreciable fixed asset
may be computed on the straight-line method which (b) X Company has a business connected receivable
will allow the taxpayer to deduct an annual depre- amounting to P100,000.00 from Y who was declared
ciation of Php4,500, arrived at by dividing the bankrupt by a competent court. Despite earnest efforts to
depreciable value (Php l00.000-Phpl0.000) of collect the same, Y was not able to pay, prompting X
Php90,000 by the estimated useful life (20 years). Company to write-off the entire liability. During the year
of write-off, the entire amount was claimed as a deduction
NOTE: The bar candidate may give a different figure depending for income tax purposes reducing the taxable net income
on the method he used in computing the annual depreciation. of X Company to only P1,000,000.00. Three years later, Y
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voluntarily paid his obligation previously written-off to X and from incidental or outside operations or
Company. In the year of recovery, the entire amount sources (Sec. 43, Rev. Reg. No. 2).
constitutes part of gross income of X Company because it
was able to get full tax benefit three years earlier. Basic; Income vs. Capital (1995)
How does "Income" differ from "capital"? Explain.
Basic; Basis of Income Tax (1996) SUGGESTED ANSWER:
X is employed as a driver of a corporate lawyer and Income differs from capital in that INCOME is any
receives a monthly salary of P5,000.00 with free board and wealth which flows into the taxpayer other than a return
lodging with an equivalent value of P1,500.00. of capital while capital constitutes the investment which is
1. What will be the basis of X's income tax? Why the source of income. Therefore, capital is fund while
2. Will your answer in question (a) be the same if X's income is the flow. Capital is wealth, while income is the
employer is an obstetrician? Why? service of wealth. Capital is the tree while income is the
SUGGESTED ANSWERS: fruit (Vicente Madrigal et al v. James Rqfferty, 38 Phil. 414).
1) The basis of X’s income tax would depend on
whether his employer is an employee or a practicing Basic; Schedular Treatment vs. Global Treatment (1994)
corporate lawyer. Distinguish "schedular treatment" from "global treatment" as
• If his employer is an employee, the basis of X's used in income taxation.
income tax is P6,500.00 equivalent to the total of the SUGGESTED ANSWER:
basic salary and the value of the board and lodging. Under a SCHEDULER SYSTEM, the various
This is so because the employer/corporate lawyer has types/items of income (compensation; business/professional
no place of business where the free board and income) are classified accordingly and are accorded
lodging may be given. different tax treatments, in accordance with schedules
• On the other hand, if the corporate lawyer is a characterized by graduated tax rates. Since these types of
"practicing lawyer (self-employed), X should be taxed income are treated separately, the allowable deductions
only on P5,000.00 provided that the free board and shall likewise vary for each type of income.
lodging is given in the business premises of the
lawyer and for his convenience and that the free Under the GLOBAL SYSTEM, all income received by the
lodging was given to X as a condition for taxpayer are grouped together, without any distinction as
employment. to the type or nature of the income, and after deducting
therefrom expenses and other allowable deductions, are
2) If the employer is an obstetrician who is self-em- subjected to tax at a fixed rate.
ployed, the basis of X's income will only be P5,000.00 if it
is proven that the free board and lodging is given within Compensation; Income Tax: Due to Profitable Business
the business premises of said employer for his Deal (1995)
convenience and that the free lodging is required to be Mr. Osorio, a bank executive, while playing golf with Mr.
accepted by X as condition for employment. Otherwise, X Perez, a manufacturing firm executive, mentioned to the
would be taxed on P6,500.00. latter that his (Osorio) bank had just opened a business
relationship with a big foreign importer of goods which
Perez' company manufactures. Perez requested Osorio to
Basic; Gross Income: Define (1995)
What is "gross Income" for purposes of the Income tax? introduce him to this foreign importer and put in a good
SUGGESTED ANSWER: word for him (Perez), which Osorio did. As a result, Perez
GROSS INCOME means all income from whatever was able to make a profitable business deal with the
source derived, including (but not limited to) foreign Importer.
compensation for services, including fees, commissions,
and similar items; gross income from business; gains In gratitude, Perez, in behalf of his manufacturing firm,
derived from dealings in property; interest; rents; royalties; sent Osorio an expensive car as a gift. Osorio called Perez
dividends; annuities; prizes and winnings; pensions; and and told him that there was really no obligation on the
partner's distributive share of the gross income of general part of Perez or his company to give such an expensive
professional partnership (Sec. 28, NIRC). gift. But Perez insisted that Osorio keep the car. The
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: company of Perez deducted the cost of the car as a
a) Gross income means all wealth which flows into the business expense.
taxpayer other than as a mere return of capital. It includes
the forms of income specifically described as gains and The Commissioner of Internal Revenue included the fair
profits including gains derived from the sale or other market value of the car as Income of Osorio who
disposition of capital. protested that the car was a gift and therefore excluded
from income. Who is correct, the Commissioner or
b) Gross income means income (in the broad sense) less Osorio? Explain.
income which is, by statutory provision or otherwise, SUGGESTED ANSWER:
exempt from the tax imposed by law (Sec. 36, Rev. Reg. The Commissioner is correct. The car having been given
No. 2). Gross income from business means total sales, to Mr. Osorio in consideration of having introduced Mr.
less cost of goods sold, plus any income from investments Perez to a foreign Importer which resulted to a profitable
business deal is considered to be a compensation for
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services rendered. The transfer is not a gift because it is Corporate; Income Tax; Reasonableness of the
not made out of a detached or disinterested generosity but Bonus (2006)
for a benefit accruing to Mr. Perez. The fact that the Gold and Silver Corporation gave extra 14th month
company of Mr. Perez takes a business deduction for the bonus to all its officials and employees in the total amount
payment indicates that it was considered as a pay rather of P75 Million. When it filed its corporate income tax
than a gift. Hence, the fair market value of the car is return the following year, the corporation declared a net
includable in the gross income pursuant to Section 28(a)(l) operating loss. When the income tax return of the
of the Tax Code (See 1974 Federal Tax Handbook, p. 145). A corporation was reviewed by the BIR the following year, it
payment though voluntary, if it is in return for services disallowed as item of deduction the P75 Million bonus the
rendered, or proceeds from the constraining force of any corporation gave its officials and employees on the
moral or legal duty or a benefit to the payer is anticipated, ground of unreasonableness. The corporation claimed that
is a taxable income to the payee even if characterized as a the bonus is an ordinary and necessary expense that
'gift' by the payor (Commissioner vs. Duberstein, 363 U.S. should be allowed. If you were the BIR Commissioner,
278). how will you resolve the issue? (5%)
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Mr. Osorio is correct. The car was not payment for I will disallow the expense. A bonus is ordinary and
services rendered. There was no prior agreement or necessary where said expenditure is (1) appropriate and
negotiations between Mr. Osorio and Mr. Perez that the helpful in the development of the taxpayers business
former will be compensated for his services. Mr. Perez, in (Martens, Law of Federal Income Taxation, Volume IV, p. 315)
behalf of his company, gave the car to Mr. Osorio out of and (2) is normal in relation to the business of the
gratitude. The transfer having been made gratuitously taxpayer and the surrounding circumstances (p. 316, Ibid).
should be treated as a gift subject to donor's tax and
should be excluded from the gross income of the To determine the reasonableness of the bonus it must be
recipient, Mr. Osorio. The Commissioner should cancel commensurate with services performed by the officials
the assessment of deficiency income tax to Mr. Osorio and employees. Other factors to consider are whether the
and instead assess deficiency donor's tax on Mr Perez' payment was made in good faith; the character of the
company. (Sec. 28(b)(3), NIRC; Pirovano vs. taxpayer's business; the volume and amount of its net
Commissioner) earnings; its locality; the type and extent of the services
rendered; the salary policy of the corporation; the size of
Corporate: Income: Donor’s tax; Tax Liability (1996) the particular business; the employees' qualification and
X, a multinational corporation doing business in the contributions to the business venture; and general
Philippines donated 100 shares of stock of said economic conditions (Atlas Mining v. CIR, G.R. No. L-
corporation to Mr. Y, its resident manager in the 26911, January 27, 1981). However, since the business
Philippines. suffers from a net operating loss, I will rule that the bonus
1) What is the tax liability, if any, of X corporation? is an unreasonable expense.
2) Assuming the shares of stocks were given to Mr. Y
in consideration of his services to the corporation,
what are the tax implications? Explain. Corporate; Income: Coverage; "Off-Line" Airline (1994)
SUGGESTED ANSWERS: Caledonia Aircargo is an off-line international carrier
1) Foreign corporations effecting a donation are subject without any flight operations in the Philippines. It has,
to donor's tax only if the property donated is located in however, a liaison office in the Philippines which is duly
the Philippines. Accordingly, donation of a foreign licensed with the Securities and Exchange Commission,
corporation of its own shares of stocks in favor of established for the purpose of providing passenger and
resident employee is not subject to donor's tax (BIR flight information, reservation and ticketing services.
Ruling No. 018-87, January 26, 1987). However, if 85% Are the revenues of Caledonia Aircargo from tickets
of the business of the foreign corporation is located in the reserved by its Philippine office subject to tax?
Philippines or the shares donated have acquired business SUGGESTED ANSWER:
situs in the Philippines, the donation may be taxed in the The revenues in the Philippines of Caledonia Aircargo as
Philippines subject to the rule of reciprocity. an "off-line" airline from ticket reservation services are
taxable income from "whatever source" under Sec. 28(a)
2) If the shares of stocks were given to Mr. Y in of the Tax Code. This case is analogous to Commissioner
consideration of his services to the corporation, the same v. BOAC, G.R No. No. 65773-74, April 30, 1987 where the
shall constitute taxable compensation income to the Supreme Court ruled that the income received in the
recipient because it is a compensation for services Philippines from the sale of tickets by an "off-line" airline
rendered under an employer-employee relationship, is taxable as income from whatever source.
hence, subject to income tax.
Corporate; Income: Coverage; "Off-Line" Airline (2005)
The par value or stated value of the shares issued also An international airline with no landing rights in the
constitutes deductible expense to the corporation Philippines sold tickets in the Philippines for air
provided it is subjected to withholding tax on wages. transportation. Is income derived from such sales of
tickets considered taxable income of the said international
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air carrier from Philippine sources under the Tax Code? 1) Non-voting;
Explain. (5%) 2) Preferred and cumulative dividends at the rate of
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: 10% per annum, whether or not in any period the
Yes. The income derived from the sales of tickets in the amount is covered by earnings or projects;
Philippines is considered taxable income of the 3) In the event of dissolution of the issuer, holders of
international air carrier from Philippine sources. preferred stock shall be paid in full or ratably as the
assets of the issuer may permit before any
The source of income is the property, activity or service distribution shall be made to common stockholders;
that produced the income. The sale of tickets in the and
Philippines is the activity that produces the income. The 4) The issuer has the option to redeem the preferred
absence of landing rights in the Philippines cannot alter stock.
the fact that revenues were derived from ticket sales
within the Philippines. (Commissioner of Internal Revenue A Co. declared dividends on the preferred stock and
v. Japan Air Lines, G.R. No. 60714, October 4, 1991 claimed the dividends as interests deductible from its
reiterating British Overseas Airways Corp., Air India and gross Income for income tax purposes. The BIR
American Airlines, Inc.)
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
disallowed the deduction. A Co. maintains that the
No, under Sec. 3 of R.R. No. 15-2002, an off-line airline preferred shares with their features are really debt and
having a branch office or a sales agent in the Philippines therefore the dividends are realty interests. Decide. (10%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
which sells passage documents for compensation or
The dividends are not deductible from gross income.
commission to cover off-line flights of its principal or
Preferred shares shall be considered capital regardless of
head office, or for other airlines covering flights
the conditions under which such shares are issued and,
originating from Philippine ports or off-line flights, is not
therefore, dividends paid thereon are not considered
considered engaged in business as an international air
'interest' which are allowed to be deducted from the gross
carrier in the Philippines and is, therefore, not subject to
income of the corporation. (Revenue Memorandum Circular
Gross Philippine Billings Tax nor to the 3% common
No. 17-71, July 12, 1971).
carrier's tax.
Effect; Condonation of Loan in Taxation (1995)
Based on the foregoing, the international airline company
Mr. Francisco borrowed P10,000.00 from his friend Mr.
is not considered as engaged in business in the Philippines
Gutierrez payable in one year without interest. When the
and is therefore a non-resident foreign corporation. A
loan became due Mr. Francisco told Mr. Gutierrez that he
non-resident foreign corporation is subject to the gross
(Mr. Francisco) was unable to pay because of business
income tax on its income derived from sources within the
reverses. Mr. Gutierrez took pity on Mr. Francisco and
Philippines. The income from sale of tickets shall not
condoned the loan. Mr. Francisco was solvent at the time
form part of taxable income because the term "taxable
he borrowed the P 10,000.00 and at the time the loan was
income" as defined under Sec. 31 of the NIRC refers only
condoned. Did Mr. Francisco derive any income from the
to income of those taxpayers who pay by way of the net
cancellation or condonation of his indebtedness? Explain.
income tax. Taxable income means the pertinent items of SUGGESTED ANSWER:
gross income specified in the NIRC, less the deductions No, Mr. Francisco did not derive any income from the
and/or personal and additional exemptions, if any, cancellation or condonation of his indebtedness. Since it is
authorized for such types of income by the NIRC or obvious that the creditor merely desired to benefit the
other special laws. debtor in view of the absence of consideration for the
cancellation, the amount of the debt is considered as a gift
Dividends: Disguised dividends (1994) from the creditor to the debtor and need not be included
Disguised dividends in income taxation? Give an example. in the latter's gross income.
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Disguised dividends are those income payments made by
Fringe Benefit Tax: Covered Employees (2001)
a domestic corporation, which is a subsidiary of a non-
X was hired by Y to watch over V’s fishponds with a
resident foreign corporation, to the latter ostensibly for
salary of Php 10,000.00. To enable him to perform his
services rendered by the latter to the former, but which
duties well, he was also provided a small hut, which he
payments are disproportionately larger than the actual
could use as his residence in the middle of the fishponds.
value of the services rendered. In such case, the amount
Is the fair market value of the use of the small hut by X a
over and above the true value of the service rendered shall
"fringe benefit" that is subject to the 32% tax imposed by
be treated as a dividend, and shall be subjected to the
Section 33 of the National Internal Revenue Code?
corresponding tax of 35% on Philippine sourced gross
Explain your answer. (5%)
income, or such other preferential rate as may be provided SUGGESTED ANSWER:
under a corresponding Tax Treaty. No. X is neither a managerial nor a supervisory employee.
Example: Royalty payments under a corresponding Only managerial or supervisory employees are entitled to a
licensing agreement. fringe benefit subject to the fringe benefits tax. Even
assuming that he is a managerial or supervisory employee,
Dividends; Income Tax; Deductible Gross Income (1999) the small hut is provided for the convenience of the
A Co., a Philippine corporation, issued preferred shares of
stock with the following features:
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employer, hence does not constitute a taxable fringe pay on this latter date will render the tax
benefit. (Section 33, NERC). delinquent and will require the payment of delinquency
interest.
Fringe Benefit Tax: Employer required to Pay (2003)
A "fringe benefit" is defined as being any good, service or ITR: Personal Income; Exempted to File ITR (1997)
other benefit furnished or granted in cash or in kind by an A bachelor was employed by Corporation A on the first
employer to an individual employee. Would it be the working day of January 1996 on a part-time basis with a
employer or the employee who is legally required to pay salary of P3,500.00 a month. He then received the 13th
an income tax on it? Explain. (4%) month pay. In September 1996, he accepted another part-
SUGGESTED ANSWER: time Job from Corporation B from which he received a
It is the employer who is legally required to pay an income total compensation of P14,500.00 for the year 1996. The
tax on the fringe benefit. The fringe benefit tax is imposed correct total taxes were withheld from both earnings.
as a FINAL WITHHOLDING TAX placing the legal With the withholding taxes already paid, would he still be
obligation to remit the tax on the employer, such that, if required to file an income tax return for his 1996 income?
the tax is not paid the legal recourse of the BIR is to go SUGGESTED ANSWER:
after the employer. Any amount or value received by the Yes, because what is exempt from filing are those
employee as a fringe benefit is considered tax paid hence, individuals who have total compensation income not
net of the income tax due thereon. The person who is exceeding P60.000 with the taxes correctly withheld only
legally required to pay (same as statutory incidence as by one employer. In this case, even if his aggregate
distinguished from economic incidence) is that person who, in compensation income from both his employers does not
case of non-payment, can be legally demanded to pay the exceed P60.000 and that total withholding taxes were
tax. correctly withheld by his employers, the fact that he
derives compensation income concurrently from two
Interest: Deficiency Interest: define (1995 Bar) employers at anytime during the taxable year, does not
What is a "deficiency interest" for purposes of the income exempt him from filing his income tax return (RA 7497,
tax? Illustrate. as implemented by RR No. 4-93).
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
DEFICIENCY INTEREST for purposes of the income ITR; Domestic Corporate Taxation (1997)
tax is the interest due on any amount of tax due or During the year, a domestic corporation derived the
installment thereof which is not paid on or before the date following items of revenue: (a) gross receipts from a
prescribed for its payment computed at the rate of 20% trading business; (b) interests from money placements in
per annum or the Manila Reference Rate, whichever is the banks; (c) dividends from its stock investments in
higher, from the date prescribed for its payment until it is domestic corporations; (d) gains from stock transactions
fully paid. through the Philippine Stock Exchange; (e) proceeds
under an insurance policy on the loss of goods. In
If for example after the audit of the books of XYZ Corp. preparing the corporate income tax return, what should be
for taxable year 1993 there was found to be due a the tax treatment on each of the above items?
deficiency income tax of P125,000.00 inclusive of the 25% SUGGESTED ANSWER:
surcharge imposed under Section 248 of the Tax Code, The gross receipts from trading business is includible
the interest will be computed on the P125.000.00 from as an item of income in the corporate income tax return
April 15, 1994 up to its date of payment. and subject to corporate income tax rate based on net
income.
Interest: Delinquency Interest: define (1995)
What is a "delinquency interest" for purposes of the The other items of revenue will not be included in the
income tax? Illustrate. corporate income tax return.
SUGGESTED ANSWER: The interest from money market placements is
Delinquency interest is the interest of 20% or the Manila subject to a final withholding tax of 20%;
Reference Rate, whichever is higher, required to be paid in The dividends from domestic corporation are exempt
case of failure to pay: from income tax; and
(a) the amount of the tax due on any return required to gains from stock transactions with the Philippine
be filed; or Stock Exchange are subject to transaction tax which
(b) the amount of the tax due for which return is is in lieu of the income tax.
required; or The proceeds under an insurance policy on the loss
(c) the deficiency tax or any surcharge or interest of goods is not an item of income but merely a return
thereon, on the due date appearing in the notice and of capital hence not taxable.
demand of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue.
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
If in the above illustration the assessment notice was The gross receipts from trading business is includible as
released on December 31, 1994 and the amount of an item of income in the corporate income tax return.
deficiency tax, inclusive of surcharge and deficiency Likewise, the gain or loss realized as a consequence of the
interest were computed up to January 30, 1995 which is receipt of proceeds under an insurance policy on the loss
the due date for payment per assessment notice, failure to of goods will be included in the corporate income tax
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 20 of 73
return either as a taxable gain or a deductible loss. The the tax withheld is equal to the tax due. (Section 5
gain or loss is arrived at by deducting from the proceeds l(A](2)(b), NIRC).
of insurance (amount realized) the basis of the good lost
(Sec. 34(a), NIRC). The net income of the corporation There is no mention in the problem of the amount of
shall be subject to corporate income tax rate of 35%. personal and additional personal exemption to quantify
how much is that compensation income that did not
The other items of revenue will not be included in the exceed the personal and additional personal exemptions.
corporate income tax return. The interest from money There is no, mention, either, of whether or not the
market placements is subject to a final withholding tax of employers withheld taxes and that the amount withheld is
20%; dividends from domestic corporations are exempt equal to the tax due. Whether or not she will be required
from income tax; and gains from stock transactions with to file an income tax return last April 15 on the 2000
the Philippine Stock Exchange are subject to transaction income will depend on her compliance with the
tax which is in lieu of the income tax. requirements of the law.

ITR; Domestic Corporate Taxation (2001) ITR; Personal Income; GSIS Pension (2000)
a) How often does a domestic corporation file income Mr. Javier is a non-resident senior citizen. He receives a
tax return for income earned during a single taxable monthly pension from the GSIS which he deposits with
year? Explain the process. (3%) the PNB-Makati Branch. Is he exempt from income tax
SUGGESTED ANSWER: and therefore not required to file an income tax return?
a) A domestic corporation is required to file income tax (5%)
returns four (4) times for income earned during a single SUGGESTED ANSWER:
taxable year. Quarterly returns are required to be filed for Mr. Javier is exempt from income tax on his monthly
the first three quarters where the corporation shall declare GSIS pension (Sec. 32(B)(6)(f), NIRC of 1997) but not on
its quarterly summary of gross income and deductions on the interest income that might accrue on the pensions
a cumulative basis. (Section 75, NIRC). Then, a final deposited with PNB which are subject to final
adjustment return is required to be filed covering the total withholding tax. Consequently, since Mr. Javier's sole
taxable income for the entire year, calendar or fiscal. taxable income would have been subjected to a final
(Section 76, NIRC). withholding tax, he is not required anymore to file an
income tax return. (Sec. 51 (A) (2) (c). Ibid].
b) What is the reason for such procedure? (2%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER: ITR; Personal Income; Married Individual (2004)
b) The reason for this procedure is to ensure the RAM got married to LISA last January 2003. On
timeliness of collection to meet the budgetary needs of the November 30, 2003, LISA gave birth to twins.
government. Likewise, it is designed to ease the burden on Unfortunately, however, LISA died in the course of her
the taxpayer by providing it with an installment payment delivery. Due to complications, one of the twins also died
scheme, rather than requiring the payment of the tax on a on December 15, 2003.
lump-sum basis after the end of the year.
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: In preparing his Income Tax Return (ITR) for the year
b) The reason for the quarterly filing of tax returns is to 2003, what should RAM indicate in the ITR as his civil
allow partial collection of the tax before the end of the status: (a) single; (b) married; (c) Head of the family; (d)
taxable year and also to improve the liquidity of widower; (e) none of the above? Why? Reason. (5%)
government SUGGESTED ANSWER:
RAM should indicate "(b) married" as his civil status in
ITR; Personal Income: Two Employment (2001) preparing his Income Tax Return for the year 2003. The
In the year 2000, X worked part time as a waitress in a death of his wife during the year will not change his status
restaurant in Mega Mall from 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. and because should the spouse die during the taxable year, the
then as a cashier in a 24-hour convenience store in her taxpayer may still claim the same exemptions (that of being
neighborhood. The total income of X for the year from married) as if the spouse died at the close of such year
the two employers does not exceed her total personal and (Section 35/Cj, NIRC).
additional exemptions for the year 2000. Was she required
to file an income tax return last April? Explain your ITR; Taxpayer; Liabilities; Falsified Tax Return (2005)
answer. (5%) Danilo, who is engaged in the trading business, entrusted
SUGGESTED ANSWER: to his accountant the preparation of his income tax return
Yes. An individual deriving compensation concurrently and the payment of the tax due. The accountant filed a
from two or more employers at any time during the falsified tax return by underdeclaring the sales and
taxable year shall file an income tax return (Sec. overstating the expense deductions by Danilo.
51(A)(2)(b), NIRC.) Is Danilo liable for the deficiency tax and the penalties
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
It depends. An individual with pure compensation income thereon? What is the liability, if any, of the accountant?
is not required to file an income tax returns when she Discuss. (5%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
meets the following conditions; (1) the total gross Danilo is liable for the deficiency tax as well as for the
compensation income does not exceed Php60,000.00 and deficiency interest. He should not be held liable for the
(2) the income tax has been correctly withheld, meaning
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 21 of 73
fraud penalty because the accountant acted beyond the 2) No. Revenue Regulation No. 2-93
limits of his authority. There is no showing in the problem implementing RA No. 7496 have indeed significantly
that Danilo signed the falsified return or that it was reduced the items of deduction by limiting it to direct
prepared under his direction. costs and expenses or the 40% of gross receipts maximum
{On the other hand the accountant may be held criminally deduction in cases where the direct costs are difficult to
liable for violation of the Tax Code when he falsified the determine. The allowance of limited deductions however,
tax return by underdeclaring the sale and overstating the is still in consonance with the net income taxation scheme
expense deductions. If Danny's accountant is a Certified rather than the gross income method. While it is true that
Public Accountant, his certificate as a CPA shall not all the expenses of earning the income might be
automatically be revoked or cancelled upon conviction. allowed, this can well be justified by the fact that
deductions are not matters of right but are matters of
Partnership: Income Tax (1995) legislative grace.
Five years ago Marquez, Peneyra, Jayme, Posadas and
Manguiat, all lawyers, formed a partnership which they Personal; Income Tax: Non-Resident Alien (2000)
named Marquez and Peneyra Law Offices. The Commis- Mr. Cortez is a non-resident alien based in Hong Kong.
sioner of Internal Revenue thereafter issued Revenue Regu- During the calendar year 1999, he came to the Philippines
lation No. 2-93 implementing RA. 7496 known as the several times and stayed in the country for an aggregated
Simplified Net Income Taxation Scheme (SNITS). period of more than 180 days. How will Mr. Cortez be
Revenue Regulation No. 2-93 provides in part: taxed on his income derived from sources within the
Sec. 6. General Professional Partnership. — Philippines and from abroad? (5%)
The general professional partnership and the SUGGESTED ANSWER:
partners are covered by R.A. 7496. Thus, in Mr. Cortez being a non-resident alien individual who has
determining profit of the partnership, only the stayed for an aggregated period of more than 180 days
direct costs mentioned in said law are to be during the calendar year 1999, shall for that taxable year
deducted from partnership income. Also, the be deemed to be a non-resident alien doing business in
expenses paid or Incurred by partners in their the Philippines.
individual capacities in the practice of their
profession which are not reimbursed or paid by Considering the above, Mr. Cortez shall be subject to an
the partnership but are not considered as direct income tax in the same manner as an individual citizen
costs are not deductible from his gross income. and a resident alien individual, on taxable income received
from all sources within the Philippines. [Sec. 25 (A) (1),
1) Marquez and Peneyra Law Offices filed a taxpayer's NIRC of 1997] Thus, he is allowed to avail of the itemized
suit alleging that Revenue Regulation No. 2-93 deductions including the personal and additional
violates the principle of uniformity in taxation exemptions but subject to the rule on reciprocity on the
because general professional partnerships are now personal exemptions. (Sec. 34 (A) to (J) and (M) in relation to
subject to payment of income tax and that there is a Sec. 25 (A) (1), Ibid, Sec. 35 (D), Ibid.]
difference in the tax treatment between individuals NOTE: It is suggested that full credit should be given if the
engaged in the practice of their respective profes- examinee's answer only cover the first two paragraphs.
sions and partners in general professional
partnerships. Is this contention correct? Explain. Personal; Income Tax: Non-Resident Citizen (1999)
SUGGESTED ANSWER: A Co., a Philippine corporation, has an executive (P) who
1) The contention is not correct. General professional is a Filipino citizen. A Co. has a subsidiary in Hong Kong
partnerships remain to be a non-taxable entity. What is (HK Co.) and will assign P for an indefinite period to
taxable are the partners comprising the same and they are work full time for HK Co. P will bring his family to reside
obligated to report as income their share in the income of in HK and will lease out his residence in the Philippines.
the general professional partnership during the taxable The salary of P will be shouldered 50% by A Co. while the
year whether distributed or not. The SNITS treat other 50% plus housing, cost of living and educational
professionals as one class of taxpayer so that they shall be allowances of P's dependents will be shouldered by HK
treated alike irrespective of whether they practice their Co. A Co. will credit the 50% of P's salary to P's
profession alone or in association with other professionals Philippine bank account. P will sign the contract of
under a general professional partnership. What are taxed employment in the Philippines. P will also be receiving
differently are individuals and corporations. All individuals rental income for the lease of his Philippine residence. Are
similarly situated are taxed alike under the regulations, these salaries, allowances and rentals subject to the
therefore, the principle of uniformity in taxation is not Philippine income tax? (5%)
violated. On the contrary, all the requirements of a valid SUGGESTED ANSWER:
classification have been complied with (Ton vs. Del The salaries and allowances received by P are not subject
Rosario et al G.R No. 109289, Octobers, 1994). to Philippine income tax. P qualifies as a nonresident
citizen because he leaves the Philippines for employment
2) Is Revenue Regulation No. 2-93 now considered as requiring him to be physically present abroad most of the
having adopted a gross income method instead of time during the taxable year. (Section 22(E), NIRC). A non-
retaining the net income taxation scheme? Explain. resident citizen is taxable only on income derived from
SUGGESTED ANSWER: Philippine sources. (Section 23, NIRC). The salaries and
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 22 of 73
allowances received from being employed abroad are will erect a building on the land which will
incomes from without because these are compensation become the property of Mr. Domingo at the end of the
for services rendered outside of the Philippines. (Section lease without compensation or reimbursement whatsoever
42, NIRC). for the value of the building.

However, P is taxable on rental income for the lease of his Mr. Enriquez erects the building. Upon completion the
Philippine residence because this is an income derived building had a fair market value of P1 Million. At the end
from within, the leased property being located in the of the lease the building is worth only P900.000.00 due to
Philippines. (Section 42, NIRC). depreciation.

Personal; Income Tax: Tax-Free Exchange (1997) Will Mr. Domingo have income when the lease expires
Three brothers inherited in 1992 a parcel of land valued and becomes the owner of the building with a fair market
for real estate tax purposes at P3.0 million which they held value of P900.000.00? How much income must he report
in co-ownership. In 1995, they transferred the property to on the building? Explain.
a newly organized corporation as their equity which was SUGGESTED ANSWER:
placed at the zonal value of P6.0 million. In exchange for When a building is erected by a lessee in the leased
the property, the three brothers thus each received shares premises in pursuance of an agreement with the lessor
of stock of the corporation with a total par value of P2.0 that the building becomes the property of the lessor at the
million or, altogether, a total of P6.0 million. No business end of the lease, the lessor has the option to report
was done by the Corporation, and the property remained income as follows:
idle. In the early part of 1997, one of the brothers, who 1) The lessor may report as income the market value of
was in dire need of funds, sold his shares to the two the building at the time when such building is
brothers for P2.0 million. Is the transaction subject to any completed; or
internal revenue tax (other than the documentary stamp 2) The lessor may spread over the life of the lease the
tax)? estimated depreciated value of such building at the
SUGGESTED ANSWER: termination of the lease and report as income for
Yes. The exchange in 1995 is a tax-free exchange so that each year of the lease an aliquot part thereof (Sec.
the subsequent sale of one of the brothers of his shares to 49, RR No. 2).
the other two (2) brothers in 1997 will be subject to
income tax. This is so because the tax-free exchange Under the first option, the lessor will have no income
merely deferred the recognition of income on the when the lease expires and becomes the owner of the
exchange transaction. The gain subject to income tax in building. The second option will give rise to an income
the sale is measured by the difference between the selling during the year of lease expiration of P90.000.00 or 1/10
price of the shares (P2 Million) and the basis of the real of the depreciated value of the building.
property in the hands of the transferor at the time of
exchange which is the fair market value of his share in the The availment of the first option will require Mr.
real property at the time of inheritance (Section 34(b)(2), Domingo to report an income of P1.000,000.00 during
NIRC). The net gain from the sale of shares of stock is the year when the building was completed. A total of
subject to the schedular capital gains tax of 10% for the P900.000.00 income will be reported under the second
first P100.000 and 20% for the excess thereof (Section option but will be spread over the life of the lease or
2l(d), NIRC). P90.000.00 per year.
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
The exchange effected in 1995 did not qualify as a tax-free ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
exchange because there is no showing that the three Mr. Domingo will realize an income when the lease
brothers gained control of the corporation by acquiring at expires and becomes the owner of the building with a fair
least 51% of the voting rights. Since the entire gain on the market value of P900.000.00 because the condition for the
exchange was previously subjected to income tax, then, lease is the transfer of the building at the expiration of the
the sale will also be taxable if a gain results therefrom. In lease. The income to be realized by Mr. Domingo at the
the instant case, the sale will not be subject to any internal time of the expiration will consist of the value of the
revenue tax other than the documentary stamp tax, building which is P900.000.00 and any rental income that
because the seller did not realize any gain from the sale. has accrued as of said date.
The gain is measured by the difference between the
amount realized (selling price) and the basis of the Personal; Income Tax; Married Individual (1997)
property. Incidentally, the basis to him is his share in the Mar and Joy got married in 1990. A week before their
value of the property received at the time of exchange, marriage. Joy received, by way of donation, a
which is P2 Million, an amount, just equal to the amount condominium unit worth P750.000.00 from her parents.
realized from the sale. After marriage, some renovations were made at a cost of
P150.000.00. The spouses were both employed in 1991 by
Personal; Income Tax; Contract of Lease (1995) the same company. On 30 December 1992, their first
Mr. Domingo owns a vacant parcel of land. He leases the child was born, and a second child was born on 07
land to Mr. Enriquez for ten years at a rental of November 1993. In 1994, they sold the condominium unit
P12,000.00 per year. The condition is that Mr. Enriquez and bought a new unit. Under the foregoing facts, what
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 23 of 73
were the events in the life of the spouses that had income accordance with the schedular graduated rates of
tax incidences? 1%, 2% and 3%. based on the adjusted gross income
SUGGESTED ANSWER: derived by non-resident citizens from all sources without
The events in the life of spouses. Mar and Joy, which have the Philippines during each taxable year.
income tax incidences are the following:
1) Their marriage in 1990 qualifies them to claim Taxable Income: Illegal Income (1995 Bar)
personal exemption for married individuals; Mr. Lajojo is a big-time swindler. In one year he was able
2) Their employment in 1991 by the same company to earn P1 Million from his swindling activities. When the
will make them liable to the income tax imposed on Commissioner of Internal Revenue discovered his income
gross compensation income; from swindling, the Commissioner assessed him a
3) Birth of their first child in December 1992 would deficiency income tax for such income. The lawyer of Mr.
give rise to an additional exemption of P5,000 for Lajojo protested the assessment on the following grounds:
taxable year 1992; 1) The income tax applies only to legal income, not to
4) Birth of their second child in November 1993 would illegal income;
likewise entitle them to claim additional exemption 2) Mr. Lajojo's receipts from his swindling did not
of P5,000 raising their additional personal constitute income because he was under obligation
exemptions to P 10,000 for taxable year 1993; and to return the amount he had swindled, hence, his
5) Sale of their condominium unit in 1994 shall make receipt from swindling was similar to a loan, which
the spouses liable to the 5% capital gains tax on the is not income, because for every peso borrowed he
gain presumed to have been realized from the sale. has a corresponding liability to pay one peso; and
3) If he has to pay the deficiency income tax assess-
Personal; Income Tax; Retiring Alien Employee (2005) ment, there will be hardly anything left to return to
An alien employee of the Asian Development Bank the victims of the swindling.
(ADB) who is retiring soon has offered to sell his car to How will you rule on each of the three grounds for the
you which he imported tax-free for his personal use. The protest? Explain.
privilege of exemption from tax is granted to qualified SUGGESTED ANSWERS:
personal use under the ADB Charter which is recognized 1) The contention that the income tax applies to legal
by the tax authorities. If you decide to purchase the car, is income and not to illegal income is not correct. Section
the sale subject to tax? Explain. (5%) 28(a) of the Tax Code includes within the purview of
SUGGESTED ANSWER: gross income all Income from whatever source derived.
The sales transaction is subject to value added tax (VAT) Hence, the illegality of the income will not preclude the
under Sec. 107(B) of the NIRC, although this provision is imposition of the income tax thereon.
expressly excluded from the coverage of the 2005 bar
exam. 2) The contention that the receipts from his swindling
did not constitute income because of his obligation to
The proceeds from the sale are subject to income tax. The return the amount swindled is likewise not correct. When
car is considered a capital asset of the retiring alien a taxpayer acquires earnings, lawfully or unlawfully,
employee because he is not engaged in the business of without the consensual recognition, express or implied, of
buying and selling cars. He therefore derived income, an obligation to repay and without restriction as to their
which should be reported in his income tax return. (Sees. disposition, he has received taxable income, even though
32 and 39, NIRC) it may still be claimed that he is not entitled to retain the
money, and even though he may still be adjudged to
Personal; Income Taxation: Non-Resident Citizen (1997) restore its equivalent (James vs. U.S.,366 U.S. 213, 1961). To
Juan, a Filipino citizen, has immigrated to the United treat the embezzled funds not as taxable income would
States where he is now a permanent resident. He owns perpetuate injustice by relieving embezzlers of the duty of
certain income-earning property in the Philippines from paying income taxes on the money they enrich themselves
which he continues to derive substantial income. He also with through embezzlement, while honest people pay
receives income from his employment in the United States their taxes on every conceivable type of income. (James vs.
on which the US income tax is paid. On which of the U.S.)
above income is the taxable, if at all, in the Philippines,
and how, in general terms, would such income or incomes 3) The deficiency income tax assessment is a direct tax
be taxed? imposed on the owner which is an excise on the privilege
SUGGESTED ANSWER: to earn an income. It will not necessarily be paid out of
Juan, shall be taxed on both his income from the the same income that were subjected to the tax. Mr.
Philippines and on his Income from the United States be- Lajojo's liability to pay the tax is based on his having
cause his being a citizen makes him taxable on all Income realized a taxable income from his swindling activities and
wherever derived. For the income he derives from his will not affect his obligation to make restitution. Payment
property in the Philippines, Juan shall be taxed on his net of the tax is a civil obligation imposed by law while
income under the Simplified Net Income Taxation restitution is a civil liability arising from a crime.
Scheme (SNITS) whereby he shall be considered as a
self-employed individual. His Income as employee in the Taxable or Non-Taxable; Income and Gains (2005)
United States, on the other hand, shall be taxed in
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 24 of 73
Explain briefly whether the following items are taxable or of its territorial jurisdiction to file a return; for
non-taxable: (5%) this reason, the income tax on income derived from
a) Income from JUETENG; within must be collected through the withholding tax
SUGGESTED ANSWER: system and thus relieve the recipient of the income the
Taxable. Gross income includes "all income derived from duty to file income tax returns. (Section 51, NIRC).
whatever source" (Sec. 32[A], NIRC), which was
interpreted as all income not expressly excluded or Withholding Tax: Retirement Benefit (2000)
exempted from the class of taxable income, irrespective of To start a business of his own, Mr. Mario de Guzman
the voluntary or involuntary action of the taxpayer in opted for an early retirement from a private company
producing the income. Thus, the income may proceed after ten (10) years of service. Pursuant to the company's
from a legal or illegal source such as from jueteng. qualified and approved private retirement benefit plan, he
Unlawful gains, gambling winnings, etc. are subject to was paid his retirement benefit which was subjected to
income tax. The tax code stands as an indifferent neutral withholding tax. Is the employer correct in withholding
party on the matter of where the income comes from. the tax? Explain. (2%)
(Commissioner of Internal Revenue v. Manning, G.R. No. SUGGESTED ANSWER:
L-28398, August 6, 1975) (a) It depends. An employee retiring under a company's
qualified and private retirement plan can only be exempt
b) Gain arising from EXPROPRIATION OF from income tax on his retirement benefits if the
PROPERTY; following requisites are met:
SUGGESTED ANSWER: (1) that the retiring employee must have been in service
Taxable. Sale exchange or other disposition of property to of the same employer for at least ten (10) years;
the government of real property is taxable. It includes (2) that he is not less than 50 years of age at the time of
taking by the government through condemnation retirement; and
proceedings. (Gonzales v. Court of Tax Appeals, G.R. No. (3) the benefit is availed of only once.
L-14532, May 26, 1965)
In the instant case, there is no mention whether the
c) TAXES paid and subsequently refunded;
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
employee has likewise complied with requisites number
Taxable only if the taxes were paid and claimed as (2) and (3).
deduction and which are subsequently refunded or
credited. It shall be included as part of gross income in the Withholding Tax: Retirement Benefit (2000)
year of the receipt to the extent of the income tax benefit Under what conditions are retirement benefits received by
of said deduction. (Sec. 34[C][1], NIRC) Not taxable if the officials and employees of private firms excluded from
taxes refunded were not originally claimed as deductions. gross income and exempt from taxation? (3%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
The conditions to be met in order that retirement benefits
d) Recovery of BAD DEBTS previously charged off;
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
received by officials and employees of private firms are
Taxable under the TAX BENEFIT RULE. Recovery of excluded from gross income and exempt from taxation
bad debts previously allowed as deduction in the are as follows:
preceding years shall be included as part of the gross 2. Under Republic Act No. 4917 (those received under
income in the year of recovery to the extent of the income a reasonable private benefit plan):
tax benefit of said deduction. (Sec. 34[E][1], NIRC) This is a. the retiring official or employee must have been
sometimes referred as the RECAPTURE RULES. in service of the same employer for at least ten
(10) years;
e) Gain on the sale of a car used for personal purposes. b. that he is not less than fifty (50) years of age at
SUGGESTED ANSWER: the time of retirement; and
Taxable. Since the car is used for personal purposes, it is c. that the benefit is availed of only once.
considered as a capital asset hence the gain is considered
income. (Sec. 32[A][3] and Sec. 39[A][1], NIRC) 3. Under Republic Act No. 7641 (those received from
employers without any retirement plan):
Withholding Tax: Non-Resident Alien (2001) a. Those received under existing collective
Is a non-resident alien who is not engaged in trade or bargaining agreement and other agreements are
business or in the exercise of profession in the Philippines exempt; and
but who derived rental income from the Philippines b. In the absence of retirement plan or agreement
required to file an income tax return on April of the year providing for retirement benefits the benefits
following his receipt of said income? If not, why not? are excluded from gross income and exempt
Explain your answer. (5%) from income tax if:
SUGGESTED ANSWER: i. retiring employee must have served at
No. The income tax on all income derived from least five(5) years; and
Philippine sources by a non-resident alien who is not ii. that he is not less than sixty (60) years of
engaged in trade or business in the Philippines is withheld age but not more than sixty five (65).
by the lessee as a Final Withholding Tax. (Section 57(A),
NIRC). The government can not require persons outside Withholding Tax: Royalty (2002)
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 25 of 73
The MKB-Phils. is a BOI-registered domestic corporation a resident citizen or alien from a domestic
licensed by the MKB of the United Kingdom to corporation, is to ensure the collection of income tax on
distribute, support and use in the Philippines its computer said income. If we subject the dividend to the progressive
software systems, including basic and related materials for tax rate, which can only be done through the filing of
banks. The MKB-Phils. provides consultancy and income tax returns, there is no assurance that the taxpayer
technical services incidental thereto by entering into will declare the income, especially when there are other
licensing agreements with banks. Under such agreements, items of gross income earned during the year. It would be
the MKB-Phils. will not acquire any proprietary rights in extremely difficult for the BIR to monitor compliance
the licensed systems. The MKB-Phils. pays royalty to the considering the huge number of stockholders. By shifting
MKB-UK, net of 15% withholding tax prescribed by the the responsibility to remit the tax to the corporation, it is
RP-UK Tax Treaty. very easy to check compliance because there are fewer
withholding agents compared to the number of income
Is the income of the MKB-Phils. under the licensing recipients.
agreement with banks considered royalty subject to 20%
final withholding tax? Why? If not, what kind of tax will Likewise, the imposition of a final withholding tax will
its income be subject to? Explain. (5%) make the tax available to the government at an earlier
SUGGESTED ANSWER: time. Finally, the final withholding tax will be a sure
Yes. The income of MKB-Phils. under the licensing revenue to the government unlike when the dividend is
agreement with banks shall be considered as royalty treated as a returnable income where the recipient thereof
subject to the 20% final withholding tax. The term royalty who is in a tax loss position is given the chance to offset
is broad enough to include technical advice, assistance or such loss against dividend income thereby depriving the
services rendered in connection with technical government of the tax on said dividend income. [Note: It
management or administration of any scientific, industrial is recommended that any of the foregoing answers can be given full
or commercial undertaking, venture, project or scheme. credit because the question involves a policy issue which can only be
(Sec. 42(4)(f), NIRC). Accordingly, the consultancy and found in the deliberations of Congress.]
technical services rendered by MKB-Phils, which are ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
incidental to the distribution, support and use of the The reason why cash dividends received by a resident
computer systems of MKB-UK are taxable as royalty. citizen or alien from a domestic corporation are subjected
to the final withholding tax of 10% and not at the
Withholding Tax; Coverage (2004) progressive rate tax schedule is to lessen the impact of a
Citing Section 10, Article VIII of the 1987 Constitution second layer of tax on the same income.
which provides that salaries of judges shall be fixed by law
and that during their continuance in office their salary Withholding Tax; Income subject thereto (2001)
shall not be decreased, a judge of MM Regional Trial What is meant by income subject to "final tax"? Give at
Court questioned the deduction of withholding taxes from least two examples of income of resident individuals that
his salary since it results into a net deduction of his pay. Is is subject to the final tax. (3%)
the contention of the judge correct? Reason briefly. (5%) SUGGESTED ANSWER:
SUGGESTED ANSWER: Income subject to final tax refers to an income wherein
No. The contention is incorrect. The salaries of judges are the tax due is fully collected through the withholding tax
not tax-exempt and their taxability is not contrary to the system. Under this procedure, the payor of the income
provisions of Section 10, Article VIII of the Constitution withholds the tax and remits it to the government as a
on the non-diminution of the salaries of members of the final settlement of the income tax due on said income.
judiciary during their continuance in office. The clear The recipient is no longer required to include the item of
intent of the Constitutional Commission that framed the income subjected to "final tax" as part of his gross income
Constitution is to subject their salaries to tax as in the case in his income tax returns. Examples of income subject to
of all taxpayers. Hence, the deduction of withholding final tax are dividend income, interest from bank deposits,
taxes, being a manner of collecting the income tax on royalties, etc.
their salary, is not a diminution contemplated by the
fundamental law. (Nitafan et. al. v. CIR, 152 SCRA 284 Withholding Tax; Non-Resident Alien (1994)
[1987]). Four Catholic parishes hired the services of Frank Binatra,
a foreign non-resident entertainer, to perform for four (4)
Withholding Tax; Domestic Corporation; Cash Dividends nights at the Folk Arts Theater. Binatra was paid
(2001) P200.000.00 a night. The parishes earned P1,000,000.00
What do you think is the reason why cash dividends, which they used for the support of the orphans in the city.
when received by a resident citizen or alien from a Who are liable to pay taxes?
domestic corporation, are taxed only at the final tax of SUGGESTED ANSWER:
10% and not at the progressive tax rate schedule under The following are liable to pay income taxes:
Section 24(A) of the Tax Code? Explain your answer. (a) The four catholic parishes because the income
(5%) received by them, not being income earned "as such"
SUGGESTED ANSWER: in the performance of their religious functions and
The reason for imposing final withholding tax rather than duties, is taxable income under the last paragraph of
the progressive tax schedule on cash dividends received by Sec. 26, in relation to Sec. 26(e) of the Tax Code. In
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 26 of 73
promoting and operating the Binatra Show, they year but not more than ten (10) years (1st par.,
engaged in an activity conducted for profit. (Ibid.) Sec. 255, NIRC).

(b) The income of Frank Binatra, a non-resident alien COMMENT: It is suggested that any of the following answers
under our law is taxable at the rate of 30%, final to the question, "What are the liabilities for failure to withhold
withholding tax based on the gross income from the such a tax?" be given full credit:
show. Mr. Binatra is not engaged in any trade or 1) The payor shall be liable for the payment of the tax which
was not withheld.
business in the Philippines. 2) The payer/withholding agent shall be liable to both civil
and criminal penalties imposed by the Tax Code.
Withholding Tax; Non-Resident Corporation (1994)
Bates Advertising Company is a non-resident corporation Withholding Tax; Time Deposit Interest; GSIS Pension
duly organized and existing under the laws of Singapore. (1994)
It is not doing business and has no office in the Maribel Santos, a retired public school teacher, relies on
Philippines. Pilipinas Garment Incorporated, a domestic her pension from the GSIS and the Interest Income from
corporation, retained the services of Bates to do all the a time deposit of P500.000.00 with ABC Bank. Is Miss
advertising of its products abroad. For said services, Bates' Santos liable to pay any tax on her Income?
fees are paid through outward remittances. Are the fees SUGGESTED ANSWER:
received by Bates subject to any withholding tax? Maribel Santos is exempt from tax on the pension from
SUGGESTED ANSWER: the GSIS (Sec. 28(b((7)(F), Tax Code). However, as regards
The fees paid to Bates Advertising Co., a non-resident her time deposit, the interest she receives thereon is
foreign corporation are not subject to withholding tax subject to 20% final withholding tax. (Sec. 21(a)(c), Tax
since they are not subject to Philippine tax. They are Code).
exempt because they do not constitute income from
Philippine sources, the same being compensation for
labor or personal services performed outside the
DEDUCTIONS, EXEMPTIONS,
Philippines (Sec. 36{c) (3) and Sec. 25(b)(l), Tax Code). EXCLUSIONS & INCLUSIONS
Deduction: Facilitation Fees or "kickback" (1998)
Withholding Tax; Reader's Digest Award (1998) MC Garcia, a contractor who won the bid for the
Is the prize of one million pesos awarded by the Reader's construction of a public highway, claims as expenses,
Digest subject to withholding of final tax? Who is facilitation fees which according to him is standard
responsible for withholding the tax? What are the operating procedure in transactions with the government.
liabilities for failure to withhold such tax? [5%] Are these expenses allowable as deduction from gross
SUGGESTED ANSWER: income? [5%]
1) It depends. If the prize is considered as winnings SUGGESTED ANSWER:
derived from sources within the Philippines, it is No. The alleged facilitation fees which he claims as
subject to withholding of final tax (Sec. 24[B] in standard operating procedure in transactions with the
relation to Sec. 57[A], NIRC). If derived from government comes in the form of bribes or "kickback"
sources without the Philippines, it is not subject to which are not allowed as deductions from gross income
withholding of final tax because the Philippine tax (Section 34(A)(l)(c), NIRC).
law and regulations could not reach out to foreign
jurisdictions. Deductions: Ordinary Business Expenses (2004)
OXY is the president and chief executive officer of ADD
2) The tax shall be withheld by the Reader's Digest or Computers, Inc. When OXY was asked to join the
local agent who has control over the payment of the government service as director of a bureau under the
prize. Department of Trade and Industry, he took a leave of
absence from ADD. Believing that its business outlook,
3) Any person required to withhold or who willfully goodwill and opportunities improved with OXY in the
fails to withhold, shall, in addition to the other government, ADD proposed to obtain a policy of
penalties provided under the Code, be liable upon insurance on his life. On ethical grounds, OXY objected
conviction to a penalty equal to the total amount of to the insurance purchase but ADD purchased the policy
tax not withheld (Sec. 251, NIRC). In case of failure anyway. Its annual premium amounted to P100,000. Is
to withhold the tax or in the case of under said premium deductible by ADD Computers, Inc.?
withholding, the deficiency tax shall be collected Reason. (5%)
from the payor/withholding agent (1st par.. Sec. SUGGESTED ANSWER:
2.57[A], R.R. No. 2-98). No. The premium is not deductible because it is not an
ordinary business expense. The term "ordinary" is used in
Any person required under the Tax Code or by rules and the income tax law in its common significance and it has
regulations to withhold taxes at the time or times required the connotation of being normal, usual or customary
by law or rules and regulations shall, in addition to other (Deputy v. Du Pont, 308 US 488 [1940]). Paying premiums
penalties provided by law, upon conviction be punished for the insurance of a person not connected to the
by a fine of not less than Ten thousand pesos (Php company is not normal, usual or customary.
10.0OO) and suffer imprisonment of not less than one (1)
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 27 of 73
Another reason for its non-deductibility is the fact that it ordinary gains which are subject to a higher rate
can be considered as an illegal compensation made to a of income tax. (Chirelstein, Federal Income Taxation, 1977
government employee. This is so because if the insured, Ed.)
his estate or heirs were made as the beneficiary (because of
the requirement of insurable interest), the payment of premium Deductions: Deductible Items from Gross Income (1999)
will constitute bribes which are not allowed as deduction Explain if the following items are deductible from gross
from gross income (Section 34[A][l][c], NIRC). income for income tax purposes. Disregard who is the
person claiming the expense. (5%)
On the other hand, if the company was made the 1) Interest on loans used to acquire capital equipment
beneficiary, whether directly or indirectly, the premium is or machinery.
not allowed as a deduction from gross income (Section 2) Depreciation of goodwill.
36[A}14], NIRC). SUGGESTED ANSWER:
1) Interest on loans used to acquire capital equip-
Deductions: Amount for Bribe (2001)
ment or machinery is a deductible item from gross
In order to facilitate the processing of its application for a income. The law gives the taxpayer the option to claim as
license from a government office, Corporation A found it a deduction or treat as capital expenditure interest in-
necessary to pay the amount of Php 100,000 as a bribe to curred to acquire property used in trade, business or
the approving official. Is the Php 100,000 deductible from exercise of a profession. (Section 34(B) (3), NIRC).
the gross income of Corporation A? On the other hand, is
the Php 100,000 taxable income of the approving official? 2) Depreciation for goodwill is not allowed as de-
Explain your answers. (5%) duction from gross income. While intangibles maybe
SUGGESTED ANSWER: allowed to be depreciated or amortized, it is only allowed
Since the amount of Phpl00.000 constitutes a bribe, it is to those intangibles whose use in the business or trade is
not allowed as a deduction from gross income of definitely limited in duration. (Basilan Estates, Inc. v,
Corporation A, (Section 34(A)(l)(c), NIRC). However, to CIR, 21 SCRA 17). Such is not the case with goodwill.
the recipient government official, the same constitutes a
taxable income. All income from legal or illegal sources ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
are taxable absent any clear provision of law exempting Depreciation of goodwill is allowed as a deduction from
the same. This is the reason why gross income had been gross income if the goodwill is acquired through capital
defined to include income from whatever source derived. outlay and is known from experience to be of value to the
(Section 32(A), NIRC). Illegally acquired income constitutes business for only a limited period. (Section 107, Revenue
realized income under the claim of right doctrine (Rutkin Regulations No. 2). In such case, the goodwill is allowed to
v. US, 343 US 130). be amortized over its useful life to allow the deduction of
the current portion of the expense from gross income,
Deductions: Capital Losses; Prohibitions (2003) thereby paving the way for a proper matching of costs
What is the rationale for the rule prohibiting the against revenues which is an essential feature of the
deduction of capital losses from ordinary gains? Explain. income tax system.
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
It is to insure that only costs or expenses incurred in Deductions: Income Tax: Donation: Real Property (2002)
earning the income shall be deductible for income tax On December 06, 2001, LVN Corporation donated a
purposes consonant with the requirement of the law that piece of vacant lot situated in Mandaluyong City to an
only necessary expenses are allowed as deductions from accredited and duly registered non-stock, non-profit
gross income. The term "NECESSARY EXPENSES" educational institution to be used by the latter in building
presupposes that in order to be allowed as deduction, the a sports complex for students.
expense must be business connected, which is not the A. May the donor claim in full as deduction from its
case insofar as capital losses are concerned. This is also gross income for the taxable year 2001 the amount of
the reason why all non-business connected expenses like the donated lot equivalent to its fair market
personal, living and family expenses, are not allowed as value/zonal value at the time of the donation?
deduction from gross income (Section 36(A)(1) of the 1997 Explain your answer. (2%)
Tax Code). SUGGESTED ANSWER:
A. No. Donations and/or contributions made to
The prohibition of deduction of capital losses from qualified donee institutions consisting of property
ordinary gains is designed to forestall the shifting of other than money shall be based on the acquisition
deductions from an area subject to lower taxes to an area cost of the property. The donor is not entitled to
subject to higher taxes, thereby unnecessarily resulting in claim as full deduction the fair market value/zonal
leakage of tax revenues. Capital gains are generally taxed at value of the lot donated. (Sec. 34(H), NIRC).
a lower rate to prevent, among others, the bunching of
income in one taxable year which is a liberality in the law B. In order that donations to non-stock, non-profit
begotten from motives of public policy (Rule on Holding educational institution may be exempt from the
Period). It stands to reason therefore, that if the transaction donor's gift tax, what conditions must be met by the
results in loss, the same should be allowed only from and donee? (3%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
to the extent of capital gains and not to be deducted from
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 28 of 73
B. In order that donations to non-stock, non-profit that they are not allowed to deduct any item
educational institution may be exempt from the from their gross income for purposes of computing their
donor's gift tax, it is required that not more than 30% net taxable income. With the passage of the
of the said gifts shall be used by the donee-institution Comprehensive Tax Reform Act of 1997, is this
for administration purposes. (Sec. 101(A)(3), NIRC). complaint still valid? Explain your answer. (5%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Deductions: Non-Deductible Items; Gross Income (1999) No more. Gross compensation income earners are now
Explain if the following items are deductible from gross allowed at least an item of deduction in the form of
income for income tax purposes. Disregard who is the premium payments on health and/or hospitalization
person claiming the deduction. (5%) insurance in an amount not exceeding P2,400 per annum
1. Reserves for bad debts. [Section 34(M)]. This deduction is allowed if the aggregate
2. Worthless securities family income do not exceed P250.000 and by the spouse,
SUGGESTED ANSWER: in case of married individual, who claims additional
1. RESERVE FOR BAD DEBTS are not allowed as personal exemption for dependents.
deduction from gross income. Bad debts must be
charged off during the taxable year to be allowed as Deductions; Vanishing Deduction; Purpose (2006)
deduction from gross income. The mere setting up of Vanishing deduction is availed of by taxpayers to:
reserves will not give rise to any deduction. (Section a. Correct his accounting records to reflect the actual
34(E). NTRC). deductions made
b. Reduce his gross income
2. WORTHLESS SECURITIES, which are ordinary c. Reduce his output value-added tax liability
assets, are not allowed as deduction from gross d. Reduce his gross estate
income because the loss is not realized. However, if Choose the correct answer. Explain. (5%)
these worthless securities are capital assets, the owner SUGGESTED ANSWER:
is considered to have incurred a capital loss as of the (D) reduce his gross estate. Vanishing deduction or prop-
last day of the taxable year and, therefore, deductible erty previously taxed is one of the items of deduction
to the extent of capital gains. (Section 34(D)(4), NIRC). allowed in computing the net estate of a decedent (Section
This deduction, however, is not allowed to a bank or 86[A][2] and 86[B][2], NIRC).
trust company. (Section 34(E)(2), NIRC).
Exclusion & Inclusion; Gross Receipts (2006)
Deductions: Requisites; Deducibility of a Loss (1998) Congress enacts a law imposing a 5% tax on gross receipts
Give the requisites for deducibility of a loss. (5%1 of common carriers. The law does not define the term
SUGGESTED ANSWER: "gross receipts." Express Transport, Inc., a bus company
The requisites for deducibility of a loss are plying the Manila-Baguio route, has time deposits with
1) loss belongs to the taxpayer; ABC Bank. In 2005, Express Transport earned P1 Million
2) actually sustained and charged off during the taxable interest, after deducting the 20% final withholding tax
year; from its time deposits with the bank. The BIR wants to
3) evidenced by a closed and completed transaction; collect a 5% gross receipts tax on the interest income of
4) not compensated by Insurance or other forms of Express Transport without deducting the 20% final
indemnity; withholding tax. Is the BIR correct? Explain. (5%)
5) not claimed as a deduction for estate tax purposes in ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
case of individual taxpayers; and Yes. The term "Gross Receipts" is broad enough to
6) if it is a casualty loss it is evidenced by a declaration of include income constructively received by the taxpayer.
loss filed within 45 days with the BIR. The amount withheld is paid to the government on its
behalf, in satisfaction of withholding taxes. The fact that it
COMMENT: did not actually receive the amount does not alter the fact
The question is vague. There are different kinds of losses that it is remitted in satisfaction of its tax obligations.
recognized as deductible under the Tax Code. These are losses,
Since the income withheld is an income owned by
in general (Sec. 34[D](1); net operating loss carryover (Sec.
34[D](3); capital losses (Sec. 34[D](4); Losses from wash sales of Express Transport, the same forms part of its gross
stocks or securities (Sec. 34[D](5) in relation to Sec. 38); receipts (CIR v. Solidbank Corp., G.R. No. 148191,
wagering losses (Sec. 34[D](6); and abandonment losses (Sec. November 25, 2003).
34(D](7). Losses are also deductible from the gross estate (Sec. ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
86[A](l)(e), NIRC). No. The term "gross receipts," as applied to the business
of a common carrier consists of revenues from carriage of
Considering the time allotted for a five (5) point question is only goods, cargoes, and passengers. It does not comprehend
nine (9) minutes, the candidates would not be able to write down or include interest income which is properly described as
a complete answer. It is suggested that any answer which states "Other Income."
the requisites for the deducibility of any of the above losses be (NOTA BENE: This question pertains to a percentage tax on Gross
given full credit. Receipts which is excluded from the Bar coverage)

Deductions; Income Tax: Allowable Deductions (2001) Exclusion vs. Deduction from Gross Income (2001)
Taxpayers whose only income consists of salaries and
wages from their employers have long been complaining
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 29 of 73
Distinguish "Exclusion from Gross Income" from which are exclusions from gross income
"Deductions From Gross Income". Give an example of pursuant to Section 28(b)(5) of the Tax Code.
each. (2%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER: Exclusions & Inclusions: Executive Benefits (1995)
EXCLUSIONS from gross income refer to a flow of Mr. Adrian is an executive of a big business corporation.
wealth to the taxpayer which are not treated as part of Aside from his salary, his employer provides him with the
gross income, for purposes of computing the taxpayer’s following benefits: free use of a residential house in an
taxable income, due to the following reasons: (1) It is exclusive subdivision, free use of a limousine and
exempted by the fundamental law; (2) It is exempted by membership in a country club where he can entertain
statute; and (3) It does not come within the definition of customers of the corporation. Which of these benefits, if
income. (Section 61, RR No. 2). DEDUCTIONS from any, must Mr. Adrian report as income? Explain.
gross income, on the other hand, are the amounts, which SUGGESTED ANSWER:
the law allows to be deducted from gross income in order Mr. Adrian must report the imputed rental value of the
to arrive at net income. house and limousine as income. If the rental value exceeds
the personal needs of Mr. Adrian because he is expected
Exclusions pertain to the computation of gross income, to provide accommodation in said house for company
while deductions pertain to the computation of net guests or the car is used partly for business purpose, then
income. Exclusions are something received or earned by Mr. Adrian is entitled only to a ratable rental value of the
the taxpayer which do not form part of gross income house and limousine as exclusion from gross income and
while deductions are something spent or paid in earning only a reasonable amount should be reported as income.
gross income. This is because the free housing and use of the limousine
are given partly for the convenience and benefit of the
Example of an exclusion from gross income is proceeds employer (Collector vs. Henderson).
of life insurance received by the beneficiary upon the ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
death of the insured which is not an income or 13th Remuneration for services although not given in the form
month pay of an employee not exceeding P30.000 which of cash constitutes compensation income. Accordingly,
is an income not recognized for tax purposes. Example of the value for the use of the residential house is part of his
a deduction is business rental. compensation income which he must report for income
tax purposes. However, if the residential house given to
Exclusions & Inclusions: Benefits on Account of Injury Mr. Adrian for his free use as an executive is also used for
(1995) the benefit of the corporation/employer, such as for
Mr. Infante was hit by a wayward bus while on his way to entertaining customers of the corporation, only 50% of
work. He survived but had to pay P400.000.00 for his the rental value or depreciation (if the house is owned by
hospitalization. He was unable to work for six months the corporation) shall form part of compensation income
which meant that he did not receive his usual salary of P (RAMO 1-87).
10,000.00 a month or a total of P60.000.00. He sued the
bus company and was able to obtain a final judgment The free use of a limousine and the membership in a
awarding him P400.000.00 as reimbursement for his country club is not part of Mr. Adrian's compensation
hospitalization, P60.000 for the salaries he failed to receive income because they were given for the benefit of the
while hospitalized, P200,000.00 as moral damages for his employer and are considered to be necessary incidents for
pain and suffering, and P 100,000.00 as exemplary the proper performance of his duties as an executive of
damages. He was able to collect in full from the judgment. the corporation.
How much income did he realize when he collected on
the judgment? Explain. The membership fee in the country club needs to be
SUGGESTED ANSWER: reported as income. It appears that the membership of
None. The P200.000 moral and exemplary damages are Mr. Adrian to the country club is primarily for the benefit
compensation for injuries sustained by Mr. Infante. The and convenience of the employer. This is to enable Mr.
P400.000.00 reimbursement for hospitalization expenses Adrian to entertain company guests (Collector vs.
and the P60.000.00 for salaries he failed to receive are Henderson).
'amounts of any damages received whether by suit or
agreement on account of such injuries.' Section 28(b)(5) of Exclusions & Inclusions; Assets; Resident Alien (2005)
the Tax Code specifically exclude these amounts from the Ralph Donald, an American citizen, was a top executive
gross income of the individual injured. (Section 28(b), of a U.S. company in the Philippines until he retired in
NIRC and Sec. 63 Rev. Reg. No. 2) 1999. He came to like the Philippines so much that
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: following his retirement, he decided to spend the rest of
The income realized from the judgment is only the his life in the country. He applied for and was granted a
recovery for lost salaries. This constitutes taxable income permanent resident status the following year. In the spring
because were it not for the injury, he could have received of 2004, while vacationing in Orlando, Florida, USA, he
it from his employer as compensation income. All the suffered a heart attack and died. At the time of his death,
other amounts received are either compensation for he left the following properties: (a) bank deposits with
injuries or damages received on account of such injuries' Citibank Makati and Citibank Orlando, Florida; (b) a
resthouse in Orlando, Florida; (c) a condominium unit in
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 30 of 73
Makati; (d) shares of stock in the Philippine subsidiary of was reached under the terms of which JR was
the U.S. Company where he worked; (e) shares of stock in paid the following amounts: P500,000.00 for his
San Miguel Corp. and PLOT; (f) shares of stock in Disney hospitalization; P250,000.00 as moral damages; and
World in Florida; (g) U.S. treasury bonds; and (g) proceeds P300,000.00 for loss of income during the period of his
from a life insurance policy issued by a U.S. corporation. treatment and recuperation. In addition, JR received from
Which of the foregoing assets shall be included in the his employer the amount of P200,000.00 representing the
taxable gross estate in the Philippines? Explain. (5%) cash equivalent of his earned vacation and sick leaves.
SUGGESTED ANSWER: Which, if any, of the amounts he received are subject to
All of the properties enumerated except (g), the proceeds income tax? Explain. (5%)
from life insurance, are included in the taxable gross estate SUGGESTED ANSWER:
in the Philippines. Ralph Donald is considered a resident All amounts received from the airline company are
alien for tax purposes since he is an American Citizen and excluded from gross income. Under Sec. 32(B)(4) of the
was a permanent resident of the Philippines at the time of NIRC, amounts of damages received, whether by suit or
his death. The value of the gross estate of a resident alien agreement, on account of personal injuries or sickness are
decedent shall be determined by including the value at the excluded from gross income. Since the amounts received
time of his death of all property, real or personal, tangible from the airline company were received as damages by
or intangible, wherever situated. (Sec. 85, NIRC) agreement on account of personal injuries, all shall be
The other item, (g) proceeds from a life insurance policy, excluded from JR's gross income.
may also be included on the assumption that it was Ralph
Donald who took out the insurance upon his own life, The amount of P200,000.00, less the equivalent of not
payable upon his death to his estate. (Sec. 85[E], NIRC) more than 10 days of vacation leave, received by JR from
his employer, is subject to income tax under Sec. 2.78.1 (a)
Exclusions & Inclusions; Benefits on Account of Death (7) of R.R. No. 2-98.
(1996)
X, an employee of ABC Corporation died. ABC Exclusions & Inclusions; Compensation for personal
Corporation gave X’s widow an amount equivalent to X’s injuries or sickness (2003)
salary for one year. Is the amount considered taxable X, while driving home from his office, was seriously
income to the widow? Why? injured when his automobile was bumped from behind by
SUGGESTED ANSWER: a bus driven by a reckless driver. As a result, he had to pay
No. The amount received by the widow from the P200,000.00 to his doctor and P100, 000.00 to the
decedent's employer may either be a gift or a separation hospital where he was confined for treatment. He filed a
benefit on account of death. Both are exclusions from suit against the bus driver and the bus company and was
gross income pursuant to provisions of Section 28(b) of awarded and paid actual damages of P300, 000.00 (for his
the Tax Code. doctor and hospitalization bills), P100,000.00 by way of moral
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: damages, and P50,000.00 for what he had to pay his
No. Since the amount was given to the widow and not to attorney for bringing his case to court. Which, if any, of
the estate, it becomes obvious that the amount is more of the foregoing awards are taxable income to X and which
a gift. In one U.S. tax case (Estate of Hellstrom vs. are not? Explain. (8%)
Commissioner, 24 T.C. 916), it was held that payments to SUGGESTED ANSWER:
the widow of the president of a corporation of the Nothing is taxable. Under the Tax Code, any amount
amount the president would have received in salary if he received as compensation for personal injuries or sickness,
lived out the year constituted a gift and not an income. plus the amounts for any damages received whether by
suit or agreement, on account of such injuries or sickness
The controlling facts which would lead to the conclusion shall be excluded from gross income. Since the entire
that the amount received by the widow is not an income amount of P450, 000.00 received are award of damages on
are as follows: account of the injuries sustained; all shall be excluded
7) the gift was made to the widow rather than the from his gross income. Obviously, these damages are
estate: considered by law as mere return of capital. (Section
8) there was no obligation for the corporation to make 32(B)(4), 1997 Tax Code)
further payments to the deceased;
9) the widow had never worked for the corporation; Exclusions & Inclusions; Facilities or Privileges; Military
10) the corporation received no economic benefit; and Camp (1995)
11) the deceased had been fully compensated for his Capt. Canuto is a member of the Armed Forces of the
services (Estate of Sydney Carter vs. Philippines. Aside from his pay as captain, the
Commissioner, 453 F. 2d 61 (2dCir. 1971). government gives him free uniforms, free living quarters
in whatever military camp he is assigned, and free meals
Exclusions & Inclusions; Benefits on Account of Injury inside the camp. Are these benefits income to Capt.
(2005) Canuto? Explain.
JR was a passenger of an airline that crashed. He survived SUGGESTED ANSWER:
the accident but sustained serious physical injuries which No, the free uniforms, free living quarters and the free
required hospitalization for 3 months. Following meals inside the camp are not income to Capt. Canute
negotiations with the airline and its insurer, an agreement because these are facilities or privileges furnished by the
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 31 of 73
employer for the employer's convenience which are Exclusions & Inclusions; ITR; 13th month pay
necessary incidents to proper performance of the military and de minimis benefits (2005)
personnel's duties. State with reasons the tax treatment of the following in
the preparation of annual income tax returns: 13th month
Exclusions & Inclusions; Gifts over and above the pay and de minimis benefits;
Retirement Pay (1995) SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Mr. Quiroz worked as chief accountant of a hospital for The 13th month pay not exceeding P30,000.00 shall not
forty-five years. When he retired at 65 he received be reported in the income tax return because it is excluded
retirement pay equivalent to two months' salary for every from gross income (Sec. 32[B][7], [e], NIRC) The amount
year of service as provided in the hospital BIR approved of the 13th month pay in excess of P30,000.00 shall be
retirement plan. The Board of Directors of the hospital reported in the annual income tax return.
felt that the hospital should give Quiroz more than what
was provided for in the hospital's retirement plan in view De minimis benefits which do not exceed the ceilings
of his loyalty and invaluable services for forty-five years; are excluded from gross income, and not to be considered
hence, it resolved to pay him a gratuity of P1 Million over for determining the P30,000.00 ceiling hence not
and above his retirement pay. reportable in the annual income tax return. (Sec.
2.78.1[A][3], R.R. 2-98 as amended by Sec. 2.33 [C] and
The Commissioner of Internal Revenue taxed the P1 Mil- further amended by R.R. No. 8-2000)
lion as part of the gross compensation income of Quiroz
who protested that it was excluded from income because Exclusions & Inclusions; ITR; Dividends received by a
(a) it was a retirement pay, and (b) it was a gift. domestic corporation (2005)
1) Is Mr. Quiroz correct in claiming that the additional State with reasons the tax treatment of the following in
P1 Million was retirement pay and therefore the preparation of annual income tax returns: Dividends
excluded from income? Explain. received by a domestic corporation from (i) another
2) Is Mr. Quiroz correct in claiming that the additional domestic corporation; and (ii) a foreign corporation;
P1 Million was gift and therefore excluded from SUGGESTED ANSWER:
income? Explain. (i) Dividends received by a domestic corporation from a
SUGGESTED ANSWERS: domestic corporation shall not be subject to tax (Sec.
1) No. The additional P1 million is not a retirement pay 27[D][4], NIRC), hence, excluded from the income tax
but a part of the gross compensation income of Mr. return.
Quiroz. This is not a retirement benefit received in
accordance with a reasonable private benefit plan (ii) Dividends received by a domestic corporation from a
maintained by the employer as it was not paid out of the foreign corporation form part of the gross income and are
retirement plan. Accordingly, the amount received in accordingly subject to net income tax, hence included in
excess of the retirement benefits that he is entitled to the annual ITR (Sec. 42[A][2][b], NIRC), hence, must be
receive under the BIR-approved retirement plan would included in the income tax return.
not qualify as an exclusion from gross income.
Exclusions & Inclusions; ITR; Income realized from sale
2) No. The amount received was in consideration of his (2005)
loyalty and invaluable services to the company which is State with reasons the tax treatment of the following in
clearly a compensation income received on account of the preparation of annual income tax returns: Income
employment. Under the employer's 'motivation test,' realized from sale of: (i) capital assets; and (ii) ordinary
emphasis should be placed on the value of Mr. Quiroz assets.
services to the company as the compelling reason for SUGGESTED ANSWER:
giving him the gratuity, hence it should constitute a (i) Income realized from sale of capital assets is subject to
taxable income. The payment would only qualify as a gift the final withholding tax at source and therefore excluded
if there is nothing but 'good will, esteem and kindness' from the Income Tax Return (Sec. 24[C] and [D], NIRC);
which motivated the employer to give the gratuity.
(Stonton vs. U.S., 186 F. Supp. 393). Such is not the case in (ii) Income realized from sale of ordinary assets is part of
the herein problem. Gross Income, included in the Income Tax Return. (Sec.
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: 32[A][3], NIRC)
Yes. The 1 million is not compensation income subject to
income tax but a gift from his employer. There was no Exclusions & Inclusions; ITR; Interest on deposits (2005)
evidence presented to show that he was not fully compen- State with reasons the tax treatment of the following in
sated for his 45 years of service. If his services contributed the preparation of annual income tax returns: Interest on
in a large measure to the success of the hospital, it did not deposits with: (i) BPI Family Bank; and (ii) a local
give rise to a recoverable debt. The P1 million is purely a offshore banking unit of a foreign bank;
gratuity from the company. It is a taxable gift to the SUGGESTED ANSWER:
transferor. Under the Tax Code, gifts are excluded from Both items are excluded from the income tax return:
gross income therefore exempt from income tax. (Sec. (i) Interest income from any currency bank deposit is
28{b)(3), NIRC; Pirovano vs. Commissioner) considered passive income from sources within the
Philippines and subject to final tax. Since it is subject to
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 32 of 73
final tax it is not to be included in the annual ITR. (Sec. exclusively used for religious, charitable or
24[B][1], NIRC) (u) Same as No. (j). educational purposes shall be exempt from taxation.
a) To what kind of tax does this exemption apply? (2%)
Exclusions & Inclusions; ITR; Proceeds of life insurance SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(2005) This exemption applies only to property taxes. What is
State with reasons the tax treatment of the following in exempted is not the institution itself but the lands,
the preparation of annual income tax returns: Proceeds of buildings and improvements actually, directly and
life insurance received by a child as irrevocable exclusively used for religious, charitable and educational
beneficiary; purposes. (Commissioner of Internal Revenue v. Court of
SUGGESTED ANSWER: Appeals, et al, G.R. No. 124043, October 14, 1998).
Not to be reported in the annual income tax returns
because the proceeds of the life insurance are excluded b) Is proof of actual use necessary for tax exemption
from gross income. Proceeds of Life insurance policies purposes under the Constitution? (3%)
paid to the heirs or beneficiaries SUGGESTED ANSWER:
upon the death of the insured is an exclusion from gross Yes, because tax exemptions are strictly construed against
income. (Sec.32[B][l],NIRC) the taxpayer. There must be evidence to show that the
taxpayer has complied with the requirements for
Exclusions & Inclusions; Life Insurance Policy (2003) exemption. Furthermore, real property taxation is based
On 30 June 2000, X took out a life insurance policy on his on use and not on ownership, hence the same rule must
own life in the amount of P2,000,000.00. He designated also be applied for real property tax exemptions.
his wife, Y, as irrevocable beneficiary to P1,000,000.00
and his son, Z, to the balance of P1,000,000.00 but, in the Exemptions: Charitable Institutions; Churches (1996)
latter designation, reserving his right to substitute him for The Constitution exempts from taxation charitable in-
another. On 01 September 2003, X died and his wife and stitutions, churches, parsonages or convents appurtenant
son went to the insurer to collect the proceeds of X's life thereto, mosques arid non-profit cemeteries and lands,
insurance policy. (8%) buildings and improvements actually, directly and exclu-
(a) Are the proceeds of the insurance subject to sively used for religious, charitable and educational
income tax on the part of Y and Z for their purposes. Mercy Hospital is a 100-bed hospital organized
respective shares? Explain. for charity patients. Can said hospital claim exemption
(b) Are the proceeds of the insurance to form part of from taxation under the above-quoted constitutional
the gross estate of X? Explain. provision? Explain.
SUGGESTED ANSWERS: SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(a) No. The law explicitly provides that proceeds of life Yes. Mercy Hospital can claim exemption from taxation
insurance policies paid to the heirs or beneficiaries upon under the provision of the Constitution, but only with
the death of the insured are excluded from gross income respect to real property taxes provided that such real
and is exempt from taxation. The proceeds of life properties are used actually, directly and exclusively for
insurance received upon the death of the insured charitable purposes.
constitute a compensation for the loss of life, hence a
return of capital, which is beyond the scope of income Exemptions: Educational institution (2004)
taxation. (Section 32(B)(1) 1997 Tax Code) Suppose that XYZ Colleges is a proprietary educational
institution owned by the Archbishop's family, rather than
(b) Only the proceeds of P1,000,000.00 given to the son, the Archdiocese, which of those above cited income and
Z, shall form part of the Gross Estate of X. Under the donation would be exempt from taxation? Explain briefly.
Tax Code, proceeds of life insurance shall form part of (5%)
the gross estate of the decedent to the extent of the SUGGESTED ANSWER:
amount receivable by the beneficiary designated in the If XYZ Colleges is a proprietary educational institution, all
policy of the insurance except when it is expressly of its income from school related and non-school related
stipulated that the designation of the beneficiary is activities will be subject to the income tax based on its
irrevocable. As stated in the problem, only the designation aggregate net income derived from both activities (Section
of Y is irrevocable while the insured/decedent reserved 27(B), NMC). Accordingly, all of the income enumerated
the right to substitute Z as beneficiary for another person. in the problem will be taxable.
Accordingly, the proceeds received by Y shall be excluded
while the proceeds received by Z shall be included in the The donation of lot and building will likewise be subject
gross estate of X. (Sect/on 85(E), 1997 Tax Code) to the donor's tax because a donation to an educational
institution is exempt only if the school is incorporated as a
Exemptions: Charitable Institutions (2000) non-stock entity paying no dividends.
Article VI, Section 28 (3) of the 1987 Philippine
Constitution provides that charitable institutions, Since the donee is a proprietary educational institution,
churches and personages or covenants appurtenant the donation is taxable (Section 101(AX3), NJRC).
thereto, mosques, non-profit cemeteries and all lands,
buildings and improvements actually, directly and Exemptions: Gifts & Donations (1994)
In 1991, Imelda gave her parents a Christmas gift of P
100,000.00 and a donation of P50,000.00 to her parish
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 33 of 73
church. She also donated a parcel of land for the Under Article XTV, Section 4 (3) of the 1987
construction of a building to the PUP Alumni Philippine Constitution, all revenues and assets of non-
Association, a non-stock, non-profit organization. stock, nonprofit educational institutions, used actually,
Portions of the building shall be leased to generate income directly and exclusively for educational purposes, are
for the association. exempt from taxes and duties. Are income derived from
1) Is the Christmas gift of P 100,000.00 to Imelda's dormitories, canteens and bookstores as well as interest
parents subject to tax? income on bank deposits and yields from deposit
2) How about the donation to the parish church? substitutes automatically exempt from taxation? Explain.
3) How about the donation to the P.U.P, Alumni Asso- (5%)
ciation? SUGGESTED ANSWER:
SUGGESTED ANSWER: No. The interest income on bank deposits and yields from
1) The Christmas gift of P100,000.00 given by Imelda to deposit substitutes are not automatically exempt from
her parents is taxable up to P50,000.00 because under taxation. There must be a showing that the incomes are
the law (Sec. 92 (a) of the Tax Code), net gifts not included in the school's annual information return and
exceeding P50,000.00 are exempt. duly audited financial statements together with:
1. Certifications from depository banks as to the
2) The donation of P50,000.00 to the parish church amount of interest income earned from passive
even assuming that it is exclusively for religious investments not subject to the 20% final withholding
purposes is not tax-exempt because the exemption tax;
granted under Article VI, Sec. 28(3) of the 2. Certification of actual, direct and exclusive utilization
Constitution applies only to real estate taxes (Lladoc of said income for educational purposes;
v. Commissioner, 14SCRA292). 3. Board resolution on proposed project to be funded
out of the money deposited in banks or placed in
3) The donation to the P.U.P. Alumni Association does money market placements (Finance Department Order
not also qualify for exemption both under the No. 149-95 issued November 24, 1995), which must be
Constitution and the aforecited law because it is not used actually, directly and exclusively for educational
an educational or research organization, corporation, purposes.
institution, foundation or trust.
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: The income derived from dormitories, canteens and
Donation to the P.U.P. Alumni Association is exempt bookstores are not also automatically exempt from
from donor's tax if it is proven that the association is a taxation. There is still the requirement for evidence to
nonstock, non-profit charitable association, paying no show actual, direct and exclusive use for educational
dividends, governed by trustees who receive no purposes. It is to be noted that the 1987 Philippine
compensation, and devoting all its income to the Constitution does not distinguish with respect to the
accomplishment and promotion of the purposes source or origin of the income. The distinction is with
enumerated in its articles of incorporation. Not more than respect to the use which should be actual, direct and
30% of the gift should be used for administration exclusive for educational purposes.
purposes by the donee.
Consequently, the provisions of Sec. 30 of the NIRC of
Exemptions: Head of the Family: (1998) 1997, that a non-stock and nonprofit educational
Arnold, who is single, cohabits with Vilma, who is legally institution is exempt from taxation only "in respect to
married to Zachary. Arnold and Vilma have six minor income received by them as such" could not affect the
children who live and depend upon Arnold for their chief constitutional tax exemption. Where the Constitution
support. The children are not married and not gainfully does not distinguish with respect to source or origin, the
employed. Tax Code should not make distinctions.
1) For income tax purposes, may Arnold be considered
as "head of a family?" [3%] Exemptions: Non-Profit Entity; Ancillary Activity &
2) Is Arnold entitled to deduct from his gross income, Incidental Operations (1994)
an additional exemption for each of his illegitimate The University of Bigaa, a non-stock, non-profit entity,
child? [2%] operates a canteen for its students and a bookstore inside
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
the campus. It also operates two dormitories for its
1) Yes. An unmarried man who has illegitimate minor
students, one of which is in the campus. Is the University
children who live with him and depend upon him
liable to pay income taxes for the operation of the: 1)
for their chief support is considered as "head of the
canteen? 2) bookstore? 3) two dormitories?
family" (RR No. 2-98 implementing Section 35, NIRC). SUGGESTED ANSWER:
2) No. Arnold is only entitled to deduct additional 1) For the operation of the canteen inside the campus,
personal exemption for four (4) out of the six (6) the income thereon being incidental to the operations of
illegitimate children. The maximum number of the University as a school, is exempt (Art. XIV (4) (3),
dependents for purposes of the additional personal Constitution; DECS Regulations No. 137-87, Dec. 16, 1987).
exemption is four. (Sec. 35, NIRC).
2) For the same reasons, the University of Bigaa is not
Exemptions: Non-Profit Educational Institutions (2000) liable to pay income taxes for the operation of the
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 34 of 73
bookstore, since this is an ancillary activity the conduct of are income from its activities conducted for
which is carried out within the school premises. profit which are subject to tax. The income tax attaches
irrespective of the disposition of these incomes. (Sec. 30,
3) The University of Bigaa shall not be liable to pay NIRC; CIR v. YMCA, GR No. 124043, 1998).
income taxes for the operation of the dormitory located in
the campus, for same reasons as the foregoing. However, Exemptions: Prize of Peace Poster Contest (2000)
the latter shall be liable for income taxes on income from Jose Miranda, a young artist and designer, received a prize
operations of the dormitory located outside the school of P100,000.00 for winning in the on-the-spot peace
premises. poster contest sponsored by a local Lions Club. Shall the
reward be included in the gross income of the recipient
Exemptions: Non-Stock/ Non-Profit Association (2002) for tax purposes? Explain. (3%)
XYZ Foundation is a non-stock, non-profit association SUGGESTED ANSWER:
duly organized for religious, charitable and social welfare No. It is not includable in the gross income of the
purposes. Last January 3, 2000 it sold a portion of its lot recipient because the same is subject to a final tax of 20%,
used for religious purposes and utilized the entire the amount thereof being in excess of P10.000 (Sec.
proceeds for the construction of a building to house its 24(B){1), NIRC of 1997). The prize constitutes a taxable
free Day and Night Care Center for children of single income because it was made primarily in recognition of
parents. In order to subsidize the expenses of the Day and artistic achievement which he won due to an action on his
Night Care Center and to support its religious, charitable part to enter the contest. [Sec. 32 (B) (7) (c), NIRC of 1997]
and social welfare projects, the Foundation leased the 300- Since it is an on-the-spot contest, it is evident that he
square meter area of the second and third floors of the must have joined the contest in order to earn the prize or
building for use as a boarding house. The Foundation also award.
operates a canteen and a gift shop within the premises, all
the income from which is used actually, directly, and Exemptions: Prizes & Awards; Athletes (1996)
exclusively for the purposes for which the Foundation Onyoc, an amateur boxer, won in a boxing competition
was organized. sponsored by the Gold Cup Boxing Council, a sports
association duly accredited by the Philippine Boxing
A. Considering the constitutional provision granting tax Association. Onyoc received the amount of P500,000 as
exemption to non-stock corporations such as those his prize which was donated by Ayala Land Corporation.
formed exclusively for religious, charitable or social The BIR tried to collect income tax on the amount
welfare purposes, explain the meaning of the last received by Onyoc and donor's tax from Ayala Land
paragraph of said Sec. 30 of the 1997 Tax Code Corporation, which taxes, Onyoc and Ayala Land
which states that “Income of whatever kind and character of Corporation refuse to pay. Decide.
the foregoing organizations from any of their properties, real or SUGGESTED ANSWER:
personal, or from any of their activities conducted for profit The prize will not constitute a taxable income to Onyoc,
regardless of the disposition made of such income shall be hence the BIR is not correct in imposing the income tax.
subject to tax imposed under this Code." (5%) R.A. No. 7549 explicitly provides that 'All prizes and
SUGGESTED ANSWER: awards granted to athletes in local and international sports
A. The exemption contemplated in the Constitution tournaments and competitions held in the Philippines or
covers real estate tax on real properties actually, directly abroad and sanctioned by their respective national sports
and exclusively used for religious, charitable or social associations shall be exempt from income tax".
welfare purposes. It does not cover exemption from the
imposition of the income tax which is within the context Neither is the BIR correct in collecting the donor's tax
of Section 30 of the Tax Code. As a rule, non-stock non- from Ayala Land Corporation. The law is clear when it
profit corporations organized for religious, charitable or categorically stated "That the donor's of said prizes and
social welfare purposes are exempt from income tax on awards shall be exempt from the payment of the donor's
their income received by them as such. However, if these tax."
religious, charitable or social welfare corporations derive
income from their properties or any of their activities Exemptions: Retirement Benefits: Work Separation (1999)
conducted for profit, the income tax shall be imposed on A Co., a Philippine corporation, has two divisions —
said items of income irrespective of their disposition. manufacturing and construction. Due to the economic
(Sec. 30, NIRC; CIR v, YMCA, GR No. 124043, 1998). situation, it had to close its construction division and lay-
off the employees in that division. A Co. has a retirement
B. Is the income derived by XYZ Foundation from the plan approved by the BIR, which requires a minimum of
sale of a portion of its lot, rentals from its boarding 50 years of age and 10 years of service in the same
house and the operation of its canteen and gift shop employer at the time of retirement. There are 2 groups of
subject to tax? Explain. (5%) employees to be laid off:
SUGGESTED ANSWER: 1) Employees who are at least 50 years of age and has
B. Yes. The income derived from the sale of lot and at 10 years of service at the time of termination of
rentals from its boarding house are considered as income employment.
from properties which are subject to tax. Likewise, the 2) Employees who do no meet either the age or length
income from the operation of the canteen and gift shop of service A Co. plans to give the following:
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 35 of 73
a. For category (A) employees - the benefits
under the BIR approved plan plus an ex gratia SUGGESTED ANSWER:
payment of one month of every year of 1) The separation pay given to Reyes is subject to
service. income tax as compensation income because it arises from
b. For category (B) employees - one month for a service rendered pursuant to an employer-employee rela-
every year of service. tionship. It is not considered an exclusion from gross
For both categories, the cash equivalent of income because the rule in taxation is tax construed in
unused vacation and sick leave credits. strictissimi juris or the rule on strict Interpretation of tax
exemptions.
A Co. seeks your advice as to whether or not it will
subject any of these payments to WT. Explain your 2) The separation pay received by Cruz is not subject to
advice. (5%) income tax because his separation from the company was
SUGGESTED ANSWER: involuntary (Sec. 28 b (7), Tax Code).
For category A employees, all the benefits received on
account of their separation are not subject to income tax, 3) The separation pay received by Bautista is likewise not
hence no withholding tax shall be imposed. The benefits subject to tax. His separation is due to disability, hence
received under the BIR-approved plan upon meeting the involuntary. Under the law, separation pay received
service requirement and age requirement are explicitly through involuntary causes are exempt from taxation.
excluded from gross income. The ex gratia payment also
qualifies as an exclusion from gross income being in the Exemptions: Separation Pay (1995)
nature of benefit received on account of separation due to Mr. Jacobo worked for a manufacturing firm. Due to
causes beyond the employees' control. (Section 32(B), business reverses the firm offered voluntary redundancy
NIRC). The cash equivalent of unused vacation and sick program in order to reduce overhead expenses. Under the
leave credits qualifies as part of separation benefits program an employee who offered to resign would be
excluded from gross income (CIR v. Court of Appeals, given separation pay equivalent to his three month's basic
GR No. 96O16, October 17, 1991). salary for every year of service. Mr. Jacobo accepted the
offer and received P400.000.00 as separation pay under
For category B employees, all the benefits received by the program.
them will also be exempt from income tax, hence not
subject to withholding tax. These are benefits received on After all the employees who accepted the offer were paid,
account of separation due to causes beyond the the firm found its overhead still excessive. Hence it
employees' control, which are specifically excluded from adopted another redundancy program. Various
gross income. (Section 32(B), NIRC). unprofitable departments were closed. As a result, Mr.
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER; Kintanar was separated from the service. He also received
All of the payments are not subject to income tax and P400.000.00 as separation pay.
should not also be subject to withholding tax. The 1) Did Mr. Jacobo derive income when he received his
employees were laid off, hence separated for a cause separation pay? Explain.
beyond their control. Consequently, the amounts to be 2) Did Mr. Kintanar derive income when he received his
paid by reason of such involuntary separation are separation pay? Explain.
excluded from gross income, irrespective of whether the SUGGESTED ANSWER:
employee at the time of separation has rendered less than 1) Yes, Mr. Jacobo derived a taxable income when he
ten years of service and/or is below fifty years of age. received his separation pay because his separation from
(Section 32(B), NIRC). employment was voluntary on his part in view of his offer
to resign. What is excluded from gross income is any
Exemptions: Separation Pay (1994) amount received by an official or employee as a
Pedro Reyes, an official of Corporation X, asked for an consequence of separation of such official or employee
"earlier retirement" because he was emigrating to from the service of the employer for any cause beyond the
Australia. He was paid P2.000.000.00 as separation pay in control of the said official or employee (Sec 28, NIRC).
recognition of his valuable services to the corporation. ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
No, Mr. Jacobo did not derive any taxable income because
Juan Cruz, another official of the same company, was the separation pay was due to a retrenchment policy
separated for occupying a redundant position. He was adopted by the company so that any employee terminated
given P1,000.000.00 as separation pay. by virtue thereof is considered to have been separated due
to causes beyond the employee's control. The voluntary
Jose Bautista was separated due to his failing eyesight. He redundancy program requiring employees to make an
was given P500.000.00 as separation pay. offer to resign is only considered as a tool to expedite the
All the three (3) were not qualified to retire under the lay-off of excess manpower whose services are no longer
BIR-approved pension plan of the corporation. needed by the employer, but is not the main reason or
1) Is the separation pay given to Reyes subject to income cause for the termination
tax?
2) How about the separation pay received by Cruz? SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3) How about the separation pay received by Bautista? 2) No, Mr. Kintanar did not derive any income when he
received his separation pay because his separation from
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 36 of 73
employment is due to causes beyond his control. The A, an employee of the Court of Appeals, retired
separation was involuntary as it was a consequence of the upon reaching the compulsory age of 65 years. Upon
closure of various unprofitable departments pursuant to compulsory retirement, A received the money value of his
the redundancy program. accumulated leave credits in the amount of P500.000.00.
Is said amount subject to tax? Explain.
Exemptions: Separation Pay (2005) SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Company A decides to close its operations due to No. The commutation of leave credits, more commonly
continuing losses and to terminate the services of its known as terminal leave pay, i.e., the cash equivalent of
employees. Under the Labor Code, employees who are accumulated vacation and sick leave credits given to an
separated from service for such cause are entitled to a officer or employee who retires, or separated from the
minimum of one-half month pay for every year of service. service through no fault of his own, is exempt from
Company A paid the equivalent of one month pay for income tax. (BIR Ruling 238-91 dated November 8, 1991;
every year of service and the cash equivalent of unused Commissioner v. CA and Efren Castaneda, GR No. 96016,
vacation and sick leaves as separation benefits. October 17, 1991).
Are such benefits taxable and subject to withholding tax
under the Tax Code? Decide with reasons. (5%) Exemptions; Charitable Institutions (2006)
SUGGESTED ANSWER: The Constitution provides "charitable institutions,
All of the benefits are not taxable, hence they are not churches, personages or convents appurtenant thereto,
subject to withholding tax under the Tax Code. Benefits mosques, and non-profit cemeteries and all lands,
received as a consequence of separation for any cause buildings, and improvements actually directly and
beyond the control of the employees such as closure of exclusively used for religious, charitable or educational
business are excluded from gross income. (Sec. 32[B][6][b], purposes shall be exempt from taxation." This provision
NIRC in relation to Sec. 2[b][2], R.R. 2-98) exempts charitable institutions and religious institutions
from what kind of taxes? Choose the best answer.
Exemptions: Stock Dividends (2003) Explain. (5%)
On 03 January 1998, X, a Filipino citizen residing in the a. from all kinds of taxes, i.e., income, VAT, customs
Philippines, purchased one hundred (100) shares in the duties, local taxes and real property tax
capital stock of Y Corporation, a domestic company. On b. from local tax only
03 January 2000, Y Corporation declared, out of the c. from value-added tax
profits of the company earned after 01 January 1998, a d. from real property tax only
hundred percent (100%) stock dividends on all e. from capital gains tax only
stockholders of record as of 31 December 1999 as a result SUGGESTED ANSWER:
of which X holding in Y Corporation became two The provision exemptions charitable institutions and
hundred (200) shares. Are the stock dividends received by religious institutions from (d) REAL PROPERTY
X subject to income tax? Explain. (8%) TAXES only. The exemption is only for taxes assessed as
SUGGESTED ANSWER: property taxes, as distinguished from excise taxes (CIR v.
No. Stock dividends are not realized income. Accordingly, CA, CTA & YMCA, G.R. No. 124043, October 14, 1998;
the different provisions of the Tax Code imposing a tax Lladoc v. Commissioner of Internal Revenue, L-19201, June
16,1965).
on dividend income only includes within its purview cash
and property dividends making stock dividends exempt
Exemptions; Educational institution (2004)
from income tax. However, if the distribution of stock
XYZ Colleges is a non-stock, non-profit educational
dividends is the equivalent of cash or property, as when
institution run by the Archdiocese of BP City. It collected
the distribution results in a change of ownership interest
and received the following:
of the shareholders, the stock dividends will be subject to
(a) Tuition fees
income tax. (Section 24(B)(2); Section 25(A)&(B); Section
(b) Dormitory fees
28(B)(5)(b), 1997 Tax Code)
(c) Rentals from canteen concessionaires
(d) Interest from money-market placements of the
Exemptions: Strictly Construed (1996) tuition fees
Why are tax exemptions strictly construed against the (e) Donation of a lot and building by school alumni
taxpayer? Which of these above cited income and donation would
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
not be exempt from taxation? Explain briefly. (5%)
Tax exemptions are strictly construed against the taxpayer SUGGESTED ANSWER:
because such provisions are highly disfavored and may A. All of the income derived by the non-stock, nonprofit
almost be said to be odious to the law (Manila Electric educational institution will be exempt from taxation
Company vs. Vera, 67 SCRA 351). The exception provided they are used actually, directly and exclusively
contained in the tax statutes must be strictly construed for educational purposes. The Constitution provides that
against the one claiming the exemption because the law all revenues and assets of non-stock, non-profit
does not look with favor on tax exemptions they being educational institution which are actually, directly and
contrary to the life-blood theory which is the underlying exclusively used for educational purposes are exempt
basis for taxes. from taxation (Section 4 par. 3, Article XIV, 1987
Constitution).
Exemptions: Terminal Leave Pay (1996)
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 37 of 73
The donation is, likewise, exempt from the donor's tax if legislature and no service or duty or other
actually, directly and exclusively used for educational remunerative conditions have been imposed on the
purposes, provided not more than 30% of the donation is taxpayers receiving the exemption, it may be revoked at
used by the donee for administration purposes. The will by the legislature (Christ Church v. Philadelphia, 24
donee, being a non-stock, non-profit educational How. 300 [1860]). What constitutes an impairment of the
institution, is a qualified entity to receive an exempt obligation of contracts is the revocation of an exemption
donation subject to conditions prescribed by law (Section 4 which is founded on a valuable consideration because it
par. 4, Art. XIV, 1987 Constitution, in relation to Section takes the form and essence of a contract (Casanovas v.
101(AX3), NJRC). Hord, 8 Phil. 125 [1907]; Manila Railroad Company v.
Insular Collector of Customs, 12 Phil. 146 [1915])
Accordingly, none of the cited income and donation
collected and received by the non-stock, non-profit Exemptions; Gov’t Bonus, Gifts, & Allowances (1994)
educational institution would not be exempt from In December 1993, the Sangguniang Bayan authorized a
taxation. Christmas bonus of P3,000.00, a cash gift of P5,000.00
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: and transportation and representation allowance of
The following receipts by the non-stock, nonprofit P6,000.00 for each of the municipal employees.
educational institution are not exempt from taxation, viz: 1) Is the Christmas bonus subject to any tax?
(c) Rentals from Canteen Concessionaires. Rental 2) How about the cash gift?
income is considered as unrelated to the school 3) How about the transportation and representation
operations; hence, taxable (DOF Order No. 137-87, Dec. 16, allowances?
1987) SUGGESTED ANSWER:
1) The CHRISTMAS BONUS given by the
(d) Interest from money-market placements of the Sangguniang Bayan to the municipal employees is
tuition fees. The interest on the placement is taxable taxable as additional compensation (Sec. 21 (a). Tax
(DOF Order No. 137-87). If however, the said interest is Code).
used actually, directly and exclusively for educational
purposes as proven by substantial evidence, the same will 2) The cash gift per employee of P5.000.00 being
be exempt from taxation (CIR v. CA, 298 SCRA 83 11998]}. substantial may be considered taxable also. They
partake the nature of additional compensation
The other items of income which were all derived from income as it is highly doubtful if municipal
school-related activities will be exempt from taxation in governments are authorized to make gifts in
the hands of the recipient if used actually, directly and substantial sums such as this. They are not further-
exclusively for educational purposes (Section 4 par. 3, more gifts of "small value" which employers might
Article XTV, 1987 Constitution). give to their employees on special occasions like
Christmas - items which could be exempt under BIR
The donation to a non-stock, non-profit educational Revenue Audit Memo No. 1-87.
institution will be exempt from the donor's tax if used
actually, directly and exclusively for educational purposes 3) The transportation and representation allowances
and provided, that, not more than 30% of the donation is are actually reimbursements for expenses incurred
used for administration purposes (Section 4, par. 4, Art. by the employee for the employer. Said allowances
XJV, 1987 Constitution, in relation to Section 101(AM3), spent by the employee for the employer are
NJRC). designed to enhance the quality of the service that
the employer is supposed to perform for its clientele
Exemptions; Exemptions are Unilateral in Nature (2004) like the people of the municipality.
A law was passed granting tax exemption to certain
industries and investments for a period of five years. But Exemptions; Personal & Additional Exemption (2006)
three years later, the law was repealed. With the repeal, the Charlie, a widower, has two sons by his previous marriage.
exemptions were considered revoked by the BIR, which Charlie lives with Jane who is legally married to Mario.
assessed the investing companies for unpaid taxes They have a child named Jill. The children are all minors
effective on the date of the repeal of the law. and not gainfully employed.
1. How much personal exemption can Charlie claim?
NPC and KTR companies questioned the assessments on Explain. (2.5%)
the ground that, having made their investments in full SUGGESTED ANSWER:
reliance with the period of exemption granted by the law, Charlie can claim the personal exemption of a Head of a
its repeal violated their constitutional right against the Family or P25,000.00 provided that, at least one of his
impairment of the obligations and contracts. Is the minor and not gainfully employed children is unmarried
contention of the companies tenable or not? Reason and living with and dependent upon him for chief support
briefly. (5%) (Tax Reform Act, RA 8424, Chapter VII, Section 35[A]; BIR
SUGGESTED ANSWER: Revenue Regulation 02-98).
The contention is not tenable. The exemption granted is
in the nature of a unilateral tax exemption. Since the 2. How much additional exemption can Charlie
exemption given is spontaneous on the part of the claim? Explain. (2.5%)
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 38 of 73
SUGGESTED ANSWER: inventory of the taxpayer if on hand at
His children from his previous marriage who are le- the close of the taxable year;
gitimate children and his illegitimate child with Jane will all
entitle him to additional personal exemption of P8,000.00 (2) property held by the taxpayer primarily for sale to
for each dependent, if apart from being minor and not customers in the ordinary course of trade or
gainfully employed, they are unmarried, living with and business;
dependent upon Charlie for their chief support (Tax
Reform Act, RA8424, Chapter VH, Section 35(A); BIR (3) property used in the trade or business of a
Revenue Regulation 02-98). character which is subject to the allowance for
depreciation provided in Section 34 (F) of the Tax
Exemptions; Roman Catholic Church; Limitations (2005) Code; or
The Roman Catholic Church owns a 2-hectare lot, in a
town in Tarlac province. The southern side and middle (4) real property used in trade or business of the
part are occupied by the Church and a convent, the taxpayer.
eastern side by a school run by the Church itself, the
southeastern side by some commercial establishments, The statutory definition of "capital assets" practically
while the rest of the property, in particular the excludes from its scope, it will be noted, all property held
northwestern side, is idle or unoccupied. by the taxpayer if used in connection with his trade or
May the Church claim tax exemption on the entire land? business.
Decide with reasons.
SUGGESTED ANSWER: Capital Gain Tax; Nature (2001)
No. The Church cannot claim tax exemption on the entire A, a doctor by profession, sold in the year 2000 a parcel of
land. Only the southern side and middle part that are land which he bought as a form of investment in 1990 for
occupied by the Church and a convent and the eastern Php 1 million. The land was sold to B, his colleague, at a
side occupied by a school run by the Church itself are time when the real estate prices had gone down and so the
exempt, because such parts of the 2-hectare lot are land was sold only for Php 800,000 which was then the
actually, directly and exclusively used for religious and fair market value of the land. He used the proceeds to
educational purposes. (Sec. 28[3], Art. VI, 1987 finance his trip to the United States. He claims that he
Constitution; Sec. 234, Local Government Code) should not be made to pay the 6% final tax because he did
not have any actual gain on the sale. Is his contention
The southeastern side occupied by some commercial correct? Why? (5%)
establishment is not tax exempt. If real property is used SUGGESTED ANSWER:
for one or more commercial purposes, it is not exclusively No. The 6% capital gains tax on sale of a real property
used for the exempted purpose but is subject to taxation. held as capital asset is imposed on the income presumed
'Solely' is synonymous with 'exclusively.' (Lung Center of to have been realized from the sale which is the fair
the Philippines v. Quezon City, G.R. No. 144104, June 29, market value or selling price thereof, whichever is higher.
2004) The property must be exclusively (solely) used for (Section 24(D), NIRC). Actual gain is not required for the
religious or educational purposes. imposition of the tax but it is the gain by fiction of law
which is taxable.
Of course, it is apparent that the northwestern side, which
is idle or unoccupied is not "actually, directly and Ordinary Sale of a Capital Asset (1994)
exclusively" used for religious or educational purposes, Noel Langit and his brother, Jovy, bought a parcel of land
hence not exempt from taxation. which they registered in their names as pro-indiviso
owners (Parcel A). Subsequently, they formed a
CAPITAL GAIN TAX partnership, duly registered with Securities and Exchange
Capital Asset vs. Ordinary Asset (2003) Commission, which bought another parcel of land (Parcel
Distinguish a "capital asset" from an "ordinary asset". B). Both parcels of land were sold, realizing a net profit of
SUGGESTED ANSWER: P1,000,000.00 for parcel A and P500.000.00 for parcel B.
(a) The term "capital asset" regards all properties not
specifically excluded in the statutory definition of capital The BIR claims that the sale of parcel A should be taxed
assets, the profits or loss on the sale or the exchange of as a sale by an unregistered partnership. Is the BIR
which are treated as capital gains or capital losses. correct?
Conversely, all those properties specifically excluded are SUGGESTED ANSWER:
considered as ordinary assets and the profits or losses The BIR is not correct, since there is no showing that the
realized must have to be treated as ordinary gains or acquisition of the property by Noel and Jovy Langit as pro
ordinary losses. Accordingly, "Capital Assets" includes indiviso owners, and prior to the formation of the
property held by the taxpayer whether or not connected partnership, was used, intended for use, or bears any
with his trade or business, but the term does not include relation whatsoever to the pursuit or conduct of the
any of the following, which are consequently considered partnership business. The sale of parcel A shall therefore
"ordinary assets": not be treated as a sale by an unregistered partnership, but
(1) stock in trade of the taxpayer or other property of an ordinary sale of a capital asset, and hence will be
a kind which would properly be included in the subject to the 5% capital gains tax and documentary
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 39 of 73
stamp tax on transfers of real property, said taxes to be the seller from the sale. For this reason, any
borne equally by the co-owners. of the foregoing suggested answers should be given
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: full credit).
The BIR is correct in treating the gain from the sale of
parcel of land by Noel and Jovy Langit at a profit of Tax Basis: Capital Gains: Merger of Corporations (1994)
P1,000,000.00. In the case of Pascual and Dragon v. In a qualified merger under Section 34 (c) (2) of the Tax
Commissioner, G.R. No. 78133, October 18, 1988, the Code, what is the tax basis for computing the capital gains
Supreme Court ruled that the sharing of returns does not on: (a) the sale of the assets received by the surviving
in itself establish a partnership, whether or not the corporation from the absorbed corporation; and (b) the
persons sharing therein have a joint or common right or sale of the shares of stock received by the stockholders
interest in the property. The decision in said case cannot from the surviving corporation?
be applied here because clearly the parties organized a SUGGESTED ANSWER:
partnership duly registered with the Securities and In a qualified merger under Section 34 (c) (2) of the Tax
Exchange Commission. They pooled their resources Code, the tax basis for computing the capital gains on:
together with the purpose of dividing the profit between (a) the sale of the assets received by the surviving
them. corporation from the absorbed corporation shall be
the original/historical cost of the assets when still in
Sales of Share of Stocks: Capital Gains Tax Return (1999) the hands of the absorbed corporation.
HK Co. is a Hong Kong corporation not doing business (b) the sale of the shares of stock received by the
in the Philippines. It holds 40% of the shares of A Co., a stockholders from the surviving corporation shall be
Philippine company, while the 60% is owned by P Co., a the acquisition/historical cost of assets transferred to
Filipino-owned Philippine corporation. HK Co. also owns the surviving corporation.
100% of the shares of B Co., an Indonesian company
which has a duly licensed Philippine branch. Due to Tax Basis: Capital Gains: Tax-Free Exchange of Property
worldwide restructuring of the HK Co. group, HK Co. (1994)
decided to sell all its shares in A and B Cos. The In a qualified tax-free exchange of property for shares
negotiations for the buy-out and the signing of the under Section 34 (c) (2) of the Tax Code, what is the tax
Agreement of Sale were all done in the Philippines. The basis for computing the capital gains on: (a) the sale of the
Agreement provides that the purchase price will be paid to assets received by the Corporation; and (b) the sale of the
HK Co's bank account in the U. S. and that little to A and shares received by the stockholders in exchange of the
B Cos. Shares will pass from HK Co. to P Co. in HK assets?
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
where the stock certificates will be delivered. P Co. seeks
In a qualified tax free exchange of property for shares
your advice as to whether or not it will subject the
under Section 34 (c) (2) of the Tax Code, the tax basis for
payments of purchase price to Withholding Tax. Explain
computing the gain on the:
your advice. (10%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER: (a) sale of the assets received by the corporation shall be
P Co. should not subject the payments of the purchase the original/historical cost (purchase price plus
price to withholding tax. While the seller is a non-resident expenses of acquisition) of the property/ assets given
foreign corporation which is not normally required to file in exchange of the shares of stock.
returns in the Philippines, therefore, ordinarily all its (b) sale of the shares of stock received by the
income earned from Philippine sources is taxed via the stockholders in exchange of the assets shall be the
withholding tax system, this is not the procedure availing original/historical cost of the property given in
with respect to sales of shares of stock. The capital gains exchange of the shares of stock.
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
tax on the sale of shares of stock of a domestic
corporation is always required to be paid through a capital The basis in computing capital gains tax in a qualified tax-
gains tax return filed. The sale of the shares of stock of free exchange under Sec. 34 (c) (2) is:
the Indonesian Corporation is not subject to income tax (a) With respect to the asset received by the corporation
under our jurisdiction because the income derived there the same as it would be in the hands of the transferor
from is considered as a foreign-sourced income. increased by the amount of the gain recognized to
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: the transferor on the transfer.
Yes, but only on the shares of stocks of A Co. and only (b) With respect to the shares received by the
on the portion of the purchase price, which constitutes stockholders in exchange of the assets - the same as
capital gains. Under the Tax Code of 1997, the capital the basis of the property, stock or securities
gains tax imposed under Section 28(B)(5)(c) is collectible exchanged, decreased by the money received and the
via the withholding of tax at source pursuant to Section 57 fair market value of the other property received, and
of the same Code. increased by the amount treated as dividend of the
(Note: The bar candidate might have relied on the shareholder and the amount of any gain that was
provision of the Tax Code of 1997 which provides recognized on the exchange.
that the capital gains tax is imposed as withholding
taxes (Section 57, NIRC). This procedure is
impractical and, therefore, not followed in practice CORPORATION & PARTNERSHIP
because the buyer/ withholding agent will not be in a
position to determine how much income is realized by Bad Debts; Factors; Elements thereof (2004)
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 40 of 73
PQR Corp. claimed as a deduction in its tax returns the
amount of P1,000,000 as bad debts. The corporation was There being no monetary consideration, neither is the
assessed by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue for conveyance subject to the creditable withholding tax im-
deficiency taxes on the ground that the debts cannot be posed under Revenue Regulations 1-90, as amended.
considered as "worthless," hence they do not qualify as
bad debts. The company asks for your advice on "What The second conveyance was actually no conveyance at all
factors will held in determining whether or not the debts because when the units were sold to the various buyers,
are bad debts?" Answer and explain briefly. (5%) the common areas were already part and parcel of the sale
SUGGESTED ANSWER: of said units pursuant to the Condominium Act.
In order that debts be considered as bad debts because However, the Deed of Conveyance is subject to
they have become worthless, the taxpayer should establish documentary stamp tax.
that during the year for which the deduction is sought, a
situation developed as a result of which it became evident N.B. Documentary stamps tax and Condominium Law are
in the exercise of sound, objective business judgment that excluded from the coverage of the Bar Examinations.
there remained no practical, but only vaguely theoretical,
prospect that the debt would ever be paid (Collector of Corporation; Sale; Creditable Withholding Tax (1994)
Internal Revenue v. Goodrich International Rubber Co., 21 Noel Langit and his brother, Jovy, bought a parcel of land
SCRA 1336 [1967]). "Worthless" is not determined by an which they registered in their names as pro-indiviso
inflexible formula or slide rule calculation, but upon the owners (Parcel A). Subsequently, they formed a
exercise of sound business judgment. The factors to be partnership, duly registered with Securities and Exchange
considered include, but are not limited to, the following: Commission, which bought another parcel of land (Parcel
1. The debtor has no property nor visible income; B). Both parcels of land were sold, realizing a net profit of
2. The debtor has been adjudged bankrupt or P1,000,000.00 for parcel A and P500.000.00 for parcel B.
insolvent;
3. Collateral shares have become worthless; and The BIR also claims that the sale of parcel B should be
4. There are numerous debtors with small amounts of taxed as a sale by a corporation. Is the BIR correct?
debts and further action on the accounts would SUGGESTED ANSWER:
entail expenses exceeding the amounts sought to be The BIR is correct, since a "corporation" as defined under
collected. Section 20 (a) of the Tax Code includes partnerships, no
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: matter how created or organized, except general profes-
The following are the factors to be considered in sional partnerships. The business partnership, in the in-
determining whether or not the debts are bad debts: stant case, shall therefore be taxed in the same manner as
1. The debt must be valid and subsisting; a corporation on the sale of parcel B. The sale shall thus
2. The debt is connected with the taxpayer's trade or be subject to the creditable withholding tax under
business, and is not between related parties; Revenue Regulations 1-90, as amended by 12-94, on the
3. There is an actual ascertainment that the debt is sale of parcel B, and the partnership shall report the gain
worthless; and realized from the sale when it files its income tax return.
4. The debt is charged-off within the taxable year. Dividends: Withholding Tax (1999)
(PRC v. CA, 256 SCRA 667 [1996]; Revenue Regs. HK Co., is a Hong Kong company, which has a duly
No. 5-99). licensed Philippine branch, engaged in trading activities in
the Philippines. HK Co. also invested directly in 40% of
Condominium Corp.; Sale of Common Areas (1994) the shares of stock of A Co., a Philippine corporation.
X-land Condominium Corporation was organized by the These shares are booked in the Head Office of HK Co.
owners of units in X-land Building in accordance with the and are not reflected as assets of the Philippine branch. In
Master Deed with Declaration of Restrictions. The X-land 1998, A Co. declared dividends to its stockholders. Before
Building Corporation, the developer of the building, remitting the dividends to HK Co., A Co. seeks your
conveyed the common areas in favor of the X-land advice as to whether it will subject the remittance to WT.
Condominium Corporation. Is the conveyance subject to No need to discuss WT rates, if applicable. Focus your
any tax? discussion on what is the issue. (10%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER: SUGGESTED ANSWER:
The conveyance is not subject to any tax. The same is I will advise A Co. to withhold and remit the withholding
without consideration, and not in connection with a sale tax on the dividends. While the general rule is that a
made to X-land Condominium Corporation, and the foreign corporation is the same juridical entity as its
purpose of the conveyance to the latter is for the branch office in the Philippines, when, however, the
management of the common areas for the common corporation transacts business in the Philippines directly
benefit of the unit owners. and independently of its branch, the taxpayer would be
the foreign corporation itself and subject to the dividend
The same is not subject to income tax since no income tax similarly imposed on non-resident foreign corporation.
was realized as a result of the conveyance, which was The dividends attributable to the Home Office would not
made pursuant to the Condominium Act (R.A. No. 4626, qualify as dividends earned by a resident foreign
and the purpose of which was merely to vest title to the corporation, which is exempt from tax. (Marubeni
common areas in favor of the Land Condominium Corporation v. Commissioner, GR No. 76573, September
Corporation. 14, 1989).
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 41 of 73
special tax rates. So is with PEZA enterprises,
Effect: Dissolution; Corporate Existence (2004) CDA enterprises etc.
For failure to comply with certain corporate requirements,
the stockholders of ABC Corp. were notified by the [Note: If what is meant by regular income tax is the
32% tax rate imposed on taxable income of
Securities and Exchange Commission that the corporation
corporations, the answer would be in the affirmative,
would be subject to involuntary dissolution. The because domestic corporations and resident foreign
stockholders did not do anything to comply with the corporations are either liable for the 2% of gross
requirements, and the corporation was dissolved. Can the income (MCIT) or 32% of net income (the normal
stockholders be held personally liable for the unpaid taxes corporate income tax) whichever is higher.]
of the dissolved corporation? Explain briefly. (5%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER: ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
No. As a general rule, stockholders cannot be held No. A corporation which is exempted from the minimum
personally liable for the unpaid taxes of a dissolved corporate income tax is not automatically exempted from
corporation. The rule prevailing under our jurisdiction is the regular corporate income tax. The reason for this is
that a corporation is vested by law with a personality that that MCIT is imposed only beginning on the fourth
is separate and distinct from those of the persons taxable year immediately following the year in which such
composing it (Sunio v. NLRC, 127 SCRA 390{1984]}. corporation commenced its business operations. Thus, a
NOTE: additional point should be given to the corporation may be exempt from MCIT because it is only
examinee if he answers in the following that: on its third year of operations following its
However, stockholders may be held liable for the commencement of business operations.
unpaid taxes of a dissolved corporation if it
appears that the corporate assets have passed
into their hands (Tan Tiong Bio v. CFR, 4 SCRA ESTATE & DONOR’S TAXES
986 [1962]). Likewise, when stockholders have Donor’s Tax: Election Contributions (1998)
unpaid subscriptions to the capital of the Are contributions to a candidate in an election subject to
corporation they can be made liable for unpaid donor's tax? On the part of the contributor, is it allowable
taxes of the corporation to the extent of their as a deduction from gross income? [5%J
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
unpaid subscriptions.
1) No, provided the recipient candidate had complied
with the requirement for filing of returns of contri-
Minimum Corporate Income Tax (2001) butions with the Commission on Elections as
What is the rationale of the law in imposing what is required under the Omnibus Election Code.
known as the Minimum Corporate Income tax on
Domestic Corporations? (3%) 2) The contributor is not allowed to deduct the
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
contributions because the said expense is not
The imposition of the Minimum Corporate Income Tax
directly attributable to, the development,
(MCIT) is designed to forestall the prevailing practice of
management, operation and/or conduct of a trade,
corporations of over claiming deductions in order to
business or profession {Sec. 34[AJ(l)(a), NIRC).
reduce their income tax payments. The filing of income
Furthermore, if the candidate is an incumbent
tax returns showing a tax loss every year goes against the
government official or employee, it may even be
business motive which impelled the stockholders to
considered as a bribe or a kickback (Sec. 34[AJ(l)(c),
form the corporation. This is the reason why domestic
NIRC).
corporations (and resident foreign corporations) after COMMENT: It is suggested that full credit should
the recovery period of four years from the time they be given for any answer to the first question because
commence business operations, they become liable to the the answer requires an interpretation of the Election
MCIT whenever this tax imposed at 2% of gross income Code. Pursuant to the provisions of Section 99(C) of
exceeds the normal corporate income tax imposed on the NIRC, the taxability of this type of
net income. (Sponsorship Speech, Chairman of Senate contributions/donations is governed by the Election
Ways and Means Committee). Code.

Minimum Corporate Income Tax; Exemption (2001) Donor’s Tax; Basis for Determining Gain (1995)
Is a corporation which is exempted from the minimum (1) Kenneth Yusoph owns a commercial lot which he
corporate income tax automatically exempted from the bought many years ago for P1 Million. It is now
regular corporate income tax? Explain your answer. (2%) worth P20 Million although the zonal value is only
SUGGESTED ANSWER: P15 Million. He donates one-half pro-indiviso
No. The minimum corporate income tax is a proxy for the interest in the land to his son Dino on 31 December
normal corporate income tax, not the regular corporate 1994, and the other one-half pro-indiviso interest to
income tax paid by a corporation. For instance, a the same son on 2 January 1995.
proprietary educational institution may be subject to a How much is the value of the gifts in 1994 and 1995 for
regular corporate income tax of 10% (depending on its purposes of computing the gift tax? Explain.
dominant income), but it is exempt from the imposition SUGGESTED ANSWER:
of MCIT because the latter is not intended to substitute 1) The value of the gifts for purposes of computing the
gift tax shall be P7.5million in 1994 and P7.5million in
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 42 of 73
1995. In valuing a real property for gift tax purposes the An insolvent company had an outstanding
property should be appraised at the higher of two values obligation of P l00,000.00 from a creditor. Since it could
as of the time of donation which are (a) the fair market not pay the debt, the creditor agreed to accept payment
value as determined by the Commissioner (which is the through dacion en pago a property which had a market
zonal value fixed pursuant to Section 16(e) of the Tax value of P30.000.00. In the dacion en pago document, the
Code), or (b) the fair market value as shown in the balance of the debt was condoned.
schedule of values fixed by the Provincial and City A. What is the tax effect on the discharge of the unpaid
Assessors. The fact that the property is worth P20 million balance of the obligation on the debtor corporation?
as of the time of donation is immaterial unless it can be B. Insofar as the creditor is concerned, how is he
shown that this value is one of the two values mentioned effected tax-wise as a consequence of the transaction?
as provided under Section 81 of the Tax Code. SUGGESTED ANSWERS:
(a) The condonation of the unpaid balance of the
(2) The Revenue District Officer questions the splitting obligation has the effect of a donation made on the part
of the donations into 1994 and 1995. He says that of the creditor. It is obvious that the creditor merely
since there were only two (2) days separating the two desires to benefit the debtor and without any
donations they should be treated as one, having been consideration therefore cancels the debt, the amount of
made within one year. Is he correct? Explain. the debt cancelled is a gift from the creditor to the debtor
SUGGESTED ANSWER: and need not be included in the latter's gross income (Sec.
2) The Revenue District Officer is not correct because 50, RR No. 2);
the computation of the gift tax is cumulative but only
insofar as gifts made within the same calendar year. (b) For the difference of P70,000 the creditor shall be
Therefore, there is no legal justification for treating two subject to donor's tax at the applicable rates provided for
gifts effected in two separate calendar years as one gift. under the National Internal Revenue Code.

(3) Dino subsequently sold the land to a buyer for P 20 ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
Million. How much did Dino gain on the sale? (a) If the discharge was prompted by the insolvency of the
Explain. debtor company, then it is a clear case of a write-off of a
SUGGESTED ANSWER: bad debts which has no tax consequence to the debtor.
3) Dino gained an income of 19 million from the sale.
Dino acquires a carry-over basis which is the basis of the (b) The write-off of the bad debt will entitle the creditor
property in the hands of the donor or P1 million. The gain to claim the same as a deduction from its gross income.
from the sale or other disposition of property shall be the
excess of the amount realized therefrom over the basis or Donor’s Tax; Donation to a Sibling (2001)
adjusted basis for determining gain (Sec. 34(a), NIRC). Your bachelor client, a Filipino residing in Quezon City,
Since the property was acquired by gift, the basis for wants to give his sister a gift of Php 200,000.00. He seeks
determining gain shall be the same as if it would be in the your advice, for purposes of reducing if not eliminating
hands of the donor or the last preceding owner by whom the donor's tax on the gift, on whether it is better for him
the property was not acquired by gift. Hence, the gain is to give all of the Php 200,000.00 on Christmas 2001 or to
computed by deducting the basis of P1 million from the give Php 100,000.00 on Christmas2001 and the other Php
amount realized which is P20 million. 100,000.00 on January 1, 2002. Please explain your advice.
(5%)
(4) Suppose, instead of receiving the lot by way of SUGGESTED ANSWER:
donation, Dino received it by inheritance. What I would advice him to split the donation. Giving the
would be his gain on the sale of the lot for P20 Php200,000 as a one-time donation would mean that it
Million? Explain. will be subject to a higher tax bracket under the graduated
SUGGESTED ANSWER: tax structure thereby necessitating the payment of donor's
4) If the commercial lot was received by inheritance the tax. On the other hand, splitting the donation into two
gain from the sale for P20 million is P5 million because equal amounts of Php 100,000 given on two different
the basis is the fair market value as of the date of years will totally relieve the donor from the donor’s tax
acquisition. The stepped-up basis of P15 million which is because the first Phpl00.000 donation in the graduated
the value for estate tax purposes is the basis for brackets is exempt. (Section 99, NIRC). While the donor’s
determining the gain (Sec. 34(b)(2), NIRC). tax is computed on the cumulative donations, the
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: aggregation of all donations made by a donor is allowed
If Dino held on to the property as a capital asset in that it only over one calendar year.
is neither for sale in the ordinary course of business nor
used in Dino's business, then upon sale thereof there is Donor’s Tax; Donation to Non-Stock, Non-Profit Private
presumed to be realized an income of P20 million which Educational Institutions (2000)
is the gross selling price of the property. (Sec. 21(e), What conditions must occur in order that all grants,
NIRC). The same would be subject to the 5% capital donations and contributions to non-stock, non-profit
gains tax. private educational institutions may be exempt from the
donor's tax under Section 101 (a) of the Tax Code? (3%)
Donor’s Tax; Dacion en Pago; Effect: Taxation (1997) SUGGESTED ANSWER:
The following are the conditions:
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 43 of 73
1. Not more than thirty percent (30%) of said gifts stake in its business. Explain if the above
shall be used by such donee for administration transactions are subject to donor's tax. (5%)
purposes; SUGGESTED ANSWER:
2. The educational institution is incorporated as a non- The first transaction where a lot was sold by A to his
stock entity, brother-in-law for a price below its fair market value will
3. paying no dividends, not be subject to donor's tax if the lot qualifies as a capital
4. governed by trustees who receive no compensation, asset. The transfer for less than adequate and full consideration,
and which gives rise to a deemed gift, does not apply to a sale of property
5. devoting all its income, whether students' fees or subject to capital gains tax. (Section 100, NIRC). However, if
gifts, donations, subsidies or other forms of the lot sold is an ordinary asset, the excess of the fair
philanthropy, to the accomplishment and promotion market value over the consideration received shall be
of the purposes enumerated in its Articles of considered as a gift subject to the donor's tax.
Incorporation. (Sec. 101 (A) (3), NIRC of 1997]
The sale of shares of stock below the fair market value
Donor’s Tax; Donation to Political Candidate (2003) thereof is subject to the donor's tax pursuant to the
X is a friend of Y, the chairman of Political Party Z, who provisions of Section 100 of the Tax Code. The excess of
wants to run for President in the 2004 elections. Knowing the fair market value over the selling price is a deemed
that Y needs funds for posters and streamers, X is gift.
thinking of donating to Y P150,000.00 for his campaign. ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
He asks you whether his intended donation to Y will be The sale of shares of stock below the fair market value
subject to the donor's tax. What would your answer be? will not give rise to the imposition of the donor's tax. In
Will your answer be the same if he were to donate to determining the gain from the transfer, the selling price of
Political Party Z instead of to Y directly? (8%) the shares of stocks shall be the fair market value of the
SUGGESTED ANSWER: shares of stocks transferred. (Section 6, RR No. 2-82). In
The donation to Y, once he becomes a candidate for an which case, the reason for the imposition of the donor's
elective post, is not subject to donor's tax provided that he tax on sales for inadequate consideration does not exist.
complies with the requirement of filing returns of
contributions with the Commission on Elections as Estate Tax: Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law (1994)
required under the Omnibus Election Code. Jose Ortiz owns 100 hectares of agricultural land planted
to coconut trees. He died on May 30, 1994. Prior to his
The answer would be the same if X had donated the death, the government, by operation of law, acquired
amount to Political Party Z instead of to Y directly under the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law all his
because the law places in equal footing any contribution agricultural lands except five (5) hectares. Upon the death
to any candidate, political party or coalition of parties for of Ortiz, his widow asked you how she will consider the
campaign purposes. (Section 99(C) of the 1997 Tax Code). 100 hectares of agricultural land in the preparation of the
estate tax return. What advice will you give her?
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Donor’s Tax; Donee or Beneficiary; Stranger (2000)
When the donee or beneficiary is a stranger, the tax The 100 hectares of land that Jose Ortiz owned but which
payable by the donor shall be 30% of the net gifts. For prior to his death on May 30, 1994 were acquired by the
purposes of this tax, who is a stranger? (2%) government under CARP are no longer part of his taxable
SUGGESTED ANSWER: gross estate, with the exception of the remaining five (5)
A STRANGER is a person who is not a: hectares which under Sec. 78{a) of the Tax Code still
A. Brother, sister (whether by whole or half-blood), forms part of "decedent's interest".
spouse, ancestor and lineal descendant; or
B. Relative by consanguinity in the collateral line within Estate Tax: Donation Mortis Causa (2001)
the fourth degree of relationship." [Sec. 98 (B), NIRC A, aged 90 years and suffering from incurable cancer, on
of 1997] August 1, 2001 wrote a will and, on the same day, made
several inter-vivos gifts to his children. Ten days later, he
Donor’s Tax; Sale of shares of Stock & Sale of Real died. In your opinion, are the inter-vivos gifts considered
Property (1999) transfers in contemplation of death for purposes of
A, an individual, sold to B, his brother-in-law, his lot with determining properties to be included in his gross estate?
a market value of P1,000,000 for P600.000. A's cost in the Explain your answer. (5%)
lot is P100.000. B is financially capable of buying the lot. SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Yes. When the donor makes his will within a short time
A also owns X Co., which has a fast growing business. A of, or simultaneously with, the making of gifts, the gifts
sold some of his shares of stock in X Co. to his key are considered as having been made in contemplation of
executives in X Co. These executives are not related to A. death. (Roces v. Posadas, 58 Phil. 108). Obviously, the
The selling price is P3,000,000, which is the book value of intention of the donor in making the inter-vivos gifts is to
the shares sold but with a market value of P5,000,000. A's avoid the imposition of the estate tax and since the donees
cost in the shares sold is P1,000,000. The purpose of A in are likewise his forced heirs who are called upon to
selling the shares is to enable his key executives to acquire inherit, it will create a presumption juris tantum that said
a propriety interest in the business and have a personal donations were made mortis causa, hence, the properties
donated shall be included as part of A's gross estate.
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The gross estate shall be determined by including
Estate Tax: Donation Mortis Causa vs. Inter Vivos (1994) the value at the time of his death all of the properties
Are donations inter vivos and donations mortis causa mentioned, to the extent of the interest he had at the
subject to estate taxes? time of his death because he is a Filipino citizen. [Sec. 85 (A),
SUGGESTED ANSWER: NIRC of 1997]
Donations inter vivos are subject to donor's gift tax (Sec.
91 (a). Tax Code) while donations mortis causa are subject With respect to the life insurance proceeds, the amount
to estate tax (Sec. 77, Tax Code). However, donations includible in the gross estate for Philippine tax purposes
inter vivos, actually constituting taxable lifetime like trans- would be to the extent of the amount receivable by the
fers in contemplation of death or revocable transfers (Sec. estate of the deceased, his executor, or administrator,
78 (b) and (c), Tax Code) may be taxed for estate tax under policies taken out by decedent upon his own life,
purposes, the theory being that the transferor's control irrespective of whether or not the insured retained the
thereon extends up to the time of his death. power of revocation, or to the extent of the amount
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: receivable by any beneficiary designated in the policy of
Donations inter vivos are not subject to estate taxes insurance, except when it is expressly stipulated that the
because the transfer of the property take effect during the designation of the beneficiary is irrevocable. [Sec. 85 (E)
lifetime of the donor. The transfer is therefore subject to NIRC of 1997]
the donor's tax.
The DEDUCTIONS that may be claimed by the estate
On the other hand, donations mortis causa are subject to are:
estate taxes since the transfer of the properties takes effect 1) The actual funeral expenses or in an amount equal to
after the death of the decedent. Such donated properties, five percent (5%) of the gross estate, whichever is
real or personal, tangible or intangible, shall form part of lower, but in no case to exceed two hundred
the gross estate. thousand pesos (P200.000.00). [Sec. 86 (A) (1) (a).
NIRC of 1997]
Estate Tax: Gross Estate: Allowable Deduction (2001)
On the first anniversary of the death of Y, his heirs hosted 2) The judicial expenses in the testate or intestate
a sumptuous dinner for his doctors, nurses, and others proceedings.(Sec. 86(A)(1)
who attended to Y during his last illness. The cost of the
dinner amounted to Php 50,000.00. Compared to his 3) The value of the decedent's family home located in
gross estate, the Php 50,000.00 did not exceed five Valle Verde, Pasig City in an amount not exceeding
percent of the estate. Is the said cost of the dinner to one million pesos (P1,000,000.00), and upon
commemorate his one year death anniversary deductible presentation of a certification of the barangay captain
from his gross estate? Explain your answer. (5%) of the locality that the same have been the decedent's
SUGGESTED ANSWER: family home. [Sec. 86 (A) (4), Ibid]
No. This expense will not fall under any of the allowable
deductions from gross estate. Whether viewed in the 4) The standard deduction of P1,000,000. (Sec. 86(A)(5)
context of either funeral expenses or medical expenses,
the same will not qualify as a deduction. Funeral expenses 5) Medical expenses incurred within one year from
may include medical expenses of the last illness but not death in an amount not exceeding P500,000.(Sec.
expenses incurred after burial nor expenses incurred to 86(A)(6)
commemorate the death anniversary. (De Guzman V. De
Guzman, 83 SCRA 256). Medical expenses, on the other The ESTATE TAX RETURN shall be filed within six
hand, are allowed only if incurred by the decedent within (6) months from the decedent's death (Sec. 90 (B), NIRC
one year prior to his death. (Section 86(A)(6), NIRC). of 1997], provided that the Commissioner of Internal
Revenue shall have authority to grant in meritorious cases,
Estate Tax: Gross Estate: Deductions (2000) a reasonable extension not exceeding thirty (30) days for
Mr. Felix de la Cruz, a bachelor resident citizen, suffered filing the return (Sec. 90 (c), Ibid]
from a heart attack while on a business trip to the USA.
He died intestate on June 15, 2000 in New York City, Except in cases where the Commissioner of Internal
leaving behind real properties situated in New York; his Revenue otherwise permits, the estate tax return shall be
family home in Valle Verde, Pasig City; an office filed with an authorized agent bank, or Revenue District
condominium in Makati City; shares of stocks in San Officer, Collection Officer, or duly authorized Treasurer
Miguel Corporation; cash in bank; and personal of Pasig City, the City in which the decedent Mr. de la
belongings. The decedent is heavily insured with Insular Cruz was domiciled at the time of his death. [Sec. 90 (D).
Life. He had no known debts at the time of his death. NIRC of 1997]
As the sole heir and appointed Administrator, how would
you determine the gross estate of the decedent? What Estate Tax: Inclusion: Resident Alien (1994)
deductions may be claimed by the estate and when and Cliff Robertson, an American citizen, was a permanent
where shall the return be filed and estate tax paid? (3%) resident of the Philippines. He died in Miami, Florida. He
SUGGESTED ANSWER: left 10,000 shares of Meralco, a condominium unit at the
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 45 of 73
Twin Towers Building at Pasig, Metro Manila and a house SUGGESTED ANSWER:
and lot in Los Angeles, California. Vanishing deductions or property previously taxed in
What assets shall be included in the Estate Tax Return to estate taxation refers to the diminishing deducibility/
be filed with the BIR? exemption, at the rate of 20% over a period of five (5)
SUGGESTED ANSWER: years until it is lost after the fifth year, of any property
All of Mr. Robertson's assets consisting of 10,000 shares (situated in the Philippines) forming part of the gross
in the Meralco, a condominium unit in Pasig, and his estate, acquired by the decedent from a prior decedent
house and lot in Los Angeles, California are taxable. The who died within a period of five (5) years from the
properties of a resident alien decedent like Mr. Robertson decedent's death.
are taxable wherever situated (Sees. 77, 78 and 98, Tax
Code). Estate Tax; Payment vs. Probate Proceedings (2005)
Is the approval of the court, sitting as probate or estate
Estate Tax: Payment vs. Probate Proceedings (2004) settlement court, required in the enforcement and
VCC is the administrator of the estate of his father NGC, collection of estate tax? Explain.
in the estate proceedings pending before the MM SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Regional Trial Court. Last year, he received from the No, the approval of the court, sitting in probate, or as a
Commissioner of Internal Revenue a deficiency tax settlement tribunal over the deceased is not a mandatory
assessment for the estate in the amount of P1,000,000. requirement in the collection of estate taxes. There is
But he ignored the notice. Last month, the BIR effected a nothing in the Tax Code, and in the pertinent remedial
levy on the real properties of the estate to pay the laws that implies the necessity of the probate or estate
delinquent tax. VCC filed a motion with the probate court settlement court's approval of the state's claim for estate
to stop the enforcement and collection of the tax on the taxes, before the same can be enforced and collected.
ground that the BIR should have secured first the (Marcos v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 120880, June 5, 1997)
approval of the probate court, which had jurisdiction over
the estate, before levying on its real properties. Is VCC's BUSINESS TAXES
contention correct? (5%)
SUGGGESTED ANSWER: VAT: Basis of VAT (1996)
No. VCC's contention is not correct. The approval of the What is the basis of the Value-Added Tax on taxable
probate court is not necessary. Payment of estate taxes is a sales of real property?
condition precedent for the distribution of the properties SUGGESTED ANSWER:
of the decedent and the collection of estate taxes is The basis of the Value-Added Tax on taxable sale of real
executive in nature for which the court is devoid of any property is "GROSS SELLING PRICE" which is either
jurisdiction. Hence, the approval of the court, sitting in selling price stated in the sale document or the "Zonal
probate, or as a settlement tribunal is not a mandatory Value", whichever is higher. In the absence of zonal
requirement in the collection of estate taxes (Marcos H v. values, the gross selling price shall refer to the market
Court of Appeals, 273 SCRA 47 [1997]). value as shown in the latest tax declaration or the
consideration, whichever is higher.
Estate Tax: Situs of Taxation: Non-Resident Decedent
(2000) VAT: Characteristics of VAT (1996)
Discuss the rule on situs of taxation with respect to the What are the characteristics of the Value-Added Tax?
imposition of the estate tax on property left behind by a SUGGESTED ANSWER:
non-resident decedent. (2%) The value-added tax is an indirect tax and the amount of
SUGGESTED ANSWER: tax may be shifted or passed on to the buyer, transferee or
The value of the gross estate of a non-resident decedent lessee of the goods, properties or services.
who is a Filipino citizen at the time of his death shall be ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
determined by including the value at the time of his death The value-added tax has the following characteristics:
of all property, real or personal, tangible or intangible, 1) It is an indirect tax where tax shifting is always
wherever situated to the extent of the interest therein of presumed:
the decedent at the time of his death [Sec. 85 (A), NIRC 2) It is consumption-based;
of 1997). These properties shall have a situs of taxation in 3) It is imposed on the value-added in each stage of
the Philippines hence subject to Philippine estate taxes. distribution;
4) It is a credit-invoice method value-added tax; and
On the other hand, in the case of a non-resident decedent 5) It is not a cascading tax.
who at the time of his death was not a citizen of the
Philippines, only that part of the entire gross estate which is VAT: Exempted Transactions (1996)
situated in the Philippines to the extent of the interest therein of the Give at least three (3) real estate transactions which are
decedent at the time of his death shall be included in his taxable not subject to the Value-Added Tax.
estate. Provided, that, with respect to intangible personal SUGGESTED ANSWER:
property, we apply the rule of reciprocity. (Ibid) Real estate transactions which are exempt from the value-
added tax are:
Estate Tax: Vanishing Deductions (1994) (a) Sale of real property not primarily held for sale or
Vanishing deductions in estate-taxation? lease in the ordinary course of trade or business;
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 46 of 73
(b) Sale of real property utilized for socialized housing State whether the following transactions are a)
under RA. No. 7279; VAT Exempt, b) subject to VAT at 10%; or c) subject to
(c) Sale of real property utilized under the low-cost VAT at 0%:
housing under BP Big. 220. 1) Sale of fresh vegetables by Aling Ining at the
Pamilihang Bayan ng Trece Martirez. [1%]
Note: The other real estate transactions which are exempt 2) Services rendered by Jake's Construction Company,
from the value-added tax which may be cited by the bar a contractor to the World Health Organization in
candidates are as follows: the renovation of its offices in Manila. [1%]
(a) Transfer of real property to a trustee if the property 3) Sale of tractors and other agricultural implements by
is to be held merely in trust for the trustor. Bungkal Incorporated to local farmers. [1%]
(b) Transfer of real property to a corporation in 4) Sale of RTW by Cely's Boutique, a Filipino dress
exchange for its shares of stock under Section designer, in her dress shop and other outlets. [1%]
34(c)(2) and (6)(2) of the Tax Code. 5) Fees for lodging paid by students to Bahay-Bahayan
(c) Advance payment by the lessee in a lease contract, Dormitory, a private entity operating a student
when the same is actually a loan to the lessor from dormitory (monthly fee PI,500). [1%]
the lessee. SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(d) Security deposits for lease arrangements to insure 1) VAT exempt. Sale of agricultural products, such as
the faithful performance of certain obligations of fresh vegetables, in their original state, of a kind
the lessee to the lessor. generally used as, or producing foods for human
(e) Lease of residential units, boarding houses, dormito- consumption is exempt from VAT. (Section 109(c),
ries, rooms and bed spaces offered for rent by their NIRC).
owners at a monthly rental not exceeding P3,950.00
per unit. 2) VAT at 0%. Since Jake's Construction Company has
rendered services to the World Health Organization,
VAT: Liable for Payment (1996) which is an entity exempted from taxation under
Who are liable for the payment of Value-Added Tax? international agreements to which the Philippines is
SUGGESTED ANSWER: a signatory, the supply of services is subject to zero
The persons liable for the value-added tax are: percent (0%) rate. (Sec. 108[B1(3), NIRC).
a. Sellers of goods and properties in the course of trade
or business; 3) VAT at 10%. Tractors and other agricultural
b. Sellers of services in the course of trade or business, implements fall under the definition of goods which
including lessors of goods and properties; include all tangible objects which are capable of
c. Importers of taxable goods, whether in the course of pecuniary estimation (Sec. 106[A1(1), NIRC, the
business or not sales of which are subject to VAT at 10%.

VAT: Transactions "Deemed Sales” (1997) 4) This is subject to VAT at 10%. This transaction also
Under the Value Added tax (VAT), the tax is imposed on falls under the definition of goods which include all
sales, barter, or exchange of goods and services. The VAT tangible objects which are capable of pecuniary
is also imposed on certain transactions "deemed-sales". estimation (Sec. 106[A1(1), NIRC, the sales of
What are these so-called transactions "deemed sales'? which are subject to VAT at 10%.
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
The following transactions shall be deemed sale: 5) VAT Exempt. The monthly fee paid by each student
a) Transfer, use, or consumption not in the course of falls under the lease of residential units with a
business of goods originally intended for sale or for monthly rental per unit not exceeding Php 8,000,
use in the course of business; which Is exempt from VAT regardless of the
amount of aggregate rentals received by the lessor
b) Distribution or transfer to: during the year. (Sec. 109(x), NIRC). The term unit
(1) Shareholders or investors as share in the shall mean per person in the case of dormitories,
profits of VAT-registered persons; or boarding houses and bed spaces (Sec. 4.103-1,
(2) Creditors in payment of debt; RRNo. 7-95).

c) Consignment of goods if actual sale is not made COMMENT: The problems do not call for a yes or no answer.
within 60 days following the date such goods were Accordingly, a bar candidate who answered only VAT exempt.
consigned; and VAT at 10% or VAT at 0%. as called for in the problem without
further reasons, should be given full credit.
d) Retirement from or cessation of business, with
respect to inventories of taxable goods existing as VAT; Exemption: Constitutionality (2004)
of such retirement or cessation. A law was passed exempting doctors and lawyers from the
operation of the value added tax. Other professionals
VAT; Covered Transactions (1998) complained and filed a suit questioning the law for being
discriminatory and violative of the equal protection clause
of the Constitution since complainants were not given the
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 47 of 73
same exemption. Is the suit meritorious or not? Reason unapplied/unused Input VAT (Tax Reform Act,
briefly. (5%) Section 112[A] [1997]).
SUGGESTED ANSWER: ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
B. Yes, the suit is meritorious. The VAT is designed for No. The exemption of Lily's Fashion, Inc. is only for taxes
economic efficiency; hence, should be neutral to those for which it is directly liable. Hence, it can not claim
who belong to the same class. Professionals are a class of exemption for a tax shifted to it, which is not at all
taxpayers by themselves who, in compliance with the rule considered a tax to the buyer but a part of the purchase
of equality of taxation, must be treated alike for tax price. Lily's fashion is not the taxpayer in so far as the
purposes. Exempting lawyers and doctors from a burden passed-on tax is concerned and therefore, it can not claim
to which other professionals are subjected will make the for a refund of a tax merely shifted to it (Phil. Acetylene
law discriminatory and violative of the equal protection Co., Inc. v. CIR, L-19707,Aug. 17, 1987).
clause of the Constitution. While singling out a class for (NOTA BENE: This concept pertains to the VAT law
taxation purposes will not infringe upon this which is excluded from the Bar coverage, Guidelines for 2006
constitutional limitation (Shell v. Vano, 94 Phil. 389 Bar Examinations, June 15, 2006)
[1954]), singling out a taxpayer from a class will no doubt
transgress the constitutional limitation (Ormoc Sugar Co. REMEDIES IN INTERNAL
Inc., v. Treasurer of Ormoc City, 22 SCRA 603 [1968]).
Treating doctors and lawyers as a different class of
REVENUE TAXES
professionals will not comply with the requirements of a BIR: Assessment: Unregistered Partnership (1997)
reasonable, hence valid classification, because the Mr. Santos died intestate in 1989 leaving his spouse and
classification is not based upon substantial distinction five children as the only heirs. The estate consisted of a
which makes real differences. The classification does not family home and a four-door apartment which was being
comply with the requirement that it should be germane to rented to tenants. Within the year, an extrajudicial settle-
the purpose of the law either. (Pepsi-Cola Bottling Co., ment of the estate was executed from the heirs, each of
Inc. v. City of Butuan, 24 SCRA 789 [1968]). them receiving his/her due share. The surviving spouse
ANOTHER ANSWER: assumed administration of the property. Each year, the
No. The suit is not meritorious. The equal protection net income from the rental property was distributed to all,
clause of the Constitution merely requires that all persons proportionately, on which they paid respectively, the
subjected to legislation shall be treated alike, under like corresponding income tax.
circumstances and conditions, both in the privileges
conferred and in the liabilities imposed. The equality in In 1994, the income tax returns of the heirs were
taxation rule is not violated if classifications or distinctions examined and deficiency income tax assessments were is-
are made as long as the same are based on reasonable and sued against each of them for the years 1989 to 1993,
substantial differences. {Pepsi-Cola Bottling Co., Inc. inclusive, as having entered into an unregistered
v. City of Butuan, 24 SCRA 789 [1968]). partnership. Were the assessments justified?
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
In the instant case, the professions of doctors and lawyers Yes, the assessments were justified because for income tax
are not principally aimed at earning money but for the purposes, the co-ownership of inherited property is
service of the people. The exemption granted to doctors automatically converted into an unregistered partnership
and lawyers from the operation of the VAT is justified, as from the moment the said properties are used as a
it is not discriminatory against the other professionals common fund with intent to produce profits for the heirs
because they have reasonable and substantial differences in proportion to their shares in the inheritance.
in the conduct of their professions.
From the moment of such partition, the heirs are entitled
already to their respective definite shares of the estate and
VAT; Non-VAT taxpayer; Claim for Refund (2006)
Lily's Fashion, Inc. is a garment manufacturer located and the income thereof, for each of them to manage and
registered as a Subic Bay Freeport Enterprise under dispose of as exclusively his own without the intervention
Republic Act No. 7227 and a non-VAT taxpayer. As such, of the other heirs, and, accordingly, he becomes liable
it is exempt from payment of all local and national internal individually for all taxes in connection therewith. If after
revenue taxes. During its operations, it purchased various such partition, he allows his shares to be held in common
supplies and materials necessary in the conduct of its with his co-heir under a single management to be used
manufacturing business. The suppliers of these goods with the intent of making profit thereby in proportion to
shifted to Lily's Fashion, Inc. the 10% VAT on the his share, there can be no doubt that, even if no document
purchased items amounting to P 500,000.00. Lily's or instrument were executed for the purpose, for tax
Fashion, Inc. filed with the BIR a claim for refund for the purposes, at least, an unregistered partnership is formed
(Lorenzo Ona, et al v. CIR, 45 SCRA 74).
input tax shifted to it by the suppliers. If you were the ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
Commissioner of Internal Revenue, will you allow the No, the assessments are not justified. The mere sharing of
refund? (5%) income does not of itself establish a partnership absent
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
any clear intention of the co-owners who are only awaiting
No, I will not allow the refund. Only VAT-Registered
liquidation of the estate.
taxpayers are entitled to a refund of their
BIR: Collection of Tax Deficiency (1999)
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 48 of 73
A died, survived by his wife and three children. The estate final assessments issued against large taxpayers
tax was properly paid and the estate settled and divided wherein the Commissioner cannot compromise for less
and distributed among the four heirs. Later, the BIR than fifty percent (50%). Any compromise involving large
found out that the estate failed to report the income taxpayers lower than fifty percent (50%) shall be subject
received by the estate during administration. The BIR to the approval of the Secretary of Finance.
issued a deficiency income tax assessment plus interest,
surcharges and penalties. Since the 3 children are residing All criminal violations except those involving fraud, can
abroad, the BIR sought to collect the full tax deficiency be compromised by the Commissioner but only prior to
only against the widow. Is the BIR correct? (10%) the filing of the information with the Court. The
SUGGESTED ANSWER: Commissioner may also abate or cancel a tax liability
Yes, the BIR is correct. In a case where the estate has when
been distributed to the heirs, the collection remedies 1. the tax or any portion thereof appears to have been
available to the BIR in collecting tax liabilities of an estate unjustly or excessively assessed; or
may either (1) sue all the heirs and collect from each of 2. the administrative and collection costs involved do
them the amount of tax proportionate to the inheritance not Justify collection of the amount due. (Sec. 204,
received or (2) by virtue of the lien created under Section NIRC)
219, sue only one heir and subject the property he
received from the estate to the payment of the estate tax. BIR: Compromise; Withholding Agent (1998)
The BIR, therefore, is correct in pursuing the second May the Commissioner of the Internal Revenue compro-
remedy although this will give rise to the right of the heir mise the payment of withholding tax (tax deducted and
who pays to seek reimbursement from the other heirs. withheld at source) where the financial position of the
(CIR v. Pineda, 21 SCRA 105). In no case, however, can the taxpayer demonstrates a clear inability to pay the assessed
BIR enforce the tax liability in excess of the share of the tax? [5%1
widow in the inheritance. SUGGESTED ANSWER:
No. A taxpayer who is constituted as withholding agent
BIR: Compromise; Conditions (2000) who has deducted and withheld at source the tax on the
Under what conditions may the Commissioner of Internal income payment made by him holds the taxes as trust
Revenue be authorized to: funds for the government (Sec. 58[D]) and is obligated to
A. Compromise the payment of any internal revenue remit them to the BIR. The subsequent inability of the
tax? (2%) withholding agent to pay/remit the tax withheld is not a
SUGGESTED ANSWER: ground for compromise because the withholding tax is
The Commissioner of Internal Revenue may be not a tax upon the withholding agent but it is only a
authorized to compromise the payment of any internal procedure for the collection of a tax.
revenue tax where:
1) A reasonable doubt as to the validity of the claim BIR: Corporation: Distraint & Levy (2002)
against the taxpayer exists; or On March 15, 2000, the BIR issued a deficiency income
2) the financial position of the taxpayer demonstrates a tax assessment for the taxable year 1997 against the Valera
clear inability to pay the assessed tax. Group of Companies (Valera) in the amount of P10
million. Counsel for Valera protested the assessment and
B. Abate or cancel a tax liability? (3%) requested a reinvestigation of the case. During the
SUGGESTED ANSWER: investigation, it was shown that Valera had been
The Commissioner of Internal Revenue may abate or transferring its properties to other persons. As no
cancel a tax liability when: additional evidence to dispute the assessment had been
1) The tax or any portion thereof appears to be unjustly presented, the BIR issued on June 16, 2000 warrants of
or excessively assessed; or distraint and levy on the properties and ordered the filing
2) The administration and collection costs involved do of an action in the Regional Trial Court for the collection
not justify the collection of the amount due. [Sec. of the tax. Counsel for Valera filed an injunctive suit in
204 (B), NIRC of 1997] the Regional Trial Court to compel the BIR to hold the
collection of the tax in abeyance until the decision on the
BIR: Compromise; Extent of Authority (1996) protest was rendered.
Explain the extent of the authority of the Commissioner A. Can the BIR file the civil action for collection,
of Internal Revenue to compromise and abate taxes? pending decision on the administrative protest?
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Explain. (3%)
The authority of the Commissioner to compromise SUGGESTED ANSWER:
encompasses both civil and criminal liabilities of the tax- A. Yes, because there is no prohibition for this
payer. The civil compromise is allowed only in cases procedure considering that the filing of a civil action for
12) where the tax assessment is of doubtful validity, or collection during the pendency of an administrative
13) when the financial position of the taxpayer protest constitutes the final decision of the Commissioner
demonstrates a clear inability to pay the tax. on the protest (CIR v. Union Shipping Corp., 85 SCRA
548 [1990]).
The compromise of the tax liability is possible at any stage
of litigation and the amount of compromise is left to the
discretion of the Commissioner except with respect to
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 49 of 73
B. As counsel for Valera, what action would you take criminal prosecution (CIR v. Fortune Tobacco
in order to protect the interest of your client? Corp., GR No. 119322, June 4, 1996).
Explain your answer. (2%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER: BIR: Extinction; Criminal Liability of the Taxpayer (2002)
B. I will wait for the filing of the civil action for Mr. Chan, a manufacturer of garments, was investigated
collection and consider the same as an appealable for failure to file tax returns and to pay taxes for the
decision. I will not file an injunctive suit because it is not taxable year 1997. Despite the subpoena duces tecum issued to
an available remedy. I would then appeal the case to the him, he refused to present and submit his books of
Court of Tax Appeals and move for the dismissal of the accounts and allied records. Investigators, therefore,
collection case with the RTC. Once the appeal to the CTA raided his factory and seized several bundles of
is filed on time, the CTA has exclusive jurisdiction over manufactured garments, supplies and unpaid imported
the case. Hence, the collection case in the RTC should be textile materials. After his apprehension and based on the
dismissed (Tabes v. Flojo, 115 SCRA 278 [1982]). testimony of a former employee, deficiency income and
business taxes were assessed against Mr. Chan on April
BIR: Court of Tax Appeals: Collection of Taxes; Grounds 15, 2000. It was then that he paid the taxes. Criminal
for Compromise (1996) action was nonetheless instituted against him in the
1. May the Court of Tax Appeals issue an injunction to Regional Trial Court for violation of the Tax Code. Mr.
enjoin the collection of taxes by the Bureau of Chan moved to dismiss the criminal case on the ground
Internal Revenue? Explain. that he had already paid the taxes assessed against him. He
SUGGESTED ANSWER: also demanded the return of the garments and materials
Yes. When a decision of the Commissioner on a tax seized from his factory. How will you resolve Mr. Chan's
protest is appealed to the CTA pursuant to Sec. 11 of RA. motion? (5%)
No. 1125 (law creating the CTA) in relation to Sec. 229 of the SUGGESTED ANSWER:
NIRC, such appeal does not suspend the payment, levy, The motion to dismiss should be denied. The satisfaction
distraint and/or sale of any of the taxpayer's property for of the civil liability is not one of the grounds for the
the satisfaction of his tax liability. However, when in the extinction of criminal action (People v. Ildefonso
opinion of the CTA the collection of the tax may Tierra, 12 SCRA 666 [1964]). Likewise, the payment of
jeopardize the interest of the Government and/or the the tax due after apprehension shall not constitute a valid
taxpayer, the Court at any stage of the proceedings may defense in any prosecution for violation of any provision
suspend or restrain the collection of the tax and require of the Tax Code (Sec. 253[a], NIRC). However, the
the taxpayer either to deposit the amount claimed or to garments and materials seized from the factory should be
file a surety bond for not more than double the amount ordered returned because the payment of the tax had
with the Court. released them from any lien that the Government has
over them.
2. May the tax liability of a taxpayer be compromised
during the pendency of an appeal? Explain. Customs; Jurisdiction; Assessment; Unpaid Customs
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Duties/Taxes (2006)
Yes. During the pendency of the appeal, the taxpayer may The Collector of Customs issued an assessment for un-
still enter into a compromise settlement of his tax liability paid customs duties and taxes on the importation of your
for as long as any of the grounds for a compromise i.e.; client in the amount of P980,000.00. Where will you file
doubtful validity of assessment and financial incapacity of taxpayer, your case to protect your client's right? Choose the correct
is present. A compromise of a tax liability is possible at courts/ agencies, observing their proper hierarchy. (5%)
any stage of litigation, even during appeal, although legal 1. Court of Tax Appeals
propriety demands that prior leave of court should be 2. Collector of Customs
obtained (Pasudeco vs. CIR L-39387, June 29, 1982). 3. Commissioner of Customs
4. Regional Trial Court
BIR: Criminal Prosecution: Tax Evasion (1998) 5. Metropolitan Trial Court
Is assessment necessary before a taxpayer may be 6. Court of Appeals
prosecuted for willfully attempting in any manner to evade 7. Supreme Court
or defeat any tax imposed by the Internal Revenue Code? SUGGESTED ANSWER:
[5%) 1. Protest with the Collector of Customs (Sec. 2308, TCC)
SUGGESTED ANSWER: 2. Appeal to the Commissioner of Customs (Sec. 2313,
No. Assessment is not necessary before a taxpayer maybe TCC).
prosecuted if there is a prima facie showing of a willful 3. Appeal to the CTA (RA 9282)
attempt to evade taxes as in the taxpayer's failure to 4. Petition for Review on Certiorari Supreme Court (Rule
declare a specific item of taxable income in his income tax 45 of the 1997 Rules of Civil Procedure (RA 9282).
returns (Ungab v. Cusi 97 SCRA 877). On the contrary,
if the taxes alleged to have been evaded is computed Taxpayer; Prescriptive Period; Assessment; Deficiency
based on reports approved by the BIR there is a
Income Tax (2006)
presumption of regularity of the previous payment of The Commissioner of Internal Revenue issued an assess-
taxes, so that unless and until the BIR has made a final ment for deficiency income tax for taxable year 2000 last
determination of what is supposed to be the correct taxes, July 31, 2006 in the amount of P 10 Million inclusive of
the taxpayer should not be placed in the crucible of
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 50 of 73
surcharge and interests. If the delinquent taxpayer is your Royal Mining is a VAT-registered domestic
client, what steps will you take? What is your defense? mining entity. One of its products is silver being sold to
(10%) the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas. It filed a claim with the
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: BIR for tax refund on the ground that under Section 106
As Counsel, I shall move to cancel the Assessment of the Tax Code, sales of precious metals to the Bangko
because of prescription. The three (3) year period of Sentral ng Pilipinas are considered export sales subject to
assessment for the Income Tax Returns of 2000 starts on zero-rated VAT. Is Royal Mining's claim meritorious?
April 15, 2001 and ends on April 16, 2004. The Explain. (5%)
assessment of July 31, 2006 is beyond the three (3) year SUGGESTED ANSWER:
prescriptive period and can no longer have any legal, No, Royal Mining's claim is not meritorious because it is
binding effect (Tax Reform Act, Title VIII, Chapter I, Section the sale to the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas of gold and not
203 [1997]). silver which is considered export sales at Zero-rated VAT
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: (Tax Reform Act, Title IV, Section 106[2][a][4]).
Since my client has lost his right to protest, I will advise (NOTA BENE: EVAT is excluded from the Bar coverage, Guidelines
him to wait for a collection action by the Commissioner. for 2006 Bar Examinations, June 15, 2006)
Then, I will file a petition for review with the CTA to
question the collection. Since the assessment was issued BIR: Fraudulent Return; Prima Facie Evidence (1998)
beyond the prescriptive period to assess, the action to What constitutes prima facie evidence of a false or
collect an invalid assessment is not warranted (Phil. Jour- fraudulent return? [2%]
nalists, Inc. v. CIR, G.R. No. 162852, December 16, 2004). SUGGESTED ANSWER:
There is prima facie evidence of a false or fraudulent
Taxpayer; Assessment; Deficiency Tax (2006) return when the taxpayer has willfully and knowingly filed
On June 1, 2003, Global Bank received a final notice of it with the intent to evade a part or all of the tax legally
assessment from the BIR for deficiency documentary due from him (Ungab v. Cusi,, 97 SCRA 877). There
stamp tax in the amount of P5 Million. On June 30, 2003, must appear a design to mislead or deceive on the part of
Global Bank filed a request for reconsideration with the the taxpayer, or at least culpable negligence. A mistake not
Commissioner of Internal Revenue. The Commissioner culpable in respect of its value would not constitute a false
denied the request for reconsideration only on May 30, return. (Words and Phrases, Vol. 16, page 173).
2006, at the same time serving on Global Bank a warrant
of distraint to collect the deficiency tax. If you were its BIR: Fraudulent Return; Prima Facie Evidence (2002)
counsel, what will be your advice to the bank? Explain. What constitutes prima facie evidence of a false or
(5%) fraudulent return to justify the imposition of a 50%
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: surcharge on the deficiency tax due from a taxpayer?
The denial for the request for reconsideration is the final Explain. (5%)
decision of the CIR.. I would advise Global Bank to SUGGESTED ANSWER:
appeal the denial to the Court of Tax Appeals (CTA) There is a prima facie evidence of false or fraudulent
within 30 days from receipt. I will further advise the bank return when the taxpayer SUBSTANTIALLY UNDER-
to file a motion for injunction with the Court of Tax DECLARED his taxable sales, receipts or income, or
Appeals to enjoin the Commissioner from enforcing the SUBSTANTIALLY OVERSTATED his deductions, the
assessment pending resolution of the appeal. While an taxpayer's failure to report sales, receipts or income in an
appeal to the CTA will not suspend the payment, levy, amount exceeding 30% of that declared per return, and a
distraint, and/or sale of any property of the taxpayer for claim of deduction in an amount exceeding 30% of actual
the satisfaction of its tax liability, the CTA is authorized to deduction shall render the taxpayer liable for substantial
give injunctive relief if the enforcement would jeopardize underdeclaration and overdeclaration, respectively, and
the interest of the taxpayer, as in this case, where the will justify the imposition of the 50% surcharge on the
assessment has not become final (Lascona Land Co. v, deficiency tax due from the taxpayer. (Sec. 248, NIRC).
CIR, CTA Case No. 5777, January 4, 2000; See also Revised
CTA Rules, approved by the Supreme Court on December BIR: Garnishment: Bank Account of a Taxpayer (1998)
15, 2005). Is the BIR authorized to issue a warrant of garnishment
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: against the bank account of a taxpayer despite the
I will advice the Bank to promptly pay the deficiency pendency of his protest against the assessment with the
documentary stamp tax and the interest charges to avoid BIR or appeal with the Court of Tax Appeals? [5%]
any further increase in the tax liability. The Bank should SUGGESTED ANSWER:
have appealed to the Court of Tax Appeals when the BIR The BIR is authorized to issue a warrant of garnishment
failed to decide on its Request for Reconsideration within against the bank account of a taxpayer despite the
thirty (30) days after the inaction of the BIR for one pendency of protest (Yabes v. Flojo, 15 SCRA 278).
hundred eighty (180) days or on December 31, 2003. The Nowhere in the Tax Code is the Commissioner required
Tax Assessment has already become final, executory and to rule first on the protest before he can institute
unappealable at that point (BPI v. CIR, G.R. No. 139736, collection proceedings on the tax assessed. The legislative
October 17, 2005). policy is to give the Commissioner much latitude in the
speedy and prompt collection of taxes because it is in
Taxpayer; VAT-registered; Claim for Tax Refund (2006) taxation that the Government depends to obtain the
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 51 of 73
means to carry on its operations (Republic u. Tim Tian refused to pay the modified assessment.
Teng Sons, Inc., 16 SCRA 584). Consequently, the BIR brought an action for collection in
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: the Regional Trial Court on September 15, 2000.
No, because the assessment has not yet become final, Adamson moved to dismiss the action on the ground that
executory and demandable. The basic consideration in the the government's right to collect the tax by judicial action
collection of taxes is whether the assessment is final and has prescribed. Decide the case. (5%)
unappealable or the decision of the Commissioner is final, SUGGESTED ANSWER:
executory and demandable, the BIR has legal basis to The right of the Government to collect by judicial action
collect the tax liability by either administrative or judicial has not prescribed. The filing of the request for
action. reconsideration suspended the running of the prescriptive
period and commenced to run again when a decision on
BIR: Pre-Assessment Notice not Necessary (2002) the protest was made on August 5, 1999. It must be noted
In the investigation of the withholding tax returns of AZ that in all cases covered by an assessment, the period to
Medina Security Agency (AZ Medina) for the taxable collect shall be five (5) years from the date of the
years 1997 and 1998, a discrepancy between the taxes assessment but this period is suspended by the filing of a
withheld from its employees and the amounts actually request for reconsideration which was acted upon by the
remitted to the government was found. Accordingly, Commissioner of Internal Revenue (CIR v. Wyeth Suaco
before the period of prescription commenced to run, the Laboratories, Inc., 202 SCRA 125 [1991]).
BIR issued an assessment and a demand letter calling for
the immediate payment of the deficiency withholding BIR: Prescriptive Period; Assessment & Collection (1999)
taxes in the total amount of P250,000.00. Counsel for AZ A Co., a Philippine Corporation, filed its 1995 Income
Medina protested the assessment for being null and void Tax Return (ITR) on April 15, 1996 showing a net loss.
on the ground that no pre-assessment notice had been On November 10, 1996, it amended its 1995 ITR to show
issued. However, the protest was denied. Counsel then more losses. After a tax investigation, the BIR disallowed
filed a petition for prohibition with the Court of Tax certain deductions claimed by A Co., putting A Co. in a
Appeals to restrain the collection of the tax. net income position. As a result, on August 5, 1999, the
A. Is the contention of the counsel tenable? Explain BIR issued a deficiency income assessment against A Co.
(2%) A Co. protested the assessment on the ground that it has
SUGGESTED ANSWER: prescribed: Decide. (5%)
A. No, the contention of the counsel is untenable. SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Section 228 of the Tax Code expressly provides that no The right of the BIR to assess the tax has not prescribed.
pre-assessment notice is required when a discrepancy has The rule is that internal revenue taxes shall be assessed within three
been determined between the tax withheld and the years after the last day prescribed by law for the filing of the return.
amount actually remitted by the withholding agent. Since (Section 203, NIRC), However, if the return originally filed
the amount assessed relates to deficiency withholding is amended substantially, the counting of the three-year
taxes, the BIR is correct in issuing the assessment and period starts from the date the amended return was filed.
demand letter calling for the immediate payment of the (CIR v. Phoenix Assurance Co., Ltd., 14 SCRA 52). There is
deficiency withholding taxes. (Sec. 228, NIRC). a substantial amendment in this case because a new return
was filed declaring more losses, which can only be done
B. Will the special civil action for prohibition brought either (1) in reducing gross income or (2) in increasing the
before the CTA under Sec. 11 of R.A, No. 1125 items of deductions, claimed.
prosper? Discuss your answer. (3%)
BIR: Prescriptive Period; Criminal Action (2002)
SUGGESTED ANSWER: TY Corporation filed its final adjusted income tax return
B. The special civil action for prohibition will not for 1993 on April 12, 1994 showing a net loss from
prosper, because the CTA has no jurisdiction to entertain operations. After investigation, the BIR issued a pre-
the same. The power to issue writ of injunction provided assessment notice on March 30, 1996. A final notice and
for under Section 11 of RA 1125 is only ancillary to its demand letter dated April 15, 1997 was issued, personally
appellate jurisdiction. The CTA is not vested with original delivered to and received by the company's chief
jurisdiction to issue writs of prohibition or injunction accountant. For willful refusal and failure of TY
independently of and apart from an appealed case. The Corporation to pay the tax, warrants of distraint and levy
remedy is to appeal the decision of the BIR. (Collector v. on its properties were issued and served upon it. On
Yuseco, 3 SCRA 313 [1961]). January 10, 2002, a criminal charge for violation of the
Tax Code was instituted in the Regional Trial Court with
BIR: Prescriptive Period: Civil Action (2002) the approval of the Commissioner.
On August 5, 1997, Adamson Co., Inc. (Adamson) filed a
request for reconsideration of the deficiency withholding The company moved to dismiss the criminal complaint on
tax assessment on July 10, 1997, covering the taxable year the ground that an act for violation of any provision of
1994. After administrative hearings, the original the Tax Code prescribes after five (5) years and, in this
assessment of P150,000.00 was reduced to P75.000.00 and case, the period commenced to run on March 30, 1996
a modified assessment was thereafter issued on August 05, when the pre-assessment was issued. How will you resolve
1999. Despite repeated demands, Adamson failed and the motion? Explain your answer. (5%)
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 52 of 73
P2.0 Million as the selling price. Discuss the tax
SUGGESTED ANSWER: implications and consequences of the action. (5%)
The motion to dismiss should not be granted. It is only ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
when the assessment has become final and unappealable The action of the parties constitutes tax evasion and
that the 5-year period to file a criminal action commences exposes Josel to:
to run (Tupaz v. Ulop, 316 SCRA 118 [1999]). The pre- (1) DEFICIENCY FINAL INCOME TAX on the sale
assessment notice issued on March 30, 1996 is not a final of real property in the Philippines classified as a
assessment which is enforceable by the BIR. It is the capital asset. Under Sec. 24(D) of the NIRC, the final
issuance of the final notice and demand letter dated April tax of six percent (6%) shall be based on the gross
15, 1997 and the failure of the taxpayer to protest within selling price of P2.5 Million or zonal value of P2.0
30 days from receipt thereof that made the assessment Million, whichever is higher, i.e., P2.5 Million;
final and unappealable. The earliest date that the (2) FRAUD PENALTY amounting to 50% surcharge on
assessment has become final is May 16, 1997 and since the the amount evaded (Sec. 248[B] NIRC); and
criminal charge was instituted on January 10, 2002, the (3) DEFICIENCY INTEREST of 20% per annum on
same was timely filed. the deficiency. (Sec. 249[A][B], NIRC)
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
BIR: Secrecy of Bank Deposits Law (1998) There is tax evasion because of the concurrence of the
Can the Commissioner of Internal Revenue inquire into following factors:
the bank deposits of a taxpayer? If so, does this power of 1) The payment of less than that known by the taxpayer to
the Commissioner conflict with R.A. 1405 (Secrecy of be legally due, or the non-payment of tax when it is shown
Bank Deposits Law) [5%] that a tax is due. It is evident that the parties that the tax
SUGGESTED ANSWER: due should be computed based on the valuation of P2.5
The Commissioner of Internal Revenue is authorized to million and not P2.0 million;
inquire into the bank deposits of: 2) An accompanying state of mind which is described
1) a decedent to determine his gross estate; as being "evil" on "bad faith," "willful," or "deliberate and
not accidental." Despite the above knowledge, the parties
2) any taxpayer who has filed an application for deliberately misrepresented the true basis of the sale; and
compromise of his tax liability by means of financial 3) A course of action or failure of action which is
incapacity to pay his tax liability (Sec. 6(F). NIRC). unlawful. This is shown by the preparation of the two
deeds of sale which showed different values.
3) Where the taxpayer has signed a waiver authorizing (Commissioner of Internal Revenue v. The Estate
the Commissioner or his duly authorized ofBenigno P, Tbda, Jr., G.R. No. 147188, September 14,
representatives to Inquire into the bank deposits. 2004)
(Note: This answer was not part of the answers enumerated
in the UP Law Answers to the Bar in this but was later The tax evasion committed should result to the
added in the recent UP Law Answers to the Bar as a result imposition of a 50% fraud surcharge on the amount
of AMLA Law of 2001) evaded (Sec. 248[B], NIRC) payment of the Deficiency
Tax, and interest of 20% per annum on the deficiency.
The limited power of the Commissioner does not conflict (Sec. 249[A][B], NIRC) The parties may likewise be
with R.A. No. 1405 because the provisions of the Tax subject to criminal prosecution for willfully failing to pay
Code granting this power is an exception to the Secrecy of the tax, as well as for filing a false and fraudulent return.
Bank Deposits Law as embodied in a later legislation. (Sees. 254, 255 and 257, NIRC)

Furthermore, in case a taxpayer applies for an application BIR: Summary Remedy: Estate Tax Deficiencies (1998)
to compromise the payment of his tax liabilities on his Is the BIR authorized to collect estate tax deficiencies by
claim that his financial position demonstrates a clear the summary remedy of levy upon and sale of real
inability to pay the tax assessed, his application shall not properties of the decedent without first securing the
be considered unless and until he waives in writing his authority of the court sitting in probate over the supposed
privilege under R.A. No. 1405, and such waiver shall will of the decedent?
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
constitute the authority of the Commissioner to inquire
Yes. The BIR is authorized to collect estate tax deficiency
into the bank deposits of the taxpayer.
through the summary remedy of levying upon and sale of
real properties of a decedent, without the cognition and
BIR; Consequence; Taxpayer guilty of Tax Evasion (2005) authority of the court sitting in probate over the supposed
Josel agreed to sell his condominium unit to Jess for P2.5
will of the deceased, because the collection of estate tax is
Million. At the time of the sale, the property had a zonal
executive in character. As such the estate tax is exempted
value of P2.0 Million. Upon the advice of a tax consultant,
from the application of the statute of non-claims, and this
the parties agreed to execute two deeds of sale, one
is justified by the necessity of government funding,
indicating the zonal value of P2.0 Million as the selling
immortalized in the maxim that taxes are the lifeblood of
price and the other showing the true selling price of P2.5
the government (Marcos v. CIR, G.R. No. 120880, June
Million. The tax consultant filed the capital gains tax
5, 1997).
return using the deed of sale showing the zonal value of ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 53 of 73
Yes, if the tax assessment has already become final, assessment so long as there is a prima facie
executory and enforceable. The approval of the court showing of violation of the provisions of the Tax Code.
sitting in probate over the supposed will of the deceased is After all, a criminal charge is instituted not to demand
not a mandatory requirement for the collection of the payment, but to penalize the tax payer for violation of the
estate tax. The probate court is determining issues which Tax Code. (Commissioner of Internal Revenue v. Pascor
are not against the property of the decedent, or a claim Realty and Development Corporation, G.R. No. 128315,
against the estate as such, but is against the interest or June 29, 1999) Furthermore, there is nothing in the
property right which the heir, legatee, devisee, etc. has in problem that shows that the BIR in filing the case is also
the property formerly held by the decedent. (Marcos v. interested in collecting the tax deficiency.
CIR, G.R, No. 120880, June 5, 1997).
However, it is in error when it ruled that the joint affidavit
BIR: Unpaid Taxes vs. Claims for Unpaid Wages (1995) of the BIR examiners may be considered as an assessment
For failure of Oceanic Company, Inc. (OCEANIC), to of the tax liability of the corporation. The joint affidavit
pay deficiency taxes of P20 Million, the Commissioner of showing the computation of the tax liabilities of the erring
Internal Revenue issued warrants of distraint on taxpayer is not a tax assessment because it was not sent to
OCEANIC's personal properties and levied on its real the taxpayer, and does not demand payment of the tax
properties. Meanwhile, the Department of Labor through within a certain period of time. An assessment is deemed
the Labor Arbiter rendered a decision ordering made only when the BIR releases, mails or sends such
OCEANIC to pay unpaid wages and other benefits to its notice to the taxpayer. (Commissioner of Internal Revenue
employees. Four barges belonging to OCEANIC were v. Pascor Realty and Development Corporation, G.R. No.
levied upon by the sheriff and later sold at public auction. 128315, June 29, 1999)
Notes and Comments: A plea is made for liberality in
correcting the examinees answers because the examination is very
The Commissioner of Internal Revenue filed a motion long.
with the Labor Arbiter to annul the sale and enjoin the
sheriff from disposing the proceeds thereof. The BIR; Authority; Refund or Credit of Taxes (2005)
employees of OCEANIC opposed the motion contending State the conditions required by the Tax Code before the
that Art. 110 of the Labor Code gives first preference to Commissioner of Internal Revenue could authorize the
claims for unpaid wages. refund or credit of taxes erroneously or illegally received.
Resolve the motion. Explain. SUGGESTED ANSWER:
SUGGESTED ANSWER: Under Sec. 204(C), NIRC, the following conditions must
The motion filed by the Commissioner should be granted be met:
because the claim of the government for unpaid taxes are 1. There must be a written claim for refund filed by the
generally preferred over the claims of laborers for unpaid taxpayer with the Commissioner.
wages. The provision of Article 110 of the Labor Code, 2. The claim for refund must be a categorical demand
which gives laborers' claims for preference applies only in for reimbursement.
case of bankruptcy or liquidation of the employer's 3. The claim for refund must be filed within two (2)
business. In the instant case, Oceanic is not under years from date of payment of the tax or penalty
bankruptcy or liquidation at the time the warrants of regardless of any supervening cause.
distraint and levy were issued hence, the opposition of the
employees is unwarranted. (CIR vs. NLRC et al G.R. No.
BIR; Compromise (2004)
74965, November 9, 1994).
After the tax assessment had become final and
unappealable, the Commissioner of Internal Revenue
BIR; Assessment; Criminal Complaint (2005)
initiated the filing of a civil action to collect the tax due
In 1995, the BIR filed before the Department of Justice
from NX. After several years, a decision was rendered by
(DOJ) a criminal complaint against a corporation and its
the court ordering NX to pay the tax due plus penalties
officers for alleged evasion of taxes. The complaint was
and surcharges. The judgment became final and
supported by a sworn statement of the BIR examiners
executory, but attempts to execute the judgment award
showing the computation of the tax liabilities of the erring
were futile.
taxpayer. The corporation filed a motion to dismiss the
criminal complaint on the ground that there has been, as
Subsequently, NX offered the Commissioner a
yet, no assessment of its tax liability; hence, the criminal
compromise settlement of 50% of the judgment award,
complaint was premature. The DOJ denied the motion on
representing that this amount is all he could really afford.
the ground that an assessment of the tax deficiency of the
Does the Commissioner have the power to accept the
corporation is not a precondition to the filing of a
compromise offer? Is it legal and ethical? Explain briefly.
criminal complaint and that in any event, the joint
(5%)
affidavit of the BIR examiners may be considered as an SUGGESTED ANSWER:
assessment of the tax liability of the corporation. Is the Yes. The Commissioner has the power to accept the offer
ruling of the DOJ correct? Explain. (5%) of compromise if the financial position of the taxpayer
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
clearly demonstrates a clear inability to pay the tax
The DOJ is correct in ruling that an assessment of the tax
(Section 204, NIRC).
deficiency of the corporation is not a precondition to the
filing of a criminal complaint. There is no need for an
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 54 of 73
As represented by NX in his offer, only 50% of the
judgment award is all he could really afford. This is an BIR; Deficiency Tax Assessment vs. Tax Refund / Tax
offer for compromise based on financial incapacity which Credit (2005)
the Commissioner shall not accept unless accompanied by Is a deficiency tax assessment a bar to a claim for tax
a waiver of the secrecy of bank deposits (Section 6[F}, refund or tax credit? Explain.
NIRC). The waiver will enable the Commissioner to SUGGESTED ANSWER:
ascertain the financial position of the taxpayer, although Yes, the deficiency tax assessment is a bar to a tax refund
the inquiry need not be limited only to the bank deposits or credit. The Taxpayer cannot be entitled to a refund and
of the taxpayer but also as to his financial position as at the same time liable for a tax deficiency assessment for
reflected in his financial statements or other records upon the same year. The deficiency assessment creates a doubt
which his property holdings can be ascertained. as to the truth and accuracy of the Tax Return. Said
Return cannot therefore be the basis of the refund
If indeed, the financial position of NX as determined by (Commissioner of Internal Revenue v. Alltel [2002], citing
the Commissioner demonstrates a clear inability to pay the Commissioner of Internal Revenue v. Court of Appeals,
tax, the acceptance of the offer is legal and ethical because City Trust Banking Corporation and Court of Tax Appeals,
G.R. No. 106611, July 21, 1994)
the ground upon which the compromise was anchored is
within the context of the law and the rate of compromise
BIR; Distraint; Prescription of the Action (2002)
is well within and far exceeds the minimum prescribed by
Mr. Sebastian is a Filipino seaman employed by a
law which is only 10% of the basic tax assessed.
Norwegian company which is engaged exclusively in
international shipping. He and his wife, who manages
BIR; Compromise (2005) their business, filed a joint income tax return for 1997 on
State and discuss briefly whether the following cases may
March 15, 1998. After an audit of the return, the BIR
be compromised or may not be compromised:
issued on April 20, 2001 a deficiency income tax
a) Delinquent accounts;
assessment for the sum of P250.000.00, inclusive of
b) Cases under administrative protest, after issuance of
interest and penalty. For failure of Mr. and Mrs. Sebastian
the final assessment notice to the taxpayer, which are
to pay the tax within the period stated in the notice of
still pending;
assessment, the BIR issued on August 19, 2001 warrants
c) Criminal tax fraud cases;
of distraint and levy to enforce collection of the tax.
d) Criminal violations already filed in court;
A. What is the rule of income taxation with respect to
e) Cases where final reports of reinvestigation or
Mr. Sebastian's income in 1997 as a seaman on
reconsideration have been issued resulting in the
board the Norwegian vessel engaged in
reduction of the original assessment agreed to by the
international shipping? Explain your answer. (2%)
taxpayer when he signed the required agreement SUGGESTED ANSWER:
form. (5%) A. The income of Mr. Sebastian as a seaman is considered
SUGGESTED ANSWERS:
as income of a non-resident citizen derived from without
The following cases may still be compromised (R.R. 30-02
the Philippines. The total gross income, in US dollars (or
[2002]) because of the taxpayer's financial incapacity to
if in other foreign currency, its dollar equivalent) from
pay the tax due or the assessment's doubtful validity:
without shall be declared by him for income tax purposes
a) DELINQUENT ACCOUNTS may be
using a separate income tax return which will not include
compromised because there is no showing that there is a
his income from business derived within (to be covered
duly-approved schedule of installment payments; and
by another return). He is entitled to deduct from his dollar
b) Cases under administrative protest, after issuance of
gross income a personal exemption of $4,500 and foreign
the final assessment notice to the taxpayer, which are still
national income taxes paid to arrive at his adjusted income
pending.
during the year. His adjusted income will be subject to the
graduated tax rates of 1% to 3%. (Sec. 21 (b), Tax Code of
The following cases MAY NO LONGER BE
1986[PD 1158], as amended by PD 1994).
COMPROMISED (R.R. 30-02 [2002]) because the
taxpayer has not paid his taxes for reasons other than his [Note: The bar candidates are not expected to be familiar with
financial incapacity or the doubtful validity of the tax history. Considering that this is already the fourth year of
assessment: implementation of the Tax Code of 1997, bar candidates were
a) CRIMINAL TAX FRAUD cases as may be taught and prepared to answer questions based on the present
determined by the Commissioner or his authorized agents law. It is therefore requested that the examiner be more lenient
may not be compromised; in checking the answers to this question. Perhaps, an answer
b) CRIMINAL VIOLATIONS ALREADY FILED based on the present law be given full credit.]
IN COURT so that the taxpayer will not profit from his
fraud which would encourage tax evasion; and B. If you are the lawyer of Mr. and Mrs. Sebastian,
c) Cases where final reports of reinvestigation or what possible defense or defenses will you raise in
reconsideration have been issued resulting in the behalf of your clients against the action of the BIR
reduction of the original assessment agreed to by the in enforcing collection of the tax by the summary
taxpayer when he signed the required agreement form. remedies of warrants of distraints and levy?
The taxpayer is estopped from applying for a Explain your answer. (3%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
compromise.
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 55 of 73
B. I will raise the defense of prescription. The right of the properties left by his father with intent to evade
BIR to assess prescribes after three years counted from payment of the correct tax. As a result, a deficiency estate
the last day prescribed by law for the filing of the income tax assessment for P1,250,000.00, inclusive of 50%
tax returns when the said return is filed on time. (Section surcharge for fraud, interest and penalty, was issued
203, NIRC). The last day for filing the 1997 income tax against him on January 10, 2001. Mr. Castro protested the
return is April 15, 1998. Since the assessment was issued assessment on the ground of prescription.
only on April 20, 2001, the BIR's right to assess has A. Decide Mr. Castro's protest. (2%)
already prescribed. SUGGESTED ANSWER:
A. The protest should be resolved against Mr. Castro.
BIR; False vs. Fraudulent Return (1996) What was filed is a fraudulent return making the
Distinguish a false return from a fraudulent return. prescriptive period for assessment ten (10) years from
SUGGESTED ANSWER: discovery of the fraud (Section 222, NIRC). Accordingly,
The distinction between a false return and a fraudulent the assessment was issued within that prescriptive period
return is that the first merely implies a deviation from the to make an assessment based on a fraudulent return.
truth or fact whether intentional or not, whereas the
second is intentional and deceitful with the sole aim of B. What legal requirement/s must Mr. Santos comply
evading the correct tax due (Aznar us. Commissioner, with so that he can claim his reward? Explain. (3%)
L-20569, August 23, 1974). SUGGESTED ANSWER:
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: The legal requirements that must be complied by Mr.
A false return contains deviations from the truth which Santos to entitle him to reward are as follows:
may be due to mistakes, carelessness or ignorance of the 1) He should voluntarily file a confidential information
person preparing the return. A fraudulent return contains under oath with the Law Division of the Bureau of
an intentional wrongdoing with the sole object of avoiding Internal Revenue alleging therein the specific
the tax and it may consist in the intentional violations constituting fraud;
underdeclaration of income, intentional overdeclaration of 2) The information must not yet be in the possession of
deductions or the recurrence of both. A false return is not the Bureau of Internal Revenue, or refer to a case
necessarily tainted with fraud because the fraud already pending or previously investigated by the
contemplated by law is actual and not constructive. Any Bureau of Internal Revenue;
deviation from the truth on the other hand, whether 3) Mr. Santos should not be a government employee or
intentional or not, constitutes falsity. (Aznar vs. a relative of a government employee within the sixth
Commissioner, L-20569, August 23, 1974) degree of consanguinity; and
4) The information must result to collections of
BIR; Jurisdiction; Review Rulings of the Commissioner revenues and/or fines and penalties. (Sec. 282,
(2006) NIRC)
Mr. Abraham Eugenio, a pawnshop operator, after having
been required by the Revenue District Officer to pay BIR; Prescriptive Period; Criminal Action (2006)
value added tax pursuant to a Revenue Memorandum Gerry was being prosecuted by the BIR for failure to pay
Order (RMO) of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, his income tax liability for Calendar Year 1999 despite
filed with the Regional Trial Court an action questioning several demands by the BIR in 2002. The Information was
the validity of the RMO. If you were the judge, will you filed with the RTC only last June 2006. Gerry filed a
dismiss the case? (5%) motion to quash the Information on the ground of
SUGGESTED ANSWER: prescription, the Information having been filed beyond
Yes. The RMO is in reality a ruling of the Commissioner the 5-year reglementary period. If you were the judge, will
in implementing the provisions of the Tax Code on the you dismiss the Information? Why? (5%)
taxability of pawnshops. Jurisdiction to review rulings of SUGGESTED ANSWER:
the Commissioner is lodged with the Court of Tax No. The trial court can exercise jurisdiction. Prescription
Appeals and not with the Regional Trial Court (CIR v. of a criminal action begins to run from the day of the
Josefina Leal, G.R. No. 113459, November 18, 2002; Tax violation of the law. The crime was committed when
Reform Act, RA 8424, Title I, Sec. 4 [1997]). Gerry willfully refused to pay despite repeated demands in
(NOTA BENE: This concept pertains to the VAT law 2002. Since the information was filed in June 2006, the
which is excluded from the bar coverage, Guidelines for 2006 criminal case was instituted within the five-year period
Bar Examinations, June 15, 2006)
required by law (Tupaz v. Ulep, G.R. No. 127777, October
1, 1999; Section 281, NIRC).
BIR; Prescriptive Period; Assessment; Fraudulent Return
(2002) BIR; Taxpayer: Civil Action & Criminal Action (2002)
Mr. Castro inherited from his father, who died on June 10, Minolta Philippines, Inc. (Minolta) is an EPZA-registered
1994, several pieces of real property in Metro Manila. The enterprise enjoying preferential tax treatment under a
estate tax return was filed and the estate tax due in the special law. After investigation of its withholding tax
amount of P250.000.00 was paid on December 06, 1994. returns for the taxable year 1997, the BIR issued a
The Tax Fraud Division of the BIR investigated the case deficiency withholding tax assessment in the amount of
on the basis of confidential information given by Mr. P150.000.00. On May 15, 1999, because of financial
Santos on January 06, 1998 that the return filed by Mr. difficulty, the deficiency tax remained unpaid, as a result
Castro was fraudulent and that he failed to declare all of which the assessment became final and executory. The
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 56 of 73
BIR also found that, in violation of the provisions of the with the Collector of Customs. The Bureau of
National Internal Revenue Code, Minolta did not file its Customs moved to dismiss the case for lack of jurisdiction
final corporate income tax return for the taxable year of the Court of Tax Appeals.
1998, because it allegedly incurred net loss from its
operations. On May 17, 2002, the BIR filed with the A. Does the Court of Tax Appeals have jurisdiction over
Regional Trial Court an action for collection of the the petition for review and writ of prohibition?
deficiency withholding tax for 1997. Explain (3%)
A. Will the BIR's action for collection prosper? As SUGGESTED ANSWER:
counsel of Minolta, what action will you take? A. No, because there is no decision as yet by the
Explain your answer. (5%) Commissioner of Customs which can be appealed to the
SUGGESTED ANSWER: CTA. Neither the remedy of prohibition would lie
A. Yes, BIR's action for collection will prosper because because the CTA has not acquired any appellate
the assessment is already final and executory, it can jurisdiction over the seizure case. The writ of prohibition
already be enforced through judicial action. being merely ancillary to the appellate jurisdiction, the
CTA has no jurisdiction over it until it has acquired
As counsel of Minolta, I will introduce evidence that the jurisdiction on the petition for review. Since there is no
income payment was reported by the payee and the appealable decision, the CTA has no jurisdiction over the
income tax was paid thereon in 1997 so that my client petition for review and writ of prohibition.
may only be allowed to pay the civil penalties for non- (Commissioner of Customs v. Alikpala, 36 SCRA 208
withholding pursuant to RMO No. 38-83. [1970]).
[Note: It is not clear whether this is a case of non-
withholding/ underwithholding or non-remittance of tax B. Will an appeal to the CTA for tax refund be possible?
withheld. As such, the tax counsel may be open to other Explain (2%)
remedies against the assessment.] SUGGESTED ANSWER:
B. No, because the Commissioner of Customs has not
B. May criminal violations of the Tax Code be yet rendered a decision on the claim for refund. The
compromised? If Minolta makes a voluntary offer jurisdiction of the Commissioner and the CTA are not
to compromise the criminal violations for non- concurrent in so far as claims for refund are concerned.
filing and non-payment of taxes for the year 1998, The only exception is when the Collector has not acted on
may the Commissioner accept the offer? Explain the protested payment for a long time, the continued
(5%) inaction of the Collector or Commissioner should not be
SUGGESTED ANSWER: allowed to prejudice the taxpayer. (Nestle Phils., Inc. v.
B. All criminal violations of the Tax Code may be Court of Appeals, GR No. 134114, July 6, 2001).
compromised except those already filed in court or those
involving fraud (Section 204, NIRC). Accordingly, if Customs; Basis; Automatic Review (2002)
Minolta makes a voluntary offer to compromise the Whenever the decision of the Collector of Customs is
criminal violations for non-filing and non-payment of adverse to the government, it is automatically elevated to
taxes for the year 1998, the Commissioner may accept the the Commissioner for review and, if it is affirmed by him,
offer which is allowed by law. However, if it can be it is automatically elevated to the Secretary of Finance for
established that a tax has not been paid as a consequence review. What is the basis of the automatic review
of non-filing of the return, the civil liability for taxes may procedure in the Bureau of Customs? Explain your
be dealt with independently of the criminal violations. The answer. (5%)
compromise settlement of the criminal violations will not SUGGESTED ANSWER:
relieve the taxpayer from its civil liability. But the civil Automatic review is intended to protect the interest of the
liability for taxes may also be compromised if the financial Government in the collection of taxes and customs duties
position of the taxpayer demonstrates a clear inability to in seizure and protest cases. Without such automatic
pay the tax. review, neither the Commissioner of Customs nor the
Secretary of Finance would know about the decision laid
Custom: Violation of Tax & Custom Duties (2002) down by the Collector favoring the taxpayer. The power
The Collector of Customs of the Port of Cebu issued to decide seizure and protest cases may be abused if no
warrants of seizure and detention against the importation checks are instituted. Automatic review is necessary
of machineries and equipment by LLD Import and because nobody is expected to appeal the decision of the
Export Co. (LLD) for alleged nonpayment of tax and Collector which is favorable to the taxpayer and adverse
customs duties in violation of customs laws. LLD was to the Government. This is the reason why whenever the
notified of the seizure, but, before it could be heard, the decision of the Collector is adverse to the Government,
Collector of Customs issued a notice of sale of the the said decision is automatically elevated to the
articles. In order to restrain the Collector from carrying Commissioner for review; and if such decision is affirmed
out the order to sell, LLD filed with the Court of Tax by the Commissioner, the same shall be automatically
Appeals a petition for review with application for the elevated to and be finally reviewed by the Secretary of
issuance of a writ of prohibition. It also filed with the Finance (Yaokasin v. Commissioner of Customs, 180
CTA an appeal for refund of overpaid taxes on its other SCRA 591 [1989]).
importations of raw materials which has been pending
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 57 of 73
Delinquent Tax Return (1998) functions It has been Instituted to perform. (Jao,
When is a revenue tax considered delinquent? [3%) et al, Court of Appeals, et al, and companion case,
SUGGESTED ANSWER: 249 SCRA 35, 43)
A revenue tax is considered delinquent when it is unpaid
after the lapse of the last day prescribed by law for its LGU: Collection of Taxes, Fees & Charges (1997)
payment. Likewise, it could also be considered as Give the remedies available to local government units to
delinquent where an assessment for deficiency tax has enforce the collection of taxes, fees, and charges?
become final and the taxpayer has not paid it within the SUGGESTED ANSWER:
period given in the notice of assessment. The remedies available to the local government units to
enforce collection of taxes, fees, and charges are:
Jurisdiction: Customs vs. CTA (2000) 1) ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES of distraint of
a) On the basis of a warrant of seizure and detention personal property of whatever kind whether tangible
issued by the Collector of Customs for the purpose of or intangible, and levy of real property and interest
enforcing the Tariff and Customs Laws, assorted therein; and
brands of cigarettes said to have been illegally imported 2) JUDICIAL REMEDY by institution of an ordinary
into the Philippines were seized from a store where civil action for collection with the regular courts of
they were openly offered for sale. Dissatisfied with the proper jurisdiction.
decision rendered after hearing by the Collector of
Customs on the confiscation of the articles, the Tax Amnesty vs. Tax Exemption (2001)
importer filed a petition for review with the Court of Distinguish a tax amnesty from a tax exemption. (3%)
Tax Appeals. The Collector moved to dismiss the SUGGESTED ANSWER:
petition for lack of Jurisdiction. Rule on the motion. Tax amnesty is an immunity from all criminal, civil and
(2%) administrative liabilities arising from nonpayment of taxes.
SUGGESTED ANSWER: It is a general pardon given to all taxpayers. It applies only
Motion granted. The Court of Tax Appeals has to past tax periods, hence of retroactive application.
jurisdiction only over decisions of the Commissioner of (People v. Costonedo, G.R. No. L-46881, 1988).
Customs in cases involving seizures, detention or release
of property affected. (Sec. 7, R.A. No. 1125). There is no Tax exemption is an immunity from the civil liability only.
decision yet of the Commissioner which is subject to It is an immunity or privilege, a freedom from a charge or
review by the Court of Tax Appeals. burden to which others are subjected. (Florer v.
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: Sheridan, 137 Ind. 28, 36 ME 365). It is generally
Motion granted. The Court of Tax Appeals has no prospective in application.
jurisdiction because there is no decision rendered by the
Commissioner of Customs on the seizure and forfeiture Taxpayer: Administrative & Judicial Remedies (2000)
case. The taxpayer should have appealed the decision Describe separately the procedures on the legal remedies
rendered by the Collector within fifteen (15) days from under the Tax Code available to an aggrieved taxpayer
receipt of the decision to the Commissioner of Customs. both at the administrative and judicial levels. (5%)
The Commissioner’s adverse decision would then be the SUGGESTED ANSWER:
subject of an appeal to the Court of Tax Appeals. The legal remedies of an aggrieved taxpayer under the Tax
Code, both at the administrative and judicial levels, may
be classified into those for assessment, collection and
b) Under the same facts, could the importer file an action refund.
in the Regional Trial Court for replevin on the ground
that the articles are being wrongfully detained by the The procedures for the ADMINISTRATIVE
Collector of Customs since the importation was not REMEDIES for ASSESSMENT are as follows:
illegal and therefore exempt from seizure? Explain. a. After receipt of the Pre-Assessment Notice, he must
(3%) within fifteen (15) days from receipt explain why no
SUGGESTED ANSWER: additional taxes should be assessed against him.
No. The legislators intended to divest the Regional Trial
Courts of the jurisdiction to replevin a property which is a b. If the Commissioner of Internal Revenue issues an
subject of seizure and forfeiture proceedings for violation assessment notice, the taxpayer must administratively
of the Tariff and Customs Code otherwise, actions for protest or dispute the assessment by filing a motion
forfeiture of property for violation of the Customs laws for reconsideration or reinvestigation within thirty
could easily be undermined by the simple device of (30) days from receipt of the notice of assessment.
replevin. (De la Fuente v. De Veyra, et. al, 120 SCRA (4th par.. Sec. 228, NIRC of 1997)
455)
c. Within sixty (60) days from filing of the protest, the
There should be no unnecessary hindrance on the taxpayer shall submit all relevant supporting
government's drive to prevent smuggling and other frauds documents.
upon the Customs. Furthermore, the Regional Trial Court
do not have Jurisdiction in order to render effective and The JUDICIAL REMEDIES of an aggrieved taxpayer
efficient the collection of Import and export duties due relative to an ASSESSMENT NOTICE are as follows:
the State, which enables the government to carry out the
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 58 of 73
a. Where the Commissioner of Internal Revenue has the refund of the surcharge, interest and
not acted on the taxpayer's protest within a period of compromise penalty. The CTA took cognizance of the
one hundred eighty (180) days from submission of all case and ordered the Commissioner to make a refund.
relevant documents, then the taxpayer has a period of The Commissioner filed a Petition for Review with the
thirty (30) days from the lapse of said 180 days within Court of Appeals assailing the jurisdiction of the CTA and
which to interpose a petition for review with the the Order to make refund to the Estate on the ground
Court of Tax Appeals. that no claim for refund was filed with the BIR.
A. Is the stand of the Commissioner correct? Reason.
b. Should the Commissioner deny the taxpayer's protest, (2%)
then he has a period of thirty (30) days from receipt SUGGESTED ANSWER:
of said denial within which to interpose a petition for Yes. There was no claim for refund or credit that has been
review with the Court of Tax Appeals. duly filed with the Commissioner of Internal Revenue
which is required before a suit or proceeding can be filed
In both cases the taxpayer must apply with the Court of in any court (Sec. 229. NIRC of 1997). The denial of the
Tax Appeals for the Issuance of an Injunctive writ to claim by the Commissioner is the one which will vest the
enjoin the Bureau of Internal Revenue from collecting the Court of Tax Appeals jurisdiction over the refund case
disputed tax during the pendency of the proceedings. should the taxpayer decide to appeal on time.

NOTE: A 2004 Amendment - The decision of the B. Why is the filing of an administrative claim with the
division of CTA is in turn appeallable within fifteen (15) BIR necessary? (3%)
days to the CTA en banc. The decision of the CTA en SUGGESTED ANSWER:
banc is directly appeallable to the Supreme Court on The filing of an administrative claim for refund with the
question of law on certiorari. BIR is necessary in order:
1) To afford the Commissioner an opportunity to
The employment by the Bureau of Internal Revenue of consider the claim and to have a chance to correct
any of the Administrative Remedies for the collection the errors of subordinate officers (Gonzales v.
of the tax like distraint, levy, etc. may be administratively CTA, et al, 14 SCRA 79); and
appealed by the taxpayer to the Commissioner whose 2) To notify the Government that such taxes have
decision is appealable to the Court of Tax Appeals under been questioned and the notice should be borne in
other matter arising under the provisions of the National mind in estimating the revenue available for
Internal Revenue Code. expenditures. (Bermejo v. Collector, G.R. No. L-
3028. July 29, 1950)
The judicial appeals starts with the Court of Tax Appeals,
and continues in the same manner as shown above. Taxpayer: Assessment; Injunction (2004)
RR disputed a deficiency tax assessment and upon receipt
Should the Bureau of Internal Revenue decide to utilize its of an adverse decision by the Commissioner of Internal
Judicial tax remedies for collecting the taxes by means of Revenue, filed an appeal with the Court of Tax Appeals.
an ordinary suit filed with the regular courts for the While the appeal is pending, the BIR served a warrant of
collection of a sum of money, the taxpayer could oppose levy on the real properties of RR to enforce the collection
the same going up the ladder of judicial processes from of the disputed tax. Granting arguendo that the BIR can
the Municipal Trial Court (as the case may be) to the legally levy on the properties, what could RR do to stop
Regional Trial Court, to the Court of Appeals, thence to the process? Explain briefly. (5%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
the Supreme Court.
RR should file a motion for injunction with the Court of
Tax Appeals to stop the administrative collection process.
The remedies of an aggrieved taxpayer on a claim for
An appeal to the CTA shall not suspend the enforcement
refund is to appeal the adverse decision of the
of the tax liability, unless a motion to that effect shall have
Commissioner to the CTA in the same manner outlined
been presented in court and granted by it on the basis that
above.
such collection will jeopardize the interest of the taxpayer
or the Government (Pirovano v. CIR, 14 SCRA 832
Taxpayer: Assessment: Protest: Claims for refund (2000) [1965]).
On June 16, 1997, the Bureau of Internal Revenue (BIR)
issued against the Estate of Jose de la Cruz a notice of
The CTA is empowered to suspend the collection of
deficiency estate tax assessment, inclusive of surcharge,
internal revenue taxes and customs duties in cases pending
interest and compromise penalty. The Executor of the
appeal only when: (1) in the opinion of the court the
Estate of Jose de la Cruz (Executor) filed a timely protest
collection by the BIR will jeopardize the interest of the
against the assessment and requested for waiver of the
Government and/or the taxpayer; and (2) the taxpayer is
surcharge, interest and penalty. The protest was denied by
willing to deposit the amount being collected or to file a
the Commissioner of Internal Revenue (Commissioner)
surety bond for not more than double the amount of the
with finality on September 13, 1997. Consequently, the
tax to be fixed by the court (Section 11, JR.A. No. 1125).
Executor was made to pay the deficiency assessment on
October 10, 1997. The following day, the Executor filed a
Taxpayer: BIR Audit or Investigation (1999)
Petition with the Court of Tax Appeals (CTA) praying for
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 59 of 73
A Co., a Philippine corporation, is a big manufacturer of 3. The claim filed must state a categorical
consumer goods and has several suppliers of raw materi- demand for reimbursement (Bermejo v. Collector, 87
als. The BIR suspects that some of the suppliers are not Phil. 96 [1950]).
properly reporting their income on their sales to A Co.
The CIR therefore: 4. The suit or proceeding for recovery must be
1) Issued an access letter to A Co. to furnish the BIR commenced in court within two years from date of
information on sales and payments to its suppliers. payment of the tax or penalty regardless of any
2) Issued an access letter to a bank (CX Bank) to supervening event that will arise after payment (Sec.
furnish the BIR on deposits of some suppliers of A 229, NIRC).
Co. on the alleged ground that the suppliers are
committing tax evasion. [Note: If the answer given is only number 1, it is suggested that the
same shall be given full credit considering that this is the only
A Co., X Bank and the suppliers have not been issued by requirement for the Commissioner to acquire jurisdiction over the
claim.]
the BIR letter of authority to examine. A Co. and X Bank
believe that the BIR is on a "fishing expedition" and come
B. Can the Commissioner grant a refund or tax credit
to you for counsel. What is your advice? (10%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
even without a written claim for it? (2%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
I will advise A Co. and B Co. that the BIR is justified only
B. Yes. When the taxpayer files a return which on its face
in getting information from the former but not from the
shows an overpayment of the tax and the option to
latter. The BIR is authorized to obtain information from
refund/ claim a tax credit was chosen by the taxpayer, the
other persons other than those whose internal revenue tax
Commissioner shall grant the refund or tax credit without
liability is subject to audit or investigation. However, this
the need for a written claim. This is so, because a return
power shall not be construed as granting the
filed showing an overpayment shall be considered as a
Commissioner the authority to inquire into bank deposits.
written claim for credit or refund. (Sees. 76 and 204,
(Section 5. NIRC).
NIRC). Moreover, the law provides that the
Commissioner may, even without a written claim therefor,
Taxpayer: City Board of Assessment Decision; Where to refund or credit any tax where on the face of the return
appeal (1999) upon which payment was made, such payment appears
A Co., a Philippine corporation, is the owner of machin-
clearly to have been erroneously paid. (Sec. 229, NIRC).
ery, equipment and fixtures located at its plant in
Muntinlupa City. The City Assessor characterized all these
Taxpayer: Deficiency Income Tax (1995)
properties as real properties subject to the real property
Businessman Stephen Yang filed an income tax return for
tax. A Co. appealed the matter to the Muntinlupa Board
1993 showing business net income of P350,000.00 on
of Assessment Appeals. The Board ruled in favor of the
which he paid an income tax of P61,000.00. After filing
City. In accordance with RA 1125 (An Act creating the
the return he realized that he forgot to include an item of
Court of Tax Appeals). A Co. brought a petition for
business income in 1993 for P50.000.00. Being an honest
review before the CTA to appeal the decision of the City
taxpayer, he included this income in his return for 1994
Board of Assessment Appeals. Is the Petition for Review
and paid the corresponding income tax thereon. In the
proper? Explain. (5%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
examination of his 1993 return the BIR examiner found
No. The CTA’s devoid of jurisdiction to entertain appeals that Stephen Yang failed to report this item of P50.000.00
from the decision of the City Board of Assessment and assessed him a deficiency income tax on this item,
Appeals. Said decision is instead appealable to the Central plus a 50% fraud surcharge.
Board of Assessment Appeals, which under the Local 1) Is the examiner correct? Explain.
Government Code, has appellate jurisdiction over deci- 2) If you were the lawyer of Stephen Yang, what would
sions of Local Board of Assessment Appeals. (Caltex you have advised your client before he included in
Phils, foe. v. Central Board of Assessment Appeals, L- his 1994 return the amount of P50.000.00 as 1993
50466, May 31, 1982). income to avoid the fraud surcharge? Explain.
3) Considering that Stephen Yang had already been
Taxpayer: Claim for Refund; Procedure (2002) assessed a deficiency income tax for 1993 for his
A. What must a taxpayer do in order to claim a refund of, failure to report the P50.000.00 income, what would
or tax credit for, taxes and penalties which he alleges to you advise him to do to avoid the penalties for tax
have been erroneously, illegally or excessively assessed delinquency? Explain.
or collected? (3%) 4) What would you advise Stephen Yang to do with
SUGGESTED ANSWER: regard to the income tax he paid for the P50.000.00
The taxpayer must comply with the following procedures in his 1994 return? In case your remedy fails, what is
in claiming a refund of, or tax credit for, taxes and your other recourse? Explain.
penalties which he alleges to have been erroneously, SUGGESTED ANSWERS:
illegally or excessively assessed or collected: 1) The examiner is correct in assessing a deficiency
2. He should file a written claim for refund with the income tax for taxable year 1993 but not in imposing the
Commissioner within two years after the date of 50% fraud surcharge. The amount of all items of gross
payment of the tax or penalty (Sec. 204, NIRC); income must be included in gross income during the year
in which received or realized (Sec. 38, NIRC). The 50%
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 60 of 73
fraud surcharge attaches only if a false or fraudulent Commissioner on cases involving claim for tax
return is willfully made by Mr. Yang (Sec.248, NIRC). The refunds are within the exclusive and primary jurisdiction
fact that Mr. Yang included the income in his 1994 return of the Court of Tax Appeals (Section 7.RA1125).
belies any claim of willfulness but is rather indicative of an
honest mistake which was sought to be rectified by a Taxpayer: Failure to Withheld & Remit Tax (2000)
subsequent act, that is the filing of the 1994 return. A domestic corporation failed to withhold and remit the
tax on income received from Philippine sources by a non-
2) Mr. Yang should have amended his 1993 Income tax resident foreign corporation. In addition to the civil
return to allow for the inclusion of the P50.000 income penalties provided for under the Tax Code, a compromise
during the taxable period it was realized. penalty was imposed for violation of the withholding tax
provisions. May the Commissioner of Internal Revenue
3) Mr. Yang should file a protest questioning the 50% legally enforce the collection of compromise penalty?
surcharge and ask for the abatement thereof. (5%)
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Mr. Yang should pay the deficiency income tax on or No. There is no showing that the compromise penalty was
before the day prescribed for its payment per notice of imposed by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue with
demand. After payment and within two years thereafter, the agreement and conformity of the taxpayer. (Wonder
he should file a claim for refund of taxes erroneously paid Mechanical Engineering Corporation u. Court of Tax
to recover the excessive surcharge imposed. Appeals, et. al., 64 SCRA 555).

Taxpayer: NIRC vs. TCC Remedies (1996)


4) Mr. Yang should file a written claim for refund with Compare the taxpayer's remedies under the National
the Commissioner of Internal Revenue of the taxes paid Internal Revenue Code and the Tariff and Customs Code.
on the P50.000 income included in 1994 within two years SUGGESTED ANSWER:
from payment pursuant to Section 204(3) of the Tax The taxpayer's remedies under the NATIONAL
Code. Should this remedy fail in the administrative level, a INTERNAL REVENUE CODE may be categorized
judicial claim for refund can be instituted before the into remedies before payment and remedies after
expiration of the two year period. payment. The remedy BEFORE PAYMENT consists of
(a) Administrative Remedy which is the filing of
Taxpayer: Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies (1997) protest within 30 days from receipt of assessment,
(a) A taxpayer received, on 15 January 1996 an as- and
sessment for an internal revenue tax deficiency. On (b) Judicial Remedy which is the appeal of the adverse
10 February 1996, the taxpayer forthwith filed a decision of the Commissioner on the protest with the
petition for review with the Court of Tax Appeals. Court of Tax Appeals, and finally with the Supreme
Could the Tax Court entertain the petition? Court.

(b) Under the above factual setting, the taxpayer, instead The remedy AFTER PAYMENT is availed of
of questioning the assessment he received on 15 (c) by paying the assessed tax within 30 days from
January 1996 paid, on 01 March 1996 the "deficiency receipt of assessment and
tax" assessed. The taxpayer requested a refund from (d) the filing of a claim for refund or tax credit of these
the Commissioner by submitting a written claim on taxes on grounds that they are erroneously paid
01 March 1997. It was denied. The taxpayer, on 15 within two years from date of payment.
March 1997, filed a petition for review with the (e) If there is a denial of the claim, appeal to the CTA shall
Court of Appeals. Could the petition still be be made within 30 days from denial but within two
entertained? years from date of payment.
SUGGESTED ANSWER: If the Commissioner fails to act on the claim for
(a) No. Before taxpayer can avail of Judicial remedy he refund or tax credit and the two-year period is
must first exhaust administrative remedies by filing a about to expire, the taxpayer should consider the
protest within 30 days from receipt of the assessment. It is continuous inaction of the Commissioner as a
the Commissioner's decision on the protest that give the denial and elevate the case to the CTA before
Tax Court jurisdiction over the case provided that the the expiration of the two-year period.
appeal is filed within 30 days from receipt of the
Commissioner's decision. An assessment by the BIR is Under the Tariff and Customs Code, taxpayer's reme-
not the Commissioner's decision from which a petition dies arise only after payment of duties.
for review may be filed with the Court of Tax Appeals. 4) The administrative remedies consist of filing a claim
Rather, it is the action taken by the Commissioner in for refund which may take the form of abatement or
response to the taxpayer's protest on the assessment that drawback.
would constitute the appealable decision (Section 7, RA 5) The taxpayer can also file a protest within 15 days
1125). from payment if he disagrees with the ruling or
decision of the Collector of Customs regarding the
(b) No, the petition for review can not be entertained by legality or correctness of the assessment of customs
the Court of Appeals, since decisions of the duties.
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 61 of 73
6) If the decision of the Collector is adverse to the December 15, 1995 up to December 8, 1998.
taxpayer, he can notify the Collector within 15 days (Sec. 223 in relation to Sec. 203, both of the NIRC of 1997)
from receipt of said decision of his desire to have his
case reviewed by the Commissioner. Taxpayer: Prescriptive Period; Claim for Refund (1997)
The decision of the Collector on the taxpayer's A corporation files its income tax return on a calendar
protest, if adverse to the Government, is year basis. For the first quarter of 1993, it paid on 30 May
automatically elevated to the Commissioner for 1993 its quarterly income tax in the amount of P3.0
review; and if such decision is affirmed by the million. On 20 August 1993, it paid the second quarterly
Commissioner, the same shall be automatically income tax of P0.5 million. The third quarter resulted in a
elevated to and finally reviewed by the Secretary net loss, and no tax was paid. For the fourth and final
of Finance. return for 1993, the company reported a net loss for the
year, and the taxpayer indicated in the income tax return
Resort to judicial relief can be had by the that it opted to claim a refund of the quarterly income tax
taxpayer by appealing the decision of the payments. On 10 January 1994, the corporation filed with
Commissioner or of the Secretary of Finance the Bureau of Internal Revenue a written claim for the
(for cases subject to automatic review) within 30 refund of P3.5 million.
days from the promulgation of the adverse
decision to the CTA. BIR failed to act on the claim for refund; hence, on 02
March 1996, the corporation filed a petition for review
Taxpayer: Overwitholding Claim for Refund (1999) with the Court of Tax Appeals on its claim for refund of
A Co. is the wholly owned subsidiary of B Co., a non- the overpayment of its 1993 quarterly income tax. BIR, in
resident German company. A Co. has a trademark its answer to the petition, alleged that the claim for refund
licensing agreement with B Co. On Feb. 10, 1995, A Co. was filed beyond the reglementary period. Did the claim
remitted to B Co. royalties of P 10,000,000, which A Co. for refund prescribe?
subjected to a withholding tax of 25% or P2,500,000. SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Upon advice of counsel, A Co. realized that the proper The claim for refund has prescribed. The counting of the
withholding tax rate is 10%. On March 20, 1996, A Co. two-year prescriptive period for filing a claim for
filed a claim for refund of P2.500.000 with the BIR. The refund is counted not from the date when the quarterly
BIR denied the claim on Nov. 15, 1996. On Nov. 28, income taxes were paid but on the date when the final
1996, A Co. filed a petition for review with the CTA. The adjustment return or annual income tax return was filed
BIR attacked the capacity of A Co., as agent, to bring the (CIR v. TMX Sales Inc., G.R. No. 83736, January 15, 1992;
CIR v. Phi/Am Life Insurance Co., Inc., G.R. No. 105208,
refund case. Decide the issue. (5%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER: May 29, 1995). It is obvious that the annual income tax
A Co., the withholding agent of the non-resident foreign return was filed before January 10, 1994 because the
corporation is entitled to claim the refund of excess written claim for refund was filed with the BIR on January
withholding tax paid on the income of said corporation in 10, 1994. Since the two-year prescriptive period is not
the Philippines. Being a withholding agent, it is the one only a limitation of action in the administrative stage but
held liable for any violation of the withholding tax law also a limitation of action for bringing the case to the
should such a violation occur. In the same vein, it should judicial stage, the petition for review filed with the CTA
be allowed to claim a refund in case of overwitholding. on March 02, 1996 is beyond the reglementary period.
(CIR v. Wander Phils. Inc., GR No. 68378, April 15, 1988,
160 SCRA 573; CIR v. Procter & Gamble PMC, 2O4 SCRA Taxpayer: Prescriptive Period; Claims for Refund (1994)
377). XCEL Corporation filed its quarterly income tax return
for the first quarter of 1985 and paid an income tax of
Taxpayer: Prescriptive Period: Suspended (2000) P500.000.00 on May 15, 1985. In the subsequent quarters,
Mr. Reyes, a Filipino citizen engaged in the real estate XCEL suffered losses so that on April 15, 1986 it declared
business, filed his 1994 income tax return on March 20, a net loss of P1,000,000.00 in its annual income tax return.
1995. On December 15, 1995, he left the Philippines as an After failing to get a refund, XCEL filed on March 1, 1988
immigrant to join his family in Canada. After the a case with the Court of Tax Appeals to recover the
investigation of said return/the BIR issued a notice of P500.000.00 in taxes paid on May 15, 1985.
deficiency income tax assessment on April 15, 1998. Mr. Is the action to recover the taxes filed timely?
Reyes returned to the Philippines as a balikbayan on SUGGESTED ANSWER:
December 8, 1998. Finding his name to be in the list of The action for refund was filed in the Court of Tax
delinquent taxpayers, he filed a protest against the Appeals on time. In the case of Commissioner v. TMX
assessment on the ground that he did not receive the Sales, Inc., 205 SCRA 184, which is similar to this case, the
notice of assessment and that the assessment had Supreme Court ruled that in the case of overpaid quarterly
prescribed. Will the protest prosper? Explain. (5%) corporate income tax, the two-year period for filing claims
SUGGESTED ANSWER: for refund in the BIR as well as in the institution of an
No. Prescription has not set in because the period of action for refund in the CTA, the two-year prescriptive
limitations for the Bureau of Internal Revenue to issue an period for tax refunds (Sec. 230, Tax Code) is counted
assessment was SUSPENDED during the time that Mr. from the filing of the final, adjustment return under Sec.
Reyes was out of the Philippines or from the period 67 of the Tax Code, and not from the filing of the
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 62 of 73
quarterly return and payment of the quarterly tax. The subject of appeal to the Court of Tax Appeals
CTA action on March 1, 1988 was clearly within the (Yobes u. Flojo, 15 SCRA 278). The CTA may, however,
reglementary two-year period from the filing of the final remand the case to the BIR and require the Commissioner
adjustment return of the corporation on April 15, 1986. to specifically rule on the protest. The decision of the
Commissioner, if adverse to my client, would then
Taxpayer: Prescriptive Period; Claims for Refund (2004) constitute an appealable decision.
On March 12, 2001, REN paid his taxes. Ten months
later, he realized that he had overpaid and so he Taxpayer: Protest against Assessment (1999)
immediately filed a claim for refund with the A Co., a Philippine corporation, received an income tax
Commissioner of Internal Revenue. deficiency assessment from the BIR on May 5, 1995. On
May 31, 1995, A Co. filed its protest with the BIR. On
On February 27, 2003, he received the decision of the July 30, 1995, A Co. submitted to the BIR all relevant
Commissioner denying REN's claim for refund. On supporting documents. The CIR did not formally rule on
March 24, 2003, REN filed an appeal with the Court of the protest but on January 25, 1996, A Co. was served a
Tax Appeals. Was his appeal filed on time or not? Reason. summons and a copy of the complaint for collection of
(5%) the tax deficiency filed by the BIR with the Regional Trial
SUGGESTED ANSWER: Court (RTC). On February 20, 1996, A Co. brought a
The appeal was not filed on time. The two-year period of Petition for Review before the CTA. The BIR contended
limitation for filing a claim for refund is not only a that the Petition is premature since there was no formal
limitation for pursuing the claim at the administrative level denial of the protest of A Co. and should therefore be
but also a limitation for appealing the case to the Court of dismissed.
Tax Appeals. The law provides that "no suit or proceeding 1. Has the CTA jurisdiction over the case?
shall be filed after the expiration of two years from the SUGGESTED ANSWER;
date of the payment of the tax or penalty regardless of any Yes, the CTA has jurisdiction over the case because this
supervening cause that may arise after payment (Section qualifies as an appeal from the Commissioner's decision
229, JVZRCJ. Since the appeal was only made on March on disputed assessment. When the Commissioner decided
24, 2003, more than two years had already elapsed from to collect the tax assessed without first deciding on the
the time the taxes were paid on March 12, 2003. taxpayer's protest, the effect of the Commissioner’s action
Accordingly, REN had lost his judicial remedy because of of filing a judicial action for collection is a decision of
prescription. denial of the protest, in which event the taxpayer may file
an appeal with the CTA. (Republic v. Lim Tian Teng &
Taxpayer: Protest against Assessment (1998) Sons, Inc., 16 SCRA 584; Dayrit v. Cruz, L-39910,
CFB Corporation, a domestic corporation engaged in Sept. 26, 1988).
food processing and other allied activities, received a letter
from the BIR assessing it for delinquency income taxes. 2. Has the RTC jurisdiction over the collection case
CFB filed a letter of protest. One month after, a warrant filed by the BIR? Explain.
of distraint and levy was served on CFB Corporation. If SUGGESTED ANSWER;
you were the lawyer engaged by CFB Corporation to The RTC has no jurisdiction over the collection case filed
contest the assessment made by the BIR, what steps will by the BIR. The filing of an appeal with the CTA has the
you take to protect your client? (5%) effect of divesting the RTC of jurisdiction over the
SUGGESTED ANSWER: collection case. At the moment the taxpayer appeals the
I shall immediately file a motion for reconsideration of the case to the Court of Tax Appeals in view of the
issuance of the warrant of distraint and levy and seek from Commissioner's filing of the collection case with the RTC
the BIR Commissioner a denial of the protest "in clear which was considered as a decision of denial, it gives a
and unequivocal language." This is so because the issuance justifiable basis for the taxpayer to move for dismissal in
of a warrant of distraint and levy is not considered as a the RTC of the Government's action to collect the tax
denial by the BIR of the protest filed by CFB Corporation liability under dispute. (Yabes v. Flojo, 15 SCRA 278; San
(CIR v. Union Shipping Corp., 185 SCRA 547). Juan v. Vasquez, 3 SCRA 92). There is no final, executory
and demandable assessment which can be enforced by the
Within thirty (30) days from receipt of such denial "in BIR, once a timely appeal is filed.
clear and unequivocal language," I shall then file a petition
for review with the Court of Tax Appeals. Taxpayer: Protest against Assessment (1999)
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: A Co., a Philippine corporation, received an income tax
Within thirty (30) days from receipt of the warrant of deficiency assessment from the BIR on November 25,
distraint and levy, I shall file a petition for review with the 1996. On December 10, 1996, A Co. filed its protest with
Court of Tax Appeals with an application for issuance of a the BIR On May 20, 1997, the BIR issued a warrant of
writ of preliminary injunction to enjoin the Bureau of distraint to enforce the assessment. This warrant was
Internal Revenue from enforcing the warrant. served on A Co. on May 25, 1997. In a letter dated June 4,
1997 and received by A Co. 5 days later, the CIR formally
This is the action I shall take because I shall consider the denied A Co.'s protest stating that it constitutes his final
issuance of the warrant as a final decision of the decision on the matter. On July 6, 1997, A Co. filed a
Commissioner of Internal Revenue which could be the Petition for Review with the CTA. The BIR moved to
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 63 of 73
dismiss the Petition on the ground that the CTA has no
jurisdiction over the case. Decide. (10%) Taxpayer; Claim for Tax Credits (2006)
SUGGESTED ANSWER: Congress enacts a law granting grade school and high
The CTA has jurisdiction over the case. The appealable school students a 10% discount on all school-prescribed
decision is the one which categorically stated that the textbooks purchased from any bookstore. The law allows
Commissioner's action on the disputed assessment is final bookstores to claim in full the discount as a tax credit.
and, therefore, the reckoning of the 30-day period to 1. If in a taxable year a bookstore has no tax due on
appeal was on June 9, 1999. The filing of the petition for which to apply the tax credits, can the bookstore claim
review with the CTA was timely made. The Supreme from the BIR a tax refund in lieu of tax credit? Explain.
Court has ruled that the CIR must categorically state that (2.5%)
his action on a disputed assessment is final; otherwise, the SUGGESTED ANSWER:
period to appeal will not commence to run. That final No, the bookstore cannot claim from the BIR a tax
action cannot be implied from the mere issuance of a refund in lieu of tax credit. There is nothing in the law
warrant "of distraint and levy. (CIR v. Union Shipping that grants a refund when the bookstore has no tax liabil-
Corporation, 185 SCRA 547). ity against which the tax credit can be used (CIR v. Central
Luzon Drug, G.R. No 159647, April 15, 2005). A tax credit is
Taxpayer: Protest; Claim of Refund (1996) in the nature of a tax exemption and in case of doubt, the
Is protest at the time of payment of taxes and duties a doubt should be resolved in strictissimi juris against the
requirement to preserve the taxpayers' right to claim a claimant.
refund? Explain.
SUGGESTED ANSWER: 2. Can the BIR require the bookstores to deduct the
For TAXES imposed under the NIRC, protest at the amount of the discount from their gross income? Explain.
time of payment is not required to preserve the taxpayers' (2.5%)
right to claim refund. This is clear under Section 230 of the SUGGESTED ANSWER:
NIRC which provides that a suit or proceeding maybe No. Tax credit which reduces the tax liability is different
maintained for the recovery of national internal revenue from a tax deduction which merely reduces the tax base.
tax or penalty alleged to have been erroneously assessed Since the law allowed the bookstores to claim in full the
or collected, whether such tax or penalty has been paid discount as a tax credit, the BIR is not allowed to expand
under protest or not. or contract the legislative mandate (CIR v. Bicolandia
Drug Corp., G.R. No. 148083, July 21, 2006; CIR v. Central
For DUTIES imposed under the Tariff and Customs Luzon Drug Corp., G.R. No. 159647, April 15, 2005).
Code, a protest at the time of payment is required to
preserve the taxpayers' claim for refund. The procedure 3. If a bookstore closes its business due to losses with-
under the TCC is to the effect that when a ruling or out being able to recoup the discount, can it claim
decision of the Collector of Customs is made whereby reimbursement of the discount from the government on
liability for duties is determined, the party adversely the ground that without such reimbursement, the law
affected may protest such ruling or decision by presenting constitutes taking of private property for public use
to the Collector, at the time when payment is made, or without just compensation? Explain. (5%)
within 15 days thereafter, a written protest setting forth SUGGESTED ANSWER:
his objections to the ruling or decision in question (Sec. A bookstore, closing its business due to losses, cannot
2308. TCC). claim reimbursement of the discount from the
government. If the business continues to operate at a loss
and no other taxes are due, thus compelling it to close
Taxpayer; Appeal to the Court of Tax Appeals (2005)
A taxpayer received a tax deficiency assessment of P1.2 shop, the credit can never be applied and will be lost
Million from the BIR demanding payment within 10 days, altogether (CIR v. Central Luzon Drug, G.R. No. 159647,
otherwise, it would collect through summary remedies. April 15, 2005). The grant of the discount to the taxpayer is
The taxpayer requested for a reconsideration stating the a mere privilege and can be revoked anytime.
grounds therefor. Instead of resolving the request for
reconsideration, the BIR sent a Final Notice before Taxpayer; Compromise after Criminal Action (1998)
Seizure to the taxpayer. An information was filed in court for willful non-payment
May this action of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue of income tax the assessment of which has become final.
be deemed a denial of the request for reconsideration of The accused, through counsel, presented a motion that he
the taxpayer to entitle him to appeal to the Court of Tax be allowed to compromise his tax liability subject of the
Appeals? Decide with reasons. (5%) information. The prosecutor indicated his conformity to
SUGGESTED ANSWER: the motion. Is this procedure correct? [5%]
Yes, the final notice before seizure was in effect a denial SUGGESTED ANSWER:
of the taxpayer's request for reconsideration, not only was No. Criminal violations, if already filed in court, may not
the notice the only response received, its nature, content be compromised (Sec. 204[B], NIRC). Furthermore, the
and tenor supports the theory that it was the BIR's final payment of the tax due after apprehension shall not
act regarding the request for reconsideration. (CIR v. constitute a valid defense in any prosecution for violation
Isabela Cultural Corporation, G.R. No. 135210, July 11, of any provisions of the Tax Code (Sec. 247(a), NIRC).
2001) Finally, there is no showing that the prosecutor in the
problem is a legal officer of the Bureau of Internal
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 64 of 73
Revenue to whom the conduct of criminal actions are LOCAL & REAL PROPERTY
lodged by the Tax Code.
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: TAXES
No. If the compromise referred to is the civil aspect, the
procedure followed is not correct. Compromise for the Local Taxation: Actual Use of Property (2002)
payment of any internal revenue tax shall be made only by The real property of Mr. and Mrs Angeles, situated in a
the Commissioner of Internal Revenue or in a proper case commercial area in front of the public market, was
the Evaluation Board of the BIR (Sec. 204, NIRC). declared in their Tax Declaration as residential because it
Applying the law to the case at bar, compromise had been used by them as their family residence from the
settlement can only be effected by leave of Court. time of its construction in 1990. However, since January
1997, when the spouses left for the United States to stay
Taxpayer; Protest against Assessment; Donor’s Tax there permanently with their children, the property has
(1995) been rented to a single proprietor engaged in the sale of
Mr. Rodrigo, an 80-year old retired businessman, fell in appliances and agri-products. The Provincial Assessor
love with 20-year old Tetchie Sonora, a night club reclassified the property as commercial for tax purposes
hospitality girl. Although she refused to marry him she starting January 1998. Mr. and Mrs. Angeles appealed to
agreed to be his "live-in" partner. In gratitude, Mr. the Local Board of Assessment Appeals, contending that
Rodrigo transferred to her a condominium unit, where the Tax Declaration previously classifying their property
they both live, under a deed of sale for P10 Million. Mr. as residential is binding. How should the appeal be
Rodrigo paid the capital gains tax of 5% of P10 Million. decided? (5%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
The Commissioner of Internal Revenue found that the The appeal should be decided against Mr. and Mrs.
property was transferred to Tetchie Sonora by Mr. Angeles. The law focuses on the actual use of the property
Rodrigo because of the companionship she was providing for classification, valuation and assessment purposes
him. Accordingly, the Commissioner made a regardless of ownership. Section 217 of the Local
determination that Sonora had compensation income of Government Code provides that "real property shall be
P10 Million in the year the condominium unit was classified, valued, and assessed on the basis of its actual
transferred to her and issued a deficiency income tax use regardless of where located, whoever owns it, and
assessment. whoever uses it".

Tetchie Sonora protests the assessment and claims that Local Taxation: Coverage (2002)
the transfer of the condominium unit was a gift and Aside from the basic real estate tax, give three (3) other
therefore excluded from income. How will you rule on the taxes which may be imposed by provincial and city
protest of Tetchie Sonora? Explain. governments as well as by municipalities in the Metro
SUGGESTED ANSWER: Manila area. (3%)
I will grant the protest and cancel the assessment. The SUGGESTED ANSWER:
transfer of the property by Mr. Rodrigo to Ms. Sonora The following real property taxes aside from the basic real
was gratuitous. The deed of sale indicating a P10 million property tax may be imposed by provincial and city
consideration was simulated because Mr. Rodrigo did not governments as well as by municipalities in the Metro
receive anything from the sale. The problem categorically Manila area:
states that the transfer was made in gratitude to Ms. 1. Additional levy on real property for the Special
Sonora's companionship. The transfer being gratuitous is Education Fund (Sec. 235, LGC);
subject to donor's tax. Mr. Rodrigo should be assessed 2. Additional Ad-valorem tax on Idle lands (Sec. 23§,
deficiency donor's tax and a 50% surcharge imposed for LGC); and
fraudulently simulating a contract of sale to evade donor's 3. Special levy (Sec. 240).
tax. (Sec. 91(b), NIRC).
[Note: The question is susceptible to dual interpretation
Taxpayer; Withholding Agent; Claim of Tax Refund (2005) because it is asking for three other taxes and not three
Does a withholding agent have the right to file an other real property taxes. Accordingly, an alternative
application for tax refund? Explain. answer should be considered and given full credit]
SUGGESTED ANSWER: A. The following taxes, aside from basic real estate tax,
Yes. A taxpayer is "any person subject to tax." Since, the may be imposed by:
withholding tax agent who is "required to deduct and 1. Provincial Government
withheld any tax" is made "personally liable for such tax" a. Printer's or publisher's tax
should the amount of the tax withheld be finally found to b. Franchise Tax
be less than that required to be withheld by law, then he is c. Professional tax
a taxpayer. Thus, he has sufficient legal interest to file an 2. City Government - may levy taxes which the province
application for refund, of the amount he believes was or municipality are authorized to levy (Sec. 151, LGC)
illegally collected from him. (Commissioner of Internal a. Printer's or publisher's tax
Revenue v. Procter & Gamble, G.R. No. 66838, December b. Franchise tax
2, 1991) c. Professional tax
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3. Municipalities in the Metro Manila Area - may levy Local Taxation: Legality/ Constitutionality; Tax
taxes at rates which shall not exceed by 50% the Ordinance (2003)
maximum rates prescribed in the Local Government X, a taxpayer who believes that an ordinance passed by
Code. the City Council of Pasay is unconstitutional for being
a. Annual fixed tax on manufacturers, assemblers, discriminatory against him, want to know from you, his
repackers, processors, brewers, distillers, rectifiers and tax lawyer, whether or not he can file an appeal. In the
compounders of liquors, distilled spirits, and wines or affirmative, he asks you where such appeal should be
manufacture of any article of commerce of whatever made: the Secretary of Finance, or the Secretary of Justice,
kind or nature; or the Court of Tax Appeals, or the regular courts. What
b. Annual fixed tax on wholesalers, distributors, or would your advice be to your client, X? (8%)
dealers in any article of commerce of whatever kind SUGGESTED ANSWER:
or nature; The appeal should be made with the Secretary of Justice.
c. Percentage tax on retailers Any question on the constitutionality or legality of a tax
ordinance may be raised on appeal with the Secretary of
[Note: Other taxes may comprise the enumeration because many Justice within 30 days from the effectivity thereof. (Sec.
other taxes are authorized to be imposed by LGUs.] 187, LGC; Hagonoy Market Vendor Association v.
Municipality of Hagonoy, 376 SCRA 376 [2002]).
Local Taxation: Exemption; Real Property Taxes (2002)
Under the Local Government Code, what properties are Local Taxation: Legality; Imposition of Real Property Tax
exempt from real property taxes? (5%) Rate (2002)
SUGGESTED ANSWER: An Ordinance was passed by the Provincial Board of a
The following properties are exempt from real property Province in the North, increasing the rate of basic real
taxes: (Sec. 234, LGC). property tax from 0.006% to 1 % of the assessed value of
1. Real property owned by the Republic of the the real property effective January 1, 2000. Residents of
Philippines or any of its political subdivisions except the municipalities of the said province protested the
when the beneficial use thereof has been granted, Ordinance on the ground that no public hearing was
for consideration or otherwise, to a taxable person; conducted and, therefore, any increase in the rate of real
property tax is void. Is there merit in the protest? Explain
2. All lands, buildings and improvements actually, your answer. (2%)
directly, and exclusively used for religious, charitable SUGGESTED ANSWER:
or educational purposes by charitable institutions, The protest is devoid of merit. No public hearing is
churches, parsonages or convents appurtenant required before the enactment of a local tax ordinance
thereto, mosques, nonprofit or religious cemeteries; levying the basic real property tax (Art. 324, LGC
Regulations).
3. All machineries and equipment that are actually, ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
directly and exclusively used by local water districts Yes, there is merit in the protest provided that sufficient
and government-owned or controlled corporations proof could be introduced for the non-observance of
engaged in the supply and distribution of water public hearing. By implication, the Supreme Court
and/or generation and transmission of electric recognized that public hearings are required to be
power; conducted prior to the enactment of an ordinance
imposing real property taxes. Although it was concluded
4. All real property owned by duly registered by the highest tribunal that presumption of validity of a
cooperatives as provided for under R.A. No. 6938; tax ordinance can not be overcome by bare assertions of
and procedural defects on its enactment, it would seem that if
the taxpayer had presented evidence to support the
5. Machinery and equipment used for pollution control allegation that no public hearing was conducted, the Court
and environmental protection. should have ruled that the tax ordinance is invalid. (Belen
Figuerres v. Court of Appeals, GRNo. 119172, March
Local Taxation: Imposition of Ad Valorem Tax (2000) 25, 1999).
May local governments impose an annual realty tax in
addition to the basic real property tax on idle or vacant Local Taxation: Power to Impose (2003)
lots located in residential subdivisions within their In order to raise revenue for the repair and maintenance
respective territorial jurisdictions? (3%) of the newly constructed City Hall of Makati, the City
SUGGESTED ANSWER: Mayor ordered the collection of P1.00, called "elevator
Not all local government units may do so. Only provinces, tax", every time a person rides any of the high-tech
cities, and municipalities within the Metro Manila area (Sec. elevators in the city hall during the hours of 8:00 a.m. to
232, Local Government Code) may impose an ad valorem 10:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. to 6:00 p.m. Is the "elevator tax"
tax not exceeding five percent (5%) of the assessed value a valid imposition? Explain. (8%)
(Sec. 236, Ibid.) of idle or vacant residential lots in a SUGGESTED ANSWER:
subdivision, duly approved by proper authorities No. The imposition of a tax, fee or charge or the
regardless of area. (Sec.237, Ibid.) generation of revenue under the Local Government Code,
shall be exercised by the SANGUNIAN of the local
government unit concerned through an appropriate
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 66 of 73
ordinance (Section 132 of the Local Government Code). The city two professions. He has his main office in
mayor alone could not order the collection of the tax; as Makati City and maintains a branch office in Pasig City.
such, the "elevator tax" is an invalid imposition. Mr. Fermin pays his professional tax as a CPA in Makati
City and his professional tax as a lawyer in Pasig City.
Local Taxation: Remission/Condonation of Taxes (2004) (5%)
RC is a law-abiding citizen who pays his real estate taxes a) May Makati City, where he has his main office, require
promptly. Due to a series of typhoons and adverse him to pay his professional tax as a lawyer? Explain.
economic conditions, an ordinance is passed by MM City SUGGESTED ANSWER:
granting a 50% discount for payment of unpaid real estate No. Makati City where Mr. Fermin has his main office
taxes for the preceding year and the condonation of all may not require him to pay his professional tax as a
penalties on fines resulting from the late payment. lawyer. Mr. Fermin has the option of paying his
Arguing that the ordinance rewards delinquent taxpayers professional tax as a lawyer in Pasig City where he
and discriminates against prompt ones, RC demands that practices law or in Makati City where he maintains his
he be refunded an amount equivalent to one-half of the principal office. (Sec. 139[b], Local Government Code)
real taxes he paid. The municipal attorney rendered an
opinion that RC cannot be reimbursed because the b) May Quezon City, where he has his residence and
ordinance did not provide for such reimbursement. RC where he also practices his two professions, go after him
files suit to declare the ordinance void on the ground that for the payment of his professional tax as a CPA and a
it is a class legislation. Will his suit prosper? Explain your lawyer? Explain.
answer briefly. (5%) SUGGESTED ANSWER:
SUGGESTED ANSWER: No, the situs of the professional tax is the city where the
The suit will not prosper. The remission or condonation professional practices his profession or where he
of taxes due and payable to the exclusion of taxes already maintains his principal office in case he practices his
collected does not constitute unfair discrimination. Each profession in several places. The local government of
set of taxes is a class by itself and the law would be open Quezon City has no right to collect the professional tax
to attack as class legislation only if all taxpayers belonging from Mr. Fermin as the place of residence of the taxpayer
to one class were not treated alike (Juan Luna Subdivision, is not the proper situs in the collection of the professional
Inc., v. Sarmiento, 91 Phil. 371 [1952]). tax.

Local Taxation: Rule of Uniformity and Equality (2003) Local Taxation; Special Levy on Idle Lands (2005)
The City of Makati, in order to solve the traffic problem A city outside of Metro Manila plans to enact an
in its business districts, decided to impose a tax, to be paid ordinance that will impose a special levy on idle lands
by the driver, on all private cars entering the city during located in residential subdivisions within its territorial
peak hours from 8:00 a.m. to 9:00 a.m. from Mondays to jurisdiction in addition to the basic real property tax. If the
Fridays, but exempts those cars carrying more than two lot owners of a subdivision located in the said city seek
occupants, excluding the driver. Is the ordinance valid? your legal advice on the matter, what would your advice
Explain. (8%) be? Discuss. (5%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER: SUGGESTED ANSWER:
The ordinance is in violation of the Rule of Uniformity I would advise the lot owners that a city, even if it is
and Equality, which requires that all subjects or objects of outside Metro Manila, may levy an annual tax on idle lands
taxation, similarly situated must be treated alike in equal at the rate not exceeding five percent (5%) of the assessed
footing and must not classify the subjects in an arbitrary value of the property which shall be in addition to the
manner. In the case at bar, the ordinance exempts cars basic real property tax. (Sec. 236, Local Government Code) I
carrying more than two occupants from coverage of the would likewise advise them that the levy may apply to
said ordinance. Furthermore, the ordinance only imposes residential lots, regardless of land area, in subdivisions
the tax on private cars and exempts public vehicles from duly approved by proper authorities, the ownership of
the imposition of the tax, although both contribute to the which has been transferred to individual owners who shall
traffic problem. There exists no substantial standard used be liable for the additional tax. (Last par., Sec. 237)
in the classification by the City of Makati.
The term "Idle Lands" means, land not devoted directly to
Another issue is the fact that the tax is imposed on the any crop or to any definite purpose for at least one year
driver of the vehicle and not on the registered owner of prior to the notice of expropriation, except for reasons
the same. The tax does not only violate the requirement of other than force majeure or any fortuitous event, but used to
uniformity, but the same is also unjust because it places be devoted or is suitable to such crop or is contiguous to
the burden on someone who has no control over the land devoted directly to any crop and does not include
route of the vehicle. The ordinance is, therefore, invalid land devoted permanently or regularly to other essential
for violating the rule of uniformity and equality as well as and more productive purpose. (Philippine Legal Encyclopedia,
for being unjust. by Sibal, 1986 Ed.)

Local Taxation; Situs of Professional Taxes (2005) Finally, I would advise them to construct or place
Mr. Fermin, a resident of Quezon City, is a Certified improvements on their idle lands by making valuable
Public Accountant-Lawyer engaged in the practice of his additions to the property or ameliorations in the land's
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 67 of 73
conditions so the lands would not be considered as idle.
(Sec. 199[m]) In this manner their properties would not be 2. Assuming Joachin is a registered owner, will your
subject to the ad valorem tax on idle lands. answer be the same? (2.5%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Real Property Tax: Underground Gasoline Tanks (2003) Yes. The law requires that a notice of the auction sale
Under Article 415 of the Civil Code, in order for must be properly sent to Joachin and not merely through
machinery and equipment to be considered real property, publication (Tan v. Bantegui, G.R. No, 154027, October
the pieces must be placed by the owner of the land and, in 24,2005; Estate of Mercedes Jacob v. CA, G.R. No. 120435,
addition, must tend to directly meet the needs of the Dec. 22, 1997).
industry or works carried on by the owner. Oil companies
install underground tanks in the gasoline stations located Real Property Taxation: Capital Asset vs. Ordinary Asset
on land leased by the oil companies from the owners of (1995)
the land where the gasoline stations [are] located. Are In 1990, Mr. Naval bought a lot for P1,000,000.00 In a
those underground tanks, which were not placed there by subdivision with the intention of building his residence on
the owner of the land but which were instead placed there it. In 1994, he abandoned his plan to build his residence
by the lessee of the land, considered real property for on it because the surrounding area became a depressed
purposes of real property taxation under the local area and land values in the subdivision went down;
Government Code? Explain. (8%) instead, he sold it for P800.000.00. At the time of the sale,
SUGGESTED ANSWER: the zonal value was P500.000.00.
Yes. The properties are considered as necessary fixtures of 1) Is the land a capital asset or an ordinary asset? Explain.
the gasoline station, without which the gasoline station 2) Is there any income tax due on the sale? Explain.
would be useless. Machinery and equipment installed by SUGGESTED ANSWERS:
the 1) The land is a capital asset because it is neither for sale
lessee of leased land is not real property for purposes of in the ordinary course of business nor a property used in
execution of a final judgment only. They are considered as the trade or business of the taxpayer. (Sec. 33. NIRC).
real property for real property tax purposes as "other
improvements to affixed or attached real property under 2) Yes, Mr. Naval is liable to the 5% capital gains tax
the Assessment Law and the Real Property Tax Code. imposed under Section 21(e) of the Tax Code based on
(Caltex v. Central Board of Assessment Appeals, 114 SCRA the gross selling price of P800.000.00 which is an amount
296 [1982]). higher than the zonal value.

Real Property Tax; Requirements; Auction Sales of Real Property Taxation: Capital Gains vs. Ordinary Gains
Property for Tax Delinquency (2006) (1998)
Quezon City published on January 30, 2006 a list of What is the difference between capital gains and ordinary
delinquent real property taxpayers in 2 newspapers of gains? [3%]
general circulation and posted this in the main lobby of SUGGESTED ANSWER:
the City Hall. The notice requires all owners of real CAPITAL GAINS are gains realized from the sale or
properties in the list to pay the real property tax due exchange of capital assets, while ORDINARY GAINS
within 30 days from the date of publication, otherwise the refer to gains realized from the sale or disposition of
properties listed shall be sold at public auction. ordinary assets.

Joachin is one of those named in the list. He purchased a Real Property Taxation: Coverage of Ordinary Income
real property in 1996 but failed to register the document (1998)
of sale with the register of Deeds and secure a new real What does the term "ordinary income" include? [2%]
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
property tax declaration in his name. He alleged that the
The term ordinary income includes any gain from the sale
auction sale of his property is void for lack of due process
or exchange of property which is not a capital asset. These
considering that the City Treasurer did not send him
are the gains derived from the sale or exchange of
personal notice. For his part, the City Treasurer maintains
property such as stock in trade of the taxpayer or other
that the publication and posting of notice are sufficient
property of a kind which would properly be included in
compliance with the requirements of the law.
the inventory of the taxpayer if on hand at the close of the
1. If you were the judge, how will you resolve this
taxable year, or property held by the taxpayer primarily for
issue? (2.5%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
sale to customers in the course of his trade or business, or
I will resolve the issue in favor of Joachin. In auction sales property used in trade or business of a character which is
of property for tax delinquency, notice to delinquent subject to the allowance for depreciation, or real property
landowners and to the public in general is an essential and used in trade or business of the taxpayer. (Sec. 22 [Z] in
indispensable requirement of law, the non-fulfillment of relation to Sec. 39[A](1), both of the NIRC).
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
which vitiates the same (Tiongco v. Phil. Veterans Bank,
The term ordinary income includes income from
G.R. No. 82782, Aug. 5, 1992). The failure to give notice to
performance of services, whether professional or per-
the right person i.e., the real owner, will render an auction
sonal, gains accruing from business, and profit arising
sale void (Tan v. Bantegui, G.R. No, 154027, October 24,
2005; City Treasurer of Q.C. v. CA, G.R. No. 120974, Dec. from the sale or exchange of ordinary assets.
22, 1997).
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 68 of 73
Real Property Taxation: Exchange of Lot; Capital Gain hence the value of the land may be deductible
Tax (1997) in full from the gross income of Ace Tobacco
A corporation, engaged in real estate' development, Corporation if in accordance to a National Priority Plan
executed deeds of sale on various subdivided lots. One determined by the National Economic Development
buyer, after going around the subdivision, bought a corner Authority. (Sec. 34{H](2)(a), NIRC). If the utilization is not
lot with a good view of the surrounding terrain. He paid in accordance to a National Priority Plan determined by
P1.2 million, and the title to the property was issued. A the National Economic Development Authority, then Ace
year later, the value of the lot appreciated to a market Tobacco Corporation may deduct the value of the land
value of P1.6 million, and the buyer decided to build his donated only to the extent of five (5%) percent of its
house thereon. Upon inspection, however, he discovered taxable income derived from trade or business as
that a huge tower antennae had been erected on the lot computed without the benefit of the donation. (Sec.
frontage totally blocking his view. When he complained, 34[H](2)(a) in relation to Sec. 34[H](1), NIRC).
the realty company exchanged his lot with another corner
lot with an equal area but affording a better view. Is the The Municipality of Pateros is not subject to any donor's
buyer liable for capital gains tax on the exchange of the tax on the value of land it subsequently donated, it being
lots? exempt from taxes as a political subdivision of the
SUGGESTED ANSWER: National Government.
Yes, the buyer is subject to capital gains tax on the
exchange of lots on the basis of prevailing fair market The occupants/beneficiaries are subject to real property
value of the property transferred at the time of the taxes because they now own the land.
exchange or the fair market value of the property received,
whichever is higher (Section 21(e), NIRC). Real property ALTERNATIVE ANSWER on Taxability of Municipality and
transactions subject to capital gains tax are not limited to Awardees:
sales but also exchanges of property unless exempted by a The awarding by the Municipal Government of lots to
specific provision of law. specific awardees or donees is likewise exempt from the
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: donor's tax because it is only an implementation of the
No. The exchange is not subject to capital gains tax purpose for which the property was given by Ace
because it is merely done to comply with the intentions of Tobacco Corporation. The purpose of the first donation
the parties to the previous contract regarding the sale and is to devote the land as a relocation site for the less
acquisition of a property with a good view. This is a fortunate constituents. If later on the Municipality gives
simple substitution of the object of sale and since the out Certificates of Award over specific lots occupied by
previous transaction was already subjected to tax, no new the qualified occupants/beneficiaries, this is intended to
tax should be imposed on the exchange (BIR Ruling No. perpetuate the purpose of the previous donor, the Mu-
21(e) 053-89 008-95). nicipality acting merely as a conduit and not the true
donor. This is simply a donation by the Municipality in
Real Property Taxation: Exemption/Deductions; Donor’s form but not in substance.
Tax (1998)
Ace Tobacco Corporation bought a parcel of land situated The receipt by the occupant beneficiaries of their
at Pateros and donated it to the Municipal Government of respective lots through the Certificate of Award has no
Pateros for the sole purpose of devoting the said land as a tax implications. They are, however, liable for real prop-
relocation site for the less fortunate constituents of said erty taxes.
municipality. In accordance therewith, the Municipal Gov-
ernment of Pateros issued to the occupants/beneficiaries Real Property Taxation: Exemption: Acquiring New
Certificates of Award giving to them the respective areas Principal Residence (2000)
where their houses are erected. Through Ordinance No. 2, Last July 12, 2000, Mr. & Mrs. Peter Camacho sold their
Series of 1998, the said municipal government ordained principal residence situated in Tandang Sora, Quezon City
that the lots awarded to the awardees/donees be finally for Ten Million Pesos (P10,000,000.00) with the intention
transferred and donated to them. Determine the tax of using the proceeds to acquire or construct a new
consequence of the foregoing dispositions with respect to principal residence in Aurora Hills, Baguio City. What
Ace Tobacco Corporation, the Municipal Government of conditions must be met in order that the capital gains
Pateros, and the occupants/beneficiaries. [5%] presumed to have been realized from such sale may not
SUGGESTED ANSWER: be subject to capital gains tax? (5%)
The donation by Ace Tobacco Corporation is exempt SUGGESTED ANSWER:
from the donor's tax because it qualifies as a gift to or The conditions are:
for the use of any political subdivision of the National 1. The proceeds are fully utilized in acquiring or
Government (Section 101(2), NIRC). The conveyance is constructing a new principal residence within
likewise exempt from documentary stamp tax because it is eighteen (18) calendar months from the sale or
a transfer without consideration. disposition of the principal residence or eighteen (18)
months from July 12, 2000.
Since the donation is to be used as a relocation site for the
less fortunate constituents of the municipality. It may be
considered as an undertaking for human settlements,
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 69 of 73
2. The historical cost or adjusted basis of the real Real Property Taxation: Property Sold is an
property sold or disposed shall be carried over to the Ordinary Asset (1998)
new principal residence built or acquired. An individual taxpayer who owns a ten (10) door apart-
ment with a monthly rental of P10,000 each residential
3. The Commissioner of Internal Revenue must have unit, sold this property to another individual taxpayer. Is
been informed by Mr. & Mrs. Peter Camacho within the seller liable to pay the capital gains tax? [5%]
thirty (30) days from the date of sale or disposition SUGGESTED ANSWER:
on July 12, 2000 through a prescribed return of their No. The seller is not liable to pay the capital gains tax
intention to avail of the tax exemption. because the property sold is an ordinary asset, i.e. real
property used in trade or business. It is apparent that the
4. That the said exemption can only be availed of once taxpayer is engaged in the real estate business, regularly
every ten (10) years. renting out the ten (10) door apartment.

5. If there is no full utilization of the proceeds of sale or Real Property Taxation: Underground Gasoline Tanks
disposition, the portion of the gain presumed to have (2001)
been realized from the sale or disposition shall be Under Article 415 of the Civil Code, in order for
subject to capital gains tax [Sec. 24 (D) (2), NIRC of machinery and equipment to be considered real property,
1997] they must be placed by the owner of the land and, in
addition, must tend to directly meet the needs of the
Real Property Taxation: Fundamental Principles (1997) industry or works carried on by the owner. Oil companies,
State the fundamental principles underlying real property such as Caltex and Shell, install underground tanks in the
taxation in the Philippines. gasoline stations located on land leased by the oil
SUGGESTED ANSWER: companies from others. Are those underground tanks
The following are the fundamental principles governing which were not placed there by the owner of the land but
real property taxation: which were instead placed there by the lessee of the land,
1) Real property shall be appraised at its current and considered real property for purposes of real property
fair market value; taxation under the Local Government Code? Explain your
2) Real property shall be classified for assessment answer. (5%)
purposes on the basis of its actual use: SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3) Real property shall be assessed on the basis of a Yes. The underground tanks although installed by the
uniform classification within each local government lessee, Shell and Caltex, are considered as real property for
unit; purposes of the imposition of real property taxes. It is
4) The appraisal, assessment, levy, and collection of only for purposes of executing a final judgment that these
real property tax shall not be let to any private machinery and equipment, installed by the lessee on a
person; and leased land, would not be considered as real property. But
5) The appraisal and assessment of real property shall in the imposition of the real property tax, the
be equitable. underground tanks are taxable as necessary fixtures of the
gasoline station without which the gasoline station would
Real Property Taxation: Principles & Limitations: LGU not be operational. (Caltex Phils., Inc v. CBAA, 114
(2000) SCRA. 296).
Give at least two (2) fundamental principles governing real
property taxation, which are limitations on the taxing Real Property Taxation; Exempted Properties (2006)
power of local governments insofar as the levying of the What properties are exempt from the real property tax?
realty tax is concerned. (2%) (5%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER: SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Two (2) fundamental principles governing real property The following properties are exempt from the real
taxation are: property tax (Section 234, Local Government Code):
1) The appraisal must be at the current and fair market (1) Real property owned by the REPUBLIC OF THE
value; and PHILIPPINES or any of its political subdivisions
2) Classification for assessment must be on the basis except when the beneficial use thereof has been
of actual use. (Sec. 198, Local Government Code) granted for consideration or otherwise to a taxable
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: person;
The examinee should be given credit if he chooses the (2) CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS, churches,
above two (2) or any two (2) of those enumerated below: parsonages or convents appurtenant thereto,
1) Assessment must be on the basis of uniform mosques, non-profit or religious cemeteries, and all
classification; lands, buildings, and improvements actually, directly
2) Appraisal, assessment, levy and collection shall not be and exclusively used for religious, charitable or
let to private persons; and educational purposes;
3) Appraisal and assessment must be equitable. (Sec. 198, (3) All machineries and equipment that are actually,
Local Government Code) directly and exclusively used by LOCAL WATER
UTILITIES and government-owned or controlled
corporations engaged in the supply and distribution
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 70 of 73
of water and/or generation and transmission of payment of the customs duties or with legal
electric power; permit to withdraw (Viduya vs. Berdiago, 73 SCRA
(4) All real property owned by duly REGISTERED 553).
COOPERATIVES as provided for under R.A. 6938;
and Customs: Jurisdiction; Seizure & Forfeiture Proceedings
(5) Machinery and equipment used for POLLUTION (1996)
CONTROL and ENVIRONMENTAL On January 1, 1996, armed with warrants of seizure and
PROTECTION. detention issued by the Bureau of Customs, members of
the customs enforcement and security services
coordinated with the Quezon City police to search the
TARIFF AND CUSTOMS DUTIES premises owned by a certain Mr. Ho along Kalayaan
Avenue, Quezon City, which allegedly contained untaxed
vehicles and parts. While inside the premises, the member
Customs: “Flexible Tariff Clause” (2001)
What do you understand by the term "flexible tariff of the customs enforcement and security services noted
clause" as used in the Tariff and Customs Code? (5%) articles which were not included in the list contained in
SUGGESTED ANSWER: the warrant. Hence, on January 15, 1996, an amended
The term "flexible tariff clause "refers to the authority warrant and seizure was issued.
given to the President to adjust tariff rates under Section
401 of the Tariff and Customs Code, which is the On January 25, 1996, the customs personnel started
enabling law that made effective the delegation of the hauling the articles pursuant to the amended warrant. This
taxing power to the President under the Constitution. prompted Mr. Ho to file a case for injunction and
[Note: It is suggested that if the examinee cites the entire damages with a prayer for a restraining order before the
provision of Sec. 401 of the Tariff &, Customs Code, he Regional Trial Court of Quezon City against the Bureau
should also be given full credit.] of Customs on January 27, 1996. On the same date, the
Trial Court issued a temporary restraining order.
Customs: Administrative vs. Judicial Remedies (1997)
The Tariff and Customs Code allows the Bureau of A motion to dismiss was filed by the Bureau of Customs
Customs to resort to the administrative remedy of seizure, on the ground that the Regional Trial Court has no juris-
such as by enforcing the tax lien on the imported article, diction over the subject matter of the complaint claiming
and to the judicial remedy of filing an action in court. that it was the Bureau of Customs that has exclusive
When does the Bureau of Customs normally avail itself; jurisdiction over it. Decide.
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(a) of the administrative, instead of the judicial remedy, The motion to dismiss should be granted. Seizure and
or forfeiture proceedings are within the exclusive jurisdiction
(b) of the latter, instead of the former, remedy? of the Collector of Customs to the exclusion of regular
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(a) The Bureau of Customs normally avails itself of the Courts. Regional Trial Courts are devoid of competence
ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDY of seizure, such as by to pass upon the validity or regularity of seizure and
enforcing the tax lien on the imported articles, instead of forfeiture proceedings conducted by the Bureau of
the judicial remedy when the goods to which the tax lien Customs and to enjoin or otherwise interfere with these
attaches, regardless of ownership, is still in the custody or proceedings (Republic vs. CFI of Manila [Branch
control of the Government. In the case, however, of XXII], G.R. No. 43747, September 2, 1992; Jao vs. CA,
importations which are prohibited or undeclared, the G.R. No. 104604, October 6, 1995).
remedy of seizure and forfeiture may still be exercised by
the Bureau of Customs even if the goods are no longer in Customs: Kinds of Custom Duties (1995)
its custody. Under the Tariff and Customs Code, what are
a) dumping duties
(b) On the other hand, when the goods are properly b) countervailing duties
released and thus beyond the reach of tax lien, the govern- c) marking duties
ment can seek payment of the tax liability through judicial d) discriminatory duties?
action since the tax liability of the importer constitutes a
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
personal debt to the government, therefore, enforceable 6) Dumping duties are special duties imposed by the
by action. In this case judicial remedy is normally availed Secretary of Finance upon recommendation of the
of instead of the administrative remedy. Tariff Commission when it is found that the price of
the imported articles is deliberately or continually
Customs: Importation (1995) fixed at less than the fair market value or cost of
When does importation begin and when does it end? production, and the importation would cause or
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
IMPORTATION begins from the time the carrying vessel likely cause an injury to local industries engaged in
or aircraft enters Philippine territorial jurisdiction with the the manufacture or production of the same or
intention to unload therein and ends at the time the goods similar articles or prevent their establishment.
are released or withdrawn from the customhouse upon
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 71 of 73
7) Countervailing duties are special duties imposed SUGGESTED ANSWER:
by the Secretary of Finance upon prior investigation During the pendency of seizure proceedings the importer
and report of the Tariff Commission to offset an may secure the release of the imported property for
excise or inland revenue tax upon articles of the legitimate use by posting a bond in an amount to be fixed
same class manufactured at home or subsidies to by the Collector, conditioned for the payment of the
foreign producers or manufacturers by their appraised value of the article and/or any fine, expenses
respective governments. and costs which may be adjudged in the case; provided, that
articles the importation of which is prohibited by law shall not be
8) Marking duties are special duties equivalent to 5% released under bond.
ad valorem imposed on articles not properly
marked. These are collected by the Commissioner of The importer may also offer to pay to the collector a fine
Customs except when the improperly marked imposed by him upon the property to secure its release or
articles are exported or destroyed under customs in case of forfeiture, the importer shall offer to pay for the
supervision and prior to final liquidation of the domestic market value of the seized article, which offer
corresponding entry. These duties are designed to subject to the approval of the Commissioner may be
prevent possible deception of the customers. accepted by the Collector in settlement of the seizure case,
except when there is fraud. Upon payment of the fine or
9) Discriminatory duties are special duties collected domestic market value, the property shall be forthwith
in an amount not exceeding 100% ad valorem, released and all liabilities which may or might attach to the
imposed by the President of the Philippines against property by virtue of the offense which was the occasion
goods of a foreign country which discriminates of the seizure and all liability which might have been
against Philippine commerce or against goods incurred under any bond given by the importer in respect
coming from the Philippines and shipped to a to such property shall thereupon be deemed to be
foreign country. discharged.

Customs: Kinds of Custom Duties (1997) Customs: Returning Residents: Tourist/Travelers (2003)
Explain briefly each of the special customs duties X and his wife, Y, Filipinos living in the Philippines, went
authorized under the Tariff and Customs Code. on a three-month pleasure trip around the world during
SUGGESTED ANSWER: the months of June, July and August 2002. In the course
The following are the Special Duties imposed under the of their trip, they accumulated some personal effects
Tariff and Customs Code: which were necessary, appropriate and normally used in
(a) Dumping Duty - This is a duty levied on imported leisure trips, as well as souvenirs in non-commercial
goods where it appears that a specific kind or class of quantities. Are they "returning residents" for purposes of
foreign article is being imported into or sold or is Section 105 of the Tariff and Customs Code? Explain.
likely to be sold in the Philippines at a price less than (8%)
its fair value; SUGGESTED ANSWER:
No. The term "returning residents" refers to nationals
(b) Countervailing Duty - This is a duty equal to the who have stayed in a foreign country for a period of at
ascertained or estimated amount of the subsidy or least six (6) months. (Section 105(f) of the Tariff and Customs
bounty or subvention granted by the foreign country Code). Due to their limited duration of stay abroad X and
on the production, manufacture, or exportation into Y are not considered as "returning residents" but they are
the Philippines of any article likely to injure an merely considered as travelers or tourists who enjoy the
industry in the Philippines or retard or considerable benefit of conditionally free importation.
retard the establishment of such industry; [Note: Credit must likewise be given if the candidate answered
in the affirmative, considering that travelers or tourists are given
the same tax treatment as that of returning residents, treating
(c) Marking Duty - This is a duty on an ad valorem their personal effects, not in commercial quantities, as
basis imposed for improperly marked articles. The conditionally free importation.]
law requires that foreign importations must be
marked in any official language of the Philippines the Customs: Seizure & Forfeiture: Effects (1994)
name of the country of origin of the article; In smuggling a shipment of garlic, the smugglers used an
eight-wheeler truck which they hired for the purpose of
(d) Discriminatory or Retaliatory Duty - This is a duty taking out the shipment from the customs zone. Danny,
imposed on imported goods whenever it is found as the truck owner, did not have a certificate of public
a fact that the country of origin discriminates against convenience to operate his trucking business. Danny did
the commerce of the Philippines in such a manner as not know that the shipment of garlic was illegally
to place the commerce of the Philippines at a imported.
disadvantage compared with the commerce of any Can the Collector of Customs of the port seize and forfeit
foreign country. the truck as an instrument in the smuggling?
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Customs: Remedies of an Importer (1996) Yes, the Collector of Customs of the port can seize and
Discuss briefly the remedies of an importer during the forfeit the truck as an instrument in the smuggling activity,
pendency of seizure proceedings. since the same was used unlawfully in the importation of
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 72 of 73
smuggled articles. The mere carrying of such articles on similar goods (Sec. 201[C]); Deductive value
board the truck (in commercial quantities) shall subject (Sec. II.E.1, CA.O. No. 4-2004); Computed value (Sec.,
the truck to forfeiture, since it was not being used as a II.F.l, C.A.O. No. 1-20040) and Fallback value. (Sec.
duly authorized common carrier, which was chartered or 201[F])
leased as such. (Sec. 2530 [a], TCC) ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
The basis of dutiable value of an imported article subject
Moreover, although forfeiture of the vehicle will not be to an ad valorem tax under the Tariff and Customs Code
effected if it is established that the owner thereof had no is its transaction value, which shall be the price actually
knowledge of or participation in the unlawful act, there paid or payable for the goods when sold for export to the
arises a prima facie presumption or knowledge or Philippines, adjusted by adding certain cost elements to
participation if the owner is not in the business for which the extent that they are incurred by the buyer but are not
the conveyance is generally used. Thus, not having a included in the price actually paid or payable for the
certificate of public convenience to operate a trucking imported goods. (Sec. 201[A], Tariff and Customs Code, as
business, he is legally deemed not to have been engaged in amended by R.A. 9135)
the trucking business. (Sec. 2531, Tariff and Customs Code)
If such value could not be determined, then the following
Customs: Steps involving Protest Cases (1994) values are to be utilized in their sequence: Transaction
The Collector of Customs instituted seizure proceedings value of identical goods (Sec. 201[B]); Transaction value
against a shipment of motor vehicles for having been of similar goods (Sec. 201[C]); Deductive value (Sec.
misdeclared as second-hand vehicles. State the procedure II.E.1, CA.O. No. 4-2004); Computed value (Sec. II.F.l,
for the review of the decision up to the Supreme Court of C.A.O. No. 1-20040) and Fallback value. (Sec. 201[F])
the Collector of Customs adverse to the importer.
SUGGESTED ANSWER: Customs; Countervailing Duty vs. Dumping Duty (2005)
The procedure in seizure cases may be summarized as Distinguish countervailing duty from dumping duty. (5%)
follows: SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(a) The collector issues a warrant for the detention or The distinctions between countervailing duty and
forfeiture of the imported articles; (Sec. 2301, Tariff dumping duty are the following:
and Customs Code) (1) Basis: The countervailing duty is imposed whenever
(b) The Collector gives the importer a written notice of there is granted upon the imported article by the country
the seizure and fixes a hearing date to give the of origin a specific subsidy upon its production,
importer an opportunity to be heard; (Sec. 2303, manufacture or exportation and this results or threatens
TCC) injury to local industry while the basis for the imposition
(c) A formal hearing is conducted; (Sec. 2312, TCC) of dumping duty is the importation and sale of imported
(d) The Collector renders a declaration of forfeiture; items at below their normal value causing or likely to
(Sec. 2312, TCC) cause injury to local industry.
(e) The Importer aggrieved by the action of the (2) Amount: The countervailing duty imposed is
Collector in any case of seizure may appeal to the equivalent to the value of the specific subsidy while the
Commissioner for his review within fifteen (15) days dumping duty is equivalent to the margin of dumping
from written notice of the Collector's decision; (Sec. which is equal to the difference between the export price
2313, TCC) to the Philippines and the normal value of the imported
(f) The importer aggrieved by the action or ruling of the article.
Commissioner in any case of seizure may appeal to
the Court of Tax Appeals; (Sec. 2402, TCC) Customs; Taxability; Personal Effects (2005)
(g) The importer adversely affected by the decision of Jacob, after serving a 5-year tour of duty as military
the Court of Tax Appeals (Division) may appeal to attache in Jakarta, returned to the Philippines bringing
the Court of Tax Appeals (en banc) within fifteen with him his personal effects including a personal
(15) days which may be extended for another fifteen computer and a car. Would Jacob be liable for taxes on
(15) days or such period as the Court of Tax Appeals these items? Discuss fully. (5%)
may decide. SUGGESTED ANSWER:
No, Jacob is not liable for taxes on his personal computer
Customs; Basis of Dutiable Value; Imported Article (2005) and the car because he is tax-exempt by law. He has met
State and explain the basis of dutiable value of an the following requirements for exemption under P.D. No.
imported article subject to an ad valorem tax under the 922 (1976):
Tariff and Customs Code. a) He was a military attache assigned to Jakarta;
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: b) He has served abroad for not less than two (2) years;
The basis of dutiable value of an imported article subject c) He is returning to the Philippines after serving his
to an ad valorem tax under the Tariff and Customs Code is tour of duty; and
its TRANSACTION VALUE. (Sec. 201[A], Tariff and d) He has not availed of the tax exemption for the past
Customs Code, as amended by R.A. No. 9135) If such value four (4) years.
could not be determined, then the following values are to
be utilized in their sequence: Transaction value of He is entitled to tax exemption on his personal and
identical goods (Sec. 201[B]); Transaction value of household effects including a car; provided,
Answers to the BAR: Taxation 1994-2006 (Arranged by Topics) sirdondee@gmail.com 73 of 73
a) The car must have been ordered or purchased prior c) Where the taxpayer has signed a waiver
to the receipt by the Philippine mission or consulate authorizing the Commissioner or his duly
in Jakarta of Jacob's recall order; authorized representatives to Inquire into the bank
b) the car is registered in Jacob's name; deposits.
c) the exemption shall apply to the value of the car;
d) the exemption shall apply to the aggregate value of BIR: Secrecy of Bank Deposit Law (2003)
his personal and household effects (including the X dies in year 2000 leaving a bank deposit of
personal computer) not exceeding thirty per centum P2,000,000.00 under joint account with his associates in a
(30%) of the total amount received by Jacob as salary law office. Learning of X's death from the newspapers,
and allowances during his assignment in Jakarta, but the Commissioner of Internal Revenue wrote to every
not to exceed four (4) years; bank in the country asking them to disclose to him the
e) Jacob must not have availed of the exemption more amount of deposits that might be outstanding in his name
oftener than one every four years. (Last par., Sec. 105, or jointly with others at the date of his death. May the
Tariff and Customs Code) bank holding the deposit refuse to comply on the ground
of the Secrecy of Bank Deposit Law? Explain. (8%)
OTHER RELATED MATTERS SUGGESTED ANSWER:
No. The Commissioner of Internal Revenue has the
BIR: Bank Deposits Secrecy Violation (2000) authority to inquire into bank deposit accounts of a
A taxpayer is suspected not to have declared his correct decedent to determine his gross estate notwithstanding
gross income in his return filed for 1997. The examiner the provisions of the Bank Secrecy Law. Hence, the banks
requested the Commissioner to authorize him to inquire holding the deposits in question may not refuse to
into the bank deposits of the taxpayer so that he could disclose the amount of deposits on the ground of secrecy
proceed with the net worth method of investigation to of bank deposits. (Section 6(F) of the 1997 Tax Code).
establish fraud. May the examiner be allowed to look into The fact that the deposit is a joint account will not
the taxpayer's bank deposits? In what cases may the preclude the Commissioner from inquiring thereon
Commissioner or his duly authorized representative be because the law mandates that if a bank has knowledge of
allowed to inquire or look into the bank deposits of a the death of a person, who maintained a bank deposit
taxpayer? (5%) account alone, or jointly with another, it shall not allow
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
No. as this would be violative of Republic Act No. 1405, any withdrawal from the said deposit account, unless the
the Bank Deposits Secrecy Law. Commissioner has certified that the taxes imposed
The Commissioner of Internal Revenue or his duly thereon have been paid. (Section 97 of the 1997 Tax
authorized representative may be allowed to inquire or Code). Hence, to be able to give the required certification,
look into the bank deposits of a taxpayer in the following the inclusion of the deposit is imperative, which may be
cases: made possible only through the inquiry made by the
a) For the purpose of determining the gross estate of a Commissioner.
decedent;
b) Where the taxpayer has filed an application for
compromise of his tax liability by reason of financial
incapacity to pay such tax liability. (Sec. 6 (F), NIRC
of 1997]
Taxation Law Q&As (2007-2013) hectorchristopher@yahoo.com dbaratbateladot@gmail.com

A Compilation of the

Questions and Suggested Answers

In the

PHILIPPINE BAR EXAMINATIONS 2007-2013

In

TAXATION LAW
Compiled and Arranged By:

Baratbate-Ladot, Delight

Salise, Hector Christopher “Jay-Arh” Jr. M.

(University of San Jose-Recoletos School of Law)

ANSWERS TO BAR EXAMINATION QUESTIONS by the


UP LAW COMPLEX (2007-2013)

&

PHILIPPINE ASSOCIATION OF LAW SCHOOLS (2008)

“Never Let The Odds Keep You From Pursuing What You Know In Your Heart You Were Meant To Do.”-Leroy Satchel Paige
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FOREWORD
This work is a compilation of the ANSWERS TO BAR
EXAMINATION QUESTIONS by the UP LAW COMPLEX ,
Philippine Association of Law Schools from 2007-2010 and
local law students and lawyers‟ forum sites from 2011-2013
and not an original creation or formulation of the author.

The authors were inspired by the work of Silliman University‟s


College of Law and its students of producing a very good
material to everyone involved in the legal field particularly the
students and the reviewees for free. Hence, this work is a
freeware.

Everyone is free to distribute and mass produce copies of this


work, however, the author accepts no liability for the content of
this reviewer, or for the consequences of the usage, abuse, or
any actions taken by the user on the basis of the information
given.

The answers (views or opinions) presented in this reviewer are


solely those of the authors in the given references and do not
necessarily represent those of the authors of this work.

The Authors.

“Never Let The Odds Keep You From Pursuing What You Know In Your Heart You Were Meant To Do.”-Leroy Satchel Paige
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
(Titles are based on Silliman’s Compilation [Arranged by Topic])

General Principles

BIR Rulings; “Rulings of First Impression” (2007)..................................................... 10

Power of Taxation: Equal Protection of the Law; Rational Basis Test (2010).............. 11

Power of Taxation: Limitations: Inherent Limitations (2009)..................................... 11

Power of Taxation: Limitations: Tax Treaties (2009)................................................. 12

Principle of Administrative Feasibility (2009)........................................................... 12

Set-off; “Doctrine of Equitable Recoupment” (2009)................................................. 12

Tax Avoidance; Exchange of Real Property and Shares of Stock (2008)..................... 13

Taxes considered as NIRC Taxes (2007).................................................................... 14

Income Taxation

Basic: Closed and Complete Transaction (2012) ...................................................... 14

Charitable Institutions: Income from Profit-Driven Activities (2013) ...................... 14

Corporate Income Tax: Accumulated Profits; “Immediacy Test” (2010) .................... 15

Corporate Income Tax: Accumulated Profits; Capitalization Rules (2010) ................ 15

Corporate Income Tax: Carry-Over Option is Irrevocable (2012) .............................. 15

Corporate Income Tax: Carry-Over Option is Irrevocable (2013) .............................. 16

Corporate Income Tax: Joint Venture (2007) .......................................................... 17

Corporate Income Tax: Sale of Real Property by a Real Estate Broker (2008)……..… 17

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Corporate Income Tax: Who is a Contractor (2013)........................................................18

Final Withholding Tax: Informer’s Reward (2010) .........................................................18

Final Withholding Tax: Royalties Paid to Non-Resident Corporation (2010)....................18

Foreign Corporate Tax: Local Agent for a Foreign Airline (2009)....................................19

Foreign Corporate Tax: “Single Entity Concept”; Branch Remittances (2012)................20

Foreign Corporate Tax: Situs of Taxation (2012)............................................................21

Fringe Benefit Tax: De Minimis Benefits (2007).............................................................22

Partnership: Income Tax (2013).....................................................................................22

Personal Income Tax: Accounting Period (2010).............................................................23

Personal Income Tax: Passive Income (Interest Income); Situs of Taxation (2007).........23

Personal Income Tax: Passive Income (Rental Income); Situs of Taxation (2008)............23

Personal Income Tax: Payment by Installment (2010)....................................................24

Personal Income Tax: Personal Exemptions of a Non-resident Alien (2010)....................24

Trust: Income from Trust (2009)....................................................................................24

Deductions, Exemptions, Exclusions & Inclusions

Deductions: “All-events Test” (2009)......................................................................... 25

Deductions: “All Events Test” (2010)......................................................................... 25

Deductions: Claimed by a Partner (2013)................................................................... 25

Deductions: Income Tax Withheld by US Government (2010).........................................26

Deductions: Non-deductible; Casualty Loss (2010).........................................................26

Deductions: Non-deductible; Maintenance of Goodwill (2009)........................................26

Deductions: Optional Standard Deduction (2010)...........................................................27

Deductions: Optional Standard Deductions; Irrevocability of Election (2009).................27

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Deductions: Premiums for Health Insurance (2010).................................................. ....27

Deductions: Premiums for Life Insurance (2007)........................................................ ....27

Deductions: Vanishing Deductions (2008).................................................................. ....28

Exemptions: Gains from Redemption of Shares of Stock in

Mutual Fund Company (2010)............................................................... ....28

Exemptions: Gifts, Bequests and Devises (2008)........................................................ ....29

Exemptions: Income Abroad by Non-Resident Filipino (2010)................................... ....29

Exemptions: Income from Religious Activities (2009)................................................ ....29

Exemptions: Pensions from Foreign Government Agencies

and other Institutions (2007)...................................................................29

Exemptions: Personal & Additional Exemptions (2012)............................................. ....30

Exemptions: Proceeds from Accident Insurance (2007)............................................. ....31

Exemptions: Proceeds from Life Insurance (2007)..................................................... ....31

Capital Gains Tax

Exemption of Family Home; Conditions (2013)............................................................32

Exchange of Real Property by an Individual and Domestic Corporation (2008)...............33

Fair Market Value (2007)...............................................................................................33

Nature of Real Properties: Capital or Ordinary Asset (2008)...........................................34

Purchase of Condominium (2007)..................................................................................35

Sale of a Capital Asset (2010)......................................................................................35

Sale of Shares of Stock Not Traded in the Local Stock Exchange (2008).........................36

Tax Rate; Period to File Return (2012)...........................................................................37

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Other Percentage Taxes

Sale of Shares of Stock Traded through the Local Stock Exchange (2008)......................37

Estate & Donor’s Taxes

Donor’s Tax: Capital or Ordinary Asset (2012)........................................................... ....38

Donor’s Tax: Donation to Relatives (2008) ....................................................................39

Donor’s Tax: Dowry Exclusion (2009) ............................................................................39

Donor’s Tax: Exemptions; Properties used by Religious Institutions (2007)....................39

Donor’s Tax: “Reciprocity Rule” (2009) ........................................................................40

Donor’s Tax: Renunciation of Shares (2010) ..................................................................40

Donor’s Tax: Renunciation of Shares (2013) ..................................................................40

Estate Tax (2007) .........................................................................................................41

Estate Tax: Basis of Computation (2007) ......................................................................41

Estate Tax: Basis of Computation (2008) ......................................................................41

Estate Tax: CIR’s Power to Extend Payment; Basis of Computation (2007).....................42

Estate Tax: Composition of Gross Estate (2008) ............................................................43

Estate Tax: Composition of Gross Estate (2009) ............................................................43

Estate Tax: Deductions Allowed to Estate of a Resident or Citizen (2008)......................44

Estate Tax: Deductions Allowed to Estate of a Resident or Citizen (2008)....................45

Estate Tax: Exemptions; Transfer with Sufficient Consideration (2013).........................45

Estate Tax; Exemptions; Transmission from the First Heir, Legatee or

Donee in favor of another beneficiary (2009)...............................................45

Estate Tax: Period for Filing and Payment (2010)..........................................................46

Estate Tax: Vanishing Deductions (2009).....................................................................46

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Business Taxes

VAT: Exempted Transactions; Importation and Use within SBMA (2008)........................47

VAT: Exempted Transactions; Residential Units for Lease (2009)...................................48

VAT: Liable for VAT (2008) ............................................................................................48

VAT: Rates (2010)..........................................................................................................49

VAT: Sale of a Capital Asset (2010) ...............................................................................49

VAT: Zero-rated; Services Rendered to Business Outside the Country (2012).................49

VAT: Zero-rated; Services Rendered to Business Outside the Country (2013).................50

Remedies in Internal Revenue Taxes

BIR: Assessment; Exemption to Examine Once a Year (2013) ........................................51

BIR: Assessment; Requisites (2008)...............................................................................51

BIR: Assessment; Sale of Real Properties (2008)............................................................52

BIR: Compromise; Financial Incapacity (2009)..............................................................52

BIR: Criminal Prosecution; Duty to Pay Tax despite Acquittal (2012).............................53

BIR: Criminal Prosecution; Tax Evasion; Bribery (2013).................................................53

BIR: False Return v. Fraudulent Return (2009)..............................................................54

BIR: Failure to File Return; Collection Without Assessment (2012)……..........................54

BIR: Failure to File Return; Criminal Actions in RTC (2010)..........................................54

BIR: Prescription: Construction in Criminal Cases (2010)..............................................55

CTA: Jurisdiction of the CTA (2010)..............................................................................55

CTA: Jurisdiction of the CTA (2010)..............................................................................55

CTA: Jurisdiction; Appeals from Decisions of the Collector of Customs (2010)...............55

CTA: Jurisdiction; Power to Review Compromise Agreements (2010).............................56

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CTA: Proceedings in the CTA (2010)..............................................................................56

CTA: Suspension of the Collection of NIR Taxes (2010)..................................................56

Customs: Prescription Period to Assess (2013)...............................................................57

Taxpayer: Claim for Refund; Carry-Over Option is Irrevocable (2013).............................57

Taxpayer: Claim for Refund; Substantiation Requirement (2009)...................................57

Taxpayer: Claim for Refund; Withholding Agent as a Proper Party (2009).......................58

Taxpayer: Claim for Tax Credit; Off-Setting (2007).........................................................58

Taxpayer: Claim for Tax Credit; Prescription (2008).....................................................59

Taxpayer: Petition for Review; Tenor of Finality of Assessment (2012)........................60

Taxpayer: Prescription; Construction in Civil Cases (2010)............................................61

Taxpayer: Prescription; Effect of Prescription to File Protest (2009)..............................61

Taxpayer; Prescription; Effect of Waiver of Statute of Limitations (2010)......................61

Taxpayer: Protest against Final Assessment Notice (2010).............................................61

Taxpayer: Protest; Remedies Against BIR’s Inaction to a Protest (2009)........................62

Taxpayer: Request for Reconsideration vs. Request for Reinvestigation (2012)..............62

Local & Real Property Taxes

Local Taxation: Business Tax: Taxable Period, Payment in Installment (2008).............63

Local Taxation: Business Tax on Contractors (2010)......................................................64

Local Taxation: Legality/Constitutionality; Legislative Franchise (2008).......................64

Local Taxation: Legality/Constitutionality; Professional/Occupation Taxes (2009).......65

Local Taxation: Legality/Constitutionality; Regulatory Measures (2009)......................65

Local Taxation: Legality/Constitutionality; Tax Rate (2007)..........................................66

Local Taxation; Principal Office and Branches; Situs of Taxation (2010)........................66

Local Taxation: Retiring Business (2010).......................................................................67

Local Taxation; Taxing Power; Limitation (2010)...........................................................67

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Local Taxation: Taxing Power; Nature (2007).................................................................67

Real Property Taxation: Beneficial Use of the Property (2013).......................................68

Real Property Tax: Exemption; Religious Activities (2010).............................................68

Real Property Taxation; Liable for Payment; Taxpayer (2009)........................................69

Real Property Taxation: Liable for Payment; Period (2012).............................................69

Remedies in Local Taxes

Taxpayer: Local Tax; Period to File Protest and Appeal (2010).......................................70

Tariff And Customs Duties

Customs: Exempted Transactions; Importation and Use within SBMA (2008).................70

Customs: Forfeiture Proceeding, Nature (2008)..............................................................71

Customs: Jurisdiction; Issuance of Warrant of Search and Seizure (2009)......................71

Other Related Matters

BIR: Bank Deposits Secrecy Violation (2012) ................................................................72

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

2013 Taxation Law Exam MCQ (October 13, 2013)...….………………………………………....73

2012 Taxation Law Exam MCQ (October 14, 2012).….……………………………………...........78

2011 Taxation Law Exam MCQ (November 13, 2011).………………………………….…….....101

2010 Taxation Law Exam MCQ (September 12, 2010)….………………………………...........123

2009 Taxation Law Exam MCQ (September 13, 2009).………………………………...…….....124

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General Principles have held that they do not prevent an


entire change of front at any time and
BIR Rulings; “Rulings of First are merely advisory – sort of an
Impression” (2007) information service to the taxpayer.
(Aban, Law of Basic Taxation in the
IV. XYZ Corporation, an export-oriented
Philippines, p. 149 citing Quiazon and
company, was able to secure a Bureau of
Lukban).
Internal Revenue (BIR) ruling in June 2005
that exempts from tax the importation of (B) What is required to make a BIR
some of its raw materials. The ruling is of ruling or first impression a valid one?
first impression, which means the
interpretations made by the Commissioner SUGGESTED ANSWER:

of Internal Revenue is one without


A BIR ruling of first impression to be
established precedents. Subsequently,
valid must not be against the law and it
however, the BIR issued another ruling
must be issued only by the
which in effect would subject to tax such
Commissioner of Internal Revenue.
kind of importation. XYZ Corporation is
(Philippine Bank of Communications v.
concerned that said ruling may have a
CIR, 302 SCRA 241 [1999]; Section 7,
retroactive effect, which means that all their
NIRC).
importations done before the issuance of
the second ruling could be subject to tax. (C) Does a BIR ruling have a retroactive
(10%) effect, considering the principle that tax
exemptions should be interpreted
(A) What are BIR rulings?
strictly against the taxpayer?
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
BIR rulings are administrative opinions
No. A BIR ruling cannot be given
issued by the Commissioner of Internal
retroactive effect if its retroactive
Revenue interpretative of a provision of
application is prejudicial to the
a tax law.
taxpayer. (Section 246, NIRC; CIR v.
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: Court of Appeals et. Al. 267 SCRA 557
[1997]).
They are the best guess of the moment
and incidentally often contain such well-
considered and sound law, but the courts

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ANOTHER ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: Power of Taxation: Limitations: Inherent


Limitations (2009)
The general rule is that a BIR ruling does
(II) Enumerate the four (4) inherent
not have a retroactive effect if giving it a limitations on taxation. Explain each item
retroactive application is prejudicial to briefly. (4%)
the taxpayer. However, if the first ruling
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
is tainted with either of the following: (1)
The inherent limitations on the power to
misstatement or omission of materials
tax are:
facts, (2) the facts gathered by the BIR
1. Taxation is for public purpose. – The
are materially different from the facts
proceeds of the tax must be used (a)
upon which the ruling is based, or (3) the for the support of the State or (b) for
some recognized objective of the
taxpayer acted in bad faith, a subsequent
government or to directly promote
ruling can have a retroactive application. the welfare of the community.
2. Taxation is inherently legislative-
(ABS-CBN Broadcasting Co. v. CTA &
Only the legislature has the full
CIR, 08 SCRA 142 [1981]; Sec 246, discretion as to the persons,
property, occupation or business to
NIRC).
be axed provided these are all within
the State’s territorial jurisdiction. IT
Power of Taxation: Equal Protection of can also finally determine the
the Law; Rational Basis Test (2010) amount or rate of tax, the kind of tax
to be imposed and the method of
(IIc) What is the "rational basis" test? collection (1 Cooley 176-184).
Explain briefly. (2%) 3. Taxation is territorial- Taxation may
be exercised only within the
territorial jurisdiction, the taxing
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
authority (61 Am. Jur. 88). Within
the territorial jurisdiction, the taxing
The “rational basis test” is applied to
authority may determine the “place
gauge the constitutionality of an
of taxation” or “tax situs”.
assailed law in the face of an equal
4. Taxation is subject to international
protection challenge. It has been held
comity. – This is a limitation which is
that “in areas of social and economic
founded on reciprocity designed to
policy, a statutory classification that
maintain harmonious and productive
neither proceeds along suspect lines nor
relationships among the various
infringes constitutional rights must be
state. Under international comity, a
upheld against equal protection
state must recognize the generally-
challenge if there is any reasonably
accepted tenets of international law,
conceivable state of facts that could
among which are the principles of
provide a rational basis for the
sovereign equality among states and
classification.” Under the rational basis
of their freedom from suit without
test, it is sufficient that the legislative
their consent, that limits that
classification is rationally related to
authority of a government to
achieving some legitimate State interest
effectively impose taxes in a
(British American Tobacco v. Camacho
sovereign state and its
and Parayno, G.R. No. 163583, April 5,
instrumentalities,, as well as in its
2009).

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property held, and activities (Hawaiian-Philippine Company v. CIR,


undertaken in that capacity. CTA Case No. 3887, May 31, 1988).

Power of Taxation: Limitations: Tax ANOTHER SUGGESTED ANSWER:


Treaties (2009)
The contention of ABCD Corporation
X(B) ABCD Corporation (ABCD) is a that it overpaid the withholding tax is
domestic corporation with individual and correct provided it can establish:
corporate shareholders who are residents of (1) The existence of RP-US Tax Treaty
the United States. For the 2nd quarter of imposing a lower rate of tax of
1983, these U.S.-based individual and 25%;
corporate stockholders received cash (2) The said tax treaty is applicable to
dividends from the corporation. The its case; and
corresponding withholding tax on dividend (3) Its payment with the BIR of a tax
income --- 30% for individual and 35% for based on a higher rate of 30% and
corporate non-resident stockholders --- was 35%, respectively.
deducted at source and remitted to the BIR.

On May 15, 1984, ABCD filed with the Principle of Administrative Feasibility
Commissioner of Internal Revenue a formal (2009)
claim for refund, alleging that under the
RP-US Tax Treaty, the deduction withheld I(A) True or False. Explain your answer in
at source as tax on dividends earned was not more than two (2) sentences.
fixed at 25% of said income. Thus, ABCD
asserted that it overpaid the withholding A law that allows taxes to be paid either in
tax due on the cash dividends given to its cash or in kind is valid. (5%)
non-resident stockholders in the U.S. The
Commissioner denied the claim. SUGGESTED ANSWER:

On January 17, 1985, ABCD filed a petition True. There is no law which requires
with the Court of Tax Appeals (CTA) payment of taxes in cash only. However,
reiterating its demand for refund. a law allowing payment of taxes in kind,
although valid, may pose problems of
Is the contention of ABCD Corporation valuation, hence, will violate the
correct? Why or why not? (3%) principle of administrative feasibility.

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Set-off; “Doctrine of Equitable
Yes. The provision of a treaty must take Recoupment” (2009)
precedence over and above the
provisions of the local taxing statute I(C ) True or False. Explain your answer in
consonant with the principle of not more than two (2) sentences.
international comity. Tax treaties are
accepted limitations to the power of The doctrine of equitable recoupment allows
taxation. Thus, the CTA should apply the a taxpayer whose claim for refund has
treaty provision so that the claim for prescribed to offset tax liabilities with his
refund representing the difference claim of overpayment. (5%)
between the amount actually withheld
and paid to the BIR and the amount due
and payable under the treaty, should be
granted

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SUGGESTED ANSWER: EIP Corporation for P300 million. In view of


the tax advice, Maria Suerte paid only the
True. The doctrine arose from common
law allowing offsetting of a prescribed capital gains tax of P29,895,000 (P100,000
claim for refund against a tax liability
x 5% plus P298,900,000 x 10%), instead of
arising from the same transaction on
which an overpayment is made and the corporate income tax of P104,650,000
underpayment is due. The doctrine finds
(35% on P299 million gain from sale of real
no application to cases where the taxes
involved are totally unrelated, and property). After evaluating the capital gains
although it seems equitable, it is not
tax payment, the RDO wrote a letter to
allowed in our jurisdiction (CIR v. UST,
104 Phil 1062 (1958)) Maria Suerte, stating that she committed
tax evasion.
Tax Avoidance; Exchange of Real
Property and Shares of Stock (2008) Is the contention of the RDO tenable? Or
V. Maria Suerte, a Filipino citizen, was it tax avoidance that Maria Suerte had
purchased a lot in Makati City in 1980 at a resorted to? Explain. (6%)
price of P1 million. Said property has been
leased to MAS Corporation, a domestic SUGGESTED ANSWER:
corporation engaged in manufacturing No. The exchange of the real state
paper products, owned 99% by Maria property for the shares of stocks is
Suerte. In October 2007, EIP Corporation, a considered as a legitimate tax avoidance
real estate developer, expressed its desire to scheme (Sec. 40 [C2 b] NIRC). The sale of
buy the Makati property at its fair market the shares of stocks of domestic
value of P300 million, payable as follows: (a) corporation, which is a capital asset, is
P60 million down payment; and (b) balance, subject to a final tax of 5% on the first
payable equally in twenty four (24) monthly P100,000 and 10% on the amount in
consecutive instalments. Upon the advice of excess of P100,000 (Sec. 24[C] NIRC).
a tax lawyer, Maria Suerte exchanged her
Makati property for shares of stocks of MAS ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
Corporation. A BIR ruling, confirming the Yes. the RDO’s contention, that Maria
tax-free exchange of property for shares of Suerte committed tax evasion and not
stock, was secured from the BIR National tax avoidance, is tenable. Suerte’s sale of
Office and a Certificate Authorizing her property to MAS Corporation was an
Registration was issued by the Revenue intermediary transaction aimed more at
District Officer (RDO) where the property reducing Suerte’s tax liabilities than for
was located. Subsequently, she sold her MAS Corporation’s legitimate business
entire stockholdings in MAS Corporation to purposes (CIR v. Norton Harrison Co.,

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120 Phil. 684, 691 [1964]). Said sale was Income Taxation
merely a tax ploy, a sham and without
business purpose and economic
Basic: Closed and Completed
substance (CIR v. Toda’s Estate, G.R. No.
Transaction (2012)
147188, 14 September 2004).

III. Mr. Jose Castillo is a resident Filipino


citizen. He purchased a parcel of land in
Taxes considered as NIRC Taxes (2007) Makati City in 1970 at a consideration of
P1 Million. In 2011, the land, which
III. What kind of taxes, fees and charges are
remained undeveloped and idle had a fair
considered as National Internal Revenue
market value of P20 Million. Mr. Antonio
Taxes under the National Internal Revenue
Ayala, another Filipino citizen, is very much
Code (NIRC)? (5%)
interested in the property and he offered to
SUGGESTED ANSWER: buy the same for P20 Million. The Assessor
of Makati City re-assessed in 2011 the
The following taxes, fees and charges are
property at P10 Million.
considered to be National Internal
Revenue Taxes under the National (B) Is Mr. Castillo liable for income tax in
Internal Revenue Code: 2011 based on the offer to buy by Mr.
Ayala? Explain your answer. (3%)
(A) Income tax;
(B) Estate and donor’s taxes;
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(C) Value-added tax;
No. Mr. Castillo is not liable for income
(D) Other percentage taxes;
tax in 2011 because no income is
(E) Excise taxes;
realized by him during that year. Tax
(F) Documentary stamp taxes; and
liability for income tax attaches only if
Such other taxes as are or hereafter may
there is a gain realized resulting from a
be imposed and collected by the Bureau
closed and complete transaction
of Internal Revenue. (Section 21, NIRC)
(Madrigal v. Rafferty, G.R. No. L-12287,
August 7, 1918).

Charitable Institutions: Income Tax for


Profit-Driven Activities (2013)

(II) A group of philanthropists organized a


non-stock, non-profit hospital for charitable
purposes to provide medical services to the

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poor. The hospital also accepted paying SUGGESTED ANSWER:


patients although none of its income
accrued to any private individual; all The “immediacy test” is applied to
income were plowed back for the hospital's determine whether the accumulation of
use and not more than 30% of its funds after tax profits by a domestic or
were used for administrative purposes. resident foreign corporation is really for
the reasonable needs of the business.
Is the hospital subject to tax on its income? Under this test, the reasonable needs of
If it is, at what rate? (6%) the business are construed to mean the
immediate needs of the business,
SUGGESTED ANSWER: including reasonably anticipated needs.
The corporation should be able to prove
an immediate need for the accumulation
Yes. Although a non-stock non-profit
of earnings and profits, or the direct
hospital organized for charitable correlation of anticipated needs to such
purposes, is generally exempt from accumulation of profits to justify the
income tax, it becomes taxable on said accumulation (Sec 3, RR No. 2-2001;
income derived from activities Mertens, Law of Federal Income
conducted for profit. Services rendered
Taxation, Vol. 7, Chapter 39, p. 103,
to paying patients are considered
cited in Manila Wine Merchants, Inc. v.
activities conducted for profit which are CIR, G.R. No. L-26145, Feb. 20, 1984)
subject to income tax, regardless of the
disposition of said income. The hospital
is subject to income tax of 10% of its net
income derived from the paying patients
considering that the income earned Corporate Income Tax: Accumulated
appears to be derived solely from Profits; Capitalization Rules (2010)
hospital-related activities (CIR v. St.
Luke’s Medical Center, Inc., G.R. Nos. (Xf) The capitalization rules may be resorted
195909 & 195960, Sept 26, 2012). to by the BIR in order to compel corporate
taxpayers to declare dividends to their
ANOTHER SUGGESTED ANSWER: stockholders regularly.

No. The hospital is organized exclusively SUGGESTED ANSWER:


for charitable purposes and since no part True. (Sec 244, NIRC; Rev. Reg. No. 2-
of its income inures to the benefit of any 2001 implementing Sec 29, NIRC)
private individual, it should not lose its
exempt character by simply admitting
paying patients. The revenues derived Corporate Income Tax: Carry-Over
from paying patients are necessary to Option is Irrevocable (2012)
maintain “its head above the waters”
and allow it to sustain its charitable IX. On April 16, 2012, the corporation filed
activities (YMCA v. CA & CIR, 298 SCRA
83, 91 [Oct 14, 1998, G.R. NO. 124043). its annual corporate income tax return for
2011 showing an overpayment of income
tax of P1 Million, which is to be carried over
Corporate Income Tax: Accumulated
Profits; “Immediacy Test” (2010) to the succeeding year(s). On May 15, 2012,
the corporation sought advice from you and
(IIb) What is the "immediacy test"? Explain
briefly. (2%) said that it contemplates to file an amended
return for 2011, which shows that instead

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of carryover of the excess income tax succeeding years, considering that there is
payment, the same shall be considered as a no prescriptive period provided for in the
claim for tax refund and the small box income tax law with respect to carry over of
shown as “refund” in the return will be excess income tax payments? Explain your
filled up. Within the year, the corporation answer. (5%)
will file the formal request for refund for the
excess payment. SUGGESTED ANSWERS:

(A) Will you recommend to the corporation Yes. The carry-over of excess income tax
such a course of action and justify that the payments is no longer limited to the
amended return is the latest official act of succeeding taxable year. Unutilized
the corporation as to how it may treat such excess income tax payments may now be
overpayment of tax or should you consider carried over to the succeeding taxable
the option granted to taxpayers as years until fully utilized. In addition, the
irrevocable, once previously exercised by it? option to carry-over excess income tax
Explain your answer. (5%) payments is now irrevocable. Hence,
unutilized excess income tax payments
SUGGESTED ANSWERS: may no longer be refunded (Belle Corp. v.
CIR, G.R. No. 181298, January 10,
Once the option to carry-over and apply 2011).
the excess quarterly income tax against
income tax against income tax due for Corporate Income Tax: Carry-Over
Option is Irrevocable (2013)
the taxable quarters of the succeeding
taxable years has been made such option (I)In its final adjustment return for the 2010
taxable year, ABC Corp. had excess tax
shall be considered IRREVOCABLE for credits arising from its over-withholding of
the taxable year period and no income payments. It opted to carry over the
excess tax credits to the following year.
application for tax refund or issuance of Subsequently, ABC Corp. changed its mind
tax credit certificate shall be allowed and applied for a refund of the excess tax
credits.
therefore (Section 76, NIRC).
Will the claim for refund prosper? (6%)
(B) Should the petition for review filed with
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
the CTA on the basis of the amended tax
return be denied by the BIR and the CTA, No. The claim for refund will not
prosper. While the law gives the taxpayer
could the corporation still carry over such
an option to whether carry-over or claim
excess payment of income tax in the as refund the excess tax credits shown

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on its final adjustment return, once the (B) Are the allocation and distribution of the
option to carry-over has been made,
saleable lots to Weber and Prime subject to
such option shall be considered
irrevocable for that taxable period and income tax and to expanded withholding
no application for cash refund or
tax? Explain briefly.
issuance of a tax credit certificate shall
be allowed. (Sec 76, NIRC; CIR v. PL
Management International Phils., Inc., SUGGESTED ANSWER:
April 4, 2011, 647 SCRA 72 (2011) G.R.
No. 160949). No. The allocation and distribution of
the saleable lots to Weber and Prime is a
Corporate Income Tax: Joint Venture
mere return of their capital contribution.
(2007)
The income tax and the expanded
withholding tax is not due on a capital
IX. Weber Realty Company which owns a
transaction because no income is
three-hectare land in Antipolo entered into
realized from it. (BIR Ruling No. DA-192-
a Joint Venture Agreement (JVA) with
2001, October 17, 2011).
Prime Development Company for the
development of said parcel of land. Weber (C) Is the sale by Weber or Prime of their
Realty as owner of the land contributed the respective shares in the saleable lots to
land to the Joint Venture and Prime third parties subject to income tax and to
Development agreed to develop the same expanded withholding tax? Explain briefly.
into a residential subdivision and construct
residential houses thereon. They agreed SUGGESTED ANSWER:

that they would divide the lots between


Yes. The sale by Weber and Prime of
them. (10%)
their respective shares to third parties is

(A) Does the JVA entered into by and a closed and completed transaction

between Weber and Prime create a separate resulting in the realization of income,

taxable entity? Explain briefly. subject to income tax and to the


expanded withholding tax. (BIR Ruling
SUGGESTED ANSWER: DA-228-2006).

The JVA entered into between Weber and


Prime does not create a separate taxable Corporate Income Tax: Sale of Real
Property by a Real Estate Broker (2008)
entity. The joint venture is formed for
the purpose of undertaking construction I. In January 1970, Juan Gonzales bought
projects; hence, is not considered as a one hectare of agricultural land in Laguna
corporation for income tax purposes. for P100,000. This property has a current
(Section 22 (B), NIRC). fair market value of P10 million in view of

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the construction of a concrete road consists essentially in the sale of all


kinds of services for a fee, regardless of
traversing the property. Juan Gonzales
whether or not the performance of the
agreed to exchange his agricultural lot in service calls for the exercise or use of
the physical or mental faculties of such
Laguna for a one-half hectare residential
contractor or its employees. To be
property located in Batangas, with a fair considered as a contractor, the
corporation must derive income from
market value of P10 million, owned by
doing active business of selling services
Alpha Corporation, a domestic corporation and not from deriving purely passive
income. Accordingly, a mere holding
engaged in the purchase and sale of real
company cannot be assessed by the City
property. Alpha Corporation acquired the of Makati as a contractor (Sec 131 (h),
LGC).
property in 2007 for P9 million.
Final Withholding Tax: Informer’s
(C) Is Alpha Corporation subject to income Reward (2010)
tax on the exchange property? If so, what is
(Xg) Informer‟s reward is subject to a final
the tax base and rate? Explain (3%)
withholding tax of 10%.

SUGGESTED ANSWER: SUGGESTED ANSWER:


True. (Sec 282, NIRC)
Yes. Alpha must pay corporate income
tax at the rate of 35% of the residential
Final Withholding Tax: Royalties Paid to
property’s fair market value of P10
Non-Resident Corporation (2010)
million (Sec. 27[A] NIRC).
(XVIII) ABC, a domestic corporation,
Corporate Income Tax: Who is a entered into a software license agreement
Contractor (2013)
with XYZ, a non-resident foreign
(III)ABC Corporation is registered as a corporation based in the U.S. Under the
holding company and has an office in the
City of Makati. It has no actual business agreement which the parties forged in the
operations. It invested in another company U.S., XYZ granted ABC the right to use a
and its earnings are limited to dividends
from this investment, interests on its bank computer system program and to avail of
deposits, and foreign exchange gains from technical know-how relative to such
its foreign currency account. The City of
Makati assessed ABC Corporation as a program. In consideration for such rights,
contractor or one that sells services for a ABC agreed to pay 5% of the revenues it
fee. Is the City of Makati correct? (6%)
receives from customers who will use and
SUGGESTED ANSWER: apply the program in the Philippines.

No. the corporation cannot be


Discuss the tax implication of the
considered as a contractor because it
transaction. (5%)
does not render services for others for a
fee. A contractor is one whose activity

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SUGGESTED ANSWER: Is the position of KIA tenable? Reasons.


(4%)
The amount payable under the
agreement is in the nature of royalty. SUGGESTED ANSWER:
The term royalty is broad enough to
include compensation for the use of an No, KIA’s position is not tenable. The
intellectual property and supply of revenue it derived in 1997 from sales of
technical know-how as a means of airplane tickets in the Philippines,
enabling application or enjoyment of any through its agent PAL, is considered as
such property or right (Sec 42(4), NIRC). income from within the Philippines,
The royalties paid to the non-resident subject to 35% tax based on its taxable
U.S. corporation, equivalent to 5% of the income pursuant to Sec 25(a)(1) of the
revenues derived by ABC for the use of Tax Code of 1997. The transacting of
the program in the Philippines, is business in the Philippines through its
subject to a 30% final withholding tax, local sales agent, makes KIA a resident
unless a lower tax rate is prescribed foreign corporation despite the absence
under an existing tax treaty. (Sec of landing rights, thus, it is taxable on
28(B)(1), NIRC). income derived within. The source of an
income is the property, activity or
service that produced the income. In the
Foreign Corporate Tax; Local Agent for a instant case, it is the sale of tickets in
Foreign Airline (2009) the Philippines which is the activity that
produced the income. KIA’s income
(VII) Kenya International Airlines (KIA) is a being derived from within is subject to
foreign corporation, organized under the Philippine income tax (CIR v. British
laws of Kenya. It is not licensed to do Overseas Airways Corporation, 149
business in the Philippines. Its commercial SCRA 395, (1987)).
airplanes do not operate within Philippine
territory, or service passengers embarking Note: The taxable year involved in the
from Philippine airports. The firm is problem is 1997, hence, the suggested
represented in the Philippines by its general answer above follows the applicable
agent, Philippine Airlines (PAL), a Philippine provision of the old Tax Code (National
corporation. Internal Revenue Code of 1997) then in
effect and the prevailing jurisprudence on
KIA sells airplane tickets through PAL, and the matter. However, with the adoption of
these tickets are serviced by KIA airplanes the National Internal Revenue Code of 1997
outside the Philippines. The total sales of (RA 8424) which took effect on January 1,
airline tickets transacted by PAL for KIA in 1998, it is expected that the bar candidates
1997 amounted to P2,968,156.00. The have lost track of the change in the tax law
Commissioner of Internal Revenue assessed which transpired more than a decade ago.
KIA deficiency income taxes at the rate of For this reason, it is respectfully requested
35% on its taxable income, finding that that an answer based on the provisions of
KIA's airline ticket sales constituted income the New tax Code shall be given full credit.
derived from sources within the Philippines. Accordingly, an answer framed in his wise
should also be considered as a correct
KIA filed a protest on the ground that the answer, viz:
P2,968,156.00 should be considered as
income derived exclusively from sources ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
outside the Philippines since KIA only
serviced passengers outside Philippine Yes. KIA is a non-resident foreign
territory. corporation which is taxable only on
income from within. The income of KIA

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as an international air carrier is derived transactions were done in Shanghai, these


from the sale of transportation services.
incomes are not taxable in the Philippines.
Compensation for services is an income
from within if the sources are performed
in the Philippines (Sec 42(A)(3), NIRC).
(A) Is the bank correct in excluding the net
The origination of the flight is
determinative of the sources of income income of its Shanghai Branch in the
of the international carrier. If the flight
computation of its annual corporate income
originated from the Philippines to a
foreign destination, the income is an tax for 2010? Explain your answer. (5%)
income from within; if it originated in a
foreign country to any destination, the
income is from without. In the case at SUGGESTED ANSWER:
bar, no flight will originate from the
Philippines because KIA is not licensed
to do business here. Hence, the income No. A Domestic Corporation is taxable on
is not taxable in the Philippines (Sec
all income derived from sources within
28(A)(3), NIRC).
and without the Philippines (Section 23,
NIRC). The income of the foreign branch
Foreign Corporate Tax: “Single Entity
and that of the Home Office will be
Concept”; Branch Remittances (2012)
summed up for income tax purposes
following the “single entity” concept and
I. Anchor Banking Corporation, which was
will all be included in the gross income
organized in 2000 and existing under the
of the domestic corporation in the
laws of the Philippines and owned by the Sy
annual Philippine income tax return.
Family of Makati City, set up in 2010 a
branch office in Shanghai City, China, to
(B) Should the Shanghai Branch of Anchor
take advantage of the presence of many
bank remit profit to its Head Office in the
Filipino workers in that area and its
Philippines in 2011, is the branch liable to
booming economy. During the year, the
the 15% branch profit remittance tax
bank management decided not to include
imposed under Section 28 (A)(5) of the Tax
the P20 Million net income of the Shanghai
Code? Explain your answer. (5%)
Branch in the annual Philippine income tax
return filed with the BIR, which showed a
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
net taxable income of P30 Million, because
the Shanghai Branch is treated as a foreign
No. The branch profit remittance tax is
corporation and is taxed only on income
imposed only on remittances by
from sources within the Philippines, and
branches of Foreign Corporation in the
since the loan and other business
Philippines to their Home Office abroad.
It is the outbound branch profits that is

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subject to the tax not the inbound


profits (Section 28(A)(5), NIRC). (A) Is FC liable to Philippine income tax,
and if so, how much revenue shall be
reported by it in 2010 and in 2011? Explain

Foreign Corporate Tax: Situs of Taxation your answer (5%)

(2012)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
II. Foster Corporation (FC) is a Singapore-
No. FC is not liable to Philippine income
based foreign corporation engaged in
tax. The revenues from the design and
construction and installation projects. In
supply contracts having been all done in
2010, Global Oil petroleum products,
Singapore are income from without,
awarded an anti-pollution project to Foster
hence, not taxable to a foreign
Corporation, whereby FC shall design,
corporation in the Philippines (Section
supply machinery and equipment, provided
42, NIRC; CIR v. Marubeni Corporation,
that the installation part of the project may
G.R. No. 137377, December 18, 2001).
be sub-contracted to a local construction
Also, With respect to the installation of
company. Pursuant to the contract, the
the project which are services performed
design and supply contracts were done in
within, the same is sub-contracted to
Singapore by FC, while the installation
PCC, a domestic corporation. Since FC
works were sub-contracted by FC with
has no branch or permanent
Philippine Construction Corporation (PCC),
establishment in the Philippines,
a domestic corporation. The project with a
business profits earned by it pursuant to
total cost of P100 Million was completed in
our treaty with Singapore are exempt
2011 at the following cost components:
from income tax.
(design - P20 Million; machinery and
equipment - P50 Million; and installation -
[Note: if the examinee answered that the
P30 Million). Assume that the project was
offshore portion of the contract (design and
40% complete in 2010 and 100% complete
supply) is not taxable in the Philippines
in 2011, based on the certificates issued by
while the onshore portion (installation) is
the architects and engineers working on the
taxable invoking the source rules, it should
project. GOC paid FC as follows: P60
be given full credit. The question might be
Million in 2010 and P40 Million in 2011
too technical for students and expected new
and FC paid PCC in foreign currency
entrants to tax practice to discern.]
through a Philippine bank as follows: P10
Million in 2010 and P20 Million in 2011.

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Fringe Benefit Tax: De Minimis Benefits NIRC as implemented by RR No. 10-


(2007) 2000).

The one sack of rice per month given to


VIII. Nutrition Chippy Corporation gives all
the rank and file employees is, likewise,
its employees (rank and file, supervisors
not subject to tax as part of
and managers) one sack of rice every month
compensation income. This is a benefit
valued at P800 per sack. During an audit
of relatively small value intended to
investigation made by the Bureau of
promote the health, goodwill,
Internal Revenue (BIR), the BIR assessed
contentment and efficiency of the
the company for failure to withhold the
employee which will not constitute
corresponding withholding tax on the
taxable income of the recipient. (Section
amount equivalent to the one sack of rice
2.78.1 (A)(3) of RR No. 2-98).
received by all the employees, contending
that the sack of rice is considered as
Partnership: Income Tax (2013)
additional compensation for the rank and
file employees and additional fringe benefit (VII) XYZ Law Offices, a law partnership in
the Philippines and a VAT-registered
for the supervisors and managers. taxpayer, received a query by e-mail from
Therefore, the value of the one sack of rice Gainsburg Corporation, a corporation
organized under the laws of Delaware, but
every month should be considered as part the e-mail came from California where
of the compensation of the rank and file Gainsburg has an office. Gainsburg has no
office in the Philippines and does no
subject to tax. For the supervisors and business in the Philippines.
managers, the employer should be the one
XYZ Law Offices rendered its opinion on the
assessed pursuant to Section 33 (a) of the
query and billed Gainsburg US$1,000 for
NIRC. Is there a legal basis for the the opinion. Gainsburg remitted its
payment through Citibank which converted
assessment made by the BIR? Explain your
the remitted US$1 ,000 to pesos and
answer.(5%) deposited the converted amount in the XYZ
Law Offices account.
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
What are the tax implications of the
payment to XYZ Law Offices in terms of
There is no legal basis for the VAT and income taxes? (7%)
assessment. The one sack of rice given
to the supervisors and managers are SUGGESTED ANSWER:

considered de minimis fringe benefits


For income tax purposes, the
considering that the value per sack does compensation for services is part of the
not exceed P1,000, hence exempted gross income of the law partnership.
From its total gross income derived
from the fringe benefits tax. (Section 33, within and without, it has to compute its

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net income in the same manner as a SUGGESTED ANSWER:


corporation. The net income of the
partnership whether distributed or not
will be declared by the partners as part The interest income of Renato, who is a
of their gross income who are to pay the
non-resident, is exempt from income tax
income tax thereon in their individual
capacity. (Sec 26, NIRC) under Sec. 27(D3)(2) NIRC. Any bank
interest of non-residents from an
Personal Income Tax: Accounting Period
(2010) expanded foreign currency deposit
system is exempt from income tax (Sec.
(Xe) True or False. An individual taxpayer
can adopt either the calendar or fiscal 24[B1] NIRC). An expanded foreign
period for purposes of filing his income tax currency deposit refers to any bank
return. (1%)
authorized by the Central Bank to
SUGGESTED ANSWER: transact business in local and acceptable
foreign currencies.
False. (Sec 43, NIRC)
Judy Garcia, who is a resident of the
Philippines, is liable for 7.5% final
Personal Income Tax: Passive Income;
income tax on interest income (Sec.
(Interest Income); Situs of Taxation
24[B1] NIRC).
(2007)

XV. In 2007, spouses Renato and Judy (B) Is the bank correct in withholding the

Garcia opened peso and dollar deposits at 20% final tax on the entire interest income?

the Philippine branch of the Hong Kong Explain. (4%)

Bank in Manila. Renato is an overseas


worker in Hong Kong while Judy lives and SUGGESTED ANSWER:

works in Manila. During the year, the bank No, The bank should withhold only 7.5%

paid interest income of P10,000 on the peso on the final interest income of the wife.

deposit and US$1,000 on the dollar deposit. The husband is exempt.

The bank withheld final income tax


equivalent to 20% of the entire interest
income and remitted the same to the BIR. Personal Income Tax: Passive Income;
(Rental Income); Situs of Taxation (2008)
(A) Are the interest incomes on the bank
(C) Will Z, a non-resident citizen, be liable
deposits of spouses Renato and Judy
to pay income tax on the P45,000 monthly
Garcia subject to income tax? Explain. (4%)
rental income? Reason briefly.

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SUGGESTED ANSWER: instrument Santino, Johnny's 10-year old


son, as the sole beneficiary. The trustee is
Yes. The rental income from property instructed to distribute the yearly rentals
amounting to P720,000.00. The trustee
located in the Philippines is considered consults you if she has to pay the annual
as income derived from within. Z, a non- income tax on the rentals received from the
commercial apartment.
resident citizen is taxable on income
derived from sources within the a. What advice will you give the
trustee? Explain. (3%)
Philippines. (Section 42 in relation to
Section 23, NIRC). SUGGESTED ANSWER:

I will advise the trustee that she has


Personal Income Tax: Payment by nothing to pay in annual income taxes
Instalment (2010) because the trust’s taxable income is
zero. This is so because the amount of
(Xd) True or False. The Tax Code allows an income to be distributed annually to the
individual taxpayer to pay in two equal beneficiary is a deduction from the gross
instalments, the first instalment to be paid income of the trust but must be reported
at the time the return is filed, and the as income of the beneficiary (Sec 61(A),
second on or before July 15 of the same NIRC).
year, if his tax due exceeds P2,000. (1%)
b. Will your advice be the same if the
SUGGESTED ANSWER: trustee is directed to accumulate the
rental income and distribute the
True. (Sec 56 (A)(2), NIRC) same only when the beneficiary
reaches the age of majority? Why or
Personal Income Tax: Personal why not? (3%)
Exemptions of a Non-resident Alien
(2010) SUGGESTED ANSWER:

(Xh) A non-resident alien who stays in the No. The trustee has to pay the income
Philippines for less than 180 days during
tax in the trust’s net income determined
the calendar year shall be entitled to
personal exemption not to exceed the annually is the income is required to be
amount allowed to citizens of the
accumulated. Once a taxable trust is
Philippines by the country of which he is
subject or citizen. established, its net income is either
taxable to the trust, represented by the
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
False. (Sec 25 (A)(1) in relation to Sec 35, trustee, or to the beneficiary depending
NIRC) on the provision for distribution of
income following the one-layer taxation

Trust: Income from Trust (2009) scheme (Sec 61 (A), NIRC).

(XIX) Johnny transferred a valuable 10-


door commercial apartment to a designated
trustee, Miriam, naming in the trust

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Deductions, Exemptions, requires (1) the fixing of a right to the


income or liability to pay; and (2) the
Exclusions & Inclusions availability of reasonably accurate
determination of such income or
liability, to warrant the inclusion of the
income or expense in the gross income
or deductions during the taxable year.
(CIR v. Isabela Cultural Corporation,
Deductions: “All-events Test” (2009) G.R. No. 172231, Feb. 12, 2007)

(XII) YYY Corporation engaged the services


of the Manananggol Law Firm in 2006 to
defend the corporation's title over a
property used in the business. For the legal Deductions; Claimed by a Partner (2013)
services rendered in 2007, the law firm
billed the corporation only in 2008. The (IV) Atty. Gambino is a partner in a general
corporation duly paid. professional partnership. The partnership
computes its gross revenues, claims
YYY Corporation claimed this expense as a deductions allowed under the Tax Code,
deduction from gross income in its 2008 and distributes the net income to the
return, because the exact amount of the partners, including Atty. Gambino, in
expense was determined only in 2008. Is accordance with its articles of partnership.
YYY's claim of deduction proper? Reasons.
(4%) In filing his own income tax return, Atty.
Gambino claimed deductions that the
SUGGESTED ANSWER: partnership did not claim, such as
purchase of law books, entertainment
No. The expense is deductible in the year expenses, car insurance and car
it complies with the all-events test. The depreciation. The BIR disallowed the
test is considered met if the liability is deductions.
fixed, and the amount of such liability to
pay is already fixed in 2007 when the Was the BIR correct? (6%)
services were rendered, and the amount
of such liability is determinable with SUGGESTED ANSWER:
reasonable accuracy in the same year.
Hence the deduction should have been No. The BIR is wrong in disallowing the
claimed in 2007 and not in 2008 (CIR v. deductions claimed by Atty. Gambino. It
Isabela Cultural Corporation, 515 SCRA appears that the general professional
556 (2007)). partnership (GPP) claimed itemized
deductions from its gross revenues in
arriving at its distributable net income.
The share of a partner in the net income
Deductions: “All Events Test” (2010)
of the GPP must be reported by him as
part of his gross income from practice of
(IIa) What is the "all events test"? Explain profession and he is allowed to claim
briefly. (2%) further deductions which are reasonable,
ordinary and necessary in the practice of
SUGGESTED ANSWER: profession and were not claimed by the
partnership in computing its net income
The “all events test” is a test applied in (Sec 26, NIRC; RR No. 16-2008; 2-2010).
the realization of income and expense by
an accrual-basis taxpayer. The test

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ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: in the Philippines, or to claim it as a tax


credit (Sec 34 (C )(1)(b), NIRC).
The BIR is wrong in disallowing the
deductions because if the partnership Deductions: Non-deductible; Casualty
claims itemized deductions. The partner Loss (2010)
can further claim deductions from his
share in the net income of the (XVI) A is a travelling salesman working
partnership provided these are ordinary, full time for Nu Skin Products. He receives
reasonable and necessary, duly a monthly salary plus 3% commission on
substantiated and not yet claimed by the his sales in a Southern province where he
partnership in computing its is based. He regularly uses his own car to
distributable net income. Consonant maximize his visits even to far flung areas.
with the requirements of deductibility, One fine day a group of militants seized his
the purchase of law books can be car. He was notified the following day by
considered as a capital outlay, hence not the police that the marines and the
deductible outright but subject to militants had a bloody encounter and his
depreciation. Insofar as entertainment car was completely destroyed after a
expenses are concerned only an amount grenade hit it.
not exceeding 1% of gross income shall
be allowed. For the car insurance and car A wants to file a claim for casualty loss.
depreciation, they are allowed as Explain the legal basis of your tax advice.
deductions but only to the extent that (3%)
the car is used in the practice of
profession. (Sec 26, NIRC; RR No. 16- SUGGESTED ANSWER:
2008; RR No. 2-2010; Sec 34 (A) as
implemented by RR No. 10-2002). A is not entitled to claim a casualty loss
because all of his income partake the
nature of compensation income.
Taxpayers earning compensation income
Deductions: Income Tax Withheld by US arising from personal services under an
Government (2010) employee-employer relationship are not
allowed to claim deduction except that
(XVII) In 2009, Caruso, a resident Filipino allowed under Sec 34(M) referring only to
citizen, received dividend income from a the P2,400 health and/or hospitalization
U.S.-based corporation which owns a chain insurance premium; perforce the claim
of Filipino restaurants in the West Coast, of casualty loss has no legal basis (Sec
U.S.A. The dividend remitted to Caruso is 34, NIRC).
subject to U.S. withholding tax with respect
to a non-resident alien like Caruso.
Deductions: Non-deductible;
a. What will be your advice to Caruso Maintenance of Goodwill (2009)
in order to lessen the impact of
possible double taxation on the (XX) Masarap Food Corporation (MFC)
same income? (3%) incurred substantial advertising expenses
in order to protect its brand franchise for
SUGGESTED ANSWER: one of its line products. In its income tax
return, MFC included the advertising
Caruso has the option either to claim expense as deduction from gross income,
the amount of income tax withheld in claiming it as an ordinary business
U.S. as deduction from his gross income expense. Is MFC correct? Explain. (3%)

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SUGGESTED ANSWER: year for which the return is made (Sec


34(L), NIRC).
No. The protection of taxpayer’s brand
franchise is analogous to the
maintenance of goodwill or title to one’s Deductions: Premiums for Health
property which is in the nature of a Insurance (2010)
capital expenditure. An advertising
expense as, of such nature does not (Xc) True or False. Premium payment for
qualify as an ordinary business expense, health insurance of an individual who is an
because the benefit to be enjoyed by the employee in an amount of P2,500 per year
taxpayer goes beyond one taxable year may be deducted from gross income if his
(CIR v. General Foods Inc., 401 SCRA gross salary per year is not more than
545 (2003)). P250,000. (1%)

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

Deductions; Optional Standard False. (Sec 34 (M), NIRC)


Deduction (2010)

(Xb) True or False. A corporation can claim


the optional standard deduction equivalent
to 40% of its gross sales or receipts, as the Deductions: Premiums for Life Insurance
case may be. (1%) (2007)

SUGGESTED ANSWER: X. Noel Santos is a very bright computer


False. (Sec 34 (L), NIRC, as amended by
RA No. 9504) science graduate. He was hired by Hewlett
Packard. To entice him to accept the offer of
Deductions; Optional Standard
Deductions; Irrevocability of Election employment, he was offered the
(2009) arrangement that part of his compensation
would be an insurance policy with a face
(XVI) Ernesto, a Filipino citizen and a
practicing lawyer, filed his income tax value of P20 Million. The parents of Noel
return for 2007 claiming optional standard
are made the beneficiaries of the insurance
deductions. Realizing that he has enough
documents to substantiate his profession- policy. (10%)
connected expenses, he now plans to file an
amended income tax return for 2007, in (B) Can the company deduct from its gross
order to claim itemized deductions, since no
audit has been commenced by the BIR on income the amount of the premium?
the return he previously filed. Will Ernesto Reason briefly.
be allowed to amend his return? Why or
why not? (4%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Yes. The premiums paid are ordinary and
No. Since Ernesto has elected to claim necessary business expenses of the
optional standard deduction, said company. They are allowed as a
election is irrevocable for the taxable

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deduction from gross income so long as SUGGESTED ANSWER:


the employer is not a direct or indirect
beneficiary under the policy of No. In order to claim a vanishing
insurance. (Section 36 (A)(4), NIRC). deduction, Sec. 86(A2) NIRC requires
Since the parents of the employee were that the estate tax of the property from
made the beneficiaries, the prohibition Jaime to Assunta has already been paid.
for their deduction does not exist. However, in this case, it is unlikely that
the estate tax has been paid because of
the difference of only one day between

Deductions: Vanishing Deductions (2008) the respective times of death.

VI. While driving his car to Baguio last


ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
month, Pedro Asuncion, together with his
wife Assunta, and only son, Jaime, met an
Yes. Provided that the estate tax of the
accident that caused that instantaneous
property of Jaime was paid before
death of Jaime. The following day, Assunta
Assunta died, as provided for in Sec.
also died in the hospital. The spouses and
86(A2) NIRC. Vanishing deduction equal
their son had the following assets and
to 100% is applicable to Assunta’s estate
liabilities at the time of death:
as regards ½ of the cash she inherited
from her son Jaime. Assunta died within
Properties Assunta Jaime one (1) year after receiving her share of
Jaime’s estate.
Exclusive Conjugal Exclusive

Cash P 10M P 1.2M


Cars P 2M P 500K Exemptions: Gains from Redemption of
Land P 5M P 2M Shares of Stock in Mutual Fund
Company (2010)
Residential P 4M
house (Xa) True or False. Gains realized by the
investor upon redemption of shares of stock
Mortgage P 2.5M in a mutual fund company are exempt from
payable income tax. (1%)
Funeral P 300K
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
expenses True. (Sec 32 (B)(7)(h), NIRC)

(B) Is vanishing deduction applicable to the


Estate of Assunta Asuncion? Explain (4%)

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Exemptions: Gifts, Bequests and Devises SUGGESTED ANSWER:


(2008)
No. The income from abroad of a non-
resident citizen is exempt from the
XIV. Spouses Jose San Pedro and Clara Philippine income tax; hence, there is no
San Pedro, both Filipino citizens, are the international double taxation on said
income (Sec 23, NIRC).
owners of a residential house and lot in
Quezon City. After the recent wedding of Exemptions: Income from Religious
Activities (2009)
their son, Mario, to Maria, the spouses
donated said real property to them. At the I (D) True or False. Explain your answer in
not more than two (2) sentences.
time of donation, the real property has a
fair market value of P2 million. A law imposing a tax on income of religious
institutions derived from the sale of
religious articles is valid. (5%)
(A) Are Mario and Maria subject to income
tax for the value of the real property SUGGESTED ANSWER:

donated to them? Explain. (4%) False. Congress can pass a law taxing
income of religious institutions from its
property or activities used for profit but
SUGGESTED ANSWER: not for their income from exercise of
No. The law classifies the donated religious activities. The imposition of a
tax on income of a religious institution
property as an exclusion from income from sale of religious articles is an
tax, and therefore exempt from income infringement of religious freedom which
is not allowed under the fundamental
tax (Sec. 32[B3] NIRC). law (American Bible Society v. City of
Manila, 101 Phil. 385 (1957)).

Exemptions: Income Abroad by Non-


Resident Filipino (2010) Exemptions: Pensions from Foreign
Government Agencies and other
(XVII) In 2009, Caruso, a resident Filipino Institutions (2007)
citizen, received dividend income from a
U.S.-based corporation which owns a chain VI. Z is a Filipino immigrant living in the
of Filipino restaurants in the West Coast, United States for more than 10 years. He is
U.S.A. The dividend remitted to Caruso is
subject to U.S. withholding tax with respect retired and he came back to the Philippines
to a non-resident alien like Caruso. as a balikbayan. Every time he comes back
to the Philippines, he stays here for about a
a. Would your answer in A be the
same if Caruso became a U.S. month. He regularly receives a pension
immigrant in 2008 and had become
from his former employer in the United
a non-resident Filipino citizen?
Explain the difference in treatment States, amounting to US$1,000 a month.
for Philippine income tax purposes.
While in the Philippines, with his pension
(3%)
pay from his former employer, he

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purchased three condominium units in during their marriage a residential house


Makati which he is renting out for P15,000 and lot located in Makati City, which is
a month each.(5%) being leased to a tenant for a monthly
rental of P100,000.00. Mr. Pablo Gonzales
(A) Does the US$1,000 pension become
is the President of PG Corporation and he
taxable because he is now residing in the
receives P50,000.00 salary per month. The
Philippines? Reason briefly.
spouses have only one (1) minor child. In

SUGGESTED ANSWER: late June 2010, he was immediately


brought to the hospital because of a heart
The pension is not taxable. The law
attack and he was pronounced dead on
provides that pensions received by
June 30, 2010. With no liabilities, the
resident or nonresident citizens of the
estate of the late Pablo Gonzales was settled
Philippines from foreign governments
extra-judicially in early 2011.
agencies and other institutions, private
or public, are excluded from gross
(A) Is Mr. Pablo Gonzales required to file
income. (Section 32 (B)(6)(c), NIRC).
income tax return for 2010? IF so, how

ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: much income must he declare for the year?


How much personal and additional
Z is still considered as a nonresident exemption is he entitled to? Explain your
Filipino citizen who is subject to tax answer. (5%)
only on income derived from the
Philippine sources. (Section 23, NIRC). SUGGESTED ANSWER:
His pension from U.S. is an income from Yes. Income to be declared: P600,000
without being in the nature of (Rental Income P300,000 & Salary
compensation for past services rendered P300,000); Personal and Additional
outside the Philippines. (Section 42, Exemption P75,000 (Basic of P50,000 &
NIRC). Accordingly, the pension is not P25,000 for one minor child)
subject to the Philippine income tax.

(B) Is Mrs. Teresita Gonzales required to file


income tax return for 2010? IF so, how
Exemptions: Personal & Additional much income must she declare for the
Exemptions (2012) year? How much personal exemption is she
entitle to? Explain your answer. (5%)
V. Spouses Pablo Gonzales and Teresita
Gonzales, both resident citizens, acquired

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SUGGESTED ANSWER: were able to agree to a total settlement of


P10 Million. This is what Antonia would
Yes. Rental Income P600,000 (P300,000 have earned as somebody who was
share for January to June 2010 & gainfully employed. Edgardo was her only
P300,000 representing his interest in heir. (10%)
the income from the properties
(B) Should Edgardo report the P10 Million
comprising the estate for the period July
as his income being Antonia‟s only heir?
to December). The share of the minor
Reason briefly.
child in the rental income (P300,000)
earned after death is not included in the SUGGESTED ANSWER:
return of the parent pursuant to Section
The P10M should not be reported by
51(E) of the Tax Code.
Edgardo as his income. The amount
received in a settlement agreement with
(C) Is the Estate of the late Pablo Gonzales
the airline company and insurance
required to file income tax return for 2010?
company is an amount received from the
If so, how much income must it declare for
accident insurance company is an
the year? How much personal exemption is
amount received from the accident
it entitled to? Explain your answer. (5%)
insurance covering the passengers of the
airline company and is in the nature of
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
compensation for personal injuries and
for damages sustained on a account of
No. It has acquired no tax personality
such injuries, which is excluded from the
because the estate is not under judicial
gross income of the recipient. (Section
settlement. The income of the properties
32(B)(4), NIRC).
is taxable to the heirs in their individual
capacity in accordance with their ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
respective interest in the inheritance.
No. The P10M having been received for
Exemptions: Proceeds from Accident the loss of life, is compensatory in
Insurance (2007) nature, hence, is not considered as an
income but a mere return of capital.
VII. Antonia Santos, 30 years old, gainfully
Income is any wealth which flows to the
employed, is the sister of Eduardo Santos.
taxpayer other than a mere return of
She died in an airplane crash. Edgardo is a
capital. (Madrigal v. Rafferty 38 Phil. 414
lawyer and he negotiated with the Airline
[1918]).
Company and insurance company and they

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Exemptions: Life Insurance (2007) residence. It is now year 2013 and he is


thinking of selling the property to buy a
X. Noel Santos is a very bright computer new one. He seeks your advice on how
much income tax he would pay if he sells
science graduate. He was hired by Hewlett the property. The total zonal value of the
Packard. To entice him to accept the offer of property isP5,000,000 and the fair market
value per the tax declaration is P2,500,000.
employment, he was offered the He intends to sell it for P6,000,000.
arrangement that part of his compensation
What material considerations will you take
would be an insurance policy with a face into account in computing the income tax?
value of P20 Million. The parents of Noel Please explain the legal relevance of each of
these considerations. (7%)
are made the beneficiaries of the insurance
policy. (10%) SUGGESTED ANSWER:

(A) Will the proceeds of the insurance form Since the planned sale involves a real
property classified as a capital asset, the
part of the income of the parents of Noel material considerations to take into
and be subject to income tax? Reason account to compute the income tax are:
briefly.
1. The current fair market value
of the property to be sold. The
SUGGESTED ANSWER: current fair market value is
the higher between the zonal
No. The proceeds of life insurance value and the fair market
value per tax declaration.
policies paid to the heirs of beneficiaries 2. The gross selling price of the
upon the death of the insured are not property.
3. Determination of the tax base
included as part of the gross income of which is the higher between
the recipient. (Section 32 (B)(1), NIRC). the gross selling price and the
current fair market of the
There is no income realized because property.
nothing flows to Noel’s parents other
The income tax is computed as 6% of
than a mere return of capital, the capital
the tax base which is in the nature of a
being the life of the insured. final capital gains tax. (Sec 24 (D)(1),
NIRC).

However, since the property to be sold is


a principal residence and the purpose is
Capital Gain Tax to buy a new one, I will advise Mr. Belen
that the sale can be exempt from 6%
capital gains tax if he is willing to
Exemption of Family Home; Conditions comply with the following conditions:
(2013)
a. He must utilize the proceeds
(XI) In 2000, Mr. Belen bought a residential of sale acquiring a new
house and lot for P1,000,000. He used the principal residence within 18
property as his and his family's principal

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months from the date of SUGGESTED ANSWER:


disposition;
Yes. Juan must pay final income tax of
b. He should notify the
Commissioner of his intention 6% of the gross selling price or the fair
to avail of the exemption
market value, whichever is higher (Sec.
within 30 days from date of
sale; 24[D1], NIRC; and RR No. 13-99).
c. He should open an escrow
account with a bank and
deposit the 6% capital gains Fair Market Value (2007)
tax due on the sale. If he
complies with the utilization V. ABC Corporation sold a real property in
requirement he will be entitled
to get back his deposit; Malolos, Bulacan to XYZ Corporation. The
otherwise, the deposit will be property has been classified as residential
applied against the capital
gains tax due. (Sec 24 (D)(2), and with a zonal valuation of P1,000 per
NIRC) square meter. The capital gains tax was

Exchange of Real Property by an paid based on the zonal value. The Revenue

Individual and Domestic Corporation District Officer (RDO), however, refused to

(2008) issue the Certificate Authorizing


Registration for the reason that based on
I. In January 1970, Juan Gonzales bought his ocular inspection the property should
one hectare of agricultural land in Laguna have a higher zonal valuation determined
for P100,000. This property has a current by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue
fair market value of P10 million in view of because the area is already a commercial
the construction of a concrete road area. Accordingly, the RDO wanted to make
traversing the property. Juan Gonzales a recomputation of the taxes due by using
agreed to exchange his agricultural lot in the fair market value appearing in a nearby
Laguna for a one-half hectare residential bank‟s valuation list which is practically
property located in Batangas, with a fair double the existing zonal value. The RDO
market value of P10 million, owned by also wanted to assess a donor‟s tax on the
Alpha Corporation, a domestic corporation difference between the selling price based
engaged in the purchase and sale of real on the zonal value and the fair market
property. Alpha Corporation acquired the value appearing in a nearby bank‟s
property in 2007 for P9 million. valuation list. (10%)

(B) Is Juan Gonzales subject to income tax


(A) Does the RDO have the authority or
on the exchange of property? If so, what is
discretion to unilaterally use the fair
the tax base and rate? Explain (3%)
market value as the basis for determining

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the capital gains tax and not the zonal ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
value as determined by the Commissioner
The difference in value is not subject to
of Internal Revenue? Reason briefly.
donor’s tax, because the sale is not for
SUGGESTED ANSWER: an insufficient consideration. A deemed
gift subject to tax arises only if a tax is
No. The RDO has no authority to use a
avoided as a result of selling a property
fair market value other than that
at a price lower than its fair market
prescribed in the Tax Code. The fair
value. In a sale subject to the 6% capital
market value prescribed for the
gains tax, the tax is always based on the
computation of any internal revenue tax
gross selling price or fair market value,
shall be, whichever is the higher of: (1)
whichever is higher, and therefore, the
The fair market value as determined by
seller cannot avoid any tax by selling his
the Commissioner (referred to as zonal
property below its fair market value.
value); or (2) the fair market value as
This means that the deemed gift
shown in the schedule of values of the
provision provided for under the Tax
provincial and city assessors (FMV per
Code will not apply to a sale of real
tax declaration). (Section 6(E), NIRC).
property subject to the 6% capital gains
The use of the fair market value
tax. (Section 100, NIRC).
appearing in a nearby bank’s valuation
list, therefore, is not allowed for
purposes of computing internal revenue Nature of Real Properties; Capital or
taxes. Ordinary Asset (2008)

(B) Should the difference in the supposed


I. In January 1970, Juan Gonzales bought
taxable value be legally subject to donor‟s
one hectare of agricultural land in Laguna
tax? Reason briefly.
for P100,000.This property has a current

SUGGESTED ANSWER: fair market value of P10 million in view of


the construction of a concrete road
No. The difference in the supposed
traversing the property. Juan Gonzales
taxable value cannot be legally subject to
agreed to exchange his agricultural lot in
the donor’s tax, because the use of a fair
Laguna for a one-half hectare residential
market value other than that prescribed
property located in Batangas, with a fair
by the Tax Code is not allowed for
market value of P10 million, owned by
computing any internal revenue tax.
Alpha Corporation, a domestic corporation
(Section 6(E), NIRC).
engaged in the purchase and sale of real

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property. Alpha Corporation acquired the (B) Is his purchase of the three
property in 2007 for P9 million. condominium units subject to any tax?
Reason briefly.
(A) What is the nature of the real
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
properties exchanged for tax
purposes - capital asset or ordinary Yes. The purchase will be subject to the
asset? Explain. (3%) capital gains tax imposed on the sale of
real property and the documentary
SUGGESTED ANSWER: stamp tax on conveyance of real
With regard to the Laguna property, it is property, if these units are acquired
a capital asset because it is agricultural from individual unit owners or domestic
land. The Batangas property, in contrast, corporations who hold them as capital
is an ordinary asset because it is either assets. (Section 24(D), 27(D)(5) and 196,
(1) held for sale to customers in the NIRC). If these properties, however were
ordinary course of business or (2) real acquired from dealers and/or lessors of
property used in the trade of business of real property the purchase will give rise
a realtor like Alpha Corp (Secs. 24[D1], to the imposition of the regular income
39[A1]2 NIRC; and RR No. 7-2003). tax, value added tax and documentary
stamp tax. (Section 24-28 and 196,
NIRC).
Purchase of Condominium (2007)
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:

VI. Z is a Filipino immigrant living in the Yes, the purchase of the three
United States for more than 10 years. He is condominium units is subject to the
retired and he came back to the Philippines following taxes:
as a balikbayan. Every time he comes back
to the Philippines, he stays here for about a i. Capital gains tax, if held as

month. He regularly receives a pension capital assets by the seller

from his former employer in the United (Section 24(D) and 27(D)(5),

States, amounting to US$1,000 a month. NIRC), otherwise, the regular

While in the Philippines, with his pension income tax (Section 24-28,

pay from his former employer, he NIRC);

purchased three condominium units in ii. Documentary stamp tax (Section

Makati which he is renting out for P15,000 196, NIRC);

a month each.(5%)

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iii. Local transfer tax (Section SUGGESTED ANSWER:


135,LGC); and
Yes. The capital gains tax is 6% of the
iv. Value-added tax if acquired from higher value between the selling price
(P600,000.00) and fair market value of
real estate developers or lessors
the real property (P900,000.00) or a tax
of real property. in the amount if P54,000.00. The capital
gains tax is due on the sale if a real
[Note: Value-added tax and documentary property classified as a capital asset (Sec
24(d)(1), NIRC).
stamp taxes are outside the coverage of
the BAR Examination. It is requested that
full credit be given even if these two taxes
are not mentioned in the answer.] Sale of Shares of Stock Not Traded in the
Local Stock Exchange (2008)
ANOTHER ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
X. John McDonald, a U.S. citizen residing
The purchase is only subject to the
in Makati City, bought shares of stock of a
documentary stamp tax, a tax that is
imposed indifferently on the parties to a domestic corporation whose shares are
transaction (Section 173 and 196, NIRC).
listed and traded in the Philippine Stock
Other taxes that may be due on the
transaction, other than the documentary Exchange at the price of P2 million.
stamp tax, are the legal liabilities of the
Yesterday, he sold the shares of stock
seller which cannot be considered as a
tax on the purchase but a tax on the through his favorite Makati stockbroker at
sale. To the purchaser, these taxes are
a gain of P200,000.
not taxes but merely part of the
purchase price if, by the nature of the
tax, the economic incidence can be
(B) If John McDonald directly sold the
shifted to him.
shares to his best friend, who is
another U.S. citizen residing in
Sale of a Capital Asset (2010)
Makati, at a gain of P200,000, is he
III (A) Melissa inherited from her father a liable for Philippine income tax? If so,
300-square-meter lot. At the time of her
father's death on March 14, 1995, the what is the tax base and rate? (3%)
property was valued at P720,000.00. On
February 28, 1996, to defray the cost of the
medical expenses of her sick son, she sold SUGGESTED ANSWER:
the lot for P600,000.00, on cash basis. The Yes, He is liable for a final income tax of
prevailing market value of the property at
the time of the sale was P3,000.00 per 5% on first P100,000 net capital gain,
square meter. and 10% for any amount in excess of

Is Melissa liable to pay capital gains tax on P100,000 net capital gain (Sec.24[C]
the transaction? If so, how much and why? NIRC).
If not, why not? (4%)

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Tax Rate; Period to File Return (2012) ANOTHER SUGGESTED ANSWER:

III. Mr. Jose Castillo is a resident Filipino


The income tax due on the transaction is
citizen. He purchased a parcel of land in
P1,276,595.74 which is computed as 6%
Makati City in 1970 at a consideration of
of the Gross Selling Price (GSP). The tax
P1 Million. In 2011, the land, which
base of the 6% capital gains tax (CGT) is
remained undeveloped and idle had a fair
the higher between the GSP and the fair
market value of P20 Million. Mr. Antonio
market value (FMV). The GSP is P20
Ayala, another Filipino citizen, is very much
Million plus the CGT to be assumed by
interested in the property and he offered to
the buyer, following the doctrine of
buy the same for P20 Million. The Assessor
constructive receipt of income or a total
of Makati City re-assessed in 2011 the
of P21,276,595.74, which amount is
property at P10 Million.
higher than the FMV of P20 Million.
(C) Should Mr. Castillo agree to sell the
land to Mr. Ayala in 2012 for P20 Million, Other Percentage Taxes
subject to the condition as stated in the
Deed of Sale that the buyer shall assume
the capital gains tax thereon, how much is Sale of Shares of Stock Traded through

the income tax due on the transaction and the Local Stock Exchange (2008)

when must the tax return be filed and the


X. John McDonald, a U.S. citizen residing
tax be paid by the taxpayer? Explain your
in Makati City, bought shares of stock of a
answer. (5%)
domestic corporation whose shares are
listed and traded in the Philippine Stock
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Exchange at the price of P2 million.
Yesterday, he sold the shares of stock
He shall be liable to pay the 6% capital
through his favorite Makati stockbroker at
gains tax (CGT) based on the Gross
a gain of P200,000.
Selling Price of the Property which is
P20 Million plus the CGT assumed by the
(A) Is John McDonald subject to Philippine
buyer. He should file the return within
income tax on the sale of his shares
30 days from date of the sale (date of
through his stockbroker? Is he liable for
notarization) and shall pay the tax as he
any other tax? (3%)
files the return (Section 24(D), NIRC).

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SUGGESTED ANSWER: SUGGESTED ANSWERS:

No. R.A. 7717, now incorporated in Sec. P700,000. The basis of the property in
127 of the NIRC, provides that the sale the hands of the donee is the carry-over
of shares of stock traded in the local basis (Section 40 (B)(3), NIRC)
stock exchange is subject to a
percentage tax on the sales of shares, in (B) What is the nature of the old car –
lieu of any kind of income tax. capital asset or ordinary asset? Explain
your answer. (3%)

Estate & Donor’s Taxes


SUGGESTED ANSWERS:
Donor’s Tax: Capital or Ordinary Asset
(2012) The old car is a capital asset. It is
property held by the taxpayer (whether
IV. Mr. Pedro Aguirre, a resident citizen, is
or not connected with his trade or
working for a large real estate development
business), but is not stock in trade of the
company in the country and in 2010, he
taxpayer or other property of a kind
was promoted to Vice-President of the
which would properly be included in the
company. With more responsibilities comes
inventory of the taxpayer if on hand at
higher pay. In 2011, he decided to buy a
the close of the taxable year, or property
new car worth P2 Million and he traded in
held by the taxpayer primarily for sale to
his old car with a market value of
customers in the ordinary course of his
P800,000.00, and paid the difference of
trade or business, or property used in
P1.2 Million to the car company. The old
the trade or business, of a character
car, which was bought three (3) years ago
which is subject to the allowance for
by the father of Mr. Pedro Aguirre at a price
depreciation; or real property used in
of P700,000.00, was donated by him and
trade or business of the taxpayer
registered in the name of his son. The
(Section 39, NIRC).
corresponding donor‟s tax thereon was duly
paid by the father.
(C) Is Mr. Aguirre liable to pay income
tax on the gain from the sale of his
(A) How much is the cost basis of the old
old car? Explain your answer. (5%)
car to Mr. Aguirre? Explain your answer.
(2%)

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SUGGESTED ANSWERS: Donor’s Tax: Dowry Exclusion (2009)

XV Miguel, a citizen and resident of Mexico,


Yes, Capital gain is P100,000. The donated US$1,000.00 worth of stocks in
amount of the taxable gain is subject to Barack Motors Corporation, a Mexican
company, to his legitimate son, Miguelito,
the holding period of the asset (Section who is residing in the Philippines and about
39, NIRC) to be married to a Filipino girlfriend. Mexico
does not impose any transfer tax of
whatever nature on all gratuitous transfers
of property.
Donor’s Tax: Donation to Relatives
(a) Is Miguel entitled to claim a dowry
(2008)
exclusion? Why or why not? (3%)

XIV. Spouses Jose San Pedro and Clara SUGGESTED ANSWER:


San Pedro, both Filipino citizens, are the
Miguel, a non-resident alien, is not
owners of a residential house and lot in allowed any dowry exclusion. The dowry
Quezon City. After the recent wedding of applies only to a donor who is either a
citizen or resident of the Philippines
their son, Mario, to Maria, the spouses (Sec 101(A)(1), NIRC).
donated said real property to them. At the
time of donation, the real property has a
Donor’s Tax: Exemptions; Donations for
fair market value of P2 million.
Religious Institutions (2007)

(B) Are Jose and Clara subject to donor‟s XI. The Congregation of the Mary
tax? If so, how much is the taxable gift of Immaculate donated a land and a dormitory
each spouse and what rate shall be applied building located along España St. in favor
to the gift? Explain. (4%) of the Sisters of the Holy Cross, a group of
nuns operating a free clinic and high school
SUGGESTED ANSWER: teaching basic spiritual values. Is the
donation subject to donor‟s tax? Reason
Yes, because the value of the gift briefly. (5%)
exceeds P10,000 (Sec. 101 [A1] NIRC).
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
However, they are each entitled to a
deduction of P100,000 for the net value No. Gifts in favor of an educational
of the gift (Sec.99[B] NIRC). Each spouse and/or charitable, religious, social
shall be liable for a taxable gift worth welfare corporation, or cultural
P890,000 each at the progressive rate of institution, accredited non-government
2-15%, since the donee is a relative. organization, trust or philanthropic
organization or research institution or

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organization are exempt from the implication of X‟s renunciation? What about
the other co-heirs? (2.5%)
donor’s tax, provided, that, not more
than 30% of the gifts are used for SUGGESTED ANSWER:
administration purposes. The donation
If the renunciation is a general
being in the nature of a real property renunciation such that the share of the
complies with the utilization heir who waives his right to the
inheritance goes to the other co-heirs in
requirement. (Section 101 (A)(3). NIRC). accordance with their respective interest
in the inheritance, the law on accretion
Donor’s Tax: “Reciprocity Rule” (2009) applies and the property waived is
considered to pass through the other co-
heirs by inheritance; hence, it has no tax
(XV) Miguel, a citizen and resident of
implication. Undoubtedly, when the
Mexico, donated US$1,000.00 worth of
compulsory heir renounced his share in
stocks in Barack Motors Corporation, a
the inheritance, he did not donate the
Mexican company, to his legitimate son,
property which did not become his. Such
Miguelito, who is residing in the Philippines
being the case, the renunciation is not
and about to be married to a Filipino
subject to the donor’s tax. If it is not a
girlfriend. Mexico does not impose any
general renunciation in favor of the
transfer tax of whatever nature on all
other co-heirs, the heir renouncing his
gratuitous transfers of property.
right is considered to have made a
donation and the renunciation is subject
(b) Is Miguel entitled to the rule of to donor’s tax. In both cases, however,
reciprocity in order to be exempt the renunciation has no tax implication
from the Philippine donor's tax? to the other co-heirs (BIR Ruling No. DA
Why or why not? (3%) (DT-039) 396-09, dated July 23, 2009).

SUGGESTED ANSWER: Donor’s Tax: Renunciation of Shares


(2013)
No. The donation is not subject to the
Philippine donor’s tax because the donor
(IX) In the settlement of the estate of Mr.
is non-resident alien and the property
Barbera who died intestate, his wife
donated is a property not situated in the
renounced her inheritance and her share of
Philippines. The rule of reciprocity
the conjugal property in favor of their
applies only if the property transferred
children. The BIR determined that there
by a non-resident alien is an intangible
was a taxable gift and thus assessed Mrs.
personal property situated in the
Barbera as a donor. Was the BIR correct?
Philippines. This is designed to
(7%)
reciprocate the exemption from donor’s
tax granted by a foreign country to
Filipinos who are not residing thereat. SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(Sec 104, NIRC).
The BIR is correct that there was taxable
Donor’s Tax: Renunciation of Shares gift only insofar as the renunciation of the
(2010) share of the wife in the conjugal property is
concerned. This is a transfer if property
(XV)(d) If X, one of the compulsory heirs, without consideration which takes effect
renounces his share in the inheritance in during the lifetime of the transferor/wife
favor of the other co-heirs, is there any tax and this qualifies as a taxable gift. (RR Mo.
2-2003).

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But the renunciation of the wife‟s share it Law and Jurisprudence, Third Revised
the inheritance during the settlement of the
Edition).
estate is not a taxable gift considering that
the property is automatically transferred to
the other heirs by operation of law due to Estate Tax: Basis of Computation (2007)
her repudiation of her inheritance. (BIR
Ruling DA No. 333-07) XII. Remedios, a resident citizen, died on
November 10, 2006. She died leaving three
Estate Tax (2007)
condominium units in Quezon City valued
VII. Antonia Santos, 30 years old, gainfully at P5 Million each. Rodolfo was her only
employed, is the sister of Eduardo Santos. heir. He reported her death on December 5,
She died in an airplane crash. Edgardo is a 2006 and filed the estate tax return on
lawyer and he negotiated with the Airline March 30, 2007. Because he needed to sell
Company and insurance company and they one unit of the condominium to pay for the
were able to agree to a total settlement of estate tax, he asked the Commissioner of
P10 Million. This is what Antonia would Internal Revenue to give him one year to
have earned as somebody who was pay the estate tax due. The Commissioner
gainfully employed. Edgardo was her only approved the request for extension of time
heir.(10%) provided that the estate tax be computed
on the basis of the value of the property at
(A) Is the P10 Million subject to estate tax?
the time of payment of the tax. (10%)
Reason briefly.
(B) Does the condition that the basis of the
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
estate tax will be the value at the time of
No. The estate tax is a tax on the the payment have legal basis? Reason
privilege enjoyed by an individual in briefly.
controlling the disposition of her
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
properties to take effect upon her death.
The P10M is not a property existing as of No. The valuation of properties
the time of decedent’s death; hence, it comprising the estate of a decedent is
cannot be said that she exercised control the fair market as of the time of death.
over its disposition. Since the privilege No other valuation date is allowed by
to transmit the property is not exercised law. (Section 88, NIRC).
by the decedent, the estate tax cannot
be imposed thereon. (Definition of Estate
Tax p. 184, Vitug, Compendium of Tax

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Estate Tax: Basis of Computation (2008) which was the value at the time of the
death of Jose Cernan (Sec. 88[A] NIRC).
II. Jose Cernan, Filipino citizen, married to
Maria Cernan, died in a vehicular accident
(B) If you disagree, what is the correct value
in NLEX on July 10, 2007. The spouses
to use for estate tax purposes? Explain (3%)
owned, among others, a 100-hectare
agricultural land in Sta. Rosa, Laguna with
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
current fair market value of P20 million,
which was the subject matter of a Joint
For purposes of computing the estate
Venture Agreement about to be
tax, the value should have been P20
implemented with Star Land Corporation
million because that was the value of the
(SLC), a well-known real estate development
property at the time of death (Sec. 88[A]
company. He bought the said real property
NIRC).
for P2 million fifty years ago. On January 5,
2008, the administrator of the estate and Estate Tax: CIR’s Power to Extend
SLC jointly announced their big plans to Payment (2007)
start conversion and development of the
XII. Remedios, a resident citizen, died on
agricultural lands in Sta. Rosa, Laguna,
November 10, 2006. She died leaving three
into first-class residential and commercial
condominium units in Quezon City valued
centers. As a result, the prices of real
at P5 Million each. Rodolfo was her only
properties in the locality have doubled.
heir. He reported her death on December 5,
The Administrator of the Estate of Jose
2006 and filed the estate tax return on
Cernan filed the estate tax return on
March 30, 2007. Because he needed to sell
January 9, 2008, by including in the gross
one unit of the condominium to pay for the
estate the real property at P2 million. After
estate tax, he asked the Commissioner of
9 months, the BIR issued deficiency estate
Internal Revenue to give him one year to
tax assessment, by valuing the real
pay the estate tax due. The Commissioner
property at P40 million.
approved the request for extension of time
43(A) Is the BIR correct in valuing the real
provided that the estate tax be computed
property at P40 million? Explain (3%)
on the basis of the value of the property at
the time of payment of the tax. (10%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:

(A) Does the Commissioner of Internal


No. The BIR is not correct. The property Revenue have the power to extend the
valuation should be fixed at P20 million,

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payment of estate tax? If so, what are the Estate Tax: Composition of Gross Estate
(2008)
requirements to allow such extension?
(XV(a)) What are the properties and
SUGGESTED ANSWER: interests that should be included in the
computation of the gross estate of the
Yes. The Commissioner may allow an decedent? Explain. (2.5%)

extension of time to pay the estate tax if SUGGESTED ANSWER:


the payment on the due date would
All the properties and interests
impose undue hardship upon the estate enumerated in the problem should be
or any of the heirs. The extension, in included in the gross estate if the
decedent. The composition of a gross
any case, will not exceed two years if the estate of a decedent who is a citizen of
estate is not under judicial settlement of the Philippines includes all properties,
tangible or intangible, wherever situated
five years if it is under judicial and to the extent of the interest that he
settlement. The Commissioner may also has thereon at the time of his death (Sec
85, NIRC).
require the posting of a bond to secure
the payment of the tax. (Section 91(B), Estate Tax: Composition of Gross Estate
(2009)
NIRC).
XIII (A) In 1999, Xavier purchased from his
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: friend, Yuri, a painting for P500,000.00.
The fair market value (FMV) of the painting
Yes. The requirements to be complied at the time of the purchase was P1-million.
Yuri paid all the corresponding taxes on the
with so that an extension may be transaction. In 2001, Xavier died. In his
allowed are: (1) a request for extension last will and testament, Xavier bequeathed
the painting, already worth P1.5-million, to
must be filed before the expiration of the his only son, Zandro. The will also granted
original period to pay which is within 6 Zandro the power to appoint his wife,
Wilma, as successor to the painting in the
months from death; (2) there must be a event of Zandro's death. Zandro died in
finding that the payment on the due 2007, and Wilma succeeded to the
property.
date of the estate tax would impose
undue hardship upon the estate or any Should the painting be included in the
gross estate of Xavier in 2001 and thus, be
of the heirs; (3) the extension must be subject to estate tax? Explain. (3%)
for a period of not exceeding 5 years if
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
the estate is settled judicially or 2 years
if settled extra judicially; and (4) the Yes. The transmission of the property
from Xavier to Zandro is subject to the
Commissioner may require the posting
estate tax because this is a property
of a bond in an amount not exceeding within Xavier’s control to dispose upon
his death. The composition of the gross
double the amount of tax to secure the
estate pertains to properties owned and
payment thereof. (Section 91 (B), NIRC). existing as of the time of death and to be

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transferred by the owner by death (Sec enterprise


85, NIRC).

The expenses and charges


Estate Tax: Deductions Allowed to Estate on the estate are as follows:

of a Resident or Citizen (2008) Funeral


Expenses P 250,000

(XV) Don Sebastian, single but head of the Legal fees for the
family, Filipino, and resident of Pasig City, settlement of the
died intestate on November 15, 2009. He estate 500,000
left the following properties and interests: Medical
expenses of last
House and lot illness 600,000
(family home) in
Claims against
Pasig P 800,000
the estate 300,000
Vacation house
and lot in The compulsory heirs of Don Sebastian
Florida, USA 1,500,000 approach you and seek your assistance in
Agricultural land the settlement of his estate for which they
in Naic, Cavite have agreed to the above-stated
which he 2,000,000 professional fees. Specifically, they request
inherited from you to explain and discuss with them the
his father following questions. You oblige:

Car which is (B) What is the net taxable estate of the


being used by decedent? Explain. (2.5%)
his brother in
Cavite 500,000
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Proceeds of life
insurance where The net taxable extent of the decedent is
he named his P3,700,000.00. From the gross estate of
estate as P7 million the following deductions are
irrevocable allowed: (1) funeral expenses of P
beneficiary 1,000,000 200,000 which is the maximum allowed
by law; (2) legal fees amounting to
Household P500,000; (3) medical expenses not to
furniture and exceed P500,000; (4) Claims against the
appliances 1,000,000 estate of P300,000; (5) family home
equivalent to its fair market value (not
Claims against a
to exceed P1 million) of P800,000; and
cousin who has
(6) standard deduction of P1 million, or a
assets of
total allowable deduction of
P10,000 and
P3,300,000.00 (Sec 86, NIRC).
liabilities of
P100,000 100,000
The claim against the cousin amounting
Shares of stock to P100, 000, although included in the
in ABC Corp, a gross estate, cannot be claimed as a
domestic 100,000 deduction because the debtor is not yet
declared insolvent. Likewise, the

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inherited property cannot give rise to a NIRC); funeral expenses not exceeding
vanishing deduction for want of
P200,000 and in no case, to exceed 5%
sufficient factual basis (Sec 86, NIRC).
of the gross estate (Sec. 86[A1a] NIRC);
and medical expenses not more than
Estate Tax: Deductions Allowed to Estate
P500,000 (Sec. 86[A6] NIRC), the result
of a Resident or Citizen (2008)
is a negative net estate. Therefore, there
VI. While driving his car to Baguio last is no estate tax liability.

month, Pedro Asuncion, together with his


Estate Tax: Exemptions; Transfer with
wife Assunta, and only son, Jaime, met an
Sufficient Consideration (2013)
accident that caused that instantaneous
death of Jaime. The following day, Assunta (V) Mr. Agustin, 75 years old and suffering
from an incurable disease, decided to sell
also died in the hospital. The spouses and for valuable and sufficient consideration a
their son had the following assets and house and lot to his son. He died one year
later.
liabilities at the time of death:
In the settlement of Mr. Agustin's estate,
Properties Assunta Jaime the BIR argued that the house and lot were
transferred in contemplation of death and
should therefore form part of the gross
Exclusive Conjugal Exclusive estate for estate tax purposes. Is the BIR
correct? (7%)
Cash P 10M P 1.2M
Cars P 2M P 500K SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Land P 5M P 2M
No. The house and lot were not
Residential P 4M transferred in contemplation of death
house therefore, these properties should not
form part of the decedent’s gross estate.
Mortgage P 2.5M To qualify as a transfer in contemplation
payable of death, the transfer must be either
without consideration or for insufficient
Funeral P 300K consideration. Since the house and lot
were sold for valuable and sufficient
expenses
consideration, there is no transfer in
contemplation of death for estate tax
purposes. (Sec 85 (B), NIRC).
(A) Is the Estate of Jaime Asuncion liable
for estate tax? Explain. (4%)
Estate Tax; Exemptions; Transmission
from the First Heir, Legatee or Donee in
SUGGESTED ANSWER: favor of another beneficiary (2009)

XIII (B) In 1999, Xavier purchased from his


No. By availing of the standard friend, Yuri, a painting for P500,000.00.
deduction of P1 million (Sec. 86 [A5] The fair market value (FMV) of the painting

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at the time of the purchase was P1-million. Estate Tax: Period for Filing and
Yuri paid all the corresponding taxes on the Payment (2010)
transaction. In 2001, Xavier died. In his
last will and testament, Xavier bequeathed (XV)(c)When is the due date for filing and
the painting, already worth P1.5-million, to payment of the applicable tax return and
his only son, Zandro. The will also granted tax? Are these dates extendible? If so,
Zandro the power to appoint his wife, under what conditions or requirements?
Wilma, as successor to the painting in the (2.5%)
event of Zandro's death. Zandro died in
2007, and Wilma succeeded to the SUGGESTED ANSWER:
property.
The filing of the return and payment of
Should the painting be included in the the tax is within 6 months from date of
gross estate of Zandro in 2007 and thus, be death following the pay-as-you-file
subject to estate tax? Explain. (3%) concept. The period to file return is
extendible for a maximum of 30 days
SUGGESTED ANSWER: under meritorious cases as maybe
determined by the Commissioner. The
No. The transmission from the first heir, payment of the estate tax may also be
legatee or donee in favor of another extended when the Commissioner finds
beneficiary, in accordance with the that the payment of the tax on the due
desire of the predecessor is an exempt date would impose undue hardship on
transfer (Sec 87, NIRC). Zandro has no the estate or any of the heirs. The period
control over the disposition of the of extension to pay shall not exceed 5
property at the time of his death; hence, years if the estate is settled through the
the estate tax which imposed the courts, or shall not exceed 2 years if
privilege of transmitting properties upon settled extrajudicially. The
his death will not apply. Commissioner may require the executor,
or administrator, or the beneficiary to
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: furnish a bond in an amount not more
than double the amount of estate tax
No. The property passes from Zandro to due (Sec 91, NIRC).
Wilma by virtue of the special power of
appointment granted by Xavier. The law
includes as part of the gross estate of Estate Tax: Vanishing Deductions (2009)
the decedent a property passing under
general (not special) power of
appointment. The grantee of the power XIII (C) In 1999, Xavier purchased from his
to appoint, Zandro, has no control over friend, Yuri, a painting for P500,000.00.
the disposition of the property because The fair market value (FMV) of the painting
it is the desire of the grantor of the at the time of the purchase was P1-million.
power that the property will go to a Yuri paid all the corresponding taxes on the
specific person. This being so, the transaction. In 2001, Xavier died. In his
painting should not be included in the last will and testament, Xavier bequeathed
gross estate of Zandro, hence, it is not the painting, already worth P1.5-million, to
subject to estate tax (Sec 85(D), NIRC). his only son, Zandro. The will also granted
Zandro the power to appoint his wife,
Wilma, as successor to the painting in the
event of Zandro's death. Zandro died in
2007, and Wilma succeeded to the
property.

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May a vanishing deduction be allowed in (A) Are the importations of motor vehicles
either or both of the estates? Explain. (3%)
from abroad subject to customs duties and
SUGGESTED ANSWER: value added taxes? Explain. (4%)

Vanishing deduction shall be allowed to


the estate of Xavier but only to the SUGGESTED ANSWER:
extent of ½ of the property which is the
portion acquired by gifts (Sec 100,
NIRC). The donation took place within 5 No. because domestic corporations
years (1999 to 2001) from the death of importing used vehicles that are “stored,
Xavier; hence, there is a vanishing
deduction. However, Zandro’s estate will used or traded” within the Subic Naval
not be entitled to claim because, first Base Area enjoy an exemption from
and foremost, the property previously
taxed is not includable in his gross customs duties and VAT, provided they
estate and second, even if it is are registered with the SBMA (R.A. 7096;
includable, the present decedent died
more than 5 years from the death of the Executive Secretary v. Southwing Heavy
previous decedent, and that a vanishing Industries, G.R. No. 164171, 20 February
deduction is already claimed by the
previous estate involving the same 2006).
property.

(B) If they are taxable, when must the

Business Taxes duties and taxes be paid? What are the


bases for and purposes of computing
customs duties and VAT? To whom must
VAT: Exempted Transactions;
the duties and VAT be paid? Explain. (3%)
Importation and Use within SBMA (2008)

IV. JKL Corporation is a domestic SUGGESTED ANSWER:

corporation engaged in the importation and


sale of motor vehicles in the Philippines and Duties and taxes must be paid upon

is duly registered with the Subic Bay release of the vehicle from Customs’

Metropolitan Authority (SBMA). In custody. Custom duties for motor

December 2007, it imported several second- vehicles are based on the value being

hand motor vehicles from Japan and Korea, used by the Bureau for assessing

which it stores in a warehouse in Subic customs duties. VAT is also based on the

Bay. It sold these motor vehicles in April value being used by the Bureau for motor

2008, to persons residing in the customs vehicles (Sec. 107[A] NIRC). Duties must

territory. be paid to the Bureau of Customs. VAT


must be paid to the Bureau of Internal
Revenue.

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VAT: Exempted Transactions; SUGGESTED ANSWER:


Residential Units for Lease (2009)

(XIV) Emiliano Paupahan is engaged in the No. Under RR No. 16-2005, liability for
business of leasing out several residential VAT arises only if the annual gross
apartment units he owns. The monthly
rental for each unit ranges from P8,000.00 receipts exceed P1.5 million. Secondly,
to P10,000.00. His gross rental income for under Sec. 106(A1a) NIRC, the lease
one year is P1,650,000.00. He consults you
on whether it is necessary for him to must be pursuant to the ordinary course
register as a VAT taxpayer. What legal of trade or business of the taxpayer. The
advice will you give him, and why? (4%)
lease of the ground floor to the bank is a
SUGGESTED ANSWER: casual transaction.

I will advise Emiliano that he is not


required to register as a VAT taxpayer. The Association is liable for the business
His transactions of leasing residential
units for an amount not exceeding tax of 3% of the gross receipt if the gross
P10,000.00 per unit per month are receipts of the taxpayer do not exceed
exempt from VAT irrespective of the
aggregate amount of rentals received P1.5 million per annum (Sec. 116 NIRC).
annually (Sec 109 (1)(Q), NIRC).
(B) Will the association be liable for value

VAT: Liable for VAT (2008) added tax in 2008 if it increases the rental
to P150,000 a month beginning January
XII. Greenhills Condominium Corporation 2008? Explain. (3%)
incorporated in 2001 is a non-stock, non-
profit association of unit owners in SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Greenhills Tower, San Juan City. To be able
to reduce the association dues being Yes, because the gross receipts will
collected from the unit owners, the Board of exceed P1.5 million (RR No. 16-2005).
Directors of the corporation agreed to lease
part of the ground floor of the condominium ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
building to DEF Savings Bank for P120,000
a month or P1.44 million for the year, No. Although the gross receipts will
starting January 2007. exceed P1.5 million, the lease of the
ground floor is not part of the ordinary
(A) Is the non-stock, non-profit association course of trade or business of the
liable for value added tax in 2007? If your association (RR No. 16-2005).
answer is in the negative, is it liable for
another kind of business tax? (4%)

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VAT: Rates (2010) is no longer one of the exempt


transactions (Sec 109, NIRC, as amended
(XI) Are the following transactions subject by RA 9337).
to VAT? If yes, what is the applicable rate
for each transaction? State the relevant
authority/ies for your answer. VAT: Sale of a Capital Asset (2010)

(XIa) Construction by XYZ Construction Co. III (B) Melissa inherited from her father a
of concrete barriers for the Asian 300-square-meter lot. At the time of her
Development Bank in Ortigas Center to father's death on March 14, 1995, the
prevent car bombs from ramming the ADB property was valued at P720,000.00. On
gates along ADB Avenue in Mandaluyong February 28, 1996, to defray the cost of the
City. (3%) medical expenses of her sick son, she sold
the lot for P600,000.00, on cash basis. The
SUGGESTED ANSWER: prevailing market value of the property at
the time of the sale was P3,000.00 per
The transaction is subject to VAT at the square meter.
rate of zero percent (0%). ADB is exempt
from direct and indirect taxes under a Is Melissa liable to pay Value Added Tax
special law, thereby making the sale of (VAT) on the sale of the property? If so, how
services to it by a VAT-registered much and why? If not, why not? (4%)
construction company, effectively zero-
rated (Sec 108 (B)(3), NIRC). SUGGESTED ANSWER:

(XIb) Call Center operated by a domestic No. The real property sold, being in the
enterprise in Makati that handles nature of a capital asset, is not subject
exclusively the reservations of a hotel chain to VAT. The sale is subject to VAT only if
which are all located in North America. The the real property sold is held primarily
services are paid for in US$ and duly for sale to customers or held for lease in
accounted for with the Bangko Sentral ng the ordinary course of trade or business.
Pilipinas. (3%) A real property classified as a capital
asset does not include a real property
SUGGESTED ANSWER: held for sale or for lease, hence, its sale
is not subject to VAT (Sec 39 and 106,
The transaction is subject to VAT at the NIRC).
rate of zero percent (0%). Zero-rated sale
of services includes services rendered to ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
a person engaged in business outside the
Philippines and the consideration is paid No. Melissa is not liable to pay the VAT
in acceptable foreign currency duly because she is not in the real estate
accounted for by the Bangko Sentral ng business. A sale of real property not in
Pilipinas (Sec 108 (B)(2), NIRC). the course of trade or business is not
subject to VAT (Sec 105 and 109,(1)(P),
NIRC).
(XIc) Sale of orchids by a flower shop which
raises its flowers in Tagaytay. (3%)

SUGGESTED ANSWER: VAT: Zero-rated; Services Rendered to


Business Outside the Country (2012
The sale of orchids is subject to VAT at
12%. This is a sale of agricultural non- II. Foster Corporation (FC) is a Singapore-
food product in its original state which based foreign corporation engaged in

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construction and installation projects. In SUGGESTED ANSWER:


2010, Global Oil petroleum products,
awarded an anti-pollution project to Foster Yes, PCC is liable to the VAT as seller of
Corporation, whereby FC shall design, services for a fee. However, the sale of
supply machinery and equipment, provided services to FC is subject to VAT at zero
that the installation part of the project may percent rate. Services rendered to a
be sub-contracted to a local construction person engaged in business conducted
company. Pursuant to the contract, the outside the Philippines or to non-
design and supply contracts were done in resident person not engaged in business
Singapore by FC, while the installation who is outside the Philippines when the
works were sub-contracted by FC with services are performed paid in foreign
Philippine Construction Corporation (PCC), currency inwardly remitted through the
a domestic corporation. The project with a banking system are zero-rated sales of
total cost of P100 Million was completed in services (Section 108(B)(2), NIRC)
2011 at the following cost components:
(design - P20 Million; machinery and VAT: Zero-rated; Services Rendered to
Persons Conducting Business Outside
equipment - P50 Million; and installation - the Country (2013)
P30 Million). Assume that the project was
(VII) XYZ Law Offices, a law partnership in
40% complete in 2010 and 100% complete the Philippines and a VAT-registered
in 2011, based on the certificates issued by taxpayer, received a query by e-mail from
Gainsburg Corporation, a corporation
the architects and engineers working on the organized under the laws of Delaware, but
project. GOC paid FC as follows: P60 the e-mail came from California where
Gainsburg has an office. Gainsburg has no
Million in 2010 and P40 Million in 2011 office in the Philippines and does no
and FC paid PCC in foreign currency business in the Philippines.
through a Philippine bank as follows: P10
XYZ Law Offices rendered its opinion on the
Million in 2010 and P20 Million in 2011. query and billed Gainsburg US$1,000 for
the opinion. Gainsburg remitted its
payment through Citibank which converted
(B) Is PCC, which adopted the percentage the remitted US$1 ,000 to pesos and
of completion method of reporting income deposited the converted amount in the XYZ
Law Offices account.
and expenses, liable to value added tax in
2010 and in 2011. Explain your answer. What are the tax implications of the
payment to XYZ Law Offices in terms of
(5%) VAT and income taxes? (7%)

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SUGGESTED ANSWER: effect that for income tax purposes, a


taxpayer must be subject to examination
The payment to XYZ Law Offices by and inspection by the internal revenue
Gainsburg Corporation is subject to VAT officers only once in a taxable year, this
and income tax in the Philippines. will not apply if there is fraud,
irregularity or mistakes as determined
For VAT purposes, the transaction is a by the Commissioner. In the instant
zero-rated sale of services where the case, what triggered the second
output tax is zero percent and XYZ is examination is the findings by the BIR
entitled to claim as refund or tax credit that Mr. Abcede’s 2009 return was
certificate the input taxes attributable to fraudulent, accordingly, the examination
the zero-rated sale. The services were is legally justified. (Sec 235, NIRC)
rendered to a nonresident person,
engaged in business outside the BIR: Assessment; Requisites (2008)
Philippines, which services are paid for
in foreign currency inwardly remitted VII. After examining the books and records
through the banking system, thereby
making the sale of services subject to of EDS Corporation, the 2004 final
tax at zero-rate. (Sec 108 (B)(2), NIRC) assessment notice, showing basic tax of
P1,000,000, deficiency interest of P400,000,
and due date for payment of April 30, 2007,
Remedies in Internal but without the demand letter, was mailed
and released by the BIR on April 15, 2007.
Revenue Taxes
The registered letter, containing the tax
assessment, was received by the EDS
Corporation on April 25, 2007.
BIR: Assessment; Exemption to Examine
Once a Year (2013)
(A) What is an assessment notice? What are
(X) In 2010, pursuant to a Letter of the requisites of a valid assessment?
Authority (LA) issued by the Regional
Explain. (3%)
Director, Mr. Abcede was assessed
deficiency income taxes by the BIR for the
year 2009. He paid the deficiency. In 2011,
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Mr. Abcede received another LA for the
same year 2009, this time from the National
Investigation Division, on the ground that
An assessment notice is a computation
Mr. Abcede's 2009 return was fraudulent.
prepared by the BIR of the alleged
Mr. Abcede contested the LA on the ground unpaid taxes, plus interests, penalties or
that he can only be investigated once in a
taxable year. Decide. (7%) surcharges, if any. However, an
assessment notice must be accompanied
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
by a demand letter from the BIR in order
The contention of Mr. Abcede is not to result in valid assessment (RR No. 12-
tenable. While the general rule is to the 99).

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broker who said that the P1.2 million


(B) As tax lawyer of EDS Corporation, what capital gains tax should be credited from
legal defense(s) would you raise against the the P1.75 million deficiency income tax.
assessment? Explain. (3%)
(A) Is the BIR officer‟s tax assessment
SUGGESTED ANSWER: correct? Explain. (3%)

I would raise the defense that there is no SUGGESTED ANSWER:


valid assessment because EDS
Corporation did not receive a demand The BIR officer correctly disallowed the
letter from the BIR. credit of the final tax of P1.2 million
against the net income tax, which is
subject to deductions. However, the
BIR: Assessment; Sale of Real Properties assessment of 35% is incorrectly

(2008) imposed. The correct rate is based on


the 5-32% tax scale which is applicable
XI. Pedro Manalo, a Filipino citizen residing
to individuals (Sec.24[D1] and Sec.
in Makati City, owns a vacation house and
42[A5] NIRC).
lot in San Francisco, California, U.S.A.
which he acquired in 2000 for P15 million.
(B) If you were hired by Manalo as his tax
On January 10, 2006, he sold said real
consultant, what advice would you give him
property to Juan Mayaman, another
to protect his interest? Explain. (3%)
Filipino citizen residing in Quezon City, for
P20 million. On February 9, 2006, Manalo
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
filed the capital gains tax return and paid
P1.2 million representing 6% capital gains
I would advise him to demand the
tax. Since Manalo did not derive any
application of the 5-32% tax scale
ordinary income, no income tax return was
instead of the fixed rate of 35% which
filed by him for 2006. After the tax audit
applies only to domestic corporations
conducted in 2007, the BIR officer assessed
(Sec. 24[D1] NIRC).
Manalo for deficiency income tax computed
as follows: P5 million (P20 million less P15 BIR; Compromise; Financial Incapacity
(2009)
million) x 35% = P1.75 million, without the
capital gains tax paid being allowed as tax I(B) True or False. Explain your answer in
not more than two (2) sentences. (5%)
credit. Manalo consulted a real estate

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When the financial position of the taxpayer acts charged did not exist (Castro v.
demonstrates a clear inability to pay the
Collector of Internal Revenue, L-12174,
tax, the Commissioner of Internal Revenue
may validly compromise the tax liability. April 26, 1962).

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
BIR: Criminal Prosecution; Tax Evasion;
True. Financial incapacity is a ground
Bribery (2013)
allowed by law in order that the
Commissioner of Internal Revenue may
validly compromise a tax liability. (Sec (XII) You are the retained tax counsel of
204, NIRC) ABC Corp. Your client informed you that
they have been directly approached with a
proposal by a BIR insider (i.e., a middle
BIR: Criminal Prosecution; Duty to Pay rank BIR official) on the tax matter they
Tax despite Acquittal (2012) have referred to you for handling. The BIR
insider's proposal is to settle the matter by
X. Explain the following statements: significantly reducing the assessment, but
he will get 50% of the savings arising from
(A) The acquittal of the taxpayer in a the reduced assessment.
criminal action under the Tax Code does
What tax, criminal and ethical
not necessarily result in exoneration of said considerations will you take into account in
taxpayer from his civil liability to pay taxes. giving your advice? Explain the relevance of
each of these considerations. (9%)
(3%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
SUGGESTED ANSWERS:
I will advise my client not to accept the
settlement proposal but instead pay the
In taxation, the taxpayer becomes entire amount of tax that is legally due
to the government.
criminally liable because of a civil
liability. While he may be acquitted on On the tax aspect, I will tell my client
that a proposed assessment covering
the criminal case, his acquittal could not
deficiency taxes which are legally due
operate to discharge him from the duty must be fully paid to exonerate the
taxpayer from further liabilities. The
to pay tax, since that duty is imposed by
unwarranted reduction of the proposed
statute prior to and independent of any assessment into half and the payment
thereof will not close the case but can be
attempt on the taxpayer to evade
re-opened anytime within ten years from
payment. The obligation to pay the tax discovery so as to collect the correct
amount of taxes from ABC Corp.
is not a mere consequence of the
felonious acts charged in the The act of deliberately paying an amount
information, nor is a mere civil liability of tax that is less than what is known by
my client to be legally due through a
derived from crime that would be wiped cause of action that is unlawful is
out by the declaration that the criminal considered as tax evasion. I will advise
my client that conniving with a BIR

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insider to reduce the proposed BIR: Failure to File Return; Collection


assessment for a fee us unlawful which
Without Assessment (2012)
can expose the officers of the
corporation to criminal liability.
Likewise, the payment to be made to the
(X) Explain the following statements:
BIR official of 50% of the savings
constitutes direct bribery punishable (B) Should the accused be found guilty
under the Revised Penal Code. Insofar as
beyond reasonable doubt for violation of
the BIR officer is concerned he will also
be a principal to direct bribery and to Section 255 of the Tax Code (for failure for
the criminal violation penalized under
file tax return or to supply correct
Section 269 of the Tax Code.
information), the imposition of the civil
On ethical grounds, agreeing to the liability by the CTA should be automatic
settlement scheme being proposed by
the BIR insider is agreeing to the and no assessment notice from the BIR is
perpetration of a dishonest act. Since necessary? (2%)
taxation is symbiotic relationship, fair
dealing on both sides is of paramount
importance. I will remind my client that SUGGESTED ANSWER:
taxpayers owe honesty to government
just as government owes fairness to
taxpayers. (CIR v. Tokyo Shipping Co. Yes. If the failure to file tax return or to
Ltd., G.R. No. 68252, May 26, 1996)
supply correct information resulted to
unpaid taxes the amount of which is

BIR: False Return v. Fraudulent Return proven during trial, the CTA shall not
(2009) only impose the criminal penalty but
must likewise order the payment of the
I(E) True or False. Explain your answer in
not more than two (2) sentences. civil liability (Section 205(b), NIRC). As a
matter of fact, it is well-recognized that
A false return and a fraudulent return are
one and the same. (5%) in the case of failure to file a return, a
proceeding in court for the collection of
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
the tax may be filed without the need of
False. There is a different between a an assessment, which recognizes that
false return and a fraudulent return. The
the civil liability of a taxpayer maybe
first merely implies a deviation from the
truth or fact whether intentional or not, established without the need of an
whereas the second is intentional and
assessment (Section 222(a), NIRC).
deceitful with the aim of evading the
correct tax due (Aznar v. Commissioner,
GR NO. L-20569, Aug 23, 1974, 58 SCRA BIR: Failure to File Return; Criminal
519 (1974)). Actions in RTC (2010)

(VI) Based on the Affidavit of the


Commissioner of Internal Revenue (CIR), an
Information for failure to file income tax

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return under Section 255 of the National CTA: Jurisdiction of the CTA (2010)
Internal Revenue Code (NIRC) was filed by
the Department of Justice (DOJ) with the (Ic) In criminal cases where the Court of
Manila Regional Trial Court (RTC) against Tax Appeals (CTA) has exclusive original
XX, a Manila resident. jurisdiction, the right to file a separate civil
action for the recovery of taxes may be
XX moved to quash the Information on the reserved. (1%)
ground that the RTC has no jurisdiction in
view of the absence of a formal deficiency SUGGESTED ANSWER:
tax assessment issued by the CIR.
False. (Sec. 11, Rule 9, 2005 Rules of the
Is a prior assessment necessary before an Court of Tax Appeals, as amended)
Information for violation of Section 255 of
the NIRC could be filed in court? Explain.
(4%)
CTA: Jurisdiction of the CTA (2010)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(Ie) Judgments, resolutions or orders of the
No. In the case of failure to file a return, Regional Trial Court in the exercise of
a proceeding in court for the collection its original jurisdiction involving criminal
of the tax may be filed without an offenses arising from violations of the NIRC
assessment (Sec 222 (a), NIRC). The tax are appealable to the CTA, which shall hear
can be collected by filing a criminal the cases en banc. (1%)
action with the RTC because a criminal
action is a mode of collecting the tax SUGGESTED ANSWER:
liability. (Sec. 205, NIRC). Besides, the
Commissioner is empowered to prepare a False. (Sec. 3(b)(2), Rule 4, 2005 Revised
return on the basis if his own knowledge, Rules of the Court of Tax Appeals)
and upon such information as he can
obtain from testimony or otherwise,
which shall be prima facie correct and CTA: Jurisdiction; Appeals from
sufficient for legal purposes (Sec 6 (B), Decisions of the Collector of Customs
NIRC; the issuance of a formal deficiency (2010)
tax assessment, therefore, is not
required.
(VIII) What is the rule on appeal from
decisions of the Collector of Customs in
protest and seizure cases? When is the
decision of the Collector of Customs
BIR: Prescription; Construction in appealable to the Court of Tax Appeals?
Criminal Cases (2010) Explain. (5%)

(Ib) True or False. In criminal cases SUGGESTED ANSWER:


involving tax offenses punishable under the
National Internal Revenue Code (NIRC), Decisions of the Collector of Customs in
prescription is construed strictly against protest and seizure cases are appealable
the government. (1%) to the Commissioner of Customs within
15 days from receipt of notice of the
SUGGESTED ANSWER: written decision.

False. (Lim v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. As a rule, decisions of the Collector of
48134-37, Oct. 18, 1990) Customs are not appealable to the Court

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of Tax Appeals. If the Collector of April 26, 2005; RA 9282 on jurisdiction


Customs, however, does not decide a of CTA).
protest for a long period of time, the
inaction may be considered as an (Note: It is respectfully requested that if the
adverse decision by the Collector of examinee gives any one of the two reasons
Customs and the aggrieved taxpayer may presented above, the answer should be
appeal to the CTA even without the given full credit.)
Collector’s and Commissioner’s actual
decision (Commissioner of Customs v. CTA: Proceedings in the CTA (2010)
Planters Products, Inc. G.R. No. 82018,
March 16, 1989). (Id) Proceedings before the CTA in the
exercise of its exclusive original jurisdiction
are in the nature of trial de novo. (1%)
CTA: Jurisdiction; Power to Review
Compromise Agreements (2010)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(V) Does the Court of Appeals have the True. (CIR v. Manila Mining Corp. G.R.
power to review compromise agreements No. 153204, Aug. 31, 2005)
forged by the Commissioner of Internal
Revenue and a taxpayer? Explain. (5%)

CTA: Suspension of the Collection of NIR


SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Taxes (2010)
No, for either of two reasons (1) in
instances in which the Commissioner of (VII) What are the conditions that must be
Internal Revenue is vested with complied with before the Court of Tax
authority to compromise, such authority Appeals may suspend the collection of
should be exercised in accordance with national internal revenue taxes? (3%)
the Commissioner’s discretion, and
courts have no power, as a general rule, SUGGESTED ANSWER:
to compel him to exercise such
discretion one way or another (Koppel The CTA may suspend the collection of
Phils., Inc. v. CIR, 87 Phil, 351 (1950); internal revenue taxes if the following
(2) If the Commissioner abuses his conditions are met:
discretion by not following the 1. the case is pending appeal
parameters set by law, the CTA, not the with the CTA;
Court of Appeals, may correct such 2. in the opinion of the Court the
abuse if the matter is appealed to it. In collection will jeopardize the
case of arbitrary or capricious exercise interest of the Government
by the Commissioner of the power to and/or the taxpayer; and
compromise, the compromise can be 3. the taxpayer is willing to
attacked and reversed through the deposit in Court the amount
judicial process. It must be noted being collected or to file a
however, that a compromise is surety bond for not more than
considered as other matters arising double the amount of the tax
under the NIRC which vests the CTA (Sec 11, RA 1125, as amended
with jurisdiction, and since the decision by RA 9282).
of the CTA is appealable to the Supreme
Court, the Court of Appeals is devoid of
any power of review a compromise
settlement forged by the Commissioner
(PNOC v. Savellano, G.R. No. 109976,

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Customs: Prescription Period to Assess and applied for a refund of the excess tax
(2013) credits.

(VI) On October 15, 2005, ABC Corp. Will the claim for refund prosper? (6%)
imported 1,000 kilos of steel ingots and
paid customs duties and VAT to the Bureau SUGGESTED ANSWER:
of Customs on the importation. On
February 17, 2009, the Bureau of Customs, No. The claim for refund will not
citing provisions of the Tariff and Customs prosper. While the law gives the taxpayer
Code on post-audit, investigated and an option to whether carry-over or claim
assessed ABC Corp. for deficiency customs as refund the excess tax credits shown
duties and VAT. on its final adjustment return, once the
option to carry-over has been made,
Is the Bureau of Customs correct? (7%) such option shall be considered
irrevocable for that taxable period and
SUGGESTED ANSWER: no application for cash refund or
issuance of a tax credit certificate shall
No. The Bureau of Customs (BOC) has be allowed. (Sec 76, NIRC; CIR v. PL
lost its right to assess deficiency Management International Phils., Inc.,
customs duties and VAT. The imported April 4, 2011, 647 SCRA 72 (2011) G.R.
steel ingots in 2005 have been entered No. 160949).
and the customs duties thereon had
been paid by thereby making the Taxpayer: Claim for Refund;
liquidation of the importation final and Substantiation Requirement (2009)
conclusive upon all parties after the
expiration of three (3) years from the (IV) International Technologies, Inc. (ITI)
date of final payment of duties and taxes filed a claim for refund for unutilized input
(Sec 1603, TCC, as amended by RA VAT with the Court of Tax Appeals (CTA). In
9135). the course of the trial, ITI engaged the
services of an independent Certified Public
[Note: Insofar as VAT on importation is Accountant (CPA) who examined the
concerned, the underpayment will be voluminous invoices and receipts of ITI. ITI
automatically cured when these are credited offered in evidence only the summary
against the output tax due upon sale by the prepared by the CPA, without the invoices
imported when the VAT return is filed. Be and the receipts, and then submitted the
that as it may, an assessment for deficiency case for decision.
VAT can only be made by the BIR (not by
BOC), VAT being an internal revenue tax, Can the CTA grant ITI's claim for refund
within three (3) years from the last day based only on the CPA's summary?
prescribed by law for filing of the VAT Explain. (4%)
return. (Sec 203, NIRC)].
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Taxpayer: Claim for Refund; Carry-Over
Option is Irrevocable (2013) No. The summary prepared by the CPA
does not prove anything unless the
(I)In its final adjustment return for the 2010 documents which were the basis of the
taxable year, ABC Corp. had excess tax summary are submitted to the CTA and
credits arising from its over-withholding of adduced in evidence. The invoices and
income payments. It opted to carry over the receipts must be presented because they
excess tax credits to the following year. are the only real and direct evidence
Subsequently, ABC Corp. changed its mind that would enable the Court to

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determine with particular certainty the authority to file a claim for refund and
basis of the refund (CIR v. Rio Tuba to bring an action for recovery of such
Nickel Mining Corp., 207 SCRA 549 claim (CIR v. Procter & Gamble, 204
(1992)). SCRA 377, (1991)).

Taxpayer: Claim for Refund; Withholding Taxpayer: Tax Credit; Off-Setting (2007)
Agent as a Proper Party (2009)
XIII. ABC Corporation won a tax refund
X(A) ABCD Corporation (ABCD) is a
domestic corporation with individual and case for P150 Million. Upon execution of the
corporate shareholders who are residents of judgment and when trying to get the Tax
the United States. For the 2nd quarter of
1983, these U.S.-based individual and Credit Certificates (TCC) representing the
corporate stockholders received cash refund, the Bureau of Internal Revenue
dividends from the corporation. The
corresponding withholding tax on dividend (BIR) refused to issue the TCC on the basis
income --- 30% for individual and 35% for of the fact that the corporation is under
corporate non-resident stockholders --- was
deducted at source and remitted to the BIR. audit by the BIR and it has a potential tax
liability. Is there a valid justification for the
On May 15, 1984, ABCD filed with the
BIR to withhold the issuance of the TCC?
Commissioner of Internal Revenue a formal
claim for refund, alleging that under the Explain your answer briefly? (5%)
RP-US Tax Treaty, the deduction withheld
at source as tax on dividends earned was SUGGESTED ANSWER:
fixed at 25% of said income. Thus, ABCD
asserted that it overpaid the withholding
tax due on the cash dividends given to its The BIR has no valid justification to
non-resident stockholders in the U.S. The withhold the TCC. Offsetting the amount
Commissioner denied the claim.
of TCC against a potential tax liability is
On January 17, 1985, ABCD filed a petition not allowed, because both obligations are
with the Court of Tax Appeals (CTA)
no yet fully-liquidated. While the amount
reiterating its demand for refund.
of the TCC has been determined; the
Does ABCD Corporation have the legal amount of deficiency tax is yet to be
personality to file the refund on behalf of its
non-resident stockholders? Why or why determined through the completion of
not? (3%) the audit. (Philex Mining Corporation v.

SUGGESTED ANSWER: CIR, 294 SCRA 687 [1998]).

Yes. A withholding agent is not only an ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:


agent of the Government but is also an
agent of the taxpayer/income earner. There is no valid justification to
Hence, ABCD is also an agent of the
beneficial owner of the dividends with withhold the TCC. The requirement, that
respect to the actual payment of the tax the claim for refund/TCC and liability
to the Government, such authority may
reasonably be held to include the for deficiency taxes must be settled

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under one proceeding to avoid (A) As a BIR lawyer handling the case,
multiplicity of suits, will not apply since would you raise the defense of
the determination of the entitlement to prescription in your answer to the
the refund was already removed from the claim for tax credit? Explain. (4%)
BIR. To reopen the claim for refund in
order to give way to the introduction of SUGGESTED ANSWER:
evidence of a deficiency assessment will
lead to an endless litigation, which is not Yes. The defense of prescription is
allowed. (CIR v. Citytrust Banking available as against the 2004 tax credit.
Corporation, 499 SCRA 477 [2006]). Under Sec. 229 NIRC, the prescriptive
period is 2 years reckoned from the
filing of the annual return (CIR v. TMX
Taxpayer: Claim for Tax Credit;
Sales, G.R. No. 83736, 15 January 1992;
Prescription (2008)
CIR v. PhilAm Life, G.R. No. 105208, 29
May 1995; CIR v. CTA, G.R. No. 117254,
III. DEF Corporation is a wholly owned
21 January 1999). However, the 2005
subsidiary of DEF, Inc., California, USA.
claim has not yet prescribed since its
Starting December 15, 2004, DEF
prescriptive period ends on January 11,
Corporation paid annual royalties to DEF,
2008 while the claim was filed on April
Inc., for the use the latter‟s software, for
10, 2007. The filing of the Petition for
which the former, as withholding agent of
Review with the Tax Appeals on the
the government, withheld and remitted to
2005 Claim is premature (Sec. 57[A]
the BIR the 15% final tax based on the
NIRC).
gross royalty payments. The withholding
tax return was filed and the tax remitted to
(B) Can the BIR lawyer raise the defense
the BIR on January 10 of the following
that DEF Corporation is not the
year, On April 10, 2007, DEF Corporation
proper party to file such claim for tax
filed a written claim for tax credit with the
credit? Explain. (3%)
BIR, arising from erroneously paid income
taxes covering the years 2004 and 2005.
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
The following day, DEF Corporation filed a
petition for review with the Court of Tax
No. the BIR cannot raise the defense
Appeals involving the tax credit claim for
that DEF Corporation is not the proper
2004 and 2005.
party. In CIR v. Procter & Gamble, G.R.
No. 66838, 02 December 1991, the Court

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ruled that a final withholding agent is a SUGGESTED ANSWER:


proper party “with sufficient legal
interest” because it will be liable in the NO. The Petition for Review should not
event that the final income tax cannot be denied. The case is an exception to
be paid by the taxpayer (See also the rule on exhaustion of administrative
Philippine Guaranty Co. v. CIR and CTA, remedies. The BIR is estopped from
No. L-22074, 30 April 1965). claiming that the filing of the Petition
for Review is premature because the
Taxpayer: Petition for Review; Tenor of
taxpayer failed to exhaust all
Finality of Assessment (2012)
administrative remedies. The statement

VIII. In the examination conducted by the of the BIR in its Final Assessment Notice

revenue officials against the corporate and Demand Letter led the taxpayer to

taxpayer in 2010, the BIR issued a final conclude that only a final judicial ruling
assessment notice and demand letter which in his favor would be accepted by the

states: “It is requested that the above BIR. The taxpayer cannot be blamed for

deficiency tax be paid immediately upon not filing a protest against the Formal

receipt hereof, inclusive of penalties Letter of Demand with Assessment

incident to delinquency. This is our final Notices since the language used and the

decision based on investigation. If you tenor of the demand letter indicate that

disagree you may appeal this time, decision it is the final decision of the respondent

within thirty (30) days from receipt hereof, on the matter. The CIR should indicate,
otherwise said deficiency tax assessment in a clear and unequivocal language,

shall become final, executory and whether his action on a disputed

demandable.” The assessment was assessment constitutes his final

immediately appealed by the taxpayer to determination thereon in order for the

the Court of Tax Appeals, without filing its taxpayer concerned to determine when

protest against the assessment and without his or her right to appeal to the tax

a denial thereof by the BIR. If you were the court accrues. Although there was no

judge, would you deny the petition for direct reference for the taxpayer to bring

review filed by the taxpayer and consider the matter directly to the CTA, it cannot

the case as prematurely filed? Explain your be denied that the word “appeal” under

answer. (5%) prevailing tax laws refers to the filing of


a Petition for Review with the CTA
(Allied Bank vs. CIR, G.R. No. 175097,
February 5, 2010).

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Taxpayer: Prescription; Construction in SUGGESTED ANSWER:


Civil Cases (2010)
No. The protest was filed out of time
I (a) True or False. In civil cases involving and, therefore, did not suspend the
the collection of internal revenue taxes, running of the prescriptive period for the
prescription is construed strictly against collection of the tax. Once the right to
the government and liberally in favor of the collect has prescribed, the Commissioner
taxpayer. (1%) can no longer enforce collection of the
tax liability against the taxpayer (CIR v.
SUGGESTED ANSWER: Atlas Mining and Development Corp.
(2000)).
True. (CIR v. BF Goodrich., Phils. Inc.,
G.R. No. 104171, Feb. 24, 1999; Phil.
Journalists, Inc. v. CIR, G.R. No. Taxpayer; Prescription; Effect of Waiver
162852, Dec. 16, 2004.) of Statute of Limitations (2010)

Taxpayer: Prescription; Effect of (IId) What is the effect of the execution by a


Prescription to File Protest (2009) taxpayer of a "waiver of the statute of
limitations" on his defense of prescription?
(XVII) A final assessment notice was issued (2%)
by the BIR on June 13, 2000, and received
by the taxpayer on June 15, 2000. The SUGGESTED ANSWER:
taxpayer protested the assessment on July
31, 2000. The protest was initially given The waiver of the statute of limitation
due course, but was eventually denied by executed by a taxpayer is not a waiver of
the Commissioner of Internal Revenue in a the right to invoke the defense of
decision dated June 15, 2005. The taxpayer prescription. The waiver of the statute of
then filed a petition for review with the limitation is merely an agreement in
Court of Tax Appeals (CTA), but the CTA writing between the taxpayer and the
dismissed the same. BIR that the period to assess and collect
taxes due is extended to a date certain.
a. Is the CTA correct in dismissing the If prescription has already set in at the
petition for review? Explain your time of execution of the waiver or if the
answer. (4%) said waiver is invalid, the taxpayer can
still raise prescription as defense (Phil.
SUGGESTED ANSWER: Journalists Inc., v. CIR, G.R. No.
162852, Dec. 16, 2004)
Yes. The protest was filed out of time,
hence the CTA does not acquire
jurisdiction over the matter (CIR v. Atlas Taxpayer: Protest against Final
Mining and Development Corp. (2000)). Assessment Notice (2010)

b. Assume that the CTA's decision (IV) On March 10, 2010, Continental, Inc.
dismissing the petition for review received a preliminary assessment notice
has become final. May the (PAN) dated March 1, 2010 issued by the
Commissioner legally enforce Commissioner of Internal Revenue (CIR) for
collection of the delinquent tax? deficiency income tax for its taxable year
Explain. (4%) 2008. It failed to protest the PAN. The CIR
thereupon issued a final assessment notice
(FAN) with letter of demand on April 30,
2010. The FAN was received by the

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corporation on May 10, 2010, following the expiration of the 180-day


which or on May 25, 2010, it filed its period from submission of all
protest against it. relevant documents; or
2. Await the final decision of the
The CIR denied the protest on the ground Commissioner on the disputed
that the assessment had already become assessment and appeal such
final and executory, the corporation having final decision to the CTA
failed to protest the PAN. within 30 days after receipt of
a copy of such decision.
Is the CIR correct? Explain. (5%)
These options are mutually exclusive
such that resort to one bars the
SUGGESTED ANSWER: application of the other (RCBC v. CIR,
522 SCRA 144 (2007)).
No. The issuance of preliminary
assessment notice (PAN) does not give
rise to the right of the taxpayer to
protest. What can be protested by the Taxpayer: Request for Reconsideration
taxpayer is the final assessment notice vs. Request for Reinvestigation (2012)
(FAN) or that assessment issued
following the PAN. Since the FAN was
timely protested (within 30 days from VI. The BIR issued in 2010 a final
receipt thereof, the assessment did not assessment notice and demand letter
become final and executory (Sec 228,
NIRC; RR No. 12-99). against X Corporation covering deficiency
income tax for the year 2008 in the amount
of P10 Million, X Corporation earlier
Taxpayer: Protest; Remedies Against
BIR’s Inaction to a Protest (2009) requested the advice of a lawyer on whether
or not it should file a request for
(XVIII) A taxpayer received an assessment
notice from the BIR on February 3, 2009. reconsideration or a request for
The following day, he filed a protest, in the reinvestigation. The lawyer said it does not
form of a request for reinvestigation,
against the assessment and submitted all matter whether the protest filed against the
relevant documents in support of the assessment is a request for reconsideration
protest. On September 11, 2009, the
taxpayer, apprehensive because he had not or a request for reinvestigation, because it
yet received notice of a decision by the has the same consequences or implications.
Commissioner on his protest, sought your
advice.
(A) What are the differences between a
What remedy or remedies are available to request for reconsideration and a request
the taxpayer? Explain. (4%)
for reinvestigation? (5%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:

The remedy of a taxpayer is to avail of SUGGESTED ANSWER:


either of two options: Request for Reconsideration – plea for

1. File a petition for review with evaluation of assessment on the basis of


the CTA within 30 days after

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existing records without need of July 1, 2007 to December 31, 2007


presentation of additional evidence. It 15,000,000.
does not suspend the period to collect
the deficiency tax. Since MNO Corporation adopted fiscal year
Request for Reinvestigation – plea for re- ending June 30 as its taxable year for
evaluation on the basis of newly income tax purposes, it paid its 2%
discovered evidence which are to be business tax for fiscal year ending June 30,
introduced for examination for the first 2007 based on gross sales of P15 million.
time. It suspends the prescriptive period However, the Quezon City Treasurer
to collect. assessed the corporation for deficiency
business tax for 2007 based on gross sales
(B) Do you agree with the advice of the
of P25 million alleging that local business
lawyer? Explain your answer. (5%)
taxes shall be computed based on calendar
year.
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
No, in view of the aforesaid difference
(A) Is the position of the city treasurer
between Request for Reconsideration &
tenable? Explain. (3%)
Request for Reinvestigation.

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

Local & Real Property Taxes Yes. Under Sec. 165 of the Local
Government Code, the taxable period for
Local Taxation: Business Tax: Taxable
the payment of business taxes is the
Period, Payment in Instalment (2008)
calendar year.

XIII. MNO Corporation was organized on


(B) May the deficiency business tax be paid
July 1, 2006, to engage in trading of school
in installments without surcharge and
supplies, with principal place of business in
interest? Explain. (3%)
Cubao, Quezon City. Its books of accounts
and income statement showing gross sales
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
as follows:
July 1, 2006 to December 31, 2006
Yes, provided there is a valid tax
P5,000,000.
ordinance enacted for that purpose that
January 1, 2007 to June 30, 2007
does not impose such surcharge and/or
P10,000,000.

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interest on any taxes not paid (Sec. 192, legislative franchises state that they will
Local Government Code). pay only 5% franchise tax in lieu of all
taxes.
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
The Province of Zamboanga del Norte
No, There is no ordinance authorizing
passed an ordinance in 1997 that imposes
the instalment payment of business
a local franchise tax on all
taxes without interest and surcharges
telecommunication companies operation
(See Sec. 192, Local Government Code).
within the province. The tax is 50% of 1% of
the gross annual receipts of the preceding
Local Taxation: Business Tax on
Contractors (2010) calendar year based on the incoming
receipts, or receipts realized, within its
(IIe) What is the basis for the computation
of business tax on contractors under the territorial jurisdiction.
Local Government Code? (2%)
Is the ordinance valid? Are PLDT, Smart
SUGGESTED ANSWER: and Globe liable to pay franchise taxes?
The business tax on contractors is a Reason briefly. (10%)
graduated annual fixed tax based on the
gross receipts for the preceding calendar SUGGESTED ANSWER:
year. However, when the gross receipts
amount to P2 million or more, the
The ordinance is valid. The Local
business tax on contractors is imposed
as a percentage tax at the rate of 50% of Government Code explicitly authorizes
1% (Sec 143 (e), LGC).
provincial governments, notwithstanding
any law or other special law, to impose a
Local Taxation: Legality/
tax on business enjoying a franchise at
Constitutionality; Legislative Franchise
the rate of 50% of 1% based on the gross
(2007)
annual receipts during the preceding
year within the province. (Section 137,
II. The Local Government Code took effect
LGC).
on January 1, 1992.

PLDT is liable to the franchise tax levied


PLDT‟s legislative franchise was granted
by the province of Zamboanga del Norte.
sometime before 1992. Its franchise
The tax exemption privileges on
provides that PLDT will only pay 3%
franchises granted before the passage of
franchise tax in lieu of all taxes.
the Local Government Code are
The legislative franchises of Smart and effectively repealed by the latter law.
Globe Telecoms were granted in 1998. Their

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(PLDT v. City of Davao, 363 SCRA 522 examination and lawyers are included
within that class of professionals.
[2001]).
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
Smart and Globe, however, are not liable
to the franchise tax imposed under the The ordinance is valid. The ordinance is
not discriminatory because it complies
provincial ordinance. The legislative with the rule of equality and uniformity
franchises of Smart and Globe were in taxation. Equality and uniformity in
local taxation means that all subjects or
granted in 1998, long after the Local objects of taxation belonging to the same
Government Code took effect. Congress class shall be taxed at the same rate
within the territorial jurisdiction of the
is deemed to have been aware of the taxing authority or local government
provisions of the earlier law, when it unit and not necessarily in comparison
with other units although belonging to
granted the exemption. Accordingly, the the same political subdivision. In fine,
latest will of the legislature to grant tax uniformity is required only within the
geographical limits of the taxing
exemption must be respected. authority. It is not for the Court to judge
what particular cities or municipalities
should be empowered to impose
Local Taxation; Constitutionality;
occupation tax. In case at bar, the
Professional or Occupation Taxes (2009)
imposition of the occupation tax to
persons exercising various professionals
(VIII) The City of Manila enacted Ordinance in the city is well within the authority of
No. 55-66 which imposes a municipal the City of Manila (Punsalan et. al. v.
occupation tax on persons practicing City of Manila, 95 Phil. 46 (1954)).
various professions in the city. Among
those subjected to the occupation tax were
lawyers. Atty. Mariano Batas, who has a Local Taxation; Legality/
law office in Manila, pays the ordinance- Constitutionality; Regulatory Measures
imposed occupation tax under protest. He (2009)
goes to court to assail the validity of the
ordinance for being discriminatory. Decide (VI) The Sanggunian Bayan of the
with reasons. (3%) Municipality of Sampaloc, Quezon, passed
an ordinance imposing a storage fee of ten
SUGGESTED ANSWER: centavos (P0.10) for every 100 kilos of copra
deposited in any bodega within the
The ordinance is valid. The tax imposed Municipality's jurisdiction. The
by the ordinance is in the nature of a Metropolitan Manufacturing Corporation
professional tax which is authorized by (MMC), with principal office in Makati, is
law to be imposed by cities (Sec 151 in engaged in the manufacture of soap, edible
relation o Sec 139, LGC). The ordinance oil, margarine, and other coconut oil-based
is not discriminatory because the City products. It has a warehouse in Sampaloc,
Council has the power to select the Quezon, used as storage space for the copra
subjects of taxation and impose the purchased in Sampaloc and nearby towns
same tax on those belonging to the same before the same is shipped to Makati. MMC
class. The authority given by law to goes to court to challenge the validity of the
cities is to impose a professional tax ordinance, demanding the refund of the
only on persons engaged in the practice storage fees it paid under protest.
of their profession requiring government

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Is the ordinance valid? Explain your SUGGESTED ANSWER:


answer. (4%)
BAT Corporation is correct in
questioning the ordinance, but not
SUGGESTED ANSWER: because it is income tax. The tax
Yes. The municipality is authorized to imposed is authorized by Sec. 143 (H) of
impose reasonable fees and charges as a the Local Government Code. However,
regulatory measure in an amount
commensurate with the cost of the maximum rate that can be imposed
regulations, inspection and licensing by the city is only 3% (Sec. 151, Local
(Sec 147, LGC). In the case at bar, the
storage of copra in any warehouse within Government Code). Therefore, tax
the municipality can be the proper imposed by Manila is invalid for
subject of regulation pursuant to the
police power granted to municipalities exceeding the amount allowed by law.
under the Revised Administrative Code
of the “general welfare clause.” A
warehouse used for keeping or storing Local Taxation; Principal Office and
copra is an establishment likely to Branches; Situs of Taxation (2010)
endanger the public safety or likely to
gave rise to conflagration because the oil
(XII) Ferremaro, Inc., a manufacturer of
content of the copra, when ignited, is
handcrafted shoes, maintains its principal
difficult to put under control by water
office in Cubao, Quezon City. It has
and the use of chemicals is necessary to
branches/sales offices in Cebu and Davao.
put out the fire. It is, thus, reasonable
Its factory is located in Marikina City where
that the Municipality impose storage
most of its workers live. Its principal office
fees for its own surveillance and lookout
in Quezon City is also a sales office.
(Procter & Gamble Philippine
Manufacturing Corporation v.
Municipality of Jagna, Province of Sales of finished products for calendar year
Bohol, 94 SCRA 894 (1979)). 2009 in the amount of P10 million were
made at the following locations:

Local Taxation: Legality/ i) Cebu branch 25%


Constitutionality; Tax Rate (2008)
ii) Davao branch 15%

iii) Quezon City branch 60%


VIII. The City of Manila enacted an
ordinance, imposing a 5% tax on gross Total 100%

receipts on rentals of space in privately-


Where should the applicable local taxes on
owned public markets. BAT Corporation the shoes be paid? Explain. (3%)
questioned the validity of the ordinance,
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
stating that the tax is an income tax, which
cannot be imposed by the city government. Twenty five percent (25%) of total sales
or P2.5 million shall be taxed in Cebu
Do you agree with the position of BAT
and 15% of total sales or P1.5 million
Corporation? Explain (5%) shall be taxed in Davao. For the

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remaining 60% sales amounting to P6 in Makati which is also the company‟s


million which are recorded in the principal office.
principal office, 30% thereof or P1.8
million is taxable in Quezon City where The City of Manila enacted an ordinance
the principal office is located and 70% or levying a 2% tax on gross receipts of
P4.2 million is taxable in Marikina City shipping lines using the Port of Manila.
where the factory is located.
Can the City Government of Manila legally
Under the law, manufacturers impose said levy on the corporation?
maintaining a branch or sales outlet Explain. (3%)
shall record the sale in the branch or
sales outlet making the sale and pay the
tax in the city or municipality where the SUGGESTED ANSWER:
branch or outlet is located. Since
Ferremaro, Inc. maintains one factory, No, Manila cannot legally levy the 2%
the sales recorded in the principal office Gross Receipts Tax on the shipping line,
shall be allocated and 30% of said sales because taxes on the gross receipts of
are taxable in the place where the transportation contractors and
passengers or freight by hire and
principal office is located while 70% is
common carriers by air, land or water is
taxable in the place where the factory is
located (Sec. 150, LGC). a limitation on the exercise of taxing
powers by local government units (Sec
133 (j), LGC).
Local Taxation: Retiring Business (2010)
ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
(IIf) How are retiring businesses taxed No. Since the gross receipts of an
under the Local Government Code? (2%) international shipping company is
subject to tax under the Internal
SUGGESTED ANSWER: Revenue Code, the power to tax is
impliedly withheld from local
Retiring businesses under the LGC are government units. This is the “rule on
taxed in their gross sales or gross preemption or exclusionary rule” which
receipts in the current year and not in applies unless by express provision of
the preceding year. If the tax paid in the law, LGUs are given the power to tax that
current year is less than the tax due on field already covered by the taxing power
gross sales or receipts of the current of the National government (Victorias
year, the difference shall be paid before Milling Co., Inc. v. Mun. of Victorias, L-
the business is considered officially 2113, Sept 27, 1968; Sec 133, LGC).
retired (Sec 145, LGC).
Local Taxation: Taxing Power; Nature
Local Taxation; Taxing Power; Limitation
(2010) (2007)
I. What is the nature of the taxing
(XIII) XYZ Shipping Corporation is a branch
of an international shipping line with power of the provinces,
voyages between Manila and the West municipalities and cities? How
Coast of the U.S. The company‟s vessels
load and unload cargoes at the Port of will the local government units
Manila, albeit it does not have a branch or be able to exercise their taxing
sales office in Manila. All the bills of lading
and invoices are issued by the branch office powers? (5%)

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SUGGESTED ANSWER: Assessor assessed Mr. Amado for real


property taxes on the land and the
The taxing power of the provinces, warehouse. Mr. Amado objected to the
assessment, contending that he should not
municipalities and cities is directly be asked to pay realty taxes on the land
conferred by the Constitution by giving since it is municipal property.

them the authority to create their own Was the assessment proper? (5%)
sources of revenue. The local
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
government units do not exercise the
power to tax as an inherent power or by Yes, the assessment is proper. The land,
a valid delegation of the power by the although owned by the municipality, is
not exempt from real property tax
Congress, but pursuant to a direct because the beneficial use has been
authority conferred by the Constitution. granted to a taxable person. (Sec 234 (a),
LGC)
(Mactan Cebu International Airport
Authority v. Marcos, 261 SCRA 667 Real Property Tax; Exemption; Religious
Activities (2010)
[1996]; NPC v. City of Cabanatuan, 401
SCRA 259 [2003]). (XIV) A inherited a two-storey building in
Makati from his father, a real estate broker
The local government units exercise the in the „60s. A group of Tibetan monks
approached A and offered to lease the
power to tax by levying taxes, fees and building in order to use it as a venue for
charges consistent with the basic policy their Buddhist rituals and ceremonies. A
accepted the rental of P1 million for the
of local autonomy, and to assess and whole year.
collect all these taxes, fees and charges
The following year, the City Assessor issued
which will exclusively accrue to them.
an assessment against A for non-payment
The local government units are of real property taxes.
authorized to pass tax ordinances (levy)
Is the assessor justified in assessing A‟s
and to pursue actions for the assessment deficiency real property taxes? Explain.
and collection of the taxes imposed in (3%)

the said ordinances. (Section 129, and SUGGESTED ANSWER:


132, Local Government Code).
No. The property is exempt from real
property tax by virtue of the beneficial
use thereof by the Tibetan monks for
Real Property Taxation: Beneficial Use of their religious rituals and ceremonies. A
the Property (2013) property that is actually, directly and
exclusively used for religious purposes is
exempt from the real property tax (Sec
(VIII) Mr. Amado leased a piece of land
234, LGC; Sec 28(3), Article IV, Phil.
owned by the Municipality of Pinagsabitan
Constitution). The test of exemption
and built a warehouse on the property for
from the tax is not ownership but
his business operations. The Municipal
beneficial use of the property (City of

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Baguio v. Busuego, L-29772, Sept 18, into electricity. This belies the claim
1980). that RPC, a government-owned and
controlled corporation engaged in the
Real Property Taxation: Liable for supply, generation and transmission of
Payment; Taxpayer (2009) electric power, is the actual, direct and
exclusive user of the barge, hence, does
(IX) Republic Power Corporation (RPC) is a not fall within the purview of the
government-owned and controlled exempting provision of Sec 234(c) of RA
corporation engaged in the supply, 7160. Likewise, the argument that RPC
generation and transmission of electric should be liable to the real property
power. In 2005, in order to provide taxes consonant with the contract is
electricity to Southern Tagalog provinces, devoid of merit. The liability for the
RPC entered into an agreement with Jethro payment of the real estate taxes is
Energy Corporation (JEC), for the lease of determined by law and not by the
JEC's power barges which shall be berthed agreement of the parties (FELS Energy
at the port of Batangas City. The contract Inc. v. The Province of Batangas, 516
provides that JEC shall own the power SCRA 186 (2007)).
barges and the fixtures, fittings, machinery,
and equipment therein, all of which JEC
shall supply at its own cost, and that JEC
shall operate, manage and maintain the Real Property Taxation: Liable for
power barges for the purpose of converting Payment; Period (2012)
the fuel of RPC into electricity. The contract
also stipulates that all real estate taxes and III. Mr. Jose Castillo is a resident Filipino
assessments, rates and other charges, in citizen. He purchased a parcel of land in
respect of the power barges, shall be for the Makati City in 1970 at a consideration of
account of RPC. P1 Million. In 2011, the land, which
remained undeveloped and idle had a fair
In 2007, JEC received an assessment of market value of P20 Million. Mr. Antonio
real property taxes on the power barges Ayala, another Filipino citizen, is very much
from the Assessor of Batangas City. JEC interested in the property and he offered to
sought reconsideration of the assessment buy the same for P20 Million. The Assessor
on the ground that the power barges are of Makati City re-assessed in 2011 the
exempt from real estate taxes under Section property at P10 Million.
234 [c] of R.A. 7160 as they are actually,
directly and exclusively used by RPC, a (A) When is Mr. Castillo liable for real
government-owned and controlled property tax on the land beginning 2011 or
corporation. Furthermore, even assuming beginning 2012? Explain your answer. (2%)
that the power barges are subject to real
property tax, RPC should be held liable
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
therefor, in accordance with the terms of
the lease agreement. Is the contention of
JEC correct? Explain your answer. (4%) Mr. Castillo shall be liable to the real
property tax based on the re-assessment
SUGGESTED ANSWER: beginning 2012. All re-assessments made
after the first day of any year shall take
No, the contention of JEC is not correct. effect on the first day of January of the
The owner of the power barges is JEC succeeding year (Section 221,LGC).
which is required to operate, manage
and maintain the power barges for the [Note: The question is misleading. Mr.
purpose of converting the fuel of RPC Castillo is liable to the real property tax on

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the property when he became the owner and unappeallable. Since no decision on
thereof although his liability increases upon the protest was made, the taxpayer
re-assessment of the property.] should have appealed to the RTC within
30 days from the lapse of the period to
decide the protest (Sec 195, LGC).
Remedies in Local Taxes

Taxpayer: Local Tax; Period to File Tariff And Customs Duties


Protest and Appeal (2010)
Customs: Exempted Transactions;
Importation and Use within SBMA (2008)
(IX) On May 15, 2009, La Manga Trading
Corporation received a deficiency business IV. JKL Corporation is a domestic
tax assessment of P1,500,000.00 from the corporation engaged in the importation and
Pasay City Treasurer. On June 30, 2009, sale of motor vehicles in the Philippines and
the corporation contested the assessment is duly registered with the Subic Bay
by filing a written protest with the City Metropolitan Authority (SBMA). In
Treasurer. December 2007, it imported several second-
hand motor vehicles from Japan and Korea,
On October 10, 2009, the corporation which it stores in a warehouse in Subic
received a collection letter from the City Bay. It sold these motor vehicles in April
Treasurer, drawing it to file on October 25, 2008, to persons residing in the customs
2009 an appeal against the assessment territory.
before the Pasay Regional Trial Court (RTC).
(A) Are the importations of motor vehicles
(IXa) Was the protest of the corporation from abroad subject to customs duties and
filed on time? Explain. (3%) value added taxes? Explain. (4%)

SUGGESTED ANSWER: SUGGESTED ANSWER:

The protest was filed on time. The


taxpayer has the right to protest an No. because domestic corporations
assessment within 60 days from receipt importing used vehicles that are “stored,
thereof (Sec 195, LGC). used or traded” within the Subic Naval
Base Area enjoy an exemption from
customs duties and VAT, provided they
(IXb) Was the appeal with the Pasay RTC are registered with the SBMA (R.A. 7096;
filed on time? Explain. (3%) Executive Secretary v. Southwing Heavy
Industries, G.R. No. 164171, 20 February
SUGGESTED ANSWER: 2006).

The appeal was not filed on time. When


an assessment is protested, the treasurer (B) If they are taxable, when must the
has 60 days within which to decide. The duties and taxes is paid? What are the
taxpayer has 30 days from receipt of the bases for and purposes of computing
denial of the protest or from the lapse of customs duties and VAT? To whom must
the 60-day period to decide whichever the duties and VAT be paid? Explain. (3%)
comes first, otherwise the assessment
becomes conclusive and unappeallable.
Since no decision becomes conclusive

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SUGGESTED ANSWER: separate from the criminal liability that


might be imposed against the indicted
Duties and taxes must be paid upon importer or possessor and both kinds of
release of the vehicle from Customs’ penalties may be imposed (Peo. v. CFI of
custody. Custom duties for motor Rizal, et al., No. L-41686, 17 November
vehicles are based on the value being 1980).
used by the Bureau for assessing
customs duties. VAT is also based on the Customs: Jurisdiction; Issuance of
value being used by the Bureau for motor Warrant of Search and Seizure (2009)
vehicles (Sec. 107[A] NIRC). Duties must
be paid to the Bureau of Customs. VAT (V) Jessie brought into the Philippines a
must be paid to the Bureau of Internal foreign-made luxury car, and paid less than
Revenue. the actual taxes and duties due. Due to the
discrepancy, the Bureau of Customs
instituted seizure proceedings and issued a
Customs: Forfeiture Proceeding, Nature warrant of seizure and detention. The car,
(2008) then parked inside a pay parking garage,
was seized and brought by government
IX. William Antonio imported into the agents to a government impounding facility.
Philippines a luxury car worth US$100,000. The Collector of Customs denied Jessie's
This car was, however, declared only for request for the withdrawal of the warrant.
US$20,000 and corresponding customs
duties and taxes were paid thereon. Aggrieved, Jessie filed against the Collector
Subsequently, the Collector of Customs a criminal complaint for usurpation of
discovered the underdeclaration and he judicial functions on the ground that only a
initiated forfeiture proceedings of the judge may issue a warrant of search and
imported car. seizure.

(A) May the Collector of Customs a. Resolve with reasons Jessie's


declare the imported car forfeited in criminal complaint. (4%)
favor of the government? Explain.
(3%)
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Yes, Under-declaration of value is a The criminal complaint is bereft of
merit. The issuance of a warrant of
ground for forfeiture (See Sec. 1206,
Tariff and Customs Code; See also seizure and detention by the Collector of
Feeder International v. CA, G.R. No. Customs for goods released contrary to
94262, 31 May 1991). law, as when there is underpayment of
taxes and duties, is his primary and
exclusive jurisdiction and precludes the
(B) Are forfeiture proceedings of goods
judge of regular courts form taking
illegally imported criminal in
nature? Explain. (3%) cognizance of the subject matter.
Accordingly, what was done by the
SUGGESTED ANSWER: Collector could not be a basis of a
No, a forfeiture proceeding under tariff prosecution for the usurpation of judicial
functions (Commissioner v. Navarro, 77
and customs laws in not penal in nature,
the main purpose of which is to enforce SCRA 264 (1977)).
the administrative fines or forfeiture
incident to unlawful importation of b. Would your answer be the same if
goods or their deliberate possession. The the luxury car was seized while
penalty in seizure cases is distinct and

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parked inside the garage of Jessie's he waives in writing his privilege under
residence? Why or why not? (4%) Republic Act No. 1405 (Bank Secrecy
Law) or under other general or special
SUGGESTED ANSWER: laws, and such waiver shall constitute
the authority of the Commissioner to
No. The luxury car being in a dwelling inquire into the bank deposits of the
house, cannot be seized by officers of taxpayer (Section 6, NIRC).
the Bureau of Customs exercising police
authority without a search warrant (B) In 2011 the Commissioner of the US
issued by a judge of a competent court Internal Revenue Service (IRS) requested in
(Sec 2209, TCC; Pacis v. Pamaran, 56 writing the Commissioner of Internal
SCRA 16 (1974)). Revenue to get the information from a bank
in the Philippines, regarding the deposits of
a US Citizen residing in the Philippines,
who is under examination by the officials of
Other Related Matters the US IRS, pursuant to the US- Philippine
Tax Treaty and other existing laws. Should
the BIR Commissioner agree to obtain such
information from the bank and provide the
same to the IRS? Explain your answer. (5%)
BIR: Bank Deposits Secrecy Violation
(2012) SUGGESTED ANSWER:

VII. (A) May the bank deposits – peso and Yes. The Commissioner should agree to
foreign currency – of an individual taxpayer the request pursuant to the principle of
be disclosed by a commercial bank to the international comity. The Commissioner
Commissioner of Internal Revenue, in of Internal Revenue has the authority to
connection with a tax investigation being inquire into bank deposit accounts and
conducted by revenue officials, without related information held by financial
violating the relevant bank secrecy laws? institutions of a specific taxpayer
Explain your answer. (5%) subject of a request for the supply of tax
information from a foreign tax authority
SUGGESTED ANSWER: pursuant to an international convention
or agreement to which the Philippines is
No. As a general rule, bank deposits of an a signatory or party of (Section 3, RA
individual taxpayer may not be disclosed 10021).
by a commercial bank to the
Commissioner. As exceptions, the (C) Is the bank secrecy law in the
Commissioner is authorized to inquire Philippines violated when the BIR issues a
into the bank deposits of: (1) a decedent Warrant of Garnishment directed against a
to determine his gross estate; and (2) domestic bank requiring it not to allow any
any taxpayer who has filed an withdrawal from any existing bank deposit
application for compromise of his tax of the delinquent taxpayer mentioned in the
liability by reason of financial incapacity Warrant and to freeze the same until the
to pay his tax liability. tax delinquency of said taxpayer is settled
with the BIR? Explain your answer. (5%)
In case a taxpayer files an application to
compromise the payment of his tax SUGGESTED ANSWER:
liabilities on his claim that his financial
position demonstrates a clear inability No. Garnishment is an administrative
to pay the tax assessed, his application remedy allowed by law to enforce a tax
shall not be considered unless and until liability. Bank accounts shall be

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garnished by serving a warrant of its stockholders, all of whom are


garnishment upon the taxpayer and individuals.
upon the president, manager, treasurer Are the dividends taxable? (1%)
or other responsible officer of the bank. (A) The dividends are taxable; the
Upon receipt of the warrant of tax exemption of MGC Corp. does
garnishment, the bank shall turn over to not extend to its stockholders.
the Commissioner so much of the bank (B) The dividends are tax exempt
accounts as may be sufficient to satisfy because of MGC Corp.'s income tax
the claim of the Government (Section holiday.
208, NIRC). (C) The dividends are taxable if they
exceed 50% of MGC Corp.'s retained
earnings.
(D) The dividends are exempt if paid
before the end of MGC Corp.'s fiscal
year.
MULTIPLE CHOICE SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(A) Sunio v. NLRC, G.R. No.
57767, Jan. 31, 1984
QUESTIONS (MCQ)
III. Mr. Alas sells shoes in Makati through a
retail store. He pays the VAT on his gross
sales to the BIR and the municipal license
tax based on the same gross sales to the
2013 Taxation Law Exam City of Makati. He comes to you for advice
because he thinks he is being subjected to
double taxation.
MCQ (October 13, 2013) What advice will you give him? (1%)
(A) Yes, there is double taxation and
I. ABC Corp. was dissolved and liquidating it is oppressive.
dividends were declared and paid to the (B) The City of Makati does not have
stockholders. this power.
What tax consequence follows? (1%) (C) Yes, there is double taxation and
(A) ABC Corp. should deduct a final this is illegal m the Philippines.
tax of 10% from the dividends. (D) Double taxation is allowed
(B) The stockholders should where one tax is imposed by the
declare their gain from their national government and the
investment and pay income tax at other by the local government.
the ordinary rates. SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(C) The dividends are exempt from (D) CIR v. Solidbank Corp., G.R. No.
tax. 148191, Nov. 25, 2003
(D) ABC Corp. should withhold a
10% creditable tax. IV. Congress passed a sin tax law that
increased the tax rates on cigarettes by
SUGGESTED ANSWER: 1,000%. The law was thought to be
(B) Section 39, BIR Ruling 39-02, Nov. sufficient to drive many cigarette companies
11, 2002 out of business, and was questioned in
court by a cigarette company that would go
II. MGC Corp. secured an income tax out of business because it would not be
holiday for 5 years as a pioneer industry. able to pay the increased tax.
On the fourth year of the tax holiday, MGC The cigarette company is __________ (1%)
Corp. declared and paid cash dividends to (A) wrong because taxes are the
lifeblood of the government

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(B) wrong because the law (B) Yes, income is income


recognizes that the power to tax regardless of the source.
is the power to destroy (C) No, it was not her fault that the
(C) correct because no government funds in excess of $1,000 were
can deprive a person of his credited to her.
livelihood (D) No, the funds in excess of$1,000
(D) correct because Congress, in this were in effect donated to her.
case, exceeded its power to tax SUGGESTED ANSWER:
SUGGESTED ANSWER: (B)Javier v. Commissioner, 199 SCRA
(B) McCulloch v. Maryland, 17 U.S. 4 824, G.R. No. 78953
Wheat 316 (1819)
VII. The municipality of San Isidro passed
V. Mr. Alvarez is in the retail business. He an ordinance imposing a tax on installation
received a deficiency tax assessment from managers. At that time, there was only one
the BIR containing only the computation of installation manager in the municipality;
the deficiency tax and the penalties, thus, only he would be liable for the tax.
without any explanation of the factual and Is the law constitutional? (1%)
legal bases for the assessment. (A) It is unconstitutional because it
Is the assessment valid? (1%) clearly discriminates against this
(A) The assessment is valid; all that person.
Mr. Alvarez has to know is the (B) It is unconstitutional for lack of
amount of the tax. legal basis.
(B) The assessment is invalid; the (C) It is constitutional as it
law requires a statement of the applies to all persons in that
facts and the law upon which the class.
assessment is based. (D) It is constitutional because the
(C) The assessment is valid but Mr. power to tax is the power to destroy.
Alvarez can still contest it. SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(D) The assessment is invalid (C)Shell Co. of P.I. v. Vaño, 94 Phil 387
because Mr. Alvarez has no way to
determine if the computation is VIII. XYZ Corporation manufactures glass
erroneous. panels and is almost at the point of
SUGGESTED ANSWER: insolvency. It has no more cash and all it
(B) Section 228, NIRC, Azucena Reyes v. has are unsold glass panels. It received an
Commissioner assessment from the BIR for deficiency
income taxes. It wants to pay but due to
VI. In 2010, Mr. Platon sent his sister Helen lack of cash, it seeks permission to pay in
$1 ,000 via a telegraphic transfer through kind with glass panels.
the Bank of PI. The bank's remittance clerk Should the BIR grant the requested
made a mistake and credited Helen with permission? (1%)
$1,000,000 which she promptly withdrew. (A) It should grant permission to
The bank demanded the return of the make payment convenient to
mistakenly credited excess, but Helen taxpayers.
refused. The BIR entered the picture and (B) It should not grant permission
investigated Helen. because a tax is generally a
Would the BIR be correct if it determines pecuniary burden.
that Helen earned taxable income under (C) It should grant permission;
these facts? (1%) otherwise, XYZ Corporation would
(A) No, she had no income because not be able to pay.
she had no right to the mistakenly (D) It should not grant permission
credited funds. because the government does not

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have the storage facilities for glass convenience of the employer and
panels. was necessary for its business.
SUGGESTED ANSWER: (B) There was a taxable fringe
(B)Characteristics of Taxes benefit since the stay at the house
was for free.
IX. Prior to the VAT law, sales of cars were (C) There was a taxable fringe
subject to a sales tax but the tax applied benefit because the house was very
only to the original or the first sale; the luxurious.
second and subsequent sales were not (D) There was no taxable fringe
subject to tax. benefit because the company
Deltoid Motors, Inc. (Deltoid) hit on the idea president was only required to stay
of setting up a wholly-owned subsidiary, there and did not demand free
Gonmad Motors, Inc. (Gonmad), and of housing.
selling its assembled cars to Gonmad at a SUGGESTED ANSWER:
low price so it would pay a lower tax on the (A)Section 33, NIRC; RR No. 3-98
first sale. Gonmad would then sell the cars
to the public at a higher price without XI. Taxpayer A was required by the BIR to
paying any sales tax on this subsequent sign and submit a waiver of the statute of
sale. limitations on the assessment period, to
Characterize the arrangement. (1%) give the BIR more time to complete its
A. The plan is a legitimate exercise investigation. The BIR accepted the waiver
of tax planning and merely takes but failed to indicate the date of its
advantage of a loophole in the law. acceptance.
B. The plan is legal because the What is the legal status of the waiver? (1%)
government collects taxes anyway. (A) The waiver is valid because the
C. The plan is improper; the veil date of acceptance is immaterial and
of corporate fiction can be unimportant.
pierced so that the second sale (B) The waiver is invalid; the
will be considered the taxable taxpayer cannot be required to
sale. waive the statute of limitations.
D. The government must respect (C) The waiver is invalid; the date
Gonmad's separate juridical of acceptance is crucial in
personality and Deltoid's taxable counting the start of the period of
sale to it. suspension of the prescriptive
SUGGESTED ANSWER: period.
(C)Koppel Philippines Inc. v. Yatco, 77 (D) The waiver is valid, having been
Phil 496 accepted by the BIR.
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
X. PRT Corp. purchased a residential house (C)Commissioner v. Kudos Metal Corp.,
and lot with a swimming pool in an upscale G.R. No. 178087, May 5, 2010
subdivision and required the company
president to stay there without paying rent; XII. Taxpayer Andy received on January 3,
it reasoned out that the company president 2010 a preliminary assessment notice (PAN)
must maintain a certain image and be able from the BIR, stating that he had fifteen
to entertain guests at the house to promote (15) days from its receipt to comment or to
the company's business. The company file a protest. Eight (8) days later (or on
president declared that because they are January11, 2010), before he could
childless, he and his wife could very well comment or file a protest, Andy received the
live in a smaller house. final assessment notice (FAN).
Was there a taxable fringe benefit? (1%) Decide on the validity of the FAN. (1%)
(A) There was no taxable fringe (A) The FAN is invalid; Andy was
benefit since it was for the not given the chance to respond

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to the PAN, in violation of his due Rule on the CIR's action. (1%)
process rights. (A) The CIR is wrong; a donation
(B) The FAN is invalid for being must be express.
premature. (B) The CIR is wrong; financial
(C) The FAN is valid since it was capacity is not a requirement for a
issued before the right to assess valid sale.
prescribed. (C) The CIR is correct; the amount
(D) The FAN is valid. There is no involved is huge and ultimately ends
legal requirement that the FAN up with the children.
should await the protest to the PAN (D) The CIR is correct; there was
because protest to the PAN is not animus donandi since the
mandatory. children had no financial capacity
SUGGESTED ANSWER: to be co-purchasers.
(A)Section 228, NIRC; RR No. 12-99 SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(D)Spouse Evono v. Department of
XIII. MSI Corp. imports orange and lemon Finance, et. al., CTA EB Case No. 705,
concentrates as raw materials for the fruit June 4, 2012
drinks it sells locally. The Bureau of
Customs (BOC) imposed a 1% duty rate on XV. Pheleco is a power generation and
the concentrates. Subsequently, the BOC distribution company operating mainly
changed its position and held that the from the City of Taguig. It owns electric
concentrates should be taxed at 7% duty poles which it also rents out to other
rate. MSI disagreed with the ruling and companies that use poles such as
questioned it in the CTA which upheld telephone and cable companies. Taguig
MSI's position. The Commissioner of passed an ordinance imposing a fee
Customs appealed to the CTA en bane equivalent to 1% of the annual rental for
without filing a motion for reconsideration. these poles. Pheleco questioned 'the legality
Resolve the appeal. (1%) of the ordinance on the ground that it
(A) The appeal should be imposes an income tax which local
dismissed because a motion for government units (LGUs) are prohibited
reconsideration is mandatory. from imposing.
(B) The appeal should be dismissed Rule on the validity of the ordinance. (1%)
for having been filed out of time. (A) The ordinance is void; the fee is
(C) The appeal should be given due based on rental income and is
course since a motion for therefore a tax on income.
reconsideration is a useless (B) The ordinance is valid as a
exercise. legitimate exercise of police
(D) The appeal should be upheld to power to regulate electric poles.
be fair to the government which (C) The ordinance is void; 1% of
needs taxes. annual rental is excessive and
SUGGESTED ANSWER: oppressive.
(A)RA 9282; Rule 8, Revised Rules of the (D) The ordinance is valid; an LGU
CTA may impose a tax on income.
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
XIV. The spouses Jun and Elvira Sandoval (B)Section 129, RA 7160
purchased a piece of land for P5,000,000
and included their two (2) minor children as XVI. Aleta sued Boboy for breach of promise
co-purchasers in the Deed of Absolute Sale. to marry. Boboy lost the case and duly paid
The Commissioner of Internal Revenue the court's award that included, among
(CIR) ruled that there was an implied others, Pl00,000 as moral damages for the
donation and assessed donors' taxes mental anguish Aleta suffered.
against the spouses. Did Aleta earn a taxable income? (1%)

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(A) She had a taxable income (D) Mr. Z did not commit smuggling
of P100,000 since income is income because the shipment has not left
from whatever source. the customs area.
(B) She had no taxable income SUGGESTED ANSWER:
because it was a donation. (A)Section 3601, TCCP; Rieta v. People
(C) She had taxable income since of the Philippines, 436 SCRA 273
she made a profit.
(D) She had no taxable income XIX. Mr. A was preparing his income tax
since moral damages are return and had some doubt on whether a
compensatory. commission he earned should be declared
SUGGESTED ANSWER: for the current year or for the succeeding
(D)Section 32 (B)(4), NIRC year. He sought the opinion of his lawyer
who advised him to report the commission
XVII. Mr. Mayuga donated his residential in the succeeding year. He heeded his
house and lot to his son and duly paid the lawyer's advice and reported the
donor's tax. In the Deed of Donation, Mr. commission in the succeeding year. The
Mayuga expressly reserved for himself the lawyer's advice turned out to be wrong; in
usufruct over the property for as long as he Mr. A's petition against the BIR
lived. assessment, the court ruled against Mr. A.
Describe the donated property from the Is Mr. A guilty of fraud? (1%)
taxation perspective. (1%) (A) Mr. A is not guilty of fraud as
(A) The property will form part of he simply followed the advice of
Mr. Mayuga's gross estate when his lawyer.
he dies. (B) Mr. A is guilty of fraud; he
(B) The property will not fom1 part deliberately did not report the
of Mr. Mayuga's gross estate when commission in the current year
he dies because he paid the donor's when he should have done so.
tax. (C) Mr. A's lawyer should pay the tax
(C) The property will form part of for giving the wrong advice.
Mr. Mayuga's gross estate because (D) Mr. A is guilty for failing to
he died soon after the donation. consult his accountant.
(D) The property will not form part of SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Mr. Mayuga's gross estate because it (A)CIR v. CA, G.R. No. 119322, June 4,
is no longer his. 1996
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(A)Section 85(B), NIRC XX. The BIR, through the Commissioner,
instituted a system requiring taxpayers to
XVIII. Mr. Z made an importation which he submit to the BIR a summary list of their
declared at the Bureau of Customs (BOC) sales and purchases during the year,
as "Used Truck Replacement Parts". Upon indicating the name of the seller or the
investigation, the container vans contained buyer and the amount. Based on these
15 units of Porsche and Ferrari cars. lists, the BIR discovered that in 2004 ABC
Characterize Mr. Z's action. (1%) Corp. purchased from XYZ Corp. goods
(A) Mr. Z committed smuggling. worthP5,000,000. XYZ Corp. did not
(B) Mr. Z did not commit smuggling declare these for income tax purposes as its
because he submitted his shipment reported gross sales for 2004was only
to BOC examination. Pl,000,000.
(C) Mr. Z only made a Which of the following defenses may XYZ
misdeclaration, but did not commit Corp. interpose in an assessment against it
smuggling. by the BIR? (1%)

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(A) The BIR has no authority to Bank A from loans to its debtor-customers
obtain third party information to
(active income);
assess taxpayers.
(B) The third party information is (D) Income tax on interest income of
inadmissible as hearsay evidence.
deposits of Bank A is a direct tax, while
(C) The system of requiring
taxpayers to submit third party GRT on interest income on loan transaction
information is illegal for violating the
is an indirect tax.
right to privacy.
(D) None of the above. SUGGESTED ANSWER:
SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(A) There is no double taxation if the law
(D)Sections 5 and 6, NIRC
imposes two different taxes on the same
income, business or property. First, the

2012 Taxation Law Exam taxes herein are imposed on two


different subject matters. The subject
MCQ (October 14, 2012)
matter of the FWT [Final Withholding
Tax] is the passive income generated in
(1) Bank A deposited money with Bank B
the form of interest on deposits and
which earns interest that is subjected to the
yield on deposit substitutes, while the
20% final withholding tax. At the same
subject matter of the GRT [Gross
time, Bank A is subjected to the 5% gross
Receipts Tax] is the privilege of engaging
receipts tax on its interest income on loan
in the business of banking. Second,
transactions to customers. Which
although both taxes are national in
statement below INCORRECTLY describes
scope because they are imposed by the
the transaction?
same taxing authority - the national
government under the Tax Code - and
(A) There is double taxation because two
operate within the same Philippine
taxes - income tax and gross receipts tax
jurisdiction for the same purpose of
are imposed on the interest incomes
raising revenues, the taxing periods they
described above, and double taxation is
affect are different. The FWT is deducted
prohibited under the 1987 Constitution.
and withheld as soon as the income is
(B) There is no double taxation because the
earned, and is paid after every calendar
first tax is income tax, while the second tax
quarter in which it is earned. On the
is business tax;
other hand, the GRT is neither deducted
(C) There is no double taxation because the
nor withheld, but is paid only after every
income tax is on the interest income of
taxable quarter in which it is earned.
Bank A on its deposits with Bank B
(Commissioner of Internal Revenue vs.
(passive income), while the gross receipts
tax is on the interest Income received by

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BPI, G.R. No. 147375 dated June 26, (A) The assessed taxes must be enforced by
2006) the government.
(B) The underlying basis of taxation is
(2) Which of the following statements is government necessity, for without
NOT correct? taxation, a government can neither exist
nor endure;
(A) In case of doubt, statutes levying taxes (C) Taxation is an arbitrary method of
are construed strictly against the exaction by those who are in the seat of
government; power;
(B) The construction of a statute made by (D) The power of taxation is an inherent
his predecessors is not binding upon the power of the sovereign to impose burdens
successor, if thereafter he becomes satisfied upon subjects and objects “within its
that a different construction should be jurisdiction for the purpose of raising
given; revenues”.
(C) The reversal of a ruling shall not SUGGESTED ANSWER:
generally be given retroactive application, if (B) Taxes are the lifeblood of the
said reversal will be prejudicial to the government, for without taxes, the
taxpayer; government can neither exist nor
(D) A memorandum circular promulgated endure. A principal attribute of
by the CIR that imposes penalty for sovereignty, the exercise of taxing power
violations of certain rules needed not be derives its source from the very
published in a newspaper of general existence of the state whose social
circulation or official gazette because it contract with its citizens obliges it to
has the force and effect of law. promote public interest and common
SUGGESTED ANSWER: good. The theory behind the exercise of
(D) A revenue memorandum circular the power to tax emanates from
shall not begin to be operative until after necessity; without taxes, government
due notice thereof may be fairly cannot fulfil its mandate of promoting
presumed (Commissioner of Internal the general welfare and well-being of the
Revenue vs. Philippine Airlines, G.R. No. people. (National Power Corporation vs.
180066 dated July 8, 2009). City of Cabanatuan, G.R. No. 149110
April 9, 2003).
(3) Which statement below expresses the
lifeblood theory? (4) Which statement is WRONG?

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(A) The power of taxation may be


exercised by the government, its (6) Income from the performance of service
political subdivisions, and public is treated as income from within the
utilities; Philippines, if:
(B) Generally, there is no limit on the
amount of tax that may be imposed; (A) The payment of compensation for the
(C) The money contributed as tax becomes service is made in the Philippines;
part of the public funds; (B) The contract calling for the performance
(D) The power of tax is subject to certain of service is signed in the Philippine